You are on page 1of 18

STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

BUILDINGS ON STILTS WITH MASONRY INFILL


FOR EARHQUAKE FORCES

A number of buildings are able to withstand moderate earthquakes eventhough not designed for
eartquake forces. Quite often this is because of latent strength of masonry infill which is normally
ignored in design. However in case of buildings on stilts , in stilt portion this latent strength is not
available, hence remain vulnerable. Feasibility of strengthenining this vulnerable portion is cheked
through a solved example for a case of six storied building. Calculations are based on 1984
version of Indian standard code of earthquake resistant design 1.Same exercise with 2002 version
of the code is not attempted as it arbitrarily imposes a load factor of 2.5 for buildings on stilts.
While reporting on the extent of damage caused by major earthquakes, many authors have noted
that , among RC buildings, buildings on stilts have suffered maximum damage. In a article on
failure of multistorey buildings in Ahmedabad during Gujrat earthquake (January 26, 2001) Dr
Ashok K Jain has noted that during past 75 years or so, different earthquakes all over the world
have repeatedly shown that a frame with a soft ground storey is the most vulnerable structural
system in a earthquake zone1. In a paper on lessons of Gujrat earthquake, Padamshree Dr A.S.
Arya has noted that most damaged buildings were built on stilts2.

Causes of building failure


Possible causes of building failure during earthquake are extensively covered in literature1,2.
Following are the possible causes specifically related to buildings on stilt,

a. Lack of strength contribution from infill walls. - Walls provide considerable reserve strength to
buildings during earthquake. That is why many buildings , even though not designed for
earthquake forces, survive moderate earthquakes. In many cases of failures of buildings on
stilt, it has been noted that upper stories , with walls, remain intact even after the failure.

b. Absence of plinth beams -. This is due to misconception that plinth beams are to be provided
only if walls are to be supported. Absence of plinth leaves ground floor columns laterally
unsupported and foundations unconnected to each other.

Solved example
Following are the design parameters assumed for solved example (Fig 1 ),
a. Building is in seismic zone III3
b. Importance factor 3 =1.0
c. Soil-foundation system factor3 = 1.2
d. Performance factor3 =1.6
e. Concrete grade of building = M15
f. Building is originally designed for vertical loads only.
g. Column sizes are worked out assuming 3% vertical steel has been originally provided.
h. Walls are strong enough to resist earthquake loads in portion above stilt.
i. Spacing of frames = 4m
j. All bays , except at ground storey, have 230mm thick masonry infill.
k. Safe bearing capacity of soil = 15 t/m2

20-02-05 Page 1 of 1

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


.l. As built drawings of building are not available
m.Yield strength of reinforcing bars : 415 N/mm 2,

Calculations are done in following steps,


1.Required sizes of columns and foundations are worked out, considering only vertical loads.
2.Building frame is analized for earthquake forces on STAAD. Results are given in annexure I
member nos and node numbers are given in Fig 3. and 4 .Walls are modelled as strut and tie of
size 150x150mm cross section.Deflected view of frame and bending moment diagram is
shown in fig 5 and 6.
3.Sizes worked out in step 1, are checked for earthquake forces worked out in step 2. Wherever
required , extent of strengthening is worked out. Portion of frame proposed to be strengthened
is shown in Fig 2.

Vertical load on each internal column,

Live load = 0.3 t/m2 x 4m x 4m x 7 = 33.6 MT


Size of bay No. of floors
including roof

Wall load = 0.23m x 2 t/m3 x 3.5m x 6 x 8m = 77.2 MT


Thickness Density Height No of Length of wall
of wall stories on each column

Slab load =( 0.12m x 2.5 t/m3 + 0.1 t/m2 ) x 4m x 4 m x 7 = 44.8 MT


Thickness Density Flooring Size of bay No. of floors
of slab including roof__________
=155.6 MT
_________________

Working out column size,

Try 0.23m x 0.65m column size,


Referring to chart 334,

Pu 155.6 x 1.5
------------- = ------------------------ = 1.04
fck b d 1500 x 0.23 x 0.65
where,
Pu = Ultimate axial load on column,
fck = Characteristic strength of concrete.
b = Width of column
d = Depth of column
From the chart,
p/fck = 0.2 (corresponding to 0 moment)
hence , p = 0.2 x 15 n/mm2 =3%
where,
p = % vertical steel
Percentage steel required matches with assumed steel . Hence size of column considered is ok.

20-02-05 Page 2 of 2

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Checking foundations ,
Size required for vertical loads,

√ P/SBC =√155.6/15 = 3.22m x 3.22m


where,
P =Column load
SBC =Safe bearing capacity
Column load under seismic condition,
Live loads( 1/4 of normal case) = 33.6/4 = 8.4 MT
Wall loads (same as in normal case) = 77.2 MT
Slab load (same as in normal case) = 44.8 MT
Due to earthquake loads (Refer Annexure I ,for member no. 5) = 30.75MT

=161.15 MT
Column moment(Refer Annexure I, for member no.2 ) =11.7 t-m

161.15 6 x 11.7
Soil pressure under seismic condition = +
3.22 x 3.22 3.22 x 3.222

= 15.6 + 2.1 =17.7 t/m2


Soil pressure permitted under seismic condition = 15 x 1.25 = 18.75
>17.9
Therefore foundations don't require strengthening.

Strengthening of columns ,

Vertical load 'P'( same as for foundation ) =161.15 MT


Moment 'M'( same as for foundation ) = 11.7 t-m

Pu 161.15 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ = 0.86
fck b d 1500 x 0.23 x 0.65

Mu 11.7 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ = 0.27
fck b d2 1500 x 0.65x 0.232

Referring to chart 334,

p/fck exceeds 0.2 ( the value corresponding to steel provided in existing columns).
Therefore column needs to be strengthened by increasing its size,
Try 75mm guniting all around. For the new column size,

Pu 161.15 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ = 0.43
fck b d 1500 x 0.38 x 0.8

Mu 11.7 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ = 0.081
fck b d2 1500 x 0.8x 0.382

New cover ( d')= 40 (existing cover) + 75(guniting) = 115mm


d'/D = 115/380 = 0.3
20-02-05 Page 3 of 3

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Referring to chart 324 for d'/D =0.1
p/fck = 0.06
Referring to chart 344 for d'/D =0.2
p/fck = 0.07
Extrapolating, for d'/D =0.27,
(0.3-0.1) x (0.06 -0.05)
p/fck = 0.06 +
(0.2 -0.1)
=0.06 + 0.02 =0.08
hence, p = .08 x 15 =1.2%
Total vertical steel required = 1.2 x 38 x 80 /100 = 36.5 cm2
Steel already provided = 3 x 23 x 65 /100 = 44.85 cm2
Hence additional reinforcement is not required.

Strengthening of first floor beams,

Additional beams are provided on either side of existing beams to resist extra bending moments
and shear due to earthquake loads, Fig 7. From Annexure I,

Bending moments due to earthquake loads( for member number 9) = 5.9 t-m,
Providing 100mm wide x 420mm deep beam on either side of floor beams,
Bending moment per beam(M), =5.9/2 = 2.95 t-m

Mu 2.95 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ =190
b d2 0.1x 0.422
4
From Table 1 ,
Percentage steel required (p t) = 0.64
Hence, area of tension steel required = 0.64 x 10 x 42/100 =2 68cm 2
Provided 1-20mm dia. bar at top and bottom

Shear ( V, for member number 9) = 2.82 t


Vu = 2.82 x 1.2 = 3.4 t
Shear capacity of concrete from table 61 4= 55 t/m2
Shear capacity of both beams = 52 x 0.2 x 0.4 = 4.16 t
> 3.4 t
Hence provided only nominal stirrups i.e 8mm dia @ 300mm c/c

Dowels for shear transfer,


Providing 2-20mm dia dowels,
Capacity of 2-20mm dia bars in axial tension = 2 x 3.142 x 4.15 /1.15
Area in cm2 Yield strength partial safety
of bars in t/ cm2 factor for steel
=22.6 t
Capacity for shear by shear friction theory = 22.6 x 0.3 = 6.8 t > 3.2 hence ok

Design of plinth beams

From Annexure I, bending moment(M) due to earthquake


loads( for member number 128) = 7.1 t-m
Try 230mm (width) x 500 mm (depth) beam,

20-02-05 Page 4 of 4

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Mu 7.1 x 1.2
------------- = ------------------------ =167
b d2 0.23 x 0.472
From Table 14,
Percentage steel required (p t) = 0.55
Hence, area of tension steel required = 0.55 x 23 x 47/100 =5.9cm 2
Provided 2-20mm dia. bar at top and bottom, Fig 8.

Shear ( V, for member number 124 and 126) = 3.2 t


Vu = 3.44 x 1.2 = 4.1 t
Shear capacity of concrete from table 61 4= 45 t/m2
Shear capacity of both beams = 45 x 0.23 x 0.47 = 4.86 t
> 4.1 t
Hence provided only nominal stirrups i.e 8mm dia @ 300mm c/c

Dowels for shear transfer5,


Providing 2-20mm dia dowels,
Capacity of 2-20mm dia bars in axial tension = 2 x 3.142 x 4.15 /1.15
2
Area in cm Yield strength partial safety
of bars in t/ cm2 factor for steel
=22.6 t
Capacity for shear by shear friction theory = 22.6 x 0.3 = 6.8 t > 4.1 hence ok

Conclusions and observations


1.Strength of brick walls may be taken into account while strengthening RC building for
earthquakes.
2.Strengthening of foundations may not be required for RC buildings up to six stories.
3.Existing reinforcement in columns may be adequate for earthquake forces for buildings
up to six stories. However size may have to be increased.
4.Anchoring of beam reinforcement in to columns should preferably be done after
guniting/jacketing of columns. Thereby strengthening the columns, before holes are
drilled for anchoring

References
1. Jain, A. K. Failure of multistorey buildings in Ahmedabad: Lessons to relearn, The Indian
Concrete Journal, December 2001, Vol 75, No. 12.
2. Arya, A.S. Lessons of Kachchha Earthquake of January 26, 2001, Seminar on Seismic Assessment
and Retrofitting of Buildings, Mumbai February 16,2002.
3. -----------Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Bureau of Indian
Standards, .IS : 1893 (1984), New Delhi, India.
4. -----------Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS:456-1978, SP-16(S&T) 1980, Bureau of Indian
standards, New Delhi, India.
5. -----------Building code requirements for structural concrete (318-02) and commentary (318R-02), American
Concrete Institute , Detroit

20-02-05 Page 5 of 5

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


ANNEXURE - I : ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR EARTHQUAKE FORCES
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version 2002 Bld 1001 *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= NOV 2, 2002 *
* Time= 14:53: 35 *
* *
* USER ID: BMCPL *
****************************************************

1. STAAD PLANE STILT


2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE 19-OCT-02
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. INPUT WIDTH 79
6. UNIT METER MTON
7. JOINT COORDINATES
8. 1 0 0 0; 2 4 0 0; 3 8 0 0; 4 12 0 0; 5 16 0 0; 6 0 5.5 0; 7 4 5.5 0; 8 8 5.5 0
9. 9 12 5.5 0; 10 16 5.5 0; 11 0 9 0; 12 4 9 0; 13 8 9 0; 14 12 9 0; 15 16 9 0
10. 16 0 12.5 0; 17 4 12.5 0; 18 8 12.5 0; 19 12 12.5 0; 20 16 12.5 0; 21 0 16 0
11. 22 4 16 0; 23 8 16 0; 24 12 16 0; 25 16 16 0; 26 0 19.5 0; 27 4 19.5 0
12. 28 8 19.5 0; 29 12 19.5 0; 30 16 19.5 0; 31 0 23 0 ; 32 4 23 0; 33 8 23 0
13. 34 12 23 0; 35 16 23 0; 36 0 26.5 0; 37 4 26.5 0; 38 8 26.5 0; 39 12 26.5 0
14. 40 16 26.5 0; 41 0 2 0; 42 4 2 0; 43 8 2 0; 44 12 2 0; 45 16 2 0
15. MEMBER INCIDENCES
16. 1 1 41; 2 2 42; 3 3 43; 4 4 44; 5 5 45; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 18 6 11
17. 19 7 12; 20 8 13; 21 9 14; 22 10 15; 23 11 12; 24 12 13; 25 13 14; 26 14 15
18. 27 6 12; 28 7 13; 29 8 14; 30 9 15; 31 7 11; 32 8 12; 33 9 13; 34 10 14
19. 35 11 16; 36 12 17; 37 13 18; 38 14 19; 39 15 20; 40 16 17; 41 17 18; 42 18 19
20. 43 19 20; 44 11 17; 45 12 18; 46 13 19; 47 14 20; 48 12 16; 49 13 17; 50 14 18
21. 51 15 19; 52 16 21; 53 17 22; 54 18 23; 55 19 24; 56 20 25; 57 21 22; 58 22 23
22. 59 23 24; 60 24 25; 61 16 22; 62 17 23; 63 1 8 24; 64 19 25; 65 17 21; 66 18 22
23. 67 19 23; 68 20 24; 69 21 26; 70 22 27; 71 23 28; 72 24 29; 73 25 30; 74 26 27
24. 75 27 28; 76 28 29; 77 29 30; 78 21 27; 79 22 28; 80 23 29; 81 24 30; 82 22 26
25. 83 23 27; 84 24 28; 85 25 29; 86 26 31; 87 27 32; 88 28 33; 89 29 34; 90 30 35
26. 91 31 32; 92 32 33; 93 33 34; 94 34 35; 95 26 32; 96 27 33; 97 28 34; 98 29 35
27. 99 27 31; 100 28 32; 101 29 33; 102 30 34; 103 31 36; 104 32 37; 105 33 38
28. 106 34 39; 107 35 40; 108 36 37; 109 3 7 38; 110 38 39; 111 39 40; 112 31 37
29. 113 32 38; 114 33 39; 115 34 40; 116 32 36; 117 33 37; 118 34 38; 119 35 39
30. 120 41 6; 121 42 7; 122 41 42; 123 43 8; 124 42 43; 125 44 9; 126 43 44
31. 127 45 10; 128 44 45
32. MEMBER PROPERTY I NDIAN
33. 1 TO 5 18 TO 22 35 TO 39 52 TO 56 69 TO 73 86 TO 90 103 TO 107 120 121 123 -
34. 125 127 PRIS YD 0.65 ZD 0.23
35. 27 TO 34 44 TO 51 61 TO 68 78 TO 85 95 TO 102 112 TO 119 PRIS YD 0.15 ZD 0.15
36. 6 TO 9 23 TO 26 40 TO 43 57 TO 60 74 TO 77 91 TO 94 108 TO 111 122 124 126 -
37. 128 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.23
38. UNIT METER KN
39. CONSTANTS
40. E 2.17185E+007 MEMB 1 TO 9 18 TO 128
41. POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 9 18 TO 128
42. DENSITY 23.5616 MEMB 1 TO 9 18 TO 128
43. ALPHA 5.5E-006 MEMB 1 TO 9 18 TO 128
44. MEMBER COMPRESSION
45. 27 TO 34 44 TO 51 61 TO 68 78 TO 85 95 TO 102 112 TO 119
46. UNIT METER MTON
47. SUPPORTS
48. 1 TO 5 FIXED
49. *MEMBER TRUSS
50. *27 TO 34 44 TO 51 61 TO 68 78 TO 85 95 TO 102 112 TO 119
51. CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 3
52. DEFINE 1893 LOAD
53. ZONE 0.04 I 1 K 1.6 B 1.2
54. JOINT WEIGHT
55. 11 TO 35 WEIGHT 6.44
56. 6 TO 10 36 TO 40 WEIGHT 3.22
57. MEMBER WEIGHT
58. 23 TO 26 40 TO 43 57 TO 60 74 TO 77 91 TO 94 UNI 1.4
59. 6 TO 9 108 TO 111 UNI 0.7
60. 23 TO 26 40 TO 43 57 TO 60 74 TO 77 91 TO 94 108 TO 111 UNI 1.6
61. 6 TO 9 23 TO 26 40 TO 43 57 TO 60 74 TO 77 91 TO 94 UNI 0.3

20-02-05 Page 6 of 6

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


62. 108 TO 111 UNI 0.15
63. LOAD 1 SEISMIC
64. 1893 LOAD X 1.165
65. PERFORM ANALYSIS

*********************************************************
* *
* TIME PERIOD FOR X 1893 LOADING = 0.76857 SEC *
* FACTOR C PER 1893= 0.644, LOAD FACTOR= 1.165 *
* FACTOR V PER 1893= 0.0495 X 512.40 *
* *
*********************************************************

**NOTE-Tension/Compression converg ed after 2 iterations, Case= 1


66. PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS
ANALYSIS RESULTS
SUPPORT REACTIONS -UNIT MTON METE STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE
JOINT LOAD FORCE -X FORCE-Y FORCE-Z MOM-X MOM-Y MOM Z
1 1 -4.78 -30.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.52
2 1 -6.78 -7.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.67
3 1 -6.66 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.63
4 1 -6.73 7.52 0.00 0.0 0 0.00 11.70
5 1 -4.59 30.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.53

MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = PLANE


ALL UNITS ARE -- MTON METE
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR -Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM -Y MOM-Z
1 1 1 -30.75 4.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.52
41 30.75 -4.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.97
2 1 2 -7.54 6.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.67
42 7.54 -6.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.90
3 1 3 0.04 6.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.63
43 -0.04 -6.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.69
4 1 4 7.52 6.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.70
44 -7.52 -6.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.75
5 1 5 30.74 4.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.53
45 -30.74 -4.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.35
6 1 6 -5.54 -2.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.53
7 5.54 2.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.16
7 1 7 -5.55 -2.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.26
8 5.55 2.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.29
8 1 8 -4.11 -2.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.35
9 4.11 2.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.37
9 1 9 -2.31 -2.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.41
10 2.31 2.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 -5.87
18 1 6 -24.73 -0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 -3.17
11 24.73 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22
19 1 7 -13.36 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.31
12 13.36 -0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.37
20 1 8 -6.82 0.06 0.00 0.0 0 0.00 -1.31
13 6.82 -0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.52
21 1 9 0.51 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.33
14 -0.51 -0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 .45
22 1 10 17.36 -0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 -3.30
15 -17.36 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.41
23 1 11 -4.65 -0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.68
12 4.65 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.60
24 1 12 -6.24 -0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.00
13 6.24 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.97
25 1 13 -6.75 -1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.97
14 6.75 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.02
26 1 14 -6.94 -0.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.53
15 6.94 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.62
27 1 6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
28 1 7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
29 1 8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
30 1 9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
31 1 7 8.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
11 -8.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
32 1 8 10.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12 -10.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
33 1 9 11.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 -11.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
34 1 10 10.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 -10.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
35 1 11 -18.30 0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.46
16 18.30 -0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.08

20-02-05 Page 7 of 7

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


ALL UNITS ARE -- MTON METE
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR -Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z
36 1 12 -10.49 1.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.23
17 10.49 -1.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.04
37 1 13 -5.00 1.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.42
18 5.00 -1.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.21
38 1 14 1.70 1.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.09
19 -1.70 -1.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.94
39 1 15 11.93 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.21
20 -11.93 -0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.94
40 1 16 -4.68 -0.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.89
17 4.68 0.9 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.73
41 1 17 -6.02 -1.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.12
18 6.02 1.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.09
42 1 18 -6.13 -1.03 0.00 0.0 0 0.00 -2.06
19 6.13 1.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.08
43 1 19 -4.94 -0.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.55
20 4.94 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.68
44 1 11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
45 1 12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
46 1 13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
47 1 14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
48 1 12 6.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
16 -6.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
49 1 13 8.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
17 -8.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
50 1 14 8.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
18 -8.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
51 1 15 7.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
19 -7.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
52 1 16 -13.16 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.81
21 13.16 -0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.98
53 1 17 -8.81 1.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.81
22 8.81 -1.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.91
54 1 18 -4.57 1.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.94
23 4.57 -1.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.06
55 1 19 0.79 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.69
24 -0.79 -1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.80
56 1 20 7.00 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.74
25 -7.00 -0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.90
57 1 21 -4.04 -0.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.63
22 4.04 0.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.50
58 1 22 -5.32 -0.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.91
23 5.32 0.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.87
59 1 23 -5.38 -0.91 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.81
24 5.38 0.91 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.84
60 1 24 -4.18 -0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.28
25 4.18 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.40
61 1 16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
22 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00
62 1 17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
63 1 18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
64 1 19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
65 1 17 6.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
21 -6.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
66 1 18 8.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
22 -8.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
67 1 19 8.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
23 -8.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
68 1 20 6.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
24 -6.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
69 1 21 -8.35 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.66
26 8.35 -0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93
70 1 22 -6.83 0.92 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.49
27 6.83 -0.92 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.73
71 1 23 -3.87 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.62
28 3.87 -1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.86
72 1 24 0.17 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.33
29 -0.17 -0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.57
73 1 25 3.14 0.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50
30 -3.14 -0.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.82
74 1 26 -3.14 -0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.30
27 3.14 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.18
75 1 27 -4.30 -0.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.57
28 4.30 0.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.54

20-02-05 Page 8 of 8

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


ALL UNITS ARE -- MTON METE
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM -Y MOM-Z
76 1 28 -4.30 -0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.45
29 4.30 0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.48
77 1 29 -3.03 -0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.91
30 3.03 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.00
78 1 21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
79 1 22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
80 1 23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
81 1 24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
82 1 22 5.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
26 -5.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
83 1 23 6.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
27 -6.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
84 1 24 6.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
28 -6.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
85 1 25 4.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
29 -4.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
86 1 26 -4.26 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.37
31 4.26 -0.35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.87
87 1 27 -4.64 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.02
32 4.64 -0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.42
88 1 28 -2.91 0.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.13
33 2.91 -0.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.52
89 1 29 -0.20 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.82
34 0.20 -0.58 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22
90 1 30 0.71 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.18
35 -0.71 -0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.69
91 1 31 -1.92 -0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.77
32 1.92 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.69
92 1 32 -2.96 -0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.08
33 2.96 0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.05
93 1 33 -2.82 -0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.95
34 2.82 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.97
94 1 34 -1.53 -0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.39
35 1.53 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.44
95 1 26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
96 1 27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
33 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
97 1 28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
98 1 29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
99 1 27 3.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
31 -3.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
100 1 28 5.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
32 -5.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
101 1 29 5.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
33 -5.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
102 1 30 2.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
34 -2.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
103 1 31 -1.35 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.09
36 1.35 -0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.32
104 1 32 -2.19 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36
37 2.19 -0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.79
105 1 33 -1.71 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.48
38 1.71 -0.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.95
106 1 34 -0.27 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14
39 0.27 -0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50
107 1 35 0.02 -0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.25
40 -0.02 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06
108 1 36 -0.40 -0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.32
37 0.40 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.23
109 1 37 -1.37 -0.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.57
38 1.37 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.52
110 1 38 -2.08 -0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.42
39 2.08 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.50
111 1 39 -1.11 -0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
40 1.11 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.06
112 1 31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 0 0.00
113 1 32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
114 1 33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
115 1 34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

20-02-05 Page 9 of 9

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


ALL UNITS ARE -- MTON METE
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR -Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM -Y MOM-Z
116 1 32 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
36 -1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
117 1 33 3.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
37 -3.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
118 1 34 2.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
38 -2.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
119 1 35 0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
39 -0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
120 1 41 -27.41 4.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.85
6 27.41 -4.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.70
121 1 42 -7.71 6.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.94
7 7.71 -6.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.74
122 1 41 -0.05 -3.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.88
42 0.05 3.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.49
123 1 43 0.07 6.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.12
8 -0.07 -6.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.95
124 1 42 -0.35 -3.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.34
43 0.35 3.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.38
125 1 44 7.74 6.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.34
9 -7.74 -6.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.11
126 1 43 -0.42 -3.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.42
44 0.42 3.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.43
127 1 45 27.30 5.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.45
10 -27.30 -5.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.16
128 1 44 -0.44 -3.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 -6.66
45 0.44 3.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 -7.10

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

67. FINISH

20-02-05 Page 10 of 10

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig. 1 Frame of building in solved example

20-02-05 Page 11 of 11

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 2 Portion of frame to be strengthened

20-02-05 Page 12 of 12

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 3 Member Numbers

20-02-05 Page 13 of 13

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 4 Node numbers

20-02-05 Page 14 of 14

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 5 Deflected shape of the frame

20-02-05 Page 15 of 15

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 6 Bending moment diagram

20-02-05 Page 16 of 16

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 7 Strengthening of first floor beams

20-02-05 Page 17 of 17

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com


Fig 8 Proposed plinth beam

20-02-05 Page 18 of 18

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com