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Australian Drilling Industry Training Committee Ltd

DRAFT
Calculations & Terms
used in
Drill & Blast Operations

library
National Centre for Vocational Education Resea h
level 11. 33 King William SI.
Adelaide SA 5000
Decembe~199~-----------------------+~

IDi\\UL
lSI cG

Calculations & Terminology for Drill & Blast Operations

This document was developed by:

The Australian Drilling Industry Training Committee Ltd


P.O. Box 1545
Macquarie Centre NSW 2113
Phone: (02) 9887 1077
Fax:
(02) 9888 2078

Project Manager
Virginia Hilliard
Chief Executive Officer
Australian Drilling Industry Training Committee Ltd
P.O. Box 1545
Macquarie Centre NSW 2113
Phone: (02) 9887 1077
Fax:
(02) 9888 2078

Project Officer:. Lee Fletcher

We gratefully acknowledge the contribution made by Coldwell Drilling Co,


Rockhampton, Qld.

--~-~-----

'(1s1dd

-' c;, i::;jrc;:JiJb3 lsf1oif5:)oV 101 9'tr~9J 'sno!Js't-1 f


c rr:::;i!~:\J') 2I'1i){ se .t t Isv9J
.
I.
.
~."~= ['2 9C.,c!".~.~
Copyrigh;l: Commonwealth of Australia, 1999
..__.. _.- .. ..---Galculatiens-&-rerminology for Drill & Blast Operations was developed with
funding from the Workplace English Language and Literacy Program through
the Department of Employment, Training and Youth Affairs.

Contents
Page

Section 1- Quick Reference


Metric Summary Chart
Conversion factors
Examples using Common Formulae ...........................................................
Complex Formulae

Section 2 -

2
4
5
6

Carrying Out Calculations


10

Area
Triangle
Trapezium
Cylinder
Annulus
Volume & Capacity

13

Volume

14
Cylinder
Rectangular Prism
Blast Pattern
Blast Hole

Density & Specific Gravity

17

Up-Hole Velocity

18

Angles

19
20

Charts
Inclined Blast Hole
Sine, Cosine & Tangent
Blast Design Parameters ... ............ .................................... ... ...... ... .........
Bench height
Blast hole diam~ter
Burden
Spacing
Sub-grade drilling
Stemming
Blast hole angle
Powder factor
Relative Weight Strength
Relative Bulk Strength
Intra-Row & Inter-Row Delay

22

Contents

(continued)

Page

Scaling of Blast Parameters ......................................................................

27

Geometrical Formulae

28

.Density of Rock Type

29

Wet Hole Calculations

30

Scaled DistancesNibration Control ............................. , ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......

30

Unit of Measure Conversion .... ...... ... ......... ... ... ... ...... ... ... ...... ... ... ... ...... ... .

32

Blast Hole Loading Densities Chart .................. .................. ...... ...... ...... ......

34

Section 3 -

Blast Hole Terminology

Abbreviations

36

Definitions

37

Section 4 -

Test Yourself Answers

42

Section 1

Quick Reference

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Metric Summary Chart


Length
Units of length are: millimetres (mm)
centimetres (cm)
metres (m)
kilometres (km)
1000mm
10mm
100cm
1000m

= 1m
= 1cm
= 1.0m

= 1km

CapacityNolume
Units of liquids:

Units of solids:

millilitres (ml)
Litres (I)
Kilolitres (kl)
Megalitre (MI)
. cubic cm (cm 3)
Cubic metres (m 3)

1000ml
1 litre
1000 litres = 1kl
= 1m3
1000KI = 1MI

Mass
Units of mass/weight:

1000mg
1000g
1000kg

milligrams (mg)
grams (g)
kilograms (kg)
tonnes (t) .

= 19
= 1kg
= 1 tonne

Pressure
The unit of measurement is a Pascal. It is too small to be of use by
itself.
1000Pa
1000 kPa

= 1 kilo pascal or 1 kPa


= 1 Megapascal or 1 Mpa

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Area
Units of area: square mm (mm2 )
square cm (cm2 )
square m (m 2 )
hectares (ha)
1 hectare

= 10,OOOm2

100mm2
10,OOOcm2

(eg. a square 100m x 100m)


:: 1cm2
= 1m2

Metric Units
For simple estimation purposes we can use our own body as reference to measure things.
Check your own body measurements and write them in the boxes below.

Body measurements
Width of little nail/finger (is about 1cm)
Width of palm of hand ( is about 10cm)
Hand span from tip of little finger to tip of thumb (is about
20cm)
Outstretched arm from nose to fingertip ( is about 1
metre)
A long stride (is about 1 metre)

Calculations & Tel7Tls used in Drill & Blast Operations

Conversion Factors
Length
Inches (in)

x 25.4

= millimetres (mm)

Feet (ft)

x 0.305

= metres (m)

Pounds (Ibs)

x 0.454

= kilograms (kg)

Imperial ton(2,2401bs)

x 0.98

= metric tonne (T)

US ton (2,000lbs)

x 0.909

= metric tonne (T)

US gallons (Usgal)

x 0.833

US gallons (Usgal)

x 3.785

Imperial gallons (gal)

x 4.54

Cubic metres (m3 )

x 1,000

Barrel

x 158.8

= imperial gallons
= litres (L)
= Htres (L)
= litres (l)
= litres (l)

Mass

Volume

Flow Rate
Cubic ft per min (cfm)

x 28.3

Cubic metres per min (m 3/min)

x 1,000

Litres per sec (Usec)

x 790

3
Cubic metres per day (m /day) x 220

= litres per min (Umin)


= litres per min (Umin)
= imperial gal per hr (GPH)
= imp gal per day (GPD)

Density
Pounds per US gal (Ib/gal)

x 0.12

= specific gravity (SG)

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill &Blast Operations

Examples using Common Formulae

Formula

Perimeter of rectangle (add


sides)

P (perimeter) = 2(1 + b)

Area of rectangle (multiply 2


sides)

Example

Find perimeter of rectangle


3.7 m long & 2.2 m wide.
P = 2 (I + b)
= 2 (3.7 + 2.2)
= 2 x 5.7
= 11.8 m

.
Find area of rectangle 6
metres long and 2.3 metres
wide.
A =Ib
= 6x 2.3
= 13.8 m2

A (area) = I x b
A = Ib

Circumference of a circle
C = 21tr

or

C = 1td

(1t = 3.142)

Find the circumference of a


circle with a diameter of 20
cm.
C = 1td
= 3.142 x 20
= 62.83 cm

Area of circle
A = 1tr2

Find the area of a circle with a


radius of 10 cm.
A = 1t~
= 3.142 x 10 x 10
= 314.16 m2

V (volume) = I xb x h
= Ibh

Find volume of a rectangular


prism 47 mm long, 30 mm
wide & 15 mm high.
V.= Ibh
= 47 x 30 x 15
= 21150 mm3

Volume of rectangular prism

0 0
Volume of cylinder

= base area x length


= 1t~ x I (length)

Find the volume of a cylinder


with diameter of 4 m & height
of3 m.
If diameter is 4m then r = 2.
V
= n~h

= n2x2x3

Volume = 37.70 m3

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Complex Formulae
Area
Legend

p = perimeter
A = Area
h = height
r= radius
d= diameter
e = length of diagonals

Right angled triangle - Pythagoras c2 formula

c2
b
A

=
=
=
=

a+b+c
a 2 + b2
b
2

"c _a
ab

indicates right
angle

or

y.

axb

Equilateral Triangle

=
=

3a
a"3
2
2

a "3
4

=
=

0.866a
0.433a2
a

indicates rig hi angle

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Trapezoid

= Y:z h (a + b)

Trapezium

= a+b+c+d

= Sum of areas of two

major triangles

Ellipse
p

= D (a + b) approx
or D [1.5(a + b) - "abj

= Dab

Calculations & Tenns used In Drill & Blast Operations

a
7

Volume of Solids

Legend

A
V

= total area
= volume

Cube

Parallelopiped

v =

2(ab + bc + ac)
abc

Sphere

A =

4ltr = 12.566r

v=

4 ltr

= 4.189r

Cone(eg stock pile)

Calculations & Tenns used in Orill & Blast Operations

Section 2

How to carry out calculations

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & B/ast Operations

Area
Area of a Triangle

= %Ix h
= % x 12 x 10

10cm

= 60 cm

( 2

because it is area)

12cm

Test Yourself
Find the area of these triangles
a) h = 24cm, I = 30cm
b) h

= 8.24cm, I = 3.4cm

Area of a Trapezium

= Yo h (a + b)

A = Yo x 7(1 Oem + 15cm)

15cm
\j7cm
10cm

= Yo x 7 x 25 (Always do sum in brackets first)


= 87.5cm2

( 2 because it is area)

Test Yourself
Find the area of this trapezium.

10

= 30m,

= 45m,

h = 8m

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Surface Area of a Cylinder


If we could cut a cylinder down one side
and unroll it, it would be a rectangle.

The circumference of the circle must be equal to the length of the rectangle, and the height of the
cylinder must be equal to the breadth.

circumference

-0

Circumference

......
4--

21T r

(11

= 3.142)

RadiUS-)
If the radius of the cylinder ( r ) was 2 cm, then the length of the rectangle is

=2
= 2m
= 2x3.142x2
= 12.6 cm

If the height of the cylinder was 5 cm, then the breadth of the rectangle will be 5 cm. Hence, the
surface area of the cylinder (ie. area of the rectangle) is

= Ixb
= 12.6 x 5
= 63 cm2

Area

The ends of the cylinder are circles. Area of a circle is 11

f.

For both ends the area is 2 11 f.

Therefore, total surface area of a cylinder is


A

= 211fh

+ 211f or

= 211r (h + r)

Test Yourself
A cylinder has a base diameter of 40cms and height of 60cms. Find
a) the surface area of the cylinder (rectangle). Use your calculator.
b) The total surface area of the cylinder

Calculations & Tenns used In Drill & Blas,t Operations

11

..... Annulus-- ...- .-- .......-.The annulus is the space between two circles.

Area of annulus

= area of outside circle -

area of inside circle

Find the area of the annulus. The radius of outside circle is 1m; radius of inside circle is SOcm.

A (outside circle)

= 1tx1mx1m
= 3.14m 2

A (inside circle)

= 1t x O.Sm x O.Sm
= 2.01m2

Area of annulus = 3.14-2.01m2

= 1.13m2
(1t

3.142)

Test Yourself
2
Find the area of the annulus in m when using 100mm drill pipe in a 250mm diameter hole.
A (outside circle)

=
=
=

A (inside circle)

=
=

=
Area of annulus

=
=

12

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

Volume
The basic measurement of volume is the cubic metre (m3

).

1m
1m
1m

..1. . . . . . ._. ._-1---7


/
./~.

= Length x Width x Depth (L x W x D)

We get the volume of the tank this way:

Example
A tank has these dimensions:

= 1m x 1m x 1m

L = 1.1 metres;

= 0.8 metres; D

= 0.4 metres

V=LxWxD

1.1xO.BxO.4

= 0.3/i2m

Capacity
Directly related to volume is capacity, which is the amount of fluid a tank can hold.
A litre is the amount of liquid that will fit in a container 10cm by 10cm by 10cm.
As well as expressing the volume of the tank in m3 , we can express the volume in Iitres.
Remember,

1m3 = 1000 Iitres, so

Liquid volume

0.352 x 1000

3521itres

Test Yourself
A rectangular mud pit is

= 1.2m, W

= 0.8m,

D = 0.6m

What is the volume of the pit in m3 ?


What is the liquid volume?

Calaulations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

13

Volume of Cylinder
A cylinder is an object that has circular ends. It can be solid or hollow, eg pipes
The area of a circle is 1l~

(11

"=3.142)

To calculate the volume of a cylinder we multiply the


circular base area by the height of the cylinder.

length

_-+I

Volume of cylinder = base area x length


= 1l~ x I (length)

" circular base

For example;
What is the volume of a pipe with a length of 8 m and diameter of 0.3 m?

Formula is

Radius:

= llrZ h

r = diameter

= 0.3 m
2
= 0.15 m
Area of base: = 1l~
= 3.142xO.15mxO.15m
= 0.0707 m2

So, volume:

= 0.0707 m2 x 8 m
= 0.566 m3 or

566 litres

Test Yours"elf
What is the volume of a cylinder with a diameter of 4m and a height of 3m?

14

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

Volume of a Rectangular Prism.

Formula

v
,

=Ixbxh
= Ibh

example:
Find the volume of a rectangular prism 47m long, 30m wide and 15m high.

v = Ibh
/

J,. . . . . . ._,_.". -" " ". ".". . .

= 47x30x15
= 21150m3 (or21150cubicmetres)

,/

Test Yourself
Find the volume of a rectangular prism with these dimensions:
2.5m wide, 8.5m long, 3.2m high

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

15

Volume of a Blast Pattern

=length
x width x vertical height
3

Volume of pit

= m 0rfe

= m3 x 1000

Volume in Iitres

'real' blast hole


average dimensions

Example:

Dimensions of a blast hole are:

I = 6m;

= 3m;

vh = 1m.

Volume of hole = (6 x 3 x 1) m3
Volume in litres

18m3

= 18 x 1000l
= 18,000l or 18Kl

Volume of a Blast Hole


Formula

Example:
What is the volume of a hole with a depth of 8m and diameter of 0.3m?

785 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 8

565.2 l

Test Yourself

16

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

Density
Formula
Density

Mass
Volume

Example:
A 20L drum is full of liquid. The weight of the liquid is 25kg. What is the density of the liquid in
kg/m 3?
Density =

Mass
Volume

25kg
20L

1.25kg/L

Specific Gravity (S.G.)


Density of water is taken to be 1kg/L.
This formula is used to detern:tine whether explosive will sink in water.

Specific gravity

= weight of explosive
weight of same volume of water

If volume is greater than 1, explosive will sink.


If volume of explosive is less than 1, explosive will float.

Example 1: If we have 1 litre of salt water weighing 1.2kg, the S.G.= 1.2 + 1 = 1.2.
Volume of cylinder

= package of explosive

Weight

Calculate

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

17

Up-Hole Velocity (UHV)


The velocity (speed) of air flowing up the annulus is a critical factor in lifting and clearing cuttings
from a drill hole.
The size of the annulus will determine up-hole velocity when using a consistent volume of
delivered air. This means that UHV will be higher in a small annulus and lower in a large annulus.
The recommended UHV for blast hole air drilling is:

1,500 to 2,100 metres per minute (mpm)


5,000 to 7,000 feet per minute (fpm)
Formula
U.H.V. (m/min)

= 2 x cfm x228.3
02_d

or

2 x Umin
02 - d2 (ins)

cfm = cubic feet per minute


Lpm = Litres per minute
0 2 = hole diameter in inches
= drill rod or pipe diameter
d2
in inches

Example: A drilling project requires a number of 6" diameter holes to a depth of 20 metres. Our
available rig is equipped with 4" diameter drill pipe and a compressor which delivers 650 c.f.m
(18,400 Umin) of air.

U.H.V. =

x 18,400
36-16

36,790
20

1,840 m/min

Test Yourself

18

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

Measuring Angles
Angles are used to measure how far something has turned/rotated.

o
360'

CD

90'

180'

270'

360 degrees is one complete revolution.


Angles have 2 arms. The arms meet at the point called the vertex.
Acute angle

Obtuse angle
B

SA and BC are arms

~-----

B is the vertex

L is the symbol for angle

) indicates angle

C
We use a protractor to measure angles. It covers a range of 180'.

The centre point of the base line of the protractor goes on the vertex of the angle.
Example,
This angle measures 135.

TestVourself
Write down the size of the angle in the following.

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

19

Inclined Blastholes

Vertical distance including vertical sub-grade (metres)

Deviation from the vertical to the nearest 0.1m

Length from the vertical to the nearest 0.1 m

Angle from Vertical

10

25

20

15

30

35

40

2.3 .

5.5

2.9

5.8

3.5

6.1

4.2

6.5

6.4

2;8

6.6

3.5

6.9

4.2

7.3

5.0

7.8

2.9

8.5

3.7

8.8

4.6

9.2

5.6

9.8

6.7

10.4

10.4

3.6

10.6

4.7

11.10

5.8

11.5

7.0

12.2

8.4

13.1

3.2

12.4

4.4

12.8

5.6

13.2

6.9

13.9

8.4

14.6

10.1

15.7

14.2

3.7

14.5

5.1

14.9

6.5

15.4

8.1

16.2

9.8

17.1

11.8

18.3

2.6

15.2

4.0

15.5

5.5

16.0

7.0

16.6

8.7

17.3

10.5

18.3

12.6

19.6

16.1

2.8

16.2

4.3

16.6

2.8

17.0

7.5

17.7

9.2

18.5

11.2

19.5

13.4

1.6

18.1

3.2

18.3

4.8

18.6

6.6

19.2

8.4

19.9

10.4

20.8

12.6

22.0

15.1

20.9 i
23.5 '

20

1.8

20.1

3.5

20.3

5.4

20.7

7.3

21.3

9.3

22.1

11.6

23.1

14.0

24.4

16.8

26.1

22

1.9

22.1

3.9

22.3

5.9

22.8

8.0

23.4

10.3

24.3

12.7

25.4

15.4

26.9

18;5

28.7

24

2.1

24.1

4.2

24.4

6.4

24.8

8.7

25.5

11.2

26.5

13.9

27.7

16.8

29.3

20.1

31.3

25

2.2

25.1

4.4

25.4

6.7

25.9

9.7

26.6

11.7

27.6

144

28.9

17.5

30.5

21.0

32.6

0.4

5.0

O.g

5.1

1.3

5.2

1.8

5.3

0.5

6.0

1.1

6.1

1.6

6.2

2.2

0.7

8.0

1.4

8.1

2.1

8.3

10

0.9

10.0

1.8

10.2

2.7

12

1.1

12.0

2.1

12.2

14

1.2

14.1

2.5

15

1.3

15.1

16

1.4

18

(Contributed by Coldwell Drilling Co)


Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

20

Anole(Dearees)

Sine

Cosine

Tangent

0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
20.0
22.5
25.0
27.5
30.0
32.5
35.0
37.5
40.0
42.5
45.0
47.5
50.0
52.5
55.0
57.5
60.0
62.5
65.0
67.5
70.0
72.5
75.0
77.5
80.0
82.5
85.0
87.5
90.0

0.000
0.044
0.087
0.131
0.174
0.216
0.259
0.301
0.342
0.383
0.423
0.462
0.500
0.537
0.574
0.609
0.643
0 ..676
0.707
0.737
0.766
0.793
0.819
0.843
0.866
0.887
0.906
0.924
0.940
0.954
0.966
0.976
0.985
0.991
0.996
0.999
1.000

1.000
0.999
0.996
0.991
0.985
0.976
0.966
0.954
0.940
0.924
0.906
0.887
0.866
0.843
0.819
0.793
0.766
0.737
0.707
0.676
0.643
0.609
0.574
0.537
0.500
0.462
0.423
0.383
0.342
0.301
0.259
0.216
0.174
0.131
0.087
0.044
0.000

0.000
0.044
0.087
0.132
0.176
0.222
0.268
0.315
0.364
0.414
0.466
0.521
0.577
0.637
0.700
0.767
0.839
0.916
1.000
1.091
1.192
1.303
1.428
1.570
1.732
1.921
2.145
2.414
2.747
3.172
3.732
4.511
5.671
7.596
11.430
22.904

..

tan 0

o~adj

c050

a~hyp
Hypotenuse

5in0

inf

djacent

Op%
hyp
Opposite

hyp2

adj2 + Opp2

(Contributed by Coldwell Drilling Co)


Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

21

Blast Design Parameters


The following 'rules of thumb", derived from years of practical experience, are more appropriate for
developing an initial blast design. The 'rules of thumb' apply to looses Iy poured ANFO at a
density of 0.8 g/cm3 in a rock of average strength.

Bench Height
Chosen on the basis of local ground conditions, safety regulations and the size and type of the
loading equipment.

Rule of Thumb
8ench height (H)

= 60 x blast hole diameter (mm)

Blast Hole Diameter (d)


Generally dictated by the available equipment but should be selected so that the bench height (H)
is in the range of 60d to 140d.

Rule of Thumb

d (mm)
{Where d

= (8 - 15) H (m)

= blast hole diameter (mm) and H =bench height (m) }

Burden (B)
The burden is the distance between two drilled rows of blast holes. Generally iUs in the range of
24d to 36d. A value of 30d should be chosen initially.

Rule of Thumb

8 (m)

= (20 to 35 ) d (m)

20 Hard massive rock


27 Average rock
35 Softer well-jointed rock

Spacing (S)
The spacing (m) is the distance between two blast holes within the same row.
Spacing too close, causes premature splitting, crushing and cratering between blast holes.
Spacing too large, causes inadequate fracturing between blast holes resulting in poor
fragmentation of the rock mass.
Should initially be 1.158 (gives an equilateral triangle pattern).

22

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Rule of Thumb
S (m) = (1 to 1.8) B (m)

1
hard massive rock
1.15 (equilateral triangle)
1.8 soft jointed rock

Subgrade Drilling (SO)


Subgrade drilling (sub-drill) is the distance drilled below floor level to ensure that the full face of the
rock is removed.

stemming

Explosive charge
length

Generally in the range of 8d to 12d. A value of 10d is usually chosen initially.

Rule of Thumb
SO (m)

= (0.1 tq 0.5) B (m)

0.1
0.3
0.5

easy toe
average toe
hard toe

Stemming (ST)
Stemming is an inert material which is used to fill the zone from the top of the explosive charge to
the collar of the blast hole. This material confines the explosive gasses and reduces airblast.

Rule of Thumb
ST

= (0.7 to 1.0) B

0.7
1.0

hard massive rock/good stem material


easy to blast rock, cautious blasting

Blast Hole Angle


Should be selected so that blast holes are parallel to the face (where possible).
Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

23

Powder Factor
Powder factor is defined as the mass of explosive divided by the volume of rock expressed in
kg/m3.
Powder factor

(1)

Exp Mass per metre

d
p
(2)

(3)

Mass of Explosive
Volume of Rock

Explosives Mass Per Metre (1) x Charge Length


Burden x Spacing x Bench Height

1L x Jf. x P
4 1000

=
=

diameter (mm)
density of explosive (g/cm 3)

Exp Charge Length =

Blast hole length

(3) -

(2)

Stemming length

Note that blast holes drilled on an angle are longer than blast holes drilled vertically (for the
same Bench Height and Subdrill) and need to be accounted for.

Soft well structured rock usually requires powder factors of about 0.10 kgfT of ANFO while in hard
massive rocks the powder factor ranges up to 0.40 kgrT.

Relative Weight Strength (RWS)


RWS is a percentage approximation of the strength of an explosive compared kg for kg to ANFO.
=
125% (1.25) is supposed to be 25% stronger than
ANFO = 100%. Explosive)t RWS
ANFO on a kg for kg basis.

Relative Bulk Strength (RBS)


RBS is a percentage approximation of the strength of an explosive compared volume to volume (ie
litre for litre) to ANFO. ANFO = 100%.

Intra - Row Delay


Generally in the range of 2 to 5 ms/m of spacing. A value of 3 ms/m should be chosen initially.

Inter - Row Delay


Generally in the range of 10 to 20 ms/m of burden. A value of 15ms/m should be chosen initially.

24

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Example:
A blast pattern is required with Burden x Spacing
Hole diameter

1)

0.5m

Hole depth

8m

No. of holes

50

Stemming

2.5m

ANFO

0.85.kg/L

SG

What is the volume of rock expected out of the blast?


Volume of blast

Total Hole Depth

2)

2.7m x 3.0m.

089mm

Subgrade drilling

Explosive

8 x S x H+ x No.Holes

2.7 x 3.0 x B.O x 50

64.8m3 x 50

3240m 3

Depth + Subdrill

8.0"+ O.5rn

8.5m

How much explosive required?


Explosive Charge Length

Total hole depth - Stemming Length

8.5m-2.5m

6.0m

Explosive charge per metre (volume of cylinder)


Volume of hole/per m

1t

5.29 kg/m

Therefore, explosive Charge Weight


Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

r2 x h (where h

= 1)

Charge length x Charge/m

25

3)

6.0m x.5.29 kg/m

31.74kg

No. of holes

50

:. Total Explosive Weight for entire blast

50 x 31.74 kg

1587.0 kg

What is the powder factor?


Powder factor

26

Explosive Weight
Blast Volume

1587 kg
3240 m3

.......... Kg/m3

Calculations & Te,!"s used in Drill & Blast Operations

Scaling of Blast Parameters


Wherever there is a change in blast hole diameter (d) or explosive type, a new blast geometry
needs to be developed. As the parameters of blast design are increased, there is a law of
diminishing returns applying to fragmentation and muckpile looseness. (This applies unless there
is a substantial increase in explosives Energy Factor or the fragmentation is almost completely
defined by rock jointing Istructure.) For this reason, blast pattern expansion is generally not
proportional to increases in explosive energy or blast hole diameter.

The new geometry should be calculated using a scaling factor:

=
-p-

where:
RBEE is the relative bulk effective energy and subscripts c and
proposed system respectively.

p refer

to the current and

K is then used to calculate the new burden distance (Bp) and new blast hole spacing (Sp) using the
relationship:

K" [Be X Scl


Where:
N varies between about 0.8 and 1.0. A value of 0.8 is recommended for introductory
blasts. Initially, Sp : bp should be 1.15.

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

27

Geometrical Formulae

Circumference of a circle

1t0

Area of a circle

Y. 1t 0 2 or 1t r2

Area of rectangle

length x width

Area of triangle

% base x height

Surface of sphere

41tr2

Volume of cone

1/12

1t 02H or 1t r2h

3
Volume of wedge

% area of base x height

Volume of cylinder

Y. 1t D2H or 1t r2 h

Per metre of hole


Per hole
Per blast

=
=
=

BxS
BxSxH
B x S x H x Holes

Mass of Rock (t)

Mass

volume x density

Relative Weight Strength

RWS

Q exp/Q anfo
(Where Q = Available energy)

Relative Bulk Strength

RBS

(RWS exp/RWS anfo) x (p exp/p anfo)


(Where p = Relative Oensity)

Powder Factor

Pfa

Mass of explosives
Volume of rock

Energy Factor

Ef

Pta x RWS

Volume of Rock Blasted (m

28

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

Density of Rock Type

Material

Relative
Density

Weight
Solid
tm O

mOlt

Broken
mOlt
T/m o

Basalt

2.8 -3.0

3.0

0.33

1.96

0.51

Coal - Anthracite

1.3-1.8

1.6

0.63

1.05

0.96

Coal - Bituminous

1.2-1.5

1.41

0.71

0.92

1.09

Diabase

2.6 -3.0

2.8

0.36

1.83

0.55

Diorite

2~8

- 3.0

3.0

0.33

1.96

0.51

Dolomite

2.8 - 2.9

2.9

0.35

1.90

0.53

Gniess

2.6-2 .. 9

2.9

0.35

1.90

0.53

Granite

2.6 -2.9

2.8

0.36

1.83

0.55

Gypsum

2.3-3.3

2.8

0.36

1.83

0.55

Haematite

4.5-'5.3

4.8

0.21

3.14

0.32

Limestone

2.6-2.9

2.7

0.37

1.76

0.57

Limonite

3.6-4.0

3.8

0.26

2.48

0.40

Magnesite

3.0-3.2

3.2

0.31

2.09

0.48

Magnetite

4.9-5.2

5.0

0.20

3.27

0.31

Marble

2.1-2.9

2.5

0.40

1.63

0.61

Quartzite

2.0-2.8

2.6

0.38

1.70

0.59

Sandstone

2.0-2.8

2.4

0.42

1.57

0.64

Shale

2.4-2.8

2.6

0.38

1.70

0.59

Silica Sand

2.2 -2.8

2.6

0.38

1.70

0.59

Slate

2.5-2.8

2.7

0.37

1.76

0.57

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

29

Wet Hole Calculations


Number of cartridges to build out of water

NE

Hf x 1000
LE

HF

Ho X D2
D2_d 2

Number of cartridges needed

Final height of water (m)

Length of cartridge (mm)

Ho

Original height of water (m)

Diameter of borehole (mm) ~


Indicates annulus volume

Diameter of cartridge

(mm~

Scaled DistancesNibration Control


For a given distance the mass of explosives per delay (> Bms) can be calculated as follows:

(D),

or

Ds

If the mass of explosives per delay and the distance is known, the scaled distance can be
calculated as a check to see of it is within limits:

DS

D
DME

Where:
Me

Mass of explosive (kg) per delay (> Bms)

Distance to property of concern (m)

Ds

Scaled distance (m)

30

Calculations & Tenns used in Drilf & Blast Operations

(1)

The United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) gives


Ds

(2)

31m

The office of Surface Mining (US) recommends


Ds

74m ifD is smaller than 150m

82m if Dis 150 to 1,500m

96m if D is greater than 1,500m

Based on the USBM standard the following are recommended.

Distance to structure
or property of
concern
10

Mass of explosives
(kg) per delay (>
Sms)
0.1

Distance to structure
or property of
concern
300

Mass of explosives
(kg) per delay (>
Sms)
100

20

0.4

50

250

30

1.0

750

600

50

2.5

1000

1000

75

6.0

1500

2500

100

10.0

2000

4000

150

25.0

3000

10000

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Opera~ions

31

Unit of Measure Conversion


Take the measure of the unit to be converted and multiply with the figure on the opposite side to
get the measure in the opposite unit.

Example:
1.0 metre
3.5 acres

1 3.281 = 3.281 feet


3.5.0.405 = 1.418 hectares

Length
25.400 millimetres
0.914 metres
0.305 metres
0.025 metres
1.609 kilometres
1.152 statute miles

1
1
1
1
1
1

0.039 inches
1.094 yards
3.281 feet
39.372 inches
0.621 statute miles
0.868 nautical miles

Area
6.452 sq. centimetres
0.836 sq. metres
0.093 sq. metres
0.405 hectares

1
1
1
1

0.155 sq. inches


1.196 sq. yards
10.764 sq. feet
2.471 acres

Volume
16.387 cu. centimetres
0.765 cu. metres
0.028 cu. metres
0.568 Iitres
4.546 lfires
3.785 litres

1
1
1
1
1
1

0.061 cu. inches


1.308 cu. yards
35.315 cu. feet
1.761 pints
0.220 imperial galls
0.264 U.S. gallons

Mass/Weight
28.350 grams
0.454 kilograms
1.000 kilograms
2.240 pounds
9.810 kN
1.016 tons (metric)
0.102 tons

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Density/Powder Factor
0.016 gm/cu. cm
0.593 kg/cu. metre
16.016 kg/cu. metre

1
1
1

32

0.035 ounces
2.205 pounds
0.001 tons (metric)
0.446 103 (imperial)
0.102kgf
0.984 tons (imperial)
9.810 kN

62.438 pounds/cu. ft
1.686 pounds/cu. yd
0.062 pounds/cu. ft

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Pressure
1,013 bar
0,069 bar
0,010 bar
0,102 m water head
10,194 m water head
2,307 ft water head

1
1
1
1
1
1

Flow Rate

0.076 litres/second

0.987 atmospheres
14.500 Ibs/sq. inch
100.000 kPa (kNm2)
9.810 kPa
0.098 bar
0.434 Ibs/sq. inch

I 13.200 gallons/minute

Viscosity

1.000 Ns/m<
1.000.000 m2/s
47.847 Ns/m2
0.093 m2/s

1
1
1
1

0.001 centipoise (cP)


0.000,001 centistoke (cSt)
0.021 Ibf s/tr
. 10.760 tr/s

ut

0.738 ft-Ibf
1.341 horse ower

Temperature
-

To convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit, multiply by 9/5 and add 32.

To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 and multiply by 5/9.

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

33

2.49

2.80

3.11

3.73

4.35

3.27

3.68

4.09

4.90

5.72

6.54

3.66

4.12

4.58

5.50

6.41

7.33

4.08

4.59

5.10

6.12

7.14

8.17

4.60

5.17

5.07
13.08

13.85

15.42

16.33

18.15

19.96

20.87

21.78

22.68

23.23

23.59

24.50

16.88

17.87

19.86

21.84

22.83

23.83

24.82

25.42

25.81

26.81

18.18

19.24

21.38

23.52

24.59

25.66

26.73

21.15

22.40

24.88

27.37

28.62

29.86

31.11

12.36
14.56
15.59

17.32

20.78

24.25

27.71

29.44

16.47

18.53

20.59

24.71

28.83

32.95

35.01

19.79

22.27

24.74

29.69

34.64

39.58

42.06

86.73

(Contributed by Coldwell Drilling Co)

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

34

Section 4

Drill & Blast Terminology

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

35

Abbreviations

36

AN

Ammonium Nitrate

ANFO

Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil

Burden

Centigrade

cm

Centimetre

CN

Calcium Nitrate

DRC

Detonating relay Connector

Young's Modulus

EE

Effective Energy

EP

Emulsion Phase

FO

Fuel Oil

grams

g/m

grams per metre

Gpa

Gigapascal

KgF

Kilograms force

KJ

Kilojoule

L1L

Lead in Line

MJ

Megajoule

mm

millimetre

MMU

Mobile Manufacturing Unit

Mpa

Megapascal

ms

millisecond

MSC

Millisecond Connector

PETN

Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

PS

Polystyrene

RBEE

Relative Effective Energy

RF

Radio Frequency

RQD

Rock Quality Designation

RWEE

Relative Weight Effective Energy

RWS

Relative Weight Strength

second

Spacing

SG

Specific Gravity

Tonne

TLD

Trunkline Delay

TNT

Trinitrotoluene

VOD

Velocity of Detonation
Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Definitions
Capped fuse

A length of safety fuse with a plain detonator crimped to one end

Circuit

Insulated electric wires connecting electric detonators together

Crimper

A special tool to securely attach a plain detonator to safety fuse

Delay detonator

'A detonator which fires at a specified time after initiation

Detonating cord

A continuous core of detonating explosive powder covered by an


outer jacket

Detonator

A small, sensitive high explosives charge inside a protective shell

Downline

The link which transmits an initiation signal inside a blasthole

Exploder

A portable source of electrical energy used to fire electric detonators

Fuse lighter

A pyrotechnic device used to initiate safety fuse

Igniter cord

An incendiary cord used to ignite safety fuse

Leadwires

The wires which are permanently attached to an electric detonator

Misfire

An explosive which has not completely fired after initiation

Safety fuse

A continuous core of black powder covered by braided yarns

Signal tube

A hollow plastic tube which transmits energy by a shock wave

Trunkline

The link which transmits an initiation signal to blasthole collars

Calculations & Tenns used In Drill & Blast Operations

37

Burden

Distance between a free face and an explosive charge 9ie when it


fires)

Collar

Top or upper section of a blasthole (ie at or near the bench top)

Drilling pattern

General layout of blasthole collar positions (eg square or rectangular


grid)

Equilateral triangle

A triangle that has all sides of equal length

Grade

Design floor level 9ie top of next bench down) in an openOcut mine
or quarry

Inclination

Angle usually measured in degrees from a vertical line

Spacing

Distance between adjacent blasthole collars (ie usually in the same


row)

Stemming

Inert material (eg crushed rock) put into blasthole collars to contain
explosion gases

Sub-drill

Length of blasthole drilled below the design grade level (also called
sub-grade)

S:B ratio

Blasthole spacing divided by blasthole burden distance

Toe

Bottom or lower section of a blasthole

Blast Geometry
AN

Ammonium Nitrate

Classification

Separation of explosives according to their hazard characteristics

Day box

A container used to store daily reqUirements of explosives on the job

Division

One of the five official groups into which explosives are divided

Expense box

Another term for day box

Exudation

proplets of NG liquid on the outer wrapper of packaged explosives

38

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

HE

High explosives goften used to mean detonator-sensitive explosives)

IMCO (IMO)

Intergovernmental Maritime Organization

Magazine

A special storage place used for keeping explosives or detonators

Magazine shoes

Special overshoes (galoshes) for wearing inside magazines

NG

Nitrglycerine

Receptacle

Licensed container to store or transport small amounts of explosives

Recrystallisation

Salt crystals formed by evaporation of salty liquids from explosives

Safety distance

The separation distance required arour'ld explosives magazines

Signal Tube Initiation ,Systems


Bridging

Linking together of separate sections of a blast initiation system

Burden

Measured distance between an explosive charge and a free face

Burning front

Gap between firing a downline and explosion of the charge around it

Control row

Line of initiation which controls sequencing and timing in a blast

Cut-off

Failure caused by physical damage or disruption during the blast

Dummying

A method to establish correct delay timing for odd blasthole patterns.

Echelon

A diagonal line between the collars of a staggered blasthole pattern

Free face

Open area available for charged blastholes to fire (ie break) towards

Hookup

Connection of the individual components of the initiation system

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

39

Incoming

initiation signal or component coming in from another location

Leading hole

The blasthole which is deSigned to fire first (ie lead) during a blast

Outgoing

Initiation signal or component going out towards another location

Shrapnel

Tiny fast-moving fragments produced by detonating explosives

Spacing

Measured distance between adjacent blastholes in the same row

Explosives Properties
ANFO

A mixture of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) and distillate Fuel Oil (FO).


usually mixed together in the ratio of 94:6 (by weight)

Approved

Approved by the relevant Explosives/Dangerous Goods & Mines


Department

Blasting agent

Explosives which cannot be initiated by a #8 strength detonator

Bulk strength

Energy yield per unit volume of explosive

Critical diameter

The minimum diameter at which an explosive will reliably detonate

Dead pressing

Compression of an explosives charge to a density at which it is so


insensitive that it cannot be initiated or sustain a stable detonation

Detonation

An explosive chemical reaction which involves a supersonic "shock

wave"
DPD (Dynamic Pressure
Desensitisation)

The effect of an intense shock wave passing through an explosive


charge. resulting in the destruction of the explosives sensitising
agent. rendering it insensitive to detonation

Emulsion

A super-fine mixture of oxidisers (eg AN solution) and fuels (eg Fuel


Oil) stabilised by surface-active "emulsifiers

GMB (Glass MicroBalioon)

Extremely small hollow glass spheres used to sensitise some


emulsion explosives

Oxidiser

An ingredient that provides oxygen in an explosive

Primer

A high explosives unit designed to initiate the main explosives


charge

40

Calculations & Tenns used in DriJl & Blast Operations

Energy available to do useful work (compared to ANFO as 100%)

REE (Relative Effective


Energy)
VOD (Velocity of
Detonation)

The speed at which the detonation wave travels through a confined


explosive column

Weight strength

Energy output per unit weight of explosive

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

41

42

Calculations & Tel7l7S used in Drill & Blast Operations

Section 4

Test Yourself Answers

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations

43

Area of a Triangle

(Page 10)

Find the area of these triangles


a)

h = 24cm,

b)

h = B.24cm,

= 3.4cm

Area of a Trapezium

= 360cm
= 14.008cm2
2

(Page 10)

Find the area of this trapezium:

A = Yo I x h, .. A

= 30cm

= 30m,

= Bm

= Yo h (a + b)
= Yo x B (30 + 45)
= Yo x B x275
= 300cm

Surface Area of Cylin,der

(Page 11)

A cylinder has a base diameter of 40cms and height of 60cms. Find


a) the surface area of the cylinder (rectangle)
b) the total surface area of the cylinder
a)

IfD
A

= 40, r = 20
= 21tr x h
= 2 x 1t 20 x 60
X

= 7539.B224 (frolT] calculator)


Area

b)

= 7540cm 2

2
(to nearest cm )

= 21tr (h + r)
= 2 x 1t

20 x (60 + 20)

= 2 x 1t

20 x BO

= 10053.096
Area

44

= 10053cm2 (to nearest cm2)

Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

Annulus (Page 12)


Find the area of the annulus in m2 when using 100mm drill pipe in a 250mm diameter hole.

= 1t r

A (outside circle)

= 3.142 x 0.1252

= 0.049m2
=

A (inside circle)

1tr

= 3.142 x 0.05 2
= 0.0079m2
Area of annulus

= 0.049 - 0.0079
= 0.0411m2

Capacity (Page 13)


L = 1.2m,

A rectangular mud pit is

= 0.8m,

0 = 0.6m

What is the volume of the pit in m3 ?


V (m3 )

= 1.2 x 0.8 x 0.6


= 0.576 m3

Liquid V.

= 0.576 x 1000
= 576 L

Volume of Cylinder (Page 14)


What is the volume of a cylinder with a diameter of 4 m and a height of 3 m?

V =

1t r h

(r

Area of base =

= 2 m)

1t r

= 3.142 x 2 x 2
= 12.6m2
So volume = 12.6m2 x 3

= 37.8m 3 or 37,800 litres


Calculations & Terms used in Drill & Blast Operations

45

Volume of Rectangular Prism

(Page 15)

Find the volume of a rectangular prism with these dimensions:


2.5m wide, 8.5m long, 3.2m high

= Ixbxh
= 8.5 x 2.5 x 3.2
= 68m 3 or 68 cubic metres

Volume of a Blast Hole

Up-Hole Velocity

(Page 16)

(Page 18)

46

Calculations & Tenns used in Drill & Blast Operations