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* Urban culture, architecture, housing, master-builders

* The Bazaar-core of the town

1l The mosque complex-nucleus of the settlement

*Christian elements in Islamic architecture- 'Islamic.influence in Christian architecture

* Sarajevo, Mostar

heritage destroyed in the 1992-94 war

'"Reconstruction and preservation

The colourful cultural life nurtured in Bosnia and Hercegovina for centuries has embellished this land with marvelous structures. Each of its different communities which blended together have contributed to the creation of a harmoniously diversified culture. Mosques, churches, and synagogues, houses, schools, and markets of Bosnia- and Hercegovina symbolize the spirit of multicultural unity which has been the essence of the Bosnian identity.

This architecture represents an undeniably distinct cultural identity. Its ruins will continue to speak for themselves until reconstruction .

. Ekmeleddin ihsanoglu

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA

AMIR PASle

ihsanoglu ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA AMIR PASle Foreword by Ekmeleddin iHSANOGLU    
ihsanoglu ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA AMIR PASle Foreword by Ekmeleddin iHSANOGLU    

Foreword by

Ekmeleddin iHSANOGLU

   

ORGANISATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE RESEARCH CENTRE FOR ISLAMIC HISTORY, ART, AND CULTURE

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA

AMIR PASIC

Translated by Midhat Ridjanovi6

Foreword by Ekmeleddin lhsanoqlu

Istanbul / 1994

 

STUDIES ON THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA, NO.2

PC/94-2

ISBN 92-9063-050-7

Organisation of the Islamic

Conference (OIC)

Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (IRCICA)

Location: Yildiz Sarayi, Seyir Kosku Barbaros Bulvan Besiktas, istanbul, Turkiye Mailing address: P.O. Box 24 , Besiktas 80692 , lstanbul-Turkiye

Printed at Ylldlz Matbaacihk A~ . 1994

Cover design:Hatice Polat Index and layout : Acar Tanlak

Pasic, Amir Islamic architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina /by Amir Pasic; translated by Mithat Ridjanovic; foreword bv Ekmeleddin lhsanozlu. - Istanbul: Research Centre •

of Bosnia and

for Islamic History, Art, and Culture, 1994.

viii, 259

: ill.; 27.5 cm.-(Studies on the history and culture

Hercegovina; no. 2) Bibliography: p.228-235. Includes index. ISBN 92-9063-050-7

.

I.Architecture. Turkish-Bosnia and Hercegovina 2.Architecture, Islamic-Bosnia

III.Title

and

IV.Series

Hercegovina '

I.

Ridjanovic,

Midhat

·11.lhsanoglu, Ekmel~ddin

720.94792

Transcription of Bosnian Words

A large number of Bosnian words appear in this book. They are either proper nouns (names of Bosnian places, persons, institutions, etc.) or common nouns used to de- note various aspects of the life-style specific to Bosnian Muslims, and as a rule loan words from Turkish. Words of Arabic and Persian origin were also largely adopted in their Turkish form.

All the Bosnian words in this book are written in the Latin alphabet of the Bosnian

(Serbo-Croatian)

those of other European languages. The sounds peculiar to Bosnian are explained below.

roughly to

language.

The sound

values

of the

letters

correspond

Letter

Pronounced approximately as the bold-faced letters in

 

English

Turkish

c

cats

satsa

-c or c

chip

c;ok

dz or dj

joy

carni

j

yes

yemek

lj

value

bilye

nj

onion

Konya

S

shoe

§eker

Z

measure

ajans

 

III

This

destroyed.

book

is

about

a

FOREWORD

centuries-old

heritage

now

being

gratuitously

The colourful cultural life nurtured in Bosnia and Hercegovina for centuries has embellished this land with marvelous structures. Each of its different communtties which blended together have contributed to the creation of a harmoniously diversified culture. Mosques, churches, and synagogues, houses, schools, and markets of Bosnia and Herzegovina symbolize the spirit of multicultural unity which has been the essence of the Bosnian identity for centuries. This spirit Or'llullticultural coexistence, kept intact from the 15th century onwards through different periods and under different circumstances in the history of Bosnia, is threatened today by a dreadful and iniquitous attack on the Bosnian nation and its cultural heritage.

The Serbian aggression struck a heavy blow to the Bosnian historical heritage. In their monstrous policy of annihilation of the unique Bosnian character, Serbs, and lately Croats too, not only attacked the Bosnian people with the most lethal weapons at their disposal but also subjected them to the worst kind of torture. From the beginning of the war in April 1992 until now, the massacre and mayhem of innocent people became more brutal day after day. Cities, houses, monuments, and most of the architectural and literary heritage of the country were turned to rubble. The atrocities perpetrated against the people of 'Bos nia and Hercegovina have added a new tenn to the vocabulary of genocide and vandalism in their twentieth-century version:

"ethnic cleansing", The outrageous plan of the aggressors is to "clean '! a major part of the Bosnian territory and merge it with Serbia, which involves the annihilation of the Bosnian cultural identity by an "eradication of the culture", another inhuman policy devised by Serbs.

This genocide and eradication of culture are perpetrated on a land where once reigned an atmosphere of peaceful coexistence of communities of different ethnic. cultural, and religious origins. A system of rights and values based on mutual respect between different communities was established in Bosnia and Hercegovina as early as the fIfteen hundreds. Islam, introduced to Bosnia by Ottoman Turks in the 15th century, defended and preserved the Christtan population and their property on this land. For centuries, communtties of Orthodox, Catholic. and Judaic faith lived together peacefully with Muslims. under the Islamic principle which teaches that there is no enforcement in religion. Unfortunately, the aggressors' fanatic ideas managed to sway milltons of people, and prevented those communities from carrying this ethic into the civilised world of the last decade of the 20th century. Furthermore, the world community has been quasi-indifferent to such flagrant and repeated violations of basic human rights in the middle of Europe. In spite of persistent breaches of the right of the Bosnian people to life. liberty, security, to freedom of religious belief and cultural identity, the world powers and international organisations have adopted an utterly

v

insensitive attitude. Their indifference also threw serious doubts on the concept of universal human rights, because if this concept is not workable in the geographical context in which it originated, it is to be questioned whether it can have any validity or applicability on a universal scale. While continuing its heroic struggle for survival, the Bosnian nation does not give up the hope that the world will regain its moral sense and take action to stop the aggression against its existence, its identity, and its territory.

This book is probably the first comprehensive review of the arts and architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina published in the English language. It is one of the products of a large-scale research project on the history and culture of Bosnia and Hercegovina which was undertaken by IRCICA soon after the beginning of the war.

The Centre's first publication in this field was a study on the demographic history of Bosnia and Hercegovina, by Dr. Adem Handzic. The present book, second in the series , resulted from extensive research carried out under the coordination of the Bosnian architect and urban planner Dr. Amtr Paste, who joined the Centre after the beginning of the war. This book holds a special place in this series of publications, because it is a record of indisputable evidences of the Bosnian national and cultural identity.

The centuries-old architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina represents an unquestionable national existence and a distinct cultural identity. Its ruins will continue to speak 'for themselves until reconstruction and prove that such attempts as "ethnic cleansing" and "eradication of the culture" of the Bosnian nation will never be possible.

Hoping wholeheartedly that the time for peace and reconstruction is not too far away. I would Iike to express my appreciation to Dr. Amir Pasic for his scholarly contribution to the right cause of his country. My special gratitude goes to Professor Midhat Ridjanovic for the excellent translation and editing of the text. I would also like to thank my colleagues Zeynep Durukal and Acar Tanlak for their contributions in flnaltstng this publication , as well as the staff of the Yildi z printing house.

Prof.Dr. Ekmeleddin Itisanoqlu Director General. IRCICA February 1994

VI

CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter I Introduction

An Ou tline of th e History of Bosnia and Hercegovina (Medi eval Bosnia. Bosnia and Herce-

govina a s an a dm in is tra tive unit of the Ottoman State.

Chapter II Urban culture

Co mmo n e lements of Islamic

Th e origin a n d d evelopment

Ba nja Luka , S araj evo a n d Mostar)

a n d Kresevo , Foca. Livno. Tr avnik.

Mu slims. post-Ottoman period)

c ity

of s everal cities (Foj n lca

.

Th e bazaar - the core Wa ter a n d the ci ty

Mah alas - resid ential m icro region Th e mosque com p lex-the nucleus of th e s ettlemen t

Chapter III Architecture

Mosque (space of the mosque. domed mosques. basic typ es of mosqu es. d om es . d ecoration of mo sque. the Karadjozbegova Mosqu e)

Memorial a rc hitectu re Edu ca tio nal fa ctlitt es (m ekteb, medresa , tekija )

Co m m u na l fa cilities (traffi c n etwork. bridges. water supplies. h am am, clo ck-tower) Business fa cilities (hans a nd caravansaries. beztstans, shops and storehouses. dalre. mills.

bakeries)

Chapter IV Housing

Origin a n d d ev elopm en t of the hous e Houses in Mostar Functlonnal division of the hous e Furnitur e a ri d hous ehold e q uip me n t Influ en ces a n d rela tionships Other kind of housing structures

Chapter V Buildings and Builders

Matertals a nd structures Builde rs

Chapter VI Decorative Arts

Ca lligra phy

Or name n ta l Ar ts (book a r t . textile. em broide ries and carpets. wood-carving. m etal handiwork. stone decorations)

Chapter VII Characteristics of the Islamic Architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina

(Co nve rtlo n to [sl am. th e Iexlcal Influence of Isl am. s ettlements and houses. Islamic e le-

intluences of pre-Ottoman period. Christian architectural

ele me n ts in mosqu es. C h ris tia n int1u ences in housing

men ts in C h r istia n a rch itec tu re.

mosques without

of th e town

cons truction )

Peculiarity of the house.

Chapter VIII Preservation of Architectural Heritage in Bosnia and Hercegovina

(Saraj evo. Mostar. con te m pora ry Islamic architecture. heritage d estroyed in the 1992-93

war.

proposal for reconstruction and preservation.)

Appendices

1.

List

of Isl amic monuments in Bosnia

a nd Hercegovina

2.

List

of destroyed Islamic monuments

in Bosnia and Her cegovina

3

. Bibliography

4.

List of illustration

5.

Glossary

6

. Index of nam es

VII

Page

1

4

13

20

40

43

45

50

53

70

74

80

93

103

108

116

121

127

131

135

141

151

157

162

181

196

199

209

212

226

239

242

247

PREFACE

This book is a survey of the Is larnic cultural heritage in Bosnia and Hercegovina, es- pecially of its architecture, generally regarded as the main art form of Islamic civiliza- tion. Most extant books on Islamic architecture focus on public buildings with moriurnental characteristics. The present monograph , however, airns to present inte- gral urban structures with different components and their interrelations.

Is lam appeared and developed "in a historically iInportant region, from which it spread to thr e e continents. For many centuries now it has been one of the most significant fa c tors influencing th e s plritua l and material development of nations across Asia ", Af- rica , a n d , to a lesser exten t . Europe. particularly the Balkan lands of Bosnia-Herce- govina, Kosovo , and Macedonia. The rnajority of the people living in these lands in origin. upbringing, and education relate closely to Is larnic culture and civilization , which may not be mirrored as much in religious practices as through a complex s p irit u a l physiognomy with which every individual identifies hiInself.

Due to the large nurnber of Mus lims in Bosnia and Hercegovina and other regions of th e Balka n peninsula , the influence of Is larnic culture is also evident in the non-Is- la mic e n vir on ru e rrt s of the area. as well as further beyond. This, therefore, requires a study of the Is larnlc culture so that those el ements of modern civilization that devel- oped und er th e influence of Is lam 111ay be better understood.

The town of IVIostar is described in greater detail because it can be used as an exam- , pl e of the his tory of Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Is larnlc architecture and urba n culture of Mostar largely created in the period between the 16th and the 19th centu- ri es as an integral part of Ottoman culture. Most attention is devoted to housing units, both because they represent the largest segment of the architectural heritage and because of their specific Bosnian characteristics , not encountered in other re- gi ons of the Ott0111an Empire. Mostar is compared with other importa nt cities in "

Bosnia -H ercegovina: Sarajevo , Banja Luka,

with Is larnic characteristics in other parts of Bosnia-Hercegovina are merrttoned , as well.

Travnik . and Foca. Well-known structures

The most unportarit fact to bear in mind about Bosnia and Hercegovina is that it was here that different ideologies , c u ltu res , and civilizations met or collided; here were torn asunder great empires and religions , here was drawn the line marking the first a n d 1110St tar -reaching division of Christianity into Orthodoxy and Catholicism. Equally important was the religious and cultural tolerance of the Ottomans . which gave rise to num erous Christian and Jewish places of worship and other cultural ass ets of inestiInable historical value.

 

I

INTRODUCTION

Despite evident differences steuuning from social and national dlstinctioris , a unique Is larnic culture has developed which has for centuries defined the Is la mic people's view of the world, moral and esthetic norrns , tradition, way of life. ideals. psychology. social institutions, and behavior. The Holy Qur'an is the book of Islam, the last of the celestial religions. that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h).

The

agriculture and trade .

Arabian

peninsula

was

the

cradle

of Islarn.

Its

southern

parts

depended

on

This area was inhabited by peoples with an ancient culture based on different beliefs, cus torns and rituals.

The North of the peninsula was characterized by vast deserts and oases. Peoples in

this

camels: thus they led a more modest life.

area mainly lived on s tock- breeding that consisted of sheep and goats as well as

The holy Qaaba in the city of Mecca was built by Abraham. Since that time it was circumambulated by Muslims during the pilgrimage.

Mecca

peninsula.

also

flourished

as

the

most

important

center of trade

and

culture

in

the

The caravans of trade that were loaded here travelled to Syria, Yernen,and the city of Kufa.

linguistic and literary taste was very advanced in Mecca at the tirne when the Prophet emerged.

Is lamic belief had spread all over the peninsula and the life style began to be shaped by the Is la mic identity when Prophet Muhammad passed away in Mecca in 632 .

The Muslim mujahids began to spread the lnessage of Islam from the North to the East and West of the peninsula during the period of the Four Righteous Caliphs.

Is larn spread up to Morocco in the West, the walls of istanbul in the northwest, Trari- ' soxiana and northwestern India in the East during the first half century of the Hegira.

Various peoples with different languages, cultures, arts and social compositions lived in this 'w id e geographical area .

They influenced one another and ass umed a new identity by becoming Muslirns. They. however, also kept their own identities within the principles specified by Islam.

Thus.

Is larnic Civilization carne into

being and contributed greatly to the

history of

hurnaruty.

Movernerits

of culture.

art and

learning that emerged

within

this

framework

were

inf1uenced by the different identities of these peoples under the Is larnic principle of

tawhid.

3

An Outline of the History of Bosnia and Hercegovina

The oldest setrlernerrts found on the territory of present-day Bosnia and Hercegovina date back to the Paleolithic Age and represent the Mousterian culture.

They are located in central Bosnia.

Archeological finds indicate that. during the Neolithic Age. there were two groups of s ettlemerits with different socio-cultural characteristics. one in the Bosnia river valley and another in the valleys linked with the Neretva river.

There is also evidence of relatively large settlements in the Bronze Age. Two cultural groups are known to have lived here during the Iron Age, starting from the middle of the 8th century B.C.: the Illyric group in the South and the Panonic group in the North.

Position of Bosnia and Hercegovina in Europe

Illyrians are the oldest ethnic group known to have lived in this territory. Different sites dating from the Bronze and the Iron Ages, Le., fr0111 about 2 ,000 B.C. to the be - ginning of the Christian era, have provided arnple and varied archeological evidence for students of European history and culture.

They also revealed the continuous contacts between Illyrians and the Greek colonies on the Adriatic coast during the last centuries before Christ, which left many

A.D ., the natural

interesting examples of cultural symbiosis. In the first centuries wealth of the country attracted the Romans.

The struggle of the native Illyrians against the invading Romans was a protracted ag- oriy which lasted almost two centuries and culrninated in the definitive inclusion of this region in the Reman Empire.

Remains of Roman settlements, thermal baths, houses, temples, sculptures and artistically fashioned artifacts testify to the new level of civilization introduced by Roman legionaries and colonists and to the Romanized Illyrian population which set upon it the s ta mp of its own spirit and traditions. In the early Middle Ages, the region of today's Bosnia was a temporary settlement area for migrant cornmuruttes.

A variety of nations sojourned in the territory before moving on elsewhere. until finally the original population was replaced by a new one of Slavic origin.

Frorn the long-lasting process of symbiosis involving the cultural heritage of the indigenous and trnmigrant populations, a new Romano-Slavic entity emerged.

The tribal communitles gradually underwent transformations which led to the feudal structures.

later

The name of medieval Bosnia was mentioned for the first time in the year 948 A.D. in the book De administrando imperio by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus .

4

5

Medieval Bosnia. The country's constitutional and socio-political integrity dates frorn

the middle of the 12th century. At that time, several "ba n s" ruled

Bosnia. The rnost powerful ruler of the period was Ban Kulin (1180-1204), who made

Bosnia a signifIcant factor in Balkan politics. Ban Kulin's 1189 Charter, preserved in

an important diplornatic

docurnent that deals with socio-political circurnstances of its time, but the oldest

docurnent written in a world.

the St. Peters burg Academy of Arts and Science, is not only

in different parts of

living. corrternporary, national language in the entire Slavic

In the second part of the 14th century Bosnia became a kingdom. It was the most powerful Slav state in the Balkans, In 1377, Tvrtko I Kotromanic (1353-1391) carne to the throne under the Hungarian influence, as the "King of the Serbs and Bosnia and the Coastland ". He and his successors laid clairn to the throne of the disintegrating Serbian Empire. Meanwhile, opposing this kingdom, in 1448, Stefan Vukcic took power in the southern part of country, and assumed the title "Herceg of St. Sava". It was frorn this title that the region of Hercegovina acquired its name.

Iku.nh in the lOth crnlury l1nVliM flI»e In the limo 011,,0 KuHn IIHO·I: IJ.I UOUltVl.
Iku.nh
in the lOth crnlury
l1nVliM flI»e
In the limo
011,,0 KuHn
IIHO·I: IJ.I
UOUltVl. U:aIl:
In
1"-
lime
01
LInG
T'nko
Il.\l ·tl91
lIonlcu orlh
Um.nhn
_Iale i n the 1~ lh nn
Dmnhklle rtel:Dvlnll
llu)
III
lilt
JoKNlIl h ill( ( I f
11111
If~h lc nillry
.
.
.
lr.uJe lU\ 11 tll.,11 m ult .
Sc n ~lI'C1\b
I n'' lll
In ' lit
10th ( Cll M)·
o
D ~,I /ll lllh lU In w n"
."
c
'u\h1llltJIOU~'
i
lown , BOO th dr \u hllrh,
HISTORIC
MAP
OF TI lE MEDIEVAL
BOSNIAN STATE

Map of medieval Bosnia

The medieval Bosnian state was gradually weakened by several factors which un- dermined its social structure and integrity, namely:

internal battles caused by opposing interests of individual feudal lords, constant changes in the size of the Bosnian state brought about by fluctuating po- wer of local lords and the central government, as well as by changmg relations with neighboring states, lack of the shared national consciousness (frequently a feudal lord from one state

or eth nic tribe would join forces with one from another state or from an ethnically

different tribe).

.

Rel ations with the governrnents of neighboring countries played a significant role in the mutual battles between feudal lords. Leaning to one side or another was a ploy often used in battles for property and other advantages.

The remains dating from the period between of the 12th and the 15th centuries in- clude sorne three hundred fortified towns and a number of palaces and churches. They show peripheral reflections of the Mediterranean and Central European Roman- esque and Gothic styles and , in certain cases, of Byzantine art.

not unified. The so-called Bosnian

Church" was the dominant religion of the time. There was also a sizable Catholic com- muriity as well as small groups of Orthodox along the left bank of the Drina river.

FrOIn the religious viewpoint, medieval Bosnia was

The aesthetic and artistic ideas of the religiously tolerant medieval Bosnian society are re- flected in the srnall number of illuminated manuscripts which have been preserved. A rich repository of those ideas, however , is to be found in the art of the stecak; medie-

val tornbstones, sorne 70,000 of which

found, in clusters of varying numbers ,

are

throughout the country. In their reliefs and inscriptions crudely carved in stone is mirrored the distinct and unique reality of life in the Bosnian valleys, on the periph-

ery of the great European cultures.

Bosnia and Hercegovina as an administrative unit of the Ottoman State. A century before conquering Bosnia, the Ottoman Turks "vis it ed " these territories for the first tim e. In the a uturnn of 1386 the Ottornans carne to these regions for the flrs t time and reached the Neretva ' river. Later they made other incursions. From then on, the strings of almost all important political and milltary actions in this region were held by the Ott0111an Sultan and his regiments stationed on its borders .

The political circurnstances were favorable for the Ottoman conquerors. The local feu- dal lords invited the Ottornans as "allies" in their mutual battles. Thus, in battles fought in 1435 between the Kosaca's and the Pavlovic IS , the Ottomans sometimes supported one side and sometimes the other.

Vladislav, the Herceg's eldest son, pursued a policy similar to his father's and the Turks sometimes fought on his side, too. Such relations with Ottomans were charac- teristic for that time. The king of Naples, the Hungarians, and the Venetians also al- lied themselves with Ottomans occasionally if it served them in their battles against thetr opponents.

4 1\ IYIH:' of d ua lis tic r eligion kn own a s Boq otntl, ortglnally a h er esy d ertver ed from C h rts tla ru ty.

6

7

Th e B",n i411 ~,., "nround 1606

Borders or " nJ. b

-

-

-

Bord

or the

~I., In

1718

SllI'l1jcvo

 

.

The

a:~'er or .he c)'lb'

Bosnia and Hercegovina as a part of the Ottoman State

In rnid-15th century Ottornan armies penetrated the territory of Bosnia. The Bosnian Kingdom fell in 1463. Several subdivisions were created as military and adrninistra- tive units (sa nclialc) of the Ottoman State. From 1463 to 1528, Ottornans and Hun- garians fought successive wars claiming parts of the territory. In 1580, Bosnia be- carne a beglerbeglulc. a province with the highest military and administrative rank within the provincial organization of the Ottornan State. Its first seat was In Banja Luka, rnoving to Sarajevo in 1639. then to Travnik in 1697, and back to Sarajevo in 1850. By 1463 the medieval feudal society of Bosnia was structurally destroyed. A considerable proportion of former feudal lords, especially from the petty nobility, soon adapted to the Ottornan spahi-timar feudal system.

In introducing their rule the Ottomans acted in a way which did not disrupt the ear- lier socio-econornic establishrnent. Their policy was one of a conservative adjustment to local conditions with the aim of gradually removing the pre-existing and Irrtroduc- illg the new Ottoman social order.

Every Christian could become a land-owner (spahija) if he was of noble origln and loyal to the State. Even mariy powerful Christian feudal lords became owners of large estates and thus retained a great part of their heritage. If they converted to Is lam they acquired the title of beg and were able to advance to the highest positions , including the position of Grand Vizier.

The largest part of the Bosnian population was Itving outside of the township areas. It was divided into two categories with regard to their dominant economic activity: land- tillers and livestock raisers. the former being mostly Muslims. the latter Christians. The basic unit of social structure of the livestock raisers was a form of extended fam- ily organized on a cooperative basis and known as the zaclruga. Each consisted of 20 to 60 members, Iiving in a common houshold headed by an elder who represented his cornrnunity before authorities. paid taxes, settled debts, and looked after the affairs of the cooperative in general.

8

These social institutions survived numerous rulers and their different systems of administration, from the Byzantine era through the Ottoman period until our own day, keeping as its main characteristics an extraordinary sense of group loyalty and a permanent fear of urban civilization.

Followtng the Siege of Vienna in the period between 1683 and 1699, the borders of the Bosnian beylerbeylik were almost identical with those of present day Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Ottoman State recognised the inherttarice rights of Bosnia's feudal lords. Muslim lords In the region enjoyed considerable independence. This enabled thern to rise ill. open rebellion against reforms unposed from Istanbul In the 19th century and to seek Bosnian autonomy. The strongest expression of this rebellion was the uprising by Captain Husein Gradascevic in 1831, which continued for years and was suppressed only in 1850.

During the period of Ottoman rule , the population of Bosnia gradually embraced Is- lam. This process created a basis for new cultural and civilizational developments of an Islarnic and Middle-Eastern character. But here, arnidst medieval Bosnia's distinc- tive traditions, on the extreme periphery of the Ottornan state and in direct daily contact with the Mediterranean and Central European world, emerged a most re- marka ble example of reconcilation and coexistence of peoples of different origins. The structure of this civilization, especially its urban part, assumed a peculiar Bosnian- Is lamlc character, which itself exhibited clear regional variations.

The religious pluralisrn of medieval Bosnia persisted to a certain extent. The Bosnian Church expired. while Catholicisrn was in the hands of Franciscans, who obtained from Sultan Mehrnet II special guarantees allowing thern to carry out their work. Most of the Orthodox land-owners adapted to the new feudal system, while the Church or- ganization itself recovered with the 1557 restoration of the Pee Patriarchate. Orthodox Serb and Vlachs groups , s mall In number and clustered near the eastern border with Serbia cluring most of the Ottornan period at that time, later spread to western areas.

Muslims. Islam, the dominant religion of the Ottornan State, was very influential in so- cial. cultural, and economic life. Islam had appeared in Bosnia even before its con- quest by the "Ottomans. However, in the decades following the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia, Is lam became the most prominent spiritual dimenston in Bosnian life. Islam was accepted by all social classes, from the peasantry to the aristocracy. The majority of the Bosnian population adhered to Islarn. In this way, a particular group of people of Slavic ortgin and Islamic faith carne into being, This group differed fr0111 the " remaining population in its social, political, and econornic characteristics as well.

Contemporary studies have shown that the number of people of foreign origin living among Bosnian Mus lims was negligible. In the course of rnore than four centuries, Bosnian Muslims as a population group developed a culture of their own, incorporat- ing and assirnilating elements of both western and eastern civilization. Duriri.g the second half of the 16th century, Jewish refugees fr0111 Spain settled In Bosnia , espe- cially in Sarajevo, and developed a distinctive life style. in which most of their tradi- tlorial cultural and artistic elernents were well preserved. Throughout the Ottoman period , justice and tolerance "prevailed within this religiously cornplex community. in which people of different faiths were often close relatives. Ottomans showed an un- precedented and examplary tolerance towards various Christian denominations all through their centuries-long rule. Religious differences were to become grounds for political manlpulation only at later times.

9

   

Post-Ottoman p e riod. Following a long period of decline of the Ottoman State, the

European powers decided at th e Congress of Berlin to have Austria-Hungary assume the

adminis tration of

ce nt ur ies of Otto m a n rule and the beginning of new socio-economic relations in the region. Bosnia was set on a path towards Central European civilization. This orientation was m arked by a n ew economic and ad ministrative system, as well as by a m ore clear-cut religious d ifferentiatio n within the Bosnian society.

Bosnia and Hercegovina in 1878. This ma rked the end of over four

c::::::J Serbl. nnd Montenegru ' III the wa" In 1876nB c:=:J E '~pllru l(1n !
c::::::J
Serbl.
nnd Montenegru ' III the wa"
In 1876nB
c:=:J
E
'~pllru
l(1n ! of S erb in Atl d Mo ntenegro I n 1878
UOllllht&Hcl7.cgovlnR In 1878
BulDn,lo In 1878.
~ 'Thrrf!onc'I whhln lhcO llumutl llnlc
c:=:J
Tcrrilorlo'l within AtJ!lllro·HuQgury after f878
-
-
-
State bord ers allcr the Congrc:M
or Berlin in
1878
-
Botdc t1 of Yugo, lnvla Me r 1945

Bosnia and Hercegovina as a part of the Austro-Hunqarian. monarchy

After World War 1, with the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ("Yugoslavia", in fact, means the country of South Slavs), a basis was created for the realization of a pan-Serbian hegemony aiming to achieve ethnic unity for Serbs and their dominant position among the South Slavs. This idea had been formulated much ear-lier, in 1844, in the formula "Serbs - together and eve- rywhere," launched in a secret document prepar-ed by the Serbian Minister of Internal M- fairs Ilija Garasanin and entitled "Nacertanije'' ( Plan) .5

In the period between the two' World Wars Bosnia and Hercegovina was divided for the flrst time in its long history, which was a step towards the achievement of Serbian ideals. In order to destroy the identity of the country, the goverrunent divided it into several ad- ministrative units. Subsequently, as a consequence of increasing conflicts between Ser- bia and Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina was divided into thirteen administrative units by the 1939 Cvetkovic-Macek agreement. These units were then added to the newly- formed regional entity called the Banovina of Croatia.

5 Belgrad e was th e greatest Ottoman city in the

19 th

century, Its 78 mosqu es. 11 Turkish baths. six large carava nse ra is. 45 inns . a nd all other buildings with Isl ami c cha ra cte ris tics were later destroyed in the name of S erbian national

western part of the State from

th e

16th to

th e

DUling World War II, the kingdom of Yugoslavia disintegrated. In April 1941, the govern- m e rit ca pit u la ted to Nazi rule and , together with the king and his entourage , fled abroad. The country was occupied and divided among Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Bosnia and Hercegovina became a par-t of the so-called Independe nt State of Croatia, created under foreign occupation.

The concept ofa federal Yugoslavia prevailed among the leaders ofTito's Par-tisans. Within ~he Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Hercegovina become a separ-ate federal unit, equal in status to the other five Republics (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia). This was, actually, a recognition of the country's historical existence.

a recognition of the country's historical existence. Vranduk: A settlement founded in pre-Ottoman times

Vranduk: A settlement founded in pre-Ottoman times

However, the centralist and unitarian policy based on the ruling totalitarian ideology con- tinued after World War" II. It brought about new ethnic and inter-Republic tensions, w hich come to a head in the late sixties. In order to resolve these tensions, the regime had to re- SOli to a policy of ideological repression while at the same time recognizing and, by the Constitution of 1974, formally affirming the individual federal units as sovereign states within a loose federation.

The loosening of Yugoslavia, originally a Serbian creation devised to enhance their na- tional interests, angered Serbian nationalists and revived their expansionist policy, expe- cially after Tito's death in 1980. Serbian actions took increasingly aggressive forms. After the secession of Slovenia and Croatia in 199 1, and a same orientation of Macedonia, Bosnia a~d Hercegovina also held.a referendum in which the majority of the people voted for independence from the curtailed "Yugoslavia" (Le. Serbia and Montenegro). Serbian nationalists refused to accept this democratic decision. They argued in favour of keeping BOSIlia and I!ercegovina within Yugoslavia or, at least, deviding it among Serbs, Croats, and Muslims in the hope of eventual annexation of the Serbian pari: to Serbia (and presumably, of the Croatian section to Croatia), leaving Muslims, who made up 44 % of the population of Bosnia and Hercegovina, without a state of their own. The unresolved political disputes tliggered a brutal Serbian aggression on the now sovereign internationally recognized Repubic of Bosnia and Hercegovina.

10

   
 

11

II URBAN CULTURE Common Elements of the Islamic Urban Settlement A city reflects the '

II

URBAN CULTURE

Common Elements of the Islamic Urban Settlement

A city reflects the ' whole life of a cornmunity. Several elernents are common to every

Islarnic town.

The choice of a living space is essentially determined by factors of safety and by the necessity for proper performance of Islamic worship.

An irnportant elernent is security of access to the town, which required good roads to connect it to other important locations, as well as safety within the town itself, which called for fortification. A third comrnon element of Islamic settlements is the existence of various public facilities (rnosques, schools, hospitals, public baths) which were usually endowed by the monarch or a member of his family as a religious duty, or by other rich persons, through the charitable religious foundation called valcuJ.

"A general and enduring characteristic of Islamic town planning and one which de-

rives

strictly apart. 116

that the commercial and residential areas are kept

directly frorn sunnah,

is

The rnarket (bazaar, suq, carsija ) is the vital part of a city, usually located at an im- portant junction on the main road, or near a fortification or a river crossing.

Housing areas are situated outside and often around the market, connected to it by a network of usually narrow streets.

Houses are self-contained and detached with a courtyard and a garden enclosed by a wall, particularly on the side facing the street.

Is lam favoured urban life because it rnade for easy access to mosques, public baths, schools and other institution of religious irnportance.

This .ur ban rnilie u is found

to Indonesia and Malaysia in 't h e east, and from Arabia in the South to Bosnia in the

North.

As

they settled.

the Ottornans kept the basic pre-existing urban layout wherever

in every Islarnic environrnent, frorn the Magreb in the West

a

general rule,

In the transfonnation of existing settlements or in the creation of new ones, the con-

struction of a religious complex (mosque with a mekteb or medresa, musafirhana, Imaret, several shops) represented the key element of change and, at the same time, created the nucleus of the new town.

When they seized a fortified town with an ernpty space inside the walls, they would build an annex to the existing structure. If an old town was overpopulated, they would then build a new one on the grounds outside the city walls'? Medieval towns and fortifications were very numerous in the Balkans in the pre-Ottoman period, the main rnotivation for building them being defense frorn the Crusaders.

6 7

T. Burckhardt. Art QfIslam. Common. Language and Meaning. p. 189.

A more detailed analysis is

1984-87.

found in

the book by S.H.Eldem: Turk Eoi,

Ostnanli donemi I-III,

Istanbul

 

13

Medievalfortresses and towns: Ljubuski, Blagaj, Sto lae, and Soko l The cities differed in size,

Medievalfortresses and towns: Ljubuski, Blagaj, Sto lae, and Soko l

The cities differed in size, year of foundation , surrounding terrain, purpose, structure, use of rnatertals and building technology, and availability of water, all of which influ- enced the livtng conditions of the inhabitants.

The building material used for city walls was mainly stone, while wood was predomi- nantly used fo r hous ing u nits within t h e fortress and for supporting structures. The ci ties and fortifications in the Balkan area conquered by the Ottomans can be divided into f hre e grou ps, each with a la rge nu mber of common features: coastal towns , inlan d t owns and fortresses, and fortified monastery complexes,

Coastal towns mainly originated in the antiquity. They were repeatedly demolished, rebuilt, and remodeled over the centuries

The best fortified structures alnong them are the military citadels. Inside the walls are densely fitted buildings for habitation, and other facilities. The use of gun-powder and

heavy cannons their appearance.

required strengthening the original walls, which In G kedly changed

The fea tures of t h e inla nd towns were determined by t heir military function a n d

loca -

tion on a particula r t erra in , resu lting in a remarkable view of the s u r ro u n d ings.

They

were u su ally s ituated on s teep c liffs o r very high hills, a n d co u ld be rea ched on ly fr om one sid e , w h ich wa s mas sively fortified . The ir a rch itect u re reflected b oth eas ter n a n d

western influences . External s tructu res were added as HIe towns grew a n d :

c ours e of time, d evel oped into bi g sett le m en ts . The average distan ce b etwe en b ouring t owns w a s a bo u t a d ay 's walk .

in the n eigh -

t owns w a s a bo u t a d ay 's walk . in

Travnik

The Ottomans rarely erected co mp letely n ew urban

towns are Rudo and Treb inje) , but gene rally built a new sect ion adjoining the medie-

valone (as in Bitola, Prilep, Travnik, arid Banja Luka). This process of adaptation of former settlements and their expansion over the course of several centuries has so thoroughly obliterated the older urban scheme and developed a new Ottoman-Balkan urban pattern that the pre-Ottoman aspects of these urban agglomerations can

hardly be detected.f

settlements (among the few such

Ottornari Turks quickly developed the existing towns and established new settle-

conversion of th e local

population to Islam and the rapid development of trade and crafts were accompanied by physical changes in the settlements. Numerous new crafts that the Ottomans brought along with them were added to the existing ones. Association of craftsmen

merits , both small (lcasaba) and large

(seher).

In

fact,

the

(esna)l had a great impact upon the development of the Ottoman towns and signifi- cantly contributed to their Middle Eastern character.

The Vakuf. The vakuf was a religious endowment created on the basis of Islamic tenets, It was of enormous Importance for the development of urban settlements. Various vakuf buildings, with their iInposing architecture, usually created the basic urban skeleton of a city. In the continuously expanding Ottoman State, the state devoted most attention to the governlnent and the army, while concern about cultural and educational facilities was largely left to private Inrtiative, mainly through the in- stitution of vakuf. The vakuf usually supported a free realization of the will of its founders, and vakuf buildings served as a basis for the establtshment and further de- velopmerrt of the settlements around them.

8 S ee l-l .R edztc: Studtje 0 fslwllslcq} artiitekionskoj bastini, Saraj evo 1983.

14

15

We should stress the Importance of the investors - persons of Bosnian origin occupy- ing high adrnlnis'trative positions and frequently related to the sultan, AInong them

were Hercegzade Ahmet Pasa, son of Herceg Stjepan and son-in-law of Sultan Bayazit II, become the Grand Vizier five times for more than eight years in the period between 1497 and 1516; Rustem Pasa Hrvat, son-in-law to Suleyman the Magnificent, was the Grand Vizier for seventeen years, from 1544 to 1561, and Mehmed Pasa Sokolovic, also the Sultan's son-in-law, was the Grand Vizier for fourteen years, from 1565 to

1579.

There were

many other highly

positioned

investors

developmerit of different towns or monuments.

who contributed to the

of different towns or monuments. who contributed to the Maglaj, Tesanj, Stolac, and Visegrad The state

Maglaj, Tesanj, Stolac, and Visegrad

The state had a vested interest in the establtshrnerrt of a city and its development be- cause all important government officials lived there and, especially, because it was there that artisan workshops were established to m~ke various items for the The word Icasaba denotes a small urban settlement and at the same time represents a legal term, In order for a settlement to be named kasaba, it had to meet the following minimal rcquirements.P a ) It had to be permanently inhabited by a Muslim population filling at least one im- portant residential district;

b) There had to be a

can be

mosque in which all of the

five

daily prayers

would

performed;

c) It had to have a bazaar;

d) A particular day of the week had to be declared as its "market-day".

9

S ee Ad em

Han d zic:

"0

formiranju

n eklh g ra ds kih

n asel]a

u

Bos ni 1I XVI vij ek u ." POI" XXV. S araj evo

When these requtremerrts were met, an official request by the local administrators would lead to an imperial edict granting a settlement the status of a kasaba. This en- tailed exemption of the Muslim population of the kasaba from taxes which members

of other religious groups were obliged to pay.

A typical Ottoman-Islamic settlement centered around bazaar or carsu which is

usually located at an intersection of regional roads, and the word carsija, as the core

of a future settlement, is etymologically related to the meaning 'square, intersection of

of

running water, often a river, and to adjoin one or both of its banks. One of its main

c om m u ruca t ion lines is approximately parallel to the river. Thernosque, the

caravanserai, and the public bath were interconnected with two or three streets. From

this basic core of a town a whole network of small often Irregular street branches off

in all directIons. The shops, where more often that not consumer articles are both

made and sold, are dispersed throughout the city. Besides the usually small shops, there were also several large buildings used as warehouses or for other trade

purposes.

The needs of the army, which was.constantly in motion, gave rise to the formation of craft-and-trade centers in every town. A large variety of things were Inade in the ba- zaar. SOIne fifteen guilds were involved in the equipping of a horseman. The bazaar was a place of busy trading, and as a rule, did not contain family dwellings. In larger towns there came into existence, moreover, a smaller peripheral bazaar, which took some of the burden off the central one, such as at Vratnik and Hiseti in Sarajevo, in Banja Luka. J!' and in Belgrade. 11

four roads '. Another requirement is for the settlement to be situated near a stream

A further Importa.nt element in the formation of the cities is the administrative corn- plex. In addition to their residential quarters, the provincial governors (valija) in Banja Luka, Sarajevo, and Travnik erected a whole range of other public buildings as tokens of their presence in the area and the power that they Wielded. The residences

h av e lnos~ly been demolished (the exception is the konak in Sarajevo), while the pub-

lic

butld ings have been preserved through the institution of the vakuf,

In

other towns (e.g. Belgrade and Bihac) the residential part was built on top of an

old

e r stru cture of medieval origin. A characteristic example of a fortified residential

t own is Gradacac .

example of a fortified residential t own is Gradacac . Gradacac 10 S ee All]a Bej

Gradacac

10 S ee All]a Bej tic, "Banj a Luka pod Turskorn upravorn". Nas e s tu r ine I. S araj evo 1953.

11

Dlvn a Durtc-Zimolo , B eograd k ao orijentalna [ lUras p od Turcinui 1521-1867. Beo g rad 1977 . p. 197.

16

17

Sometimes . in a d d ition to a fortified residential area. there was another one by th e riv er. usu ally surround ed by pleasant greenery. (e .g. the inn for ove rn igh t guests .

k on ak in Travnik , Begovina a t Stola c), or further away from th e m ajor s ettlement. e .g. Havzi -P a stn Koriak at Bardovci, a n d the All-Pas a Rt zvanbegovica Konak at Buna n ear

Mos tar.

Pocitelj

Ed ucatio na l a n d c u ltura l fa cilities we re m ostly fit t ed into the a rea a ro u n d the b a za ar :

insti tutions

ments . the dar-ul-tefsir, dar-ul-hadis) a n d libraries were located in the vicinity of the

bi g m osqu e . while prim ary

S u fi ce nters (te 1cij a ) w er e a lso u su ally loc at ed furth er a wa y fro m th e baz a ar . but th ere were some in town centers a n d res iden tial areas as well.

n ext to a peripheral m osqu e .

of higher ed uca t ion (Muslim school or niedresa, ind ependent d epart-

ed ucation sc hoo ls were built

Residential areas fo r t he most part su rro unded t he bazaar. A maliala , a res ident ial

d istrict of fo rty t o

u su ally

m o squ e w a s

s ho p.

m ak e

view o f t he wi t h pl en ty

this

of t h e

fifty h ous es . had at its core a s mall m osqu e o r m escizid , (in Bos nia

de no tes a m os qu e w it ho u t a min a ret). In th e imm ed iate v ic inity a m e/ct eb (primary s chool), a graveyard . a fountain . a bakery . a nd

a

foo d

The Balka n Is la mic u rba n c u lture is m a rked

good u s e of t he te rrain config uratio n. build

valley. a n d pos it ion of s u ns h ine.

b uilding com p lexes

by a k een sen s e of natu re: build ers on hill slopes so a s t o offer a n ice

in a way that will provide t hem

Water in e ve ry imaginable pla ce a n d in quantities well beyond p ractical n eeds . lush .

gree ne ry

(u p pe r

d ee ply in to r oom s a n d creatin g colo r

in disp ens a ble

offe r e vide nce

floor h all ), t he s un c ut by the eaves a n d penetrat in g through lines of windows ·

ben di n g ove r fa cad es

or acro s s

ra ilin gs

of staircas es leading to dioanhan e

con t ras ts on different building materials are the

e le me n ts of th e p oetic a m b ien ce of a Balkan Islamic dwelling. They a ls o of a highly d eveloped urban c u lt u re es ta b lis hed for ce nt u r ies .

Trebinje

Balkan -Islamic cities are chiefly

Nis ), but a ls o on hill slop es and the v alleys b en e ath them (Belgrade. Foca , Sarajevo .

Ohrtd ), o r m ostly

situated in valleys (Skopje. Bltola, Tetovo, Prtstina.

on slopes (Galicnik, Krus evo . Pocitelj), intertwined with greenery.

Intrusions or con q ues ts by European a rm ies (e.g. Venetian and Austrian) in the 17th

a n d 18th ce n t u r ies brought about a phas e of rapid fortification of the predominantly

Muslim settle me n ts .

fortified: for in stance Vratnik in Saraj evo or the a rea about the Stari Most (Old Bridge) in Mostar. The sm aller towns in border areas were completely encircled by walls

Since s ecurity was

a n important co ns ide rat io n. an inhabitant of a Balkan -Islamic dwelling was protected

by

baza ar with its controlled gates; the third was a thick w all with towers and c it a de ls

a ro u n d th e military complex.

a triple wall . the first went a ro u n d his own hous e complex. the second around the

(Po crtelj, Trebinj e) or s q uee zed within the m edieval fortified areas.

Gen erally a s malle r. more eas ily d efendable part of a town was

Maglaj. in the Bosna river valley

18

19

The Origin a nd De velop m ent of Several Selected Cities

We now propose to describe two main groups of u rban settlements differing in respect of fo u n d a tion and development:

- s ettlements founded in mediaeval tirnes, and continuing to exist in the Ottoman pe-

riod as

road (Fo cal. o r fortresses (Tr avnik , Pocitelj , Ostrozac).

main

rnining centers (such as Fojnica and Kresevo), or market-places on a

- sett lern en ts founded in the Ottoman period as administrative and government cen -

ters (Sarajevo, Banja Luka ), or iInportant strategic points (the bridge

in Mostar).

A rnajority of forttfled towns of the rnediaeval Bosnian state, such as Kraljeva Sutjeska a n d Bobovac.I? mostly country seats of semi-independent local rulers, lost their im- portance in the great Ottoman State with its different state organization.

great Ottoman State with its different state organization. Positions of selected settlements 12 Fo r more

Positions of selected settlements

12 Fo r more tha n a hun dred years Bobovac was

the capital of the Bosnian King dom . It is situated on the

s ho rt est co rn m u nlcatto n lin e b etwe en th e Sos na a nd t he Drtn a r iv e rs. I t w a s a ty pica l exa m ple o f forti-

fle d arc hitect ur e of th e m edi eval lime, befo re the appearance of ca n no ns . The fortres s is five hundred

meters long. a nd wa lls s ur ro u nd ed th e settleme nt. In 1463 Otto mans started s h elling Bo bo vac from th e

hills , a nd th e local ga rriso n s ur rend ered the fo rtress q ui ckly. In 1626 Bobova c, as a for-

tr ess a nd settlem e nt. wa s aba ndo ned.

s u rro u nd ing

Fojnica and Kresevo. These settlernents whose economic prosperity was based on mining. date back to the '14t h century. Fojnlca was also a market-place where impor- tant cormnercial transactions took place. Merchants from Dubrovnik played a major part in t h is trade. When Ottornan rule was established the exploitation of the rnines in the Fojnica and Kresevo basins continued without interruption. For the Ottornan s tate, t oo , thes e settlernents were primarily irnportant for their rnines of silver, copper , gold, and lapis lazuli.

The transformation of these towns into Ottornan type settlernents was very slow dur- ing the first century of Ottoman rule. Resistance was partly due to the activities of the

Ca t h olic church , because it was in this area that

the F ranciscans had founded t h e ir

moriastertes in the 13th c en t u ry, a n d t h e local mining prod uction.

According to the land registers frorn the year 1468/9, Fojnica, with its 329 house- holds , h ad the largest population in all of the Bosnian sandzak. In the sarne year Kre-

s evo had 299 hous eholds. As these settlements began to lose their former importance, due to a s ta gnation in the mining industry, especially in respect of silver, t h eir popu - lation decreased so that in 1516 there were only 142 householders in Fojnica and 112 in Kres ev o, At the beginning of the 17th century . silver mining a t Fojnica was re- s urned.

because the Ottornans were careful to rnaintain

During this period the religious structure of the population also changed, as a conse- quence of Muslirns moving into the area, but frorn the beginning of the 17th century on the process of converston to Islam was rather slow.

but frorn the beginning of the 17th century on the process of converston to Islam was

Kreseoo

20

21

.Foca. The town of Foca can serve as a model illustrating the standard mode of trans- formation of a medieval Bosnian settlement into an Ottoman town. The medieval town of Foca owes its development prtmarily to its favorable position. It is situated between the Orina and the Cehotina rivers on the Dubrovnik road connecting the Adriatic coast to the central areas of the Balkans. The embryo of the town was a market- place.F' around which were built houses, shops, and workshops . The original urban pattern created by what are now Prijeka Cars lja and Pazariste, and a part of the Ou b- rovnik road, has remained unchanged.

Before 1465, when the Ottomaris conquered this area, there had been three important buildings in Foca: a caravan station, on the Oubrovnik Road 650 meters south from the confluence of the Cehotlna and the Orina, the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady on the south side of the market-place, and an Orthodox church with monastery on the right bank of the Cehotina river. The residential quarters lay.on the north side of the road, towards the confluence of the Cehotina and Orina. Foca was not fortified. It thus differed from a big village only by the market-place and the shops around it. Historical records mention that 95 shops were run by merchants frorn Oubrovnik and 82 by local merchants.I"

FOCA P "-f M U~T"' IJS KON\ I"l",,,,,'" Il. 1.'4\ .
FOCA
P "-f M
U~T"' IJS KON\ I"l",,,,,'"
Il.
1.'4\ .

Foca: an example of transformation of a medieval settlement into an Ottoman town

13 Th e m ark et-place. was ca lled by th e Latin word: mercatwII in pre-Ottoman tim es. a n d by th e Sl avic

pazarts! « a nd carsija in Ottoman times. This m ark e t-pla ce was

word

m entioned for th e first tim e in 1366

try olliste or by Turkish root words

14 S ee: H.Redzic. Studije 0 lslattiskoj bastilli. "Urbani razvoj Face". Saraj evo 1983.

The changes in the structure of the population and the architectural transformation of the settlement during the Ottoman period are recorded in numerous census books - clefters. The new settlement did not spread in concentric circles around the mediae- val Foca. Rather, its general plan of development was based on configurational and socio-economic factors.

The oldest residential part, the Ortakolo mahala, is situated on the periphery of the mediaeval settlement, its larger part occupying the valley towards the confluence of the Cehotina ·and the Orina. A second mahala was built on the right bank of the Orina river. A third section of the town occupies a favorable position on the right bank of the Cehotina. The fourth, the Atik mahala, was built on the south side of the Pazarrste . the fifth was nestled in a land corner bounded by the two rivers, while the sixth was attached to the Aladza Mosque on the right bank of the Cehotina river.

With th e

spacious urban area spreading to both banks of the Cehotina river and along the right bank of the Orina. In the 17th century the modern layout of Foca was already established based on a plan drafted as far back as the second half of the 15th cen- tury. The polycentric principle of urban development marked a great advancement in relation to the medieval towns and settlements in Bosnia.

By building its mesdztd or mosque, the future mahala was allotted sufficient space for further construction and growth. The choice of urban areas and their urbanization were carried out with careful attention to the terrain, particularly with respect to water utilization. Whenever it was possible , the Ottomans founded settlements on both banks of a river or stream. Thus , the river becomes the spine of a settlement. Fo- ca is a paramount example of this concern for water. From its very beginning, the town was built on both banks of the Cehotina river. As the left bank of the Orina river

is very steep and unfit for construction Foca spread only along its right bank.

A co n t in u o u s development of Foca during the previous

a rres ted in the 18th century. The following century was

the development of this interesting town in southeastern Bosnia.

construction of its six separate sections , Foca was iInplicitly defined as a

two and a half centu ries was also a period of stagnation in

, Foca was iInplicitly defined as a two and a half centu ries was also a

Foca,1895.

22

23

Livno. Livno was founded in the 9th century as a varas. 15 and in medieval Bosnia had a history stmilar to those of other s mall fortified towns. During the Ottoman pe- riod, Livno was developing as a settlement in the borderland of the Empire. In Otto- man sources it was first mentioned in 1485, as a settlement with 37 households and 26 inhabitants without permanent dwellings. The population were stock-raising

Vlachs, who lived a sernl-nornadic life. It was a policy of Ottoman rulers to organize a

had not yet become

type of "movable" economy in frontier areas stabilized .

where conditions

economy in frontier areas stabilized . where conditions Livno, the Glavica Mosque with a clocktower Within

Livno, the Glavica Mosque with a clocktower

Within the next forty years there occurred profound changes in the development of Livno. There arose an embryo of a new settlement with Ottoman characteristics, with a developed handicraft economy and first Islarnic buildings. In 1537 Livno become the seat of the sandzak of Klis, the border was moved further west, and crafts and trade were developed to serve the needs of the military garrison. In that time, Livno was fonnallya kasaba, with four mahalas , three mesdzids. and one mosque. In 1574 Livno had seven Muslim mahalas and a Christian one, with 653 Muslim and six Christian households. In the second part of the 17th century, the township of Livno began to lose its former importance and started on a path of stagnation and decline.

15 Vnro .;:;. ,-I word of Hungarian origin. is used in Bosnia. to d enote tion. with a ch urch and a square.

a s ettlement

at th e loot of a fortlflca-

Travnik. The Ottomans conquered the medieval fortress of this town, added to its fortification, and stationed a powerful garrison there because Travnik was in the bor- derland at the tune. After Jajce was conquered in 1527 and the border was moved farther North, Travnik began to develop more intensively. This was particularly true in the period between 1697 and 1850, when it was the seat of the Bosnian beglerbegluk. There the Bosnian viziers built more than a hundred public facilities, including five mosq ues , five rnekrebs , three medresas, eight public water taps, two fountains, and a water supply system, and thus gave the town its Bosnian-Islamic urban and architec- rural characteristic.

water supply system, and thus gave the town its Bosnian-Islamic urban and architec- rural characteristic. Travnik

Travnik

24

25

Banja Luka. The first structure out of which the town developed was the medieval fortress on the Londza hill. It was situated in a natural triangle formed by the Vrbas river, the Suturlija stream, and the mountainous area of Sibovo.The fortress was con- quered by the Ottomans in 1527, at the sarne time as Jajce. Settlement of the town continued along the old road in the area of the Vrbas river. The first big investor was Sofu Mehmed Pasa, who built a mosque, a caravanserai, a hamam, several shops, and a pedestrian bridge over the Vrbas river.

In 1580 Banja Luka become the capital of the newly founded Bosnian ,beglerbegluk. Until 1639, when the governing body of the Beglerbegluk was moved to Sarajevo, Banja Luka acquired rnost of its Islamic style buildings. The greatest benefactor in Banja Luka was Ferhat' Pasa Sokolovid, the first beglerbeg of Bosnia. He built a mosque with t hree mausoleums (turbe), a medresa, a mekteb, a darul-hadis, a ha- mam, a fountain, the clock-tower, the caravanserai, the bezistan with several shops, the water supply system, and the governor's palace (saraj).

water supply system, and the governor's palace (saraj). Banja Luka:a map of 1882. Sarajevo. The oldest

Banja Luka:a map of 1882.

Sarajevo. The oldest traces of human habitation in the area of present-day Sarajevo go back to the third mlllermium B.C. There are also remains of a Roman colonia 8. 16 It was Isa-Beg Isakovic.Vthe second Ottoman governor (sandzaJc-beg) of Bosnia, who laid the foundation of a new town here in the middle of the 15th century. Its name derives from the Turkish word saray meaning 'palace' or 'court'.

The choice of the location for the city was a deliberate act by the governor, mainly in the light of the following factors:

1. There was already a fortress (Hodidjed).

2. There was a good east-west road along the Miljacka river valley and another one

crossing it at a right angle.

3. The existence of a marketplace in the area at a place called Stara Yaros.

4. Presumed existence of a colony occasionally inhabited by merchants from Dub-

rovnik (LaiinluJc).

banks of the Miljacka

river at the foot of the hill topped by the Hodidjed fortress.

5. The existence of a settlement the village of Brodac on the

) ,I' .-- ; i I~
)
,I'
.--
; i
I~

Sarajevo in 1462

After having a bridge constructed across the Miljacka river (latter named Careva cuprija, 'the Tzar bridge') at the main crossroads, Isa-beg Isakovic built a mosque, a palace, a hamam. a barracks, and a hippodrome on the left bank, as well as a big car- avanserai (Kolobara han) on the right bank close to a former square, on an axis to the mosque. This structure , with its several adjoining shops, was the nucleus of the fu- ture grand bazaar, to be called Bascarsija. The bazaar was thus set between the new bridge, the Latinluk quarter, and a nascent Christian-Orthodox quarter (today's area around the Old Orthodox Church). In the Brodac village, Isa-Beg had a dervish home (ieleija) built with a guest-house (musaji.rhana) and a public kitchen (imaret), as well as several water-mills.

16 Thus called because in the only archeological find bearing the colony's name all but initial letter Shad been obliterated.

17 Isa-begova vakufnama written in 1462. contains many details about the urban development of Sara- jevo .

26

27

The surrounding settlements on hillsides were transformed into , housing micro-re- gions, the mahalas, There, streets followed the natural configuration of the terrain, while the bazaar itself was laid out in an orthogonal network, with streets parallel and perpendicular to the Miljacka river. The name Saray-ovasi ("the plain around the pal- ace") was merrtloried for the first time in 1455, and the form Sarajevo is first encoun- tered in a letter written in Cyrillic by one Firuz Beg in 1507.

After the fall of the Bosnian Kingdom to the Ottomans in 1463, Sarajevo quickly

spread westward, through the Miljacka valley, and onto the surrounding hills. During the last decades of the 15th century, two sandzak-begs, Mehmed Beg Minatovtc and

several shops. This resulted in integrating

Ayaz Beg, built mesdzids , a hamarn, and the Latin.luk quarter into the bazaar.

In the first decade of the 16th century Skender Pasa Mihajlovlc revived the Stara Varas quarter. He had a bridge (known as Skendertja) built there over the Miljacka river and close to the bridge, on the left bank, a tekija, a musaflrhana and an imaret, as well as a caravanserai, eleven shops, and several water-mills art the Kosevo stream on the right bank of the Miljacka. In 1509 Firuz Beg had the Cifte hamam, several , shops in the bazaar, and a water supply system from the Sedrenik hill in the North to the bazaar, as well as a medresa. In 1518 Mustaj Beg, the son of Skender Pasa, built the first domed rnosque in the vicinity of the tekija constructed by his father. Mehmed Beg, the son of Isa Beg, built a mesdzid with a medresa, and the first bezistan in the bazaar. IS The second domed mosque was built in 1526 as a donation by Muslihudin Cekrekcija, and a third one located in the bazaar was donated by Havadza Durak in

1528.

In 1530 Sarajevo had 35 lnal~alaswith 6 mosques and 23 mesdztds , two caravanse- rais , four hamarns , six tekijas, and several hundreds shops.

The biggest contribution to the development of Sarajevo, came from the sandzak-beg Gazi Husrevbeg Ferhatpaaic .U' Among some three hundred buildings built with his donations, several are regarded as the most valuable structures in the whole architec- ture of Bosnia and Hercegovina: the mosque (1530/1, architect Ajim Esir Ali), tianika): (a higher school of Sufi philosophy), the medresa (1537),20 the harnarn, the

, ca ra va n s e ra i, the bezistan, and the musafirhana with the imaret. Gazi Husrevbeg then gave the Sarajevo bazaar, which came to be called the Bascarslja.f! and made the city into the cultural and social center of Bosnia.

In the second part of the 16th century several important structures were built in Sarajevo: the Brusa bezistan (1551) and four new domed mosques the Buzadzi Hadzi Hasanova Mosque (1555/6), .t h e Ali Pasina Mosque (1560/1), and the Ferhad Pasa Vukovic-Destsallc Mosque (1561/2). The Careva Mosque was remodelled and pro- vided with a dome .

IS

19

20

Burnt down in a big fire in 1697~

His father was from Hercegovina a nd his mother was the granddaugther of Sultan Beyazit. The m edresa is knowns as Kllrs!1Illlya. because Its domes a re covered with lead (the Turkish word for

lead is

kursuui;

21 From Turkish bo.s- care:

"main bazaar".

21 From Turkish bo.s- care: "main bazaar". Sarajevo: a panoramic view In addition to the monumental

Sarajevo: a panoramic view

In addition to the monumental domed mosques. many small mosques and mesdztds were built using traditional construction, methods and local material; they usually had wooden porches, four-eaved roofs, and stone or wooden minarets. In the course of the 17th century construction slowed down considerably, but by this time the total number of mosques had exceeded one hundred, with numerous mektebs, madrasas, and ten tekijas.

Although Islamic culture is dorninarrt in Sarajevo, it has never been a town of one re- ligion.

in Sarajevo, it has never been a town of one re- ligion. Sarajevo: The Old Orthodox
in Sarajevo, it has never been a town of one re- ligion. Sarajevo: The Old Orthodox

Sarajevo: The Old Orthodox Church, The Jewish Synagogue

28

29

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In the Latin1uk quarter, where merchants from Dubrovnik lived both in pre-Ottoman and in Ottoman times, there was a Catholic church. 22

During the second half of the 16th century, at the time of the consolidation of the Orthodox Church in the Balkans prompted by the restoration of the Pee Patriarchate, the Orthodox population settled in the vicinity of the bazaar and built their church, today known as the Old Orthodox Church.

In the same period Sefardic Jews, expelled from Spain, founded their community in the central part of the bazaar, mostly in and around the Stjavus Pasa daire. In that district the first synagogue was built in 1581.

More than 80 craftsmen carried on their business at Bascarstja. They were organized in various esnaJs (guilds), each with its shops concentrated in a particular street of the larger area of the bazaar. 23

More than fifty hans and caravanserais provided lodging for 2 000 guests with horses and merchandise.

The Careva cuprija,24 the Latinska cuprija built in 1541, the ~eher-Cehajinacupri]a (1585), the bridge near the village of Brodac, named Kozja Cuprija (1572), and the Skenderija Bridge, made for easy communlcation between the two banks of the Mil- jacka river.

The use of wood as construction material was the main reason for many fires in the history of Sarajevo, especially in the area of the bazaar. In 1697 Prince Eugene of Savoy broke through the Ottoman defense line,25 and set flre to Sarajevo, destroying it almost corripletely. In the aftermath of this event the seat of the beglerbeg was moved to Travnik, where it remained until 1851.1n the time following the return of the beglerbegluk seat to Sarajevo, in 1851, the architecture of the city began to show signs of West-European ,influences. They are visible in the new barracks at Bistrik, the Jajce barracks, the Military and vakuf hospitals, and the Konak at Bistrik.In 1872 an Orthodox church in the vicinity of Bascarstja was built in a Byzantine-Baroque style.

In 1879, the first year of the Austro-Hungartan occupation, a big fire destroyed over- night the entire part of the town situated in the valley, from the Gazi Husrevbegova ' mosque westward. This fire reduced the bazaar area to half of its former size and opened the way to a rapid transformation of Ottoman Sarajevo into a Middle Euro- pean provinclal center.

22 It burned down for the ftrst time in a fire in 1697, was later rebuilt and flnally destroyed in the big fire of 1879 .

23 More than forty streets still bear names related to the craft that were (and still are. through to a lesser degre practiced in them: Kujundztluk = "goldsmiU1's" street (from Turkish kuywncu "goldsmith"). Kovacl = blacksmiths street (from the Slavic word kovac "blacksmith"), Saracl =sadd1er. Ascilul{ = place with restaurants.

24 (~uprUu, is Slavic adaptation of the Turkish word Jcopn! "bridge".

25 His troops passed the Vrancluk fortress above the Bosnia river. 30 kilometers to the north of Sarajevo, and used the road through the Bilino Polje. near Zeruca. Later. the Ottomans built a fortress at Bilino Polje.

Mostar. The large area of Mostar has favorable living conditions. The mouritatns on the north side of the town enclose the whole region within a typically Mediterranean climate. This makes for very high temperatures in summer and moderate tempera- tures in winter, a great number of sunny days in the course of one year, planty of rain in auturnri and spring, refreshing showers in wann seasons, north-easterly winds in winter, and pleasant southerly breezes in spring and auturnn.

Mostar has a remarkable position on the Neretva river and its tributary, the Ra- dobolja. The Radobolja offers its inhabitants as many advantages as the Neretva takes

away because of its violent temper . Nevertheless, the valley along the Neretva is very fertile, as well as allowing easy southward access to the sea and northward into the

is surrounded by hills on all sides .

The residential part of the city first spread to the hillside of Stolac, a foothill of the

interior. The valley of the Radobolja river, however,

Velez mountain. The oldest housing center was the Atik or Sinan Pasina mahala, to be followed by the quarters of Brankovac, Bjelusine and, Mazoljice.

Building houses on hill slopes was advantageous not only from point of view of se- curity, but also with regard to public hygiene because of the possibility of using rain as a natural street cleaner. Not least of all, it provided a pleasant view of the valley.

The housing microregtons on the western bank of the Neretva originated at a

period. The terrain had a very gentle downhill grade and the Radobolja with its arms and little canals offered exceptional housing conditions.

later

Agricultural products typical of this climate were grown in the city gardens mostly on the west bank of the Neretva and on land outside the city, 5 -15 krn away, the most important alnong them being grapes. sweet cherries, apricots, peaches, pomegran- ates. figs, and various vegetables. The craggy hills around the city were rich in sage and heather, which rnade possible the developrnerit of apiculture.

A shop in the bazaar, a house in the mahala, a barn for a cow or perhaps a horse, a vineyard ill. the vicinity of the city and several bee hives nearby the average city dwelling craftsman from Mostar owned all of this!

Traces of the prehistoric era and the Roman days, discovered at more than one local- ity, provide evidence that the valley of Mostar has been inhabited since very ancient times . An old settlement in the Immediate vicinity of Mostar - the Old Town at Blagaj - developed from a Roman settlement into an important medieval town which became horne to Herceg Stjepan Vukcic, the ruler of the region in the 15th century, who gave Hercegovina its name.

.

A document written in 1440 refers to a fort next to a bridge on the Neretva river, as- sociated with the name of Oost Radivoje, a member of Herceg Stjepan's suite. This is in fact, the first historic reference to the locality of present-day Mostar. Another his- toric record dated April 3, 1452, is letter by two Dubrovnik merchants informing their wrote to their compatriots ill. the service of the Serbian king Djuradj Brarikovic that Vladislav Hercegovic had fled from his father Herceg Stjepan and conquered, alnong others, the bridge with adjoining forts on the Neretva river. 26

26

V. Corovld. Moster i njeqora srpsico-pravoslanna

Togena c . Vra tar in S'utischa , Blagay et do castell

M. Vega in the book: Nascija srednjoojekonne boscuiske driave, Sarajevo 1957, gives the fasclmlle of the

original document with the translation and the correct elate .July 3, 1452.

opiittna, Beograd 1933, page 9 : " al ponte ele Neretva" :

vha

preso quello ele

32

33

In 1468 the Ottomans took Blagaj and, most likely, the fortresses close to the nearby bridge over the Neretva. The small settlement around the bridge got its name from its keepers, because mostar, in fact, means 'bridge keeper'. This settlement was first re- ferred to as Mostar in 1474, when it was described as the seat of the Ottomans suba- sa (police superintendent) Skender. 27

Because of the strategic importance of this crossing over the Neretva, the insecure bridge was replaced by a new timbered one in the period of Mehmed Fatih's rule, be- fore 1481. Since the main road from Bosnia towards the Adriatic coast used this crossing over the Neretva, the bridge brought about a rapid expansion of the city and a concomitant development of crafts and trade. The city became also the center of culture and education in this part of the Ottoman State. It was rounded off as a completed urban entity about 1670, and did not change significantly until 1878, the year of the Austro-Hungarian .occupation.

The reign of S u leyrna.n II the Magnificent (1520-1566) was the tiIne of the greatest rise and prosperity of the Ottoman State. In that period, huge wealth flowed into Istanbul, brtnging about unprecedented economic and social progress. The Sultan's aspirations after the glory of the antique world supported cultural development, especially the art and architecture of Islam.

Numerous structures of extraordinary beauty were built in this period: mosques, bridges, and harnams. It was at this tune that Ottoman architecture established cer- tain spatial, constructional and decorative systems, based on its own aesthetic prin- ciples. It was also during this period that the most important architectural moriu- merits of Mostar carne into being: the Stari Most (Old Bridge), the large Karadjozbe- gova and the Vucijakovica mosques together with some smaller ones, schools , Ira- Inal11S , and a large rrurnber of other public buildings and housing structures.

I

of other public buildings and housing structures. I The Stan Most 27 See Nedlm Ftlipovtc :

The Stan Most

27 See Nedlm Ftlipovtc : "Pogl ed na osmanskl feudalizarn sa n aro cltlm osvrtom n a agrarn e odnose."

Goriislljuk istorijslcog drustoa [--W-I

IV. Saraj evo

1952. He c ited the TU]Ju tahrir d efter from

1477. when

th ere ~ere only 20

tw een th e bridge a n d the s q u a re (1lU.jdanl

households in Mostar, All th e houses were on the left bank of the Neretva river. be-

34

Mostar's favorable geographic location caused it to be considered one of the most im- portant cormnercial centers of the area with Widely developed connections to other centers. This factor stimulated the development of craftsmanship, which thrived in more than 30 different crafts.

The city was at its peak in the late 17th century, when its population reached 10 000, when it boasted over 30 mosques, 7 medresas and several mektebs. 2 hamams, and a number of other importan~public facilities.

The dominant Muslim population developed their cultural activities to a considerable extent during the Ottoman period. There were many learned persons, writers and po- ets, some of whom some were famous and recognized far beyond from their native re- gion. The city also became the seat of the muftija. (supreme religious leader of the area) from lnid-17th century. Almost all trades and crafts were in the hands of Mos- lerns in the 16th and 17th century.

Christians (Orthodox and Catholic) have always lived in the city along with Muslims, with their nurnbers increasing since the early 18th century, The first record of Chris- tian population in Mostar dates back to 1575. 28 The Orthodox population had their own church in the 18th century and Mostar became the seat of the Metropolitan (head of an ecclesiastical province) in 1767. Another Eastern Orthodox church, the largest in all of Bosnia and Hercegovina, was built in Mostar in 1873.

all of Bosnia and Hercegovina, was built in Mostar in 1873. Mostar: panorama, 1 9 0

Mostar: panorama, 1 9 0 8

Catholics built their first church in 1847 along with the Bishop's restderice at Vu- kod ol. A cathedral was built at Podhum in 1866 to meet the needs of the Increastng Catholic population. These two churches represent the last large-scale architectural structures built during the Ottoman administratton.

28 Vl adirnir (Y:o rovi c . ibid

p.16

35

   

The Hercegovinian Sandiak as a part of the Bosnian Beglerbegluk was established at the beginning of 1470 and lasted until 1878. Its seat was in Foca, then at Pljevlje and,

in 1833, it rn oved to Mostar. The

Mostar also becarne the seat of the regional JcadiluJc (area covered by a Jcadija - the sharia judge) in the late 15th century.P? The kadija had legal authority and the vojvo- cia with his 50 soldiers had police authority. All of those high officials had numerous clerks under them, who also resided in Mostar.

sandzak-beg resided in Mostar from 1522 to 1530. 29

The janissary headquarters with their commander (serdar) were also located in Mo- star until the abohs hment ofjanissary troops in 1826.

Mo- star until the abohs hment ofjanissary troops in 1826. Most a r: Urban scheme 29

Most a r: Urban scheme

29

30

H . Kr esevljakovic . Esn ofi i obrti 11 Bo sni i H erz eqonini, II Mostar /1 4 6.'3-1878/. Zagreb. p . 72 .

Ibid

p. 129.

The dizclar commanded the soldiers defending the bridge forts during the period up to the establishment of a regular European-style army in the middle of the 19th century.

A captaincy was also set up in Mostar between 1700 and 1706 and was revoked in

1835. The offices of the captaincy and the dizdar were hereditary. Captains were cho-

the housing complex that they occupied is still

s en frorn the farnily of Vucijakovic and called Kapetanovina.

Mostar had its Mimar-Aga (builder), its ajans (representatives in the Bosnian gover- nor's council), and, for a time, a musellim - the Pasa's representative.

A part of Mostar was walled in the Ottornan period, and the fortification was rein-

forced several tunes during the wars with Venice, especially after the armistice at Karlovci. During the Holy Alliance War, mercenaries from Venice headed by Stojan Jankovic attacked Mostar in 1687 and burned sorne housing areas on the west bank

of the Neretva, but could not penetrate within the walled part of the city. Another at-

tack , by the duke of Venice Mezzenigo in 1717, was even less successful.

Two other rnajor armed conflicts in Mostar were the Basas' rebellion in 1782 and the con flict between the feudal lords Ali-Aga Dedic and Ali-Aga Voljevica in the second decade of the 19th century,

Ali-Aga Dedic and Ali-Aga Voljevica in the second decade of the 19th century, Mostar 1895: A

Mostar 1895: A viewfrom the south

36

37

But Mostar also had its share of other misfortunes. It was hit by the plague in 1507, 1689, 1731 and 1813, and a cholera epidemic raged through the city in 1845. There are historic records about these epidernics as well as references to thern in folk po- etry.

There are no records of the exact number of fires but we are certain abo lit two big ones, which occurred in 1852 and 1861/1862, burning down a large number of shops and houses. A powerful earthquake occurred in 1563 and floods caused great damage several times.

The conflict between Ali-Pasa Rlzvanbegovlc and Orner Pasa Latas brought about tu- multuous events in 1851.

of the

weakening Ottornan State, which in turn weakened the economic potential of the city and the Itving standards of its people.

Diseases, disasters,

rebellions,

and wars were elernents

of a

larger

picture

The decline of the Ottoman State led to the occupation of Bosnia and Hercegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1878. Mostar was taken on August 5, 1878. This date rnarked the beginning of a new era, introducing radical changes in the economic and social relations.

The foregoing outline of the historical developrnent of Mostar during the time of the Ottornan State is meant to serve as a typical example of the transformation of an urban environment in Bosnia and Hercegovina from a rnedieval settlement to an impor- tant Ottoman-style town.

The Ottomans considered the rnedieval fortress next to the bridge as the central point of the cornmu nlcation system for this region. The fortress also became the nucleus around which the city developed very rapidly. The bridge was replaced by a more solid

s tru ctu re before 1481 , but only the stone bridge completed in 1566 was able to with-

stand the intense military and commercial traffic over it. The bridge was built most probably within a period of two years from designs by Mimar Hajrudin with the lTIOney collected in Hecegovinian counties (lcadilulc). The adjacent towers of Tara and Halebija were rebuilt during the construction of the stone bridge.

The new bridge was a powerful stirnulus to the growth of the city. The bazaar was considerably enlarged and the city fortification system was expanded and reinforced. All cornrrrurricatiori leading to the Old Bridge was protected by the towers, which were linked by walls . A systern 'of towers and gates rnade up a genuine fortress next to the bridge itself.

The main bastion (Labija) of the town walls was situated at Suhodolina , with the comma n ders " residence located nearby. These structures dominated the city. The konak (the governor's residence) was restored by Ali-Pasa Rlzvaribegovic , who also

a d d ed another section to it. In that period he also had a second residence built for hirn outside the city at a place also called Buna, close to the Buna river.

Mostar : Urban development

38

39

The Bazaar: the Core of the Town

The bazaar, or carsija 3 1 is the vital focus of any Islamic town. It is usually located at a road junction, at an important point on the main road, around an important fortifica- tion, or at a river crossing. The bazaar attracted craftsmen and merchants of every known kind. There was usually a central square with many small streets around it, each designated for a particular craft. Craftsmen were organized in associations (esnajl, rnuch in the way they still are in certain European countries. The esnaf was a typically urban institution set up to stimulate development of the particular, craft and to rnairitain a good balance between individual initiative and the solidarity in the group. In Islarnic towns, these group never aspired to political power, as was often the case with siInilar groups in western Europe.

The biggest bazaar in Bosnia and Hercegovina is the Bascars ija in Sarajevo, which has all the structures typical of a large eastern bazaar: a mosque complex, a bezistan, a hamam, a claire, and a multitude of shops.

a bezistan, a hamam, a claire, and a multitude of shops. Bascarsija in Sarajevo The Austro-Hungarian

Bascarsija in Sarajevo The Austro-Hungarian survey at the end of the 19th century

31 In Bosnia and Hercegovina the word

carsija is always used to refer to a

Ottoman style bazaar.

The bazaar is the center of an Ottornan town's commercial zone, where most of the town's econornic activities take place. In larger towns these activities spread out to other points outside the rnain market, For example, in Istanbul, which was divided into three separate sections, there were, besides the main bazaar, other smaller ba- zaars in each of these sections. Belgrade had six bazaars. Banja Luka, consisting of several completely separate settlements, had four smaller merchant-trade centers. There was us ually no roorn in the bazaar for family houses.

In Mostar, the bazaar was formed on both sides of the Old Bridge, on the left bank from behind the Halebija tower in the south to the clock tower in the east and to Si- nan Pasina Mosque in the north. The "upper" bazaar was located on the main road and was called Velika Tepa, while the "lower" bazaar, called Mala Tepa,32 was situated in the vicinity of the Koski Mehmed Pasina Mosque. A third part of the bazaar was called Kujundziluk and was situated between the Mala Tepa and the Stari Most. The Prijecka business area was located on the right bank of the Neretva - from the Bridge to the Tabacica Mosque and the tabhana (the tanners district). There was' a line of important watennills in the area, too.

The bazaar in Mostar was particularly important during the construction of the Old Bridge between 1550 and 1570 when only 'three donors had 153 shops an~ many other facilities built there. The donors were Hadzi Mehrnedbeg-Karadjozbeg, Cejvan- cehaja, and Nasuh-Aga Vucijakovic. Their donations gave rise to mosques, hamams, mektebs, rnedresas, iInarets, shops, warehouses, water-mills, as well as water supply- ing facilities. This period of 'intensive building gave the city all its public structures and influenced the formation of the housing mlcroregions. the mahalas, which pro- vided housing space to all those who worked in the bazaar. Evlija Celebi, the famous Ottornan traver-writer, described the bazaar very briefly: " It (i.e. Mostar) has a bazaar with 350 solidly built shops." This estimated nurnber of shops is probably accurate and the term "solidly built' no doubt refers to the stone partition walls and roof clad- ding.

There were 30 different guilds in Mostar. The following 11 existed in 1762: ekmekcizije (bakers " guild), ierzije (tailors), baemakcije (shoemakers). dyers, cUT'cije (furriers), ce- bed.zije (mariufacturers of shaggy homespun blanket), kujurict.zijo: (goldsrniths), titnurdzija (blacksmiths, locksmiths. makers of sabres and rifles), iabaciztje (tanner's), berber! (barbers) and duncizeri (builders). In 1875 these 11 crafts comprised 122 shops with 199 rnaster-craftsmen and 563 workmen.

The tanners' guild was the rnost developed. Their shops were the most solidly built and a row of tanners' shops was located within the northern section of the city walls. The tanners also had their own mosque, the only one of its kind. Red sahtijan or ka- jser (goat leather), one of their products, was considered the best in the Islamlc world at the time and was a valuable export commodity.

After watering rnany a garden and s upplying water to the inhabitants of the west bank of the Neretva, the Radobolja river rarnified into several streams flowing through the bazaar. There, it provide power for numerous rnills. A water-mill was particularly precious at the tirne, and a leasehold on it was more costly than on a shop, a harnam, or a house with a garden.

32

Tepa

"small." Both places are on a h igh er level in relation to the Olel Bridge.

derives

lrorn

th e Turkish

word

for

"hill":

the Bosnian word

ueliica

and

malo

m e,111 "big" a nd

40

41

All business activity in the bazaar (outside the public facilities) was carried out in two types of structures: shops and storehouses. Shops were srnall ground-floor structures attached to each other C?n both sides of narrow streets. They were usually built of wood, combined with lateral stone walls and stone roofcladding. They were raised a little above the street level and closed with two horizontal wooden shutters in front making up the so-called cepetiak: The lower shutter was used to sit on and work when the shop was open. This means that people sat on the floor as they did at home.

There were also shops with storage r00111 behind them, because the downhill grade of the bazaar made it fairly easy to construct them.

A third type of shop, the "storehouse" (magaza), was occasionally a two-story struc-

ture. At the ground floor was a shop, while the upstairs or the basement was used for

a storage. Thick stone walls, ceilings made with timber beams, vaulted stone roofs

with roof cladding made of stone slates, windows protected by it-on bars (demir) and iron shutters were features of this new type of shop. Stone storehouses were built on lots "cleared" by fire, a practice begun in the middle of the 19th century under Oal- marian influence .

the middle of the 19th century under Oal- marian influence . The bazaar in Mostar, in

The bazaar in Mostar, in 1905

The mosques, the inns, and the public baths dominated the bazaar together with the Stari Most and its fortifications. Those structures were built of cut stone of a higher quality, on a considerably larger scale, separated from rows of shops, placed freely on the ground. All these structures added to a harmonious composition of an outstand- ingly urban character.

Those who worked in the bazaar used the bazaar's mosques for prayer during the day. The harnams were used by all the inhabitants of the city.

42

It is very interesting to note that a major portion of the trade was in the hands of mer- chants of Orthodox faith from the middle of the 19th century onward. Orthodox mer- chants lived in several mahalas, especially at Bjelusine in houses that were slightly different from those of the Muslims of the same economic class. They lived and worked in the bazaar together with Muslims and shared with then an almost identical life -style .

Water and the City

From time Immemorial people were inclined to build their settlements near water as a necessary element of life . Water, more than any other feature, characterizes an Is-

Iarnic settlement . It is easential

the sarne time, it is regarded as a kind of image of the soul, of its fluidity and purity.

"We made from water every living thing" (Qur'an XX1:30), this great Qur'anic truth which has since become a scientific statement, may still be read in ornate Arabic let- ters engraved even today on old stone fountains.

Mostar is fortunate to be located on the banks of the Neretva river, the jugular vein of the whole region of Hercegovina. This life-generating quality of the Neretva is intensi- fied through its tributary the Radobolja flowing into the Neretva in the immediate vi - cinity of the Stari Most. The Neretva is an ice-cold rapid river, not easily accessible because of its steep craggy banks. It was therefore not very useful to the inhabitants around it . It was very hard and dangerous going down the bank to fetch water frorn it in winter or on rainy days. People mostly used a pulley with a thick chain to take water out of the Neretva. There were also stmilar smaller devices in the courtyards adjoining the Neretva bed.

to life and an indispensable e lement in ablutions. At

bed. to life and an indispensable e lement in ablutions. At n1iF _ 1 I .
n1iF _ 1 I . ~ yJ ,- --
n1iF
_
1
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.
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Sadrvan in Hafiz HavacUe's Mosque courtyard in Mostar (photograph taken in 1905)

43

   

The Rado bolja

At a very early stage in the development of the city, a large-scale system of canals was

constructed in residential areas on the west bank of the Neretva for the irrigation of gardens and for household needs. The Radobolja starts frorn springs at the village of Ilici, 2,5 - 3 km from the Old Bridge, soon dividing its waters arnong several beds and uniting them again immediately before flowing into the Neretva. Numerous canals bi- furcate successively from the riverbed and their network irrigates a large rrumber of gardens in the housing areas of Podhum and, especially, in Cernica. Canals crossing the bazaar were used to move the wheels of water-mills. The latter were 19 in number and played an important role in the life of the city and its inhabi- tants. Water from canals was also used by craftsmen, producers of blankets, tanners, and others. There were also hamams in the town, one near the tannery, another close to Sinan Pasina Mosque at Mejdan. They were an important element of the highly developed Ottoman housing culture and, at the same time, were connected to the cult of water brought to these parts by Islam. People meeting in a hamam, relaxed by the murmur of the water within its interior, discussed their affairs and made business deals. The first water supply system was built most probably in the 15th century and was used originally for supplying water from the Neretva to the harnam at Mejdan. The first water supply systern tapping the Radobolja had pipes installed across the Old Bridge on the Neretva during the actual building of the bridge. Evlija <;elebi recorded that Ibrahirn-efendija Rozriarnedzija had built the first water supply system, which brought water through brass pipes over the Old Bridge to the left bank of the Neretva and then caused it to flow in different directions to mosques, rnedresas, and harnams. The first water supply system over the Old Bridge was made of wooden stove pipes; the second was built in 1629/30 with earthen pipes, whose remnants are still in evidence. The water supply system from the springs Djevojacke vode (girls' waters) at Carina was built before 1650. It supplied water for three fountains (sadrvan) and 12 public water taps (ces mo ). In 1885 the Austro-Hungarian adrninistration built a new water supply systern using the water from the springs of the Radobolja. The housing units were not connected to the water supply systern. Unless they used pulleys to take water from the Neretva, households obtained their water from the Radobolja and its canals. Water was also ta.ken from the public fountain next to the rnosque or public water taps in the parts of the city further away from the Neretva or the Radobolja. The Buna river provided water to houses close to its banks.

contrasts to the Neretva by offering many possibilities for human use.

to the Neretva by offering many possibilities for human use. The Velagica house close to the

The Velagica house close to the Buna river in Blagaj

44

Houses located on high hillsides used water from cisterns built tor comrnon needs in courtyards of the rnosques or other public structures. The larger housing complexes had their own cisterns. The water at the Mus libegovic family household is interesting for its capacity and convenient location.

Mahalas - Residential Microregions

Mahalas were traditional neighbourhoods found in all parts of the Ottoman State. They were residential areas with their own mosques, shops, schools, and other facili- ties needed in daily life. Every mahala had its own commurial spirit and mutual-aid system which contributed to the identity of each mahala and to a high degree of so- cial cohesion. This was particularly true of small towns. Every mahala had its wealthy and poor inhabitants. In some the wealthy prevailed over the poor, in others the poor may have outnumbered the better-off, but slum-like settlements were not known-to exist. The poorer inhabitants were always under the patronage of the rich neighbor- 1100d families so that extreme social differences were greatly neutralized.

so that extreme social differences were greatly neutralized. Banja Luka: mahalas in the central part of

Banja Luka: mahalas in the central part of the town 1. Haciztbeqoua ,2 . Dzoferoqtna. 3. Humcartja, 4 . Tabaci, 5 . Kubandoqa, 6. llidia, 7, Sofu Mehmed Paso. 8.

Osman-Seth, 9. Gomji Seher, 10. Sehitluk

The number of mahalas was indicative of the size of a settlement. In 1878 Banja Luka had 37 mahalas, 1,741 houses, and 9,560 inhabttants.V In 1845 Sarajevo had 104 mahalas.P" Livno had 9 mahalas with 660 households.P'i

In Foca, which was an important town in Ottoman times, there were 17 mahalas with

total of2,730 inhabitants in 1585,36 and 2,968 inhabitants in 1879. 37

a

33

34

35

36

37

See Alija Bejtlc: "Banja Luka pod Turskom vladavlnorn." Nase starine I. Sarajevo 1953.

See: Alija Bejtic: Ulice i trqot» Sarajena , Sarajevo 1973. pp.15-16. F ehun Oz . Spaho. "Llvno u rantm tursklrn Izvortrna", POF 32-33, Sarajevo 1982-83. pp . 147-162 .

The census of 1585 registered sixteen Muslim and one Christian mahala. At that time Foca had 545 Muslim and 11 Christian households.

In the Austro-Hungartan census of 1879 registered 2.329 Muslims, 638 Orthodox, and 1 Catholic, a to- tal of 2.968 inhabitants.

45

   
. ! / 1/1 /' i ' , /! . 1 / J. / /
.
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!

Foca : 17 mahalas

In tile I 5 til century uierefoundcd: I. Hcunzabeqoua; 2. Fatime Sultan, 3. Mustafa Pasa: 4. AWe;

in tile I 6tll century: 5. DzqIerbegooa; 6. Hasan Naztrooa; 7.Dzafer Ceiebijina: 8.Meluneclbegooa; P. Kaeli Osman; 10. Hadzi Mustafa; 11. Seih Pirtjina- Tabaci; 12. Hadz! Seferooa; 13. Varas; 14. Muminbeqooa; in tile l Ztli century: 15. Hculz i Oemanooa; 16. Sulejman. beqooa, and 1 7. Ali Pas ina.

In Mostar, housing areas were built rather freely outside the city walls for a long pe- riod of time. They were different from those near the bazaar close to the Old Bridge, which were rnore compact and orderly. The first mahala originated in the Vicinity of the Old Bridge around the Mejdan square, where the provincial governor Stnan-Pasa built a rnosque in 1474. According to the register of real estates, the so call Tapu tahri defier, Mostar had only 19 houses in that year.

The biggest population growth occurred around the middle of the 16th century as a result of rapid economic development of the city. Mostar had several rnahalas on the left bank in 1566, along with many rnesdzids and four mosques. In 1670, the city had 24 rriahalas. At this time it reached its peak number of inhabitants, which was not be exceeded until the arrival of Austria-Hungary. Evlija Celebi was in Mostar in 1633 and registered 3,040 solidly built houses and 53 mosques. Both figures are exaggerated. In 1703 the population of Mostar was about 12,000.

46

The inhabitants were predominantly Mushm. but the number of Christians began to grow from the beginning of the 18th century. They were only 10 in riumber in 1630, by 1813, 339 Catholics were registered as living in Mostar and at Ilici. Mostar had 684 houses with an Orthodox population in 1848, and 2,534 Orthodox inhabitants in 1856 . In 1879, a year after Austro-Hungarian occupation there were in Mostar 1,909 houses with 2,535 households and 10,848 inhabitants, of whom 6,421 were Mushrns. 3,026 Orthodox, 1,366 Catholics, and 35 Jews. 38.In 1885 Mostar had 1,975 houses, 2,104 dwelling units occupied by 12,665 inhabitants, of whorn 6,442 were rnen and 6.223 women. There were 6,825 Musluns, 3,369 Orthodox and 2,359 Catholics, 98 .Jews , and 17 followers of other religions. 39 Of the total number of inhabitants 7,035 were bachelors and 4,356 were married. When compared with the statistics from 1703, the latter number seems to be exaggerated. The number of housing units in- creased up until the end of the 17th century to a nurnber which remained stable up to the time of the Austro-Hungarian occupation.

stable up to the time of the Austro-Hungarian occupation. The Roenarneddijina. mahala in Mostar,' above the

The Roenarneddijina. mahala in Mostar,' above the Neretva river

38 H . Kresevljakovlc: ibid
39

p.'72.

Karla Peez: Mostar unci seine Kulturkreis, Leipzg 1891.

47

   

In the official documerrts, court registers 40 numerical data on the mahalas is given on an annual basis. It appears that the city had 24 mahalasIn 1633 and 30 in 1670 . Only three mosques were built in Mostar after 1663: Hadzi Ibrahima Cevre, .Kotlina and Ali -Pase Rtzvaribegovica . The mahalas were usually named after the mosques and mesdztds they were situated by. Since, apart from the bazaar mosques, most of the others were centers of particular mahalas, the number of latter can be gauged fairly accurately from the number of mosques. A total of 35 mosques were built in Mostar during the Ottoman time. Since the Koski Mehmed Paslna Mosque, the Tabacica Mosque, and the mesdzid of Sultan Javuz Selim II were within the area of the bazaar, the number of the mahalas would have been 32.

14 10 11 9 5 ~ 19 1 13 7 19 20 2 15 18
14
10
11
9
5
~
19
1
13
7
19
20
2
15
18
,31
17
26
3
27

32

12

~ 19 1 13 7 19 20 2 15 18 ,31 17 26 3 27 32

21

Mostar- mahalas

The mahalas on the left bank: 1. Karadjozbegova (the mosque in this mahala was built in 1557)2. Cejvan-

(eh<:ljina -(1552) 3. Saric"a(1637) 4. Roznamedzfjina (before 1620): 5. Kjose .Iahlja Hodztna (before 1620) 6. Sinan Pashia (1474) 7. Hadzl Salina (before 1612) 8. Husein Havadztna (before 1633) 9. Fatima Kaclun (before

1633) 10. Mernl Havadzlna

(before

1633) II . Mehmed-cehajlna (befo re 1592)

12 . Kotlina (before 1768) 13.

Hafiz Havadztna (before 1633) 14 . Tere Jahijlna 15. Ahrneta C:uri~ije(before 1650) 16. Bajazlt Havadztna

(before 1612)

17 . Kotlevlna (before 1633) 18. Kamber Aglna 19. Hadzt Velijina 20 .Brankovac (the Nasuh-Aga

Vuciakovlc Mosque, 15 18) 21. All-Paslna (before 1847). The mahalas on the right bank: 22. Nezlr Agtna (before 1550) 23 . Dervis Pastna (1592) 24. Hadzl Lanna (before 1633) 25 . Baba Beslrova (befo re 1633) 26.

.Jahija Esfelova 27. Sevri Hadzt Hasanova (before 1621) 28. Hadzl Memijina. known as Cernica (before 1650)

29. Ali Havadztna (before 1633) known as Raljevina 30. Hadzl Ahmet-Begova (1649/50). Rlclna 31. Zlrajlna

, 32 . Cevrina (before 1686)

40 The Inforrnatlon presented here is to be found in the court registers. so called sicl'iils, from the years 1633 (at the Institute for Orlental Studies in Sarajevo). '1768. 1828 and 1829 (at the Hercegovlntan Ar- chives in Mostar).

The city developed first on the left bank close to the bazaar, then spread to the south and north, passing onto the right bank close to the hill of Hum on the left bank of the Radobolja around the middle of the 17th century. Mahalas first originated on the east bank of the Neretva. This bank was considered healthier and safer. The commander's residence was built there, as well as all administrative structures and some wealthy persons' houses.

The following factors influenced the formation of a mahala: ground configuration, safety, availability of roads, pleasant views of surrounding area, insulation, rivers or s trearns. and orchards. Most mahalas in Mostar met these requirements, except for the ones on the slopes of the Stolac hill, which had difficulties with running water, and a group of mahalas at the foot of Hum which did not have adequate amounts of sunshine. The same rriahalas were Inhabited both by Muslims and Christians.

Mostar had a clearly differentiated urban scheme taken over from the East: the housing area was clearly separated from the business section of the town.

In the old part of the town, however, mos t of the earlier structures were preserved and only a few new ones were built because the Austrians did not find this economically advantageous and were reluctant to invest in it.

advantageous and were reluctant to invest in it. An overview of several mahalas of Mostar (1.

An overview of several mahalas of Mostar (1. Karadjozbegova, 2. Roznameddijina, 6 . Sinan-pasina,7. HadZi Balina, 8. Husein HavaclZe, 13. Hafiz Hauadde, 15. Ahmeta CUrCije, 28. Cernica)

48

49

The Muslim house was strictly isolated from the street, while the Christian one was more open to public life. This is the only major difference between the Muslim and the Christian parts of a rnahala. The houses at the Brankovac mahala offer a good exam- ple. By its internal organization of space the Christian house differs somewhat from the Muslim one, but all the basic design elements are very much alike. The cult of neighborhood is one of the basic principles influencing housing construction in this part The philosophy of housing is deeply social and humane.

In the period of Austro-Hungarian occupation the city spread northward on the right bank of the Neretva, where there was plenty of free space for building. The railroad station and a new hospital were built in this part. The new structure reflect radical changes in the economy, in administration, and in the life style of the general popu- lace. The city was divided into eight areas: Carina, Brankovac, Bjeluaine, Old Town, Luka, Cernica, Poclhurn, and Zahum.

The Mosque Complex: The Nucleus of the Settlement

The nucleus of a typical Ottoman-Balkan town or settlement is the religious complex

with accompanying buildings, which provided for the cultural, social, and judicial needs of the inhabitants. Mahalas grew around these complexes, their size being largely determined by the service capacity offered by the complex itself. This means that an Ottoman town is not dominated by a single place of worship, as was mostly

the case in medieval Europe .

were administered by a central -

ized adrninistration in Istanbul, their basic structure was very much the same on the

entire territory of the empire.

As the Ottoman towns

Mosque complex - nucleus of settle.nent

In the urban composition of the city, a very important place is taken by religious structures, especially the mosques, which were usually located so as to dominate the whole city area. The mosques were places were people of a neighbourhood got to- gether, and were therefore both social and spiritual centers of the mahalas. The mosque has a threefold purpose: socio-religious. educational, and political.

!l

"

The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque Complex in Sarajevo

The mosque complex represented the center of the housing micro region, the mahala, and consisted of a mosque, a mekteb, and a cemetery (harem or mezarlulc). Higher schools, the medresas , were usually built near the most Important mosque of a city.

Every mahala also had at least one public water tap, which had both a utilitarian and a human value because it was a place where spontaneous socializing took place. Bosnians have always been very sociable and have derived great pleasure from talking to people ill their homes, numerous coffee-houses, shops , or in and around the Inosques.

Graveyards took up almost all empty spaces in the city giving it a special" visual d i- merision - snow-white tombstones scattered over a green patch. Their inner peace contrasting sharply with the busy life around them, they seemed to be located at places where they could remind people of the transitoriness of human life on earth. Tombstones not only mark the graves, their special features also symbolize the per- son buried, his or her sex, profession, and social standing. The Ottoman-Balkan tornbstones reflected both the indigenous influences of Bogornil tombstones (stecalc) and the Turkish-Islamtc ones. They manifest outstanding workmanshlp and artistic finesse, especially ill their rich and heterogeneous decorations and inscriptions.

Their decorative motifs were based in a domestic tradition but were amply enriched by Islarnic features as well as, in many cases, by beautiful original creations. Carved Arabic-alphabet inscriptions ill Arabic, Turkish, or Persian, together with other ele- merits of the tombstone structure, often told stories about the lives of deceased per- sons, so that they represent an important source for the history of the settlement, es- pecially with regard to its notables and their contributions to the community at large.

50

51

The Karadjozbegova Mosque complex. Mostar III ARCHITECTURE Islarnic art is characterized by a great integrative

The Karadjozbegova Mosque complex. Mostar

III

ARCHITECTURE

Islarnic art is characterized by a great integrative power, especially in the domain of architecture, which is the rnost developed kind of art in all Islamic countries. The ar- chitecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina during the Ottoman time shared all basic char- acteristics of Ottoman Islarnic art.

The ruler's court, and more irnportantly the institution of the vakuf, supported archi- tectural activity. During the Ottoman reign there was hardly any aspect of life that was not influenced by vakuf. An endless number of religious, charitable, business, and public institutions within the boundaries of the Empire were set up using the systern of vakuf, All kinds of structures - from roads, bridges, and water-supply sys- tern, to moriurnerrtal religious structures - were built with vakuf endowments.

One of the twelve court generals, who was called bostanctzi-basa, s upervised garden- ers and masoris.v! Even the main architect of the empire was subject to him. In the period of culrnination of the Ottoman state in the middle of the 16th century, the position of the rnain architect was occupied by Kodza Mirnar Sinan (1538-1588).

In the Ottoman army there was a special branch of mechanics, which also included builders, who were charged with building all the fortification structures, bridges, and other rnilitary facilities. Construction activities were also administered at the level of a s andzak. 42 Renowned builders were known to obtain aristocratic titles as well as large estates. All of this bears witness to the fact that architecture held a position of special irnportance in the socio-economic and state system of the Ottornan State.

In the general flowering of architecture handicrafts played an important role, espe- cially those connected to work in textiles , stone, wood and metal, and, in conse- quence, these crafts blossorned during the Ottoman period. Almost all of the artisans worked at the bazaar. The bazaar was not only the main resource of the economy, but was itself the prime model of the architectural and decorative art. The main character- istics of Ottoman Islarnic architecture are contained in the monumental dorned rnosques, the public butldings. and in urban residential structures.

Mosques

The religious architecture of Islam is inspired by the idea that man's esthetic sense is a gift of God and should be cultivated to the utmost. In this architecture the search for beauty and the rnethod of construction always go hand in hand, there can be no s eparating of art from technology.

The main concerns of Ottornan architecture were to connect the rational and the d ecorative in a building systern and to accentuate the rnonolithic aspect of this archi- t ecture. The typical structure is a cubic building surmounted by a hemispheric crown , the transitional zone between the sphere and the cube being composed. in the interior, of triangular facets assembled in more or less open fan-shapes.

4 1

S ee Hu sref Redzt«: Isiamsku uinjetn ost, Beo grad 1982 . p . 39.
42

MOTll1l1WTlIa turcica , Book 1. p. 29 . Th e Institute for Ori ental studies. S araj evo .

52

53

After the Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453, they discovered the ar- chltectural marvel of Hagia Sophia with its Immense dome "suspended from the sky". This building prompted Ottoman architects to explore new methods of construction, largely with the aim of building monumental mosques comparable to the Hagia So- phia. The great mosque of Sultan Selim II in Edirne, designed by Mimar Sinan, showed that this aim was soon achieved. Prior to the construction of this mosque, Si- nan and other architects had built many mosques of different dimensions and artistic features, but most of them were rather small and modest buildings.

Developing space within a mosque complex is perhaps the most iInportant task of an architect working within the frame of Islamic architecture. "The artist who wishes to express the idea of the 'unlty of existence' or the 'unity of real' has actually three means at his disposal: geometry which translates it into the spatial order; rhythm, which reveals it in temporal order and also indirectly in space; and light, which is to visible forms what Being is to limited existence. "43

The oldest Arab mosques are characterized by a partly covered space, multi-aisled porches, and recurring rectarigular surface of the same altitude, as well as by a lack of emphasis on any particular part. The spread of Islam into colder climates required a more enclosed space.

In the course of time, a spacious domed mosque became the basic model to which everybody aspired. The dome (lcube) is a symbol of sanctity and leadership. In the pre- Islamic period the dorne was a small tent made of leather where holy stones were stored. The Seljuk type of mosque, called ulu 44 mosque - several square spaces covered with identical cupolas - became a model for other subsequently built public structures. Another type of structure of Seljuk provenance - a central dome connected to a rturnber of small cupolas over the entrance porch - remained the model used as a basis in searching for a perfect composition.

J r

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Development of spatial structure of the mosque:

1. Arab Mosque: multi-naved porch 2. The Seljuk Ulu Mosque 3. Standard single-space domed mosque

43 T. Burckhardt : Art cfletatn. Common Lanquaqc and Meaniiu], p. 76.
44

1 ",/ ~ ro -r- , : : ' l:is h for 'gr e at. large'.

The Byzantine influence was manifested in a "floating" dome on four pillars and combtnations of domes with half-cupolas. This model, however, was limited to the large mosques in Istanbul. A single-space domed mosque was considered to be ade- quate for setting man apart from the endless external space of nature through a construction of pure geometrical bodies of the cube, the sphere, the cylinder, and the cone (the latter two making up the minaret).

The interior of the mosque contributes to an atmosphere of intimacy and is arranged in such a way as to make possible absolute concentration of thought and perfect peace.

absolute concentration of thought and perfect peace. The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in
absolute concentration of thought and perfect peace. The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in
absolute concentration of thought and perfect peace. The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in
absolute concentration of thought and perfect peace. The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in

The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo, the Sulejmanija. Mosque in Travnik and the FerhatpaSina in Banja Luka

54

 

55

   

All parts of the interior are equally valuable. Only the place of the mihrab - the im.am's . niche - is emphasized: The mihrab has a symbolic meaning because it shows the di- rection to Mecca, to which the faithful must turn in their prayers.

The mihrab is indisputably a creation of sacral art. The form of the rnihrab is the fo- cus of a particularly rich and profound symbolism, Sim.ilarity between the rnihrab and

a niche with a lamp is

The word Jami is also used for mosque. This Arabic word derives from a root meaning 't o assemble , to unite. ' Originally it referred only to a mosque which could also be used for the obligatorily collective Friday noon prayers. These prayers regularly included a sermon (hutba) for which a pulpit (mimber=minber) was constructed. The prototype of the minber was a stool with three levels, which the Prophet used in his rnoaque in Medina to talk to the faithful. Today's shape of the minber originated in the Seljuk period: a narrow staircase with hand-rails on either side, a cone or pyramid-s haped roof over the top landing, and a doorway at the foot of the stairs .

The interior of the mosque also included a gallery (mahfil) in front of the entrance wall and a raised fenced seat (curs) adjoined to the left wall and used for lectures (vaz) un- related to the ritual

The Ottoman mosque is in many ways reminiscent of the kind of tent (yurt) used by Turkic nomads. The interior space of the mosque is almost a replica of the inside of a yurt. The carpet which in a yurt was placed on the ground and made the space warm and pleasurable, becarne a regular feature of the mosque, too. The cozy atmosphere of ,

a yurt 's interior has been largely kept in the Ottoman house, the mausoleum, and the mosque.

The minaret is used for the call to prayer. At the beginning of Islam, the muezzin called from the roof of the mosque or any other raised surface. Later the minaret with its tapering top pointing toward heaven acquired an irnportant symbolic meaning.

mentioned in the

Qur'an (XXIV: 35 ).

Domed mosques. As early as the 15th century the Ottomans began to introduce into the central Balkan area their by now well-defined and mature designs for a new kind

of domed temple, along with other typically Islamic buildings such as the medresa, the hamarn, the bezistan, andthe caravanserai. They built various buildings in Mace- donia , Kosovo, Saridzak and Serbia which bear the stamp of the Bursa and early Is- tanbul styles. The Bursa style is evident in the Sultan Murat II Mosque (1436), and the Isa k Beg Mosque (1438) in Skopje. The former is a three-riaved basilica with hipped roof, while the latter is a multiroorn mosque covered by a central dome and

apse vaults . The dome is a rnassive construction, yet

it has a perfect shape. A mini-

mum of decoration and a modest interior are the main peculiarities of this style.

The early Istanbul style retains the architectural decor of the Bursa style , but is ori- ented toward a big space. The manner of construction and the building materials were taken over from Byzantium. In the course of building, the local builders trained in Byzantine times played an Important role.The most important structures erected under the early Istanbul style are the Mehmed Fatth Mosque in Pristina (1461), the ' Gazi Isa Beg Mosque in Skopje (1475), and the Mustafa Pasa Mosque in Skopje (1484). The Me hrned Fatih Mosque has a square room covered by a dome, spanning a distance of 13.5 meters, which'suggests an aspiration to build a very large domed mosq ue. This aspiration is also manifest in the Mustafa Pasa Mosque with a dome of 16.3 m in diameter. Gazi Isa Beg Mosque has a prayer space consisting of two square surfaces covered by domes of the same size, with an overall length of 20.5 m.

During the 16th century Istanbul and other major Ottoman cultural centers were the sources of new concepts and ideas in sacral architecture. While Bosnian caravanse-

rais, bezistans, and hamams continued to be built according to t he Ulu-rnosque style,

the domed mosques in Bo~niaand Hercegovina , wi th few

n ew, up-to date ideas which had been conceived a mere decade earlier, in the archi- tectural workshops of the capital. This Interesting phenomenon can be explained not

only by the donors' awareness that the capital boasted the greatest number of expert

aware ness of t he r ich a rtistic t rad itio n of t he

old im.pe rial ci ty , tha t time -h on o u r ed m etrop olis w hich , s ince

stan tine the G reat, had presented Eu rope wi t h grand edifices. These powerfu l Byzan- tine traditions also inspired a rtistic c reatio n in Ottoman Is t a n bul, particu larly in ar c h it ect u re , throughout the '16th century, and a lso exe rted infl ue nce on t he artistic

a ct ivity eve n

a rchitects , b ut also by an even keene r

exceptions , were b u ilt u s ing

its fou n d a tion

by Con- .

in th e far -fl ung provinces o f t h e va s t Ottornan S tate.

Basic type s of mosques. So far no classification of the various types of Ottoman Is -

larnic architecture has bee n carried ou t in Bos nia a n d

cation could be based on typological variations with regards t o t he or igin of the

co ns t r uc t io na l co n -

cepts wi thin each p articu lar type . The dorned m osqu es, ce r tain ly t h e m ost r epres e n - t a t ive exa m ples of Is lamic m o num ental a rc h itect ure in Ma ce d onia, Se r b ia, Kos ovo

b u ild ings

Herce govina. S uch a class ifi-

and on th e grad ua l accepta nce of cer tain s patia l a n d

a nd Bos nia a n d H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types.

H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic
H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic
H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic
H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic
H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic
H erce govina, may be categorized into fou r b a s ic types. Ba sic

Ba sic p lan of d omed mosques . a) T he m osque in NiS, b) t he Ka radjozbeg ova Mosque in Mostar,

c) th e Gazi

e) The

H usre vb eg o va Mos q u e in Saraje vo , d)The Ha s anagin a Mosque at R og ovo,

H ad un Mosque in Djako vica ,.fJ Pe rtiatp a bina Mo sque in B anja Luka

56

57

The rnost widespread type in the 16th century was the standard single-unit mosque with a porch roofed by three small cupolas and one minaret adjoining the central cube. Such rnosques were built in Macedonia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, and Serbia, and there was hardly a town worthy of the name which did not boast at least one such rnosque. Another less nurnerous but nonetheless interesting group of single- unit darned rnosques are those built at Nis (1521 - 23), Novi Pazar, Skopje and Mazier near Stari Trg (all of thern prior to 1550) with a porch roofed by only two small cupolas. The portal is placed rnore to the left in relation to the symmetrical axis, and a second accessory mihrab is found on the side of the front wall facing the porch. The · right half of the porch, specially designed for prayers has a higher floor level. This interesting type of rnosque with a double-traved porch, whose direct analogies are to be found in the older monurnents of Hadrianopolis in Asia Minor, occurs only in Macedonia and Serbia and is not to be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

The Aladza Mosque in FoiSa, plan, cross section and tanh

The AladZa Mosque in Foca

58

59

The Ferhad Pasina Mosque in Banja Luka

The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in sarajevo

60

61

The third type of Ifith-century Balkan Islamic structures is represented by elabo- rately designed multi-urut domed mosques. These were most representative of the period and were usually built by Ottoman provincial officials of the highest rank. The difference between these buildings and mosques of the standard type was not so much in the design of the central prayer cube as in their general composition which included added side annexes and, sometimes , a protruding space fronted by the mi- hrab and covered by a half-dome. Among the monuments of this type are the Jahja- Paslna Mosque in Skopje (1504), the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo (1531), and the Ferhad-Pasa Sokolovic Mosque in Banja Luka (1579). The first two were originally built as multipurpose buildings used by dervishes, wliile the third was s imply a singularly large place of worship.

The last group of domed mosques is typified by a twin building whose domes rest on hexagonal or octagonal bases. These two type of bases, introduced into Ottoman ar- .chltectu re by the mature Mimar Sinan in his later years, soon appeared in Macedo- Ilia, Serbia and Bosnia. We find one such mosque with a dome on an hexagonal base, in. the small village of Rogovo near Prizren (1580), and another at Djakovica with an octagonal base dome (the Hadun Mosque, 1594/5).

Examples of all the above-mentioned types of domed mosques may be found in the contemporary architecture of the mother country. In fact, most of them originated in Istanbul and a few in Edirrie or Bursa, from where they were introduced to other Ot- toman regions in the Balkan Peninsula. The architecture of the 16th century domed mosques found iI1 these parts of the Empire showed great siInilarities in spatial de- sign , the matertals used for building, and the actual construction technology. Most fr equently they were completely identical to buildings found in the European part of Turkey and in Asia Minor.

As usual, the basic building material was stone and brick , but while mosque facades in Macedonia and Serbia were made by applying the ancient Byzantine technique of picturesque alternation of layers of brick and stone as well as by inserting bricks be- tween cut stone in the manner of cloisonne, the mosques in Bosnia and Hercegovina were built without the multicolored elements and have only stone facades, sometiInes covered by a layer of mortar and then whitewashed. However, domes throughout the region used squinches or pendentives as a transitional structure connecting them to the sq uare base on which they rested. The size of the domes was proportionate to the total height of the rnosque.

Mosques without domes. Mosques covered with a hip roof structure were built dur- ing the entire Ottoman era. In terrns of relative nurnbers , this is the dominant type of mosque in the Balkans. Mosques of this type are frequently of modest dlrneris ions , alrhough there are a few monumental ones , like the Sulejmanija in Travnik. This mosque is interesting because it consists of two floors: the ground floor is occupied by a bezistan, and the upper floor is used for praying.

by a bezistan, and the upper floor is used for praying. Sulejrnariija Mosque in Travnik A

Sulejrnariija Mosque in Travnik

A separate sub-type

is

represented

by the mosque with a

wooden cupola inside a

pitched roof, like the Jahija Mosque in Skopje (1506), the Sarica and the Tabacica

mosques iI1 Mostar, or with wooden barrel vaults , like t he Magribija Mosque in Sara-

Rozriamedz ijlna

Mosque in Mostar.

j evo.

A 1110St

beautiful example of this

sub-type

of mosque

.

is

the

j evo. A 1110St beautiful example of this sub-type of mosque . is the The Sejh

The Sejh Bagdadijin mesdZid in Sarajevo

62

63

Far away from the ,center of the State, in distant provinces, local creations material- ized at the hand of domestic builders. Building materials for mosques were unbaked bricks with a lot of wood, often used for minarets, too. In central and Northern Bosnia, and in the Sandzak, mosques were built as log cabins.

Under the influence of the Fethija Mosque in Bihac, which had resulted from a trans- formation of a medieval Gothic church', mosques of elongated projections and with . high narrow windows were built 'in the Una river valley.

The Sarica Mosque in Mostar

In the territory of ancient Hercegovina, at Bileca, Mostar, and in the surround ings of Nevesinje and Stolac, there were, besides the domed mosques , many smaller mosques with hip roofs, built under the influence of local architectural traditions. Minarets

took the shape of square- based

!ate Gothic styles. On the other hand, Ottoman influences (stalactite decorations, low domes, Turkish-style window shapes) can be seen in all the churches and syna- gogues built in the pe riod fro m the 16th to the 19th century.

towers reminiscent of the late Romanesque and the

The Predojeoica Mosque at Plana near Bileca

Decoration in mosques. Decorative carvings were usually in stone, less frequently in

s tu cco or marble, covering the minarets , columns, accessory mihrabs. portals, win-

dows , and fountains , while interiors were decorated with shallow relief on stone furni- ture , mihrabs. and mahflls. As with the architecture of domed mosques, decorative

carvings of the 16th century in these regions changed along with the changes of style that characterized most of the other monuments of Ottoman art in the Balkan Penin-

s ula.

By the middle of the 16th century, the classical style completely prevailed as most representative of the period and numerous lnosques under the influence of this style were built in the Balkanss. The decorative stone ornaments became Inore widespread, very strnilar to the colorful decoration on Sinan's monumental structures. The last decades of this century bear witness to the same puritan reduction and rejection of unnecessary decorative detc:lil 8S is evid ent in the 8rt of the capital at that time.

Pi\

.

-~

.

~l

Stone decoration in the AladZa Mosque in Foca

64

65

Colours reveal the interior richness of light. Light viewed directly is blinding: it is through the harmony of colours that the divine unity reveals its true nature. The Qur'an merrttories of light (nur) (XXN:35). Colored wall decorations, mainly floral in character, eornetirnes with the names of the first caliphs or iInportant quotations from the Qur'an written in stylized calligraphy and less frequently with siInple views of Mecca, Medina, or Istanbul, covered not only the outer surfaces of the walls and the arched parts of mosques but also hama Ins, tekijas, and even the interiors and porches of most domed mosques .

The number "of such decorations can be inferred more from historical documents than from discoveries on the site, but according to chroniclers and travelers' records it is evident that subsequently added layers of mortar or lime hide a rich repository of this type of pairrtirig. It can be seen nowadays on the walls of the 16th century mosques in Foca, Sarajevo, Livno, and Mostar.

It is now obvious that decorative painting in l Gth-cerrtury mosques was carried out a ccord in g to a tacitly accepted method: the areas of the mosque more closely con- n ected with the cult itself were more highly decorated. Inside. the dome was most e la bo ra t e ly decorated, usually with a large painted rosette, and beneath it the sur- faces of corner pendentives or squinches, the front wall facing Mecca, the decoration becoming richer in and around the mihrab niche, while on the remaining walls the decoration was mainly limited to sections between windows.

Outside, on the porch, the front wall of the mosque had the finest decoration, where, somettmes both to the left and right of the portal, there were ela borately painted ac- c essory rnrhra bs. It is generally believed that the painted floral ornaments and par- ticularly the occurrence of entire fruit trees with fruits on the walls of the mosque, were not accidental or inspired by folklore, but rather represent a more profound ico- nography in the fonn of pictorial transpositions of parts of the Qur'an that conjure up a n cien t Islarnic images of heavenly landscapes.

Although the development of. style in this branch of Islamic art in Bosnia and Her- cego vin a cannot be followed with as much certainty as that of architecture and its s t o ne decorations, it is still possible observe two parallel trends dominating Islamic decorative painting in the 16th century. One of them tended towards an expressive stylization of densely painted tiny floral motifs, minute in form , rhythm, and harmony (the Rumi and Hatay ornaments in the Aladza Mosque in Foca and the Ferhadija

Mosque

of large

plants, even of whole trees , as in the original paintings in the Karadjozbegova Mosque

in Mostar.

in Sarajevo),

while

the

other was

a

more

realistic

representation

while the other was a more realistic representation Wall decoration in the AladZa Mosque in Foca

Wall decoration in the AladZa Mosque in Foca

Both styles sprang from the court tradition of painter-decorators who used them in decorating the walls of sultans' and viziers' palaces, mosques, mausoleums, hamams, ~nd other public buildings, as well as from the famous patterns on faience tiles from Iznik and textiles from Bursa.

The prayer carpet, the rnihrab , and the minber met the modest requirements for all types of religious service in a mosque. Being strictly opposed to idol-worship of any kind, Islam, in contrast to Christianity. does not permit the representation of human or aniInal shapes and forbids the use of any special objects in the actual ritual.

The Karadjozbegova Mosque. Karadjosbeg, brother of the grand Vizier Rustem-Pasa

(1544-52,1554-61) erected a "m os q u e as his mernortal in 1557. Kodza cited as the builder. 45 Karadjozbeg had an iInmerse influence on the

Mostar, since he built a whole range of structures for public, sacral, and business uses. He was also connected with the building of the Old Bridge.

Mimar Sinan is development of

building of the Old Bridge. Mimar Sinan is development of The Karadjozbegova Mosque 45 The m

The Karadjozbegova Mosque

45 The m osqu e Is c ited In three lists of Mim ar Sin an works : Tezklret ul-Bunuyan , No 1-72. Tezklret ul- Ebnlye No 1-75. a n d Tuhfet ul- Mlmartn No I-52 .

66

67

The Karadjozbegova mosque was built in the iInmediate vicinity of the bazaar, by the main road, in an area that was large enough for the whole range of structures usually built as a complex: mosque, medresa, mekteb, han, and imaret (public kitchen for the poor). Architecturally, it belongs to the simple domed type , with a porch under three s mall cupolas, a second porch, and a minaret.Y'The walls, the minaret and all interior elements are constructed with cutstone. All cupolas are made of liInestone. The cen- tral space is walled in by l.lrn thick walls, and makes an almost perfect cube (l0.8 m by 10.8 In by 10.8 m) vaulted by a dome whose highest point is 16 In from ground level. Transition from the square bases to the circular tambour is effected by means of squinches decorated with stalactites with a roken frontal arch and eight wide spheri- cal triangles.

~ ~ j ! ~ c;' , I,
~
~
j
!
~
c;'
,
I,

The interior of the Karadjozbegova Mosque

A high and light porch is supported on the outside by four monolith stone columns. The capitals of the colurnns are decorated with stalactites. On the porch a transition from the square base to the circular base of the cupola is made by pendentives. In

later

date.The entire structure was covered with lead. Adjoining the right front corner of

front of this

porch. another spacious

one with a slanting roof was

built at

a

the central cube is a very slender 34.5rn high fourteen-sided minaret. The minaret's balcony (sereJet) is decorated with stalactites.

46 The double porch appears in several of Mlmar Sinan's mosques: the Mihrtrnah Sultan Mosque at Uskudar. in istanbul. built in 1548. the Rustem Pasa Mosque at Tekirdag built in 1553. the Karadjos- begov,] Mosque in Mostar. the Rustern Pasa Mosque at Tahtakale in istanbul built in 1562. and the Atik Sultan Vallde Mosque in istanbul built in 1583 . The interesting fact is that the double porch is found on Ilve building constructed Jar the family of Rustem-Pasa. See G. Gooodwin: A History qf Otto-

man Architecture. London.

p. 213.

"iCJ'~r '~
"iCJ'~r
'~

The Karadjozbegova Mosque: position of wall paintings

The portal is of an irnposing size and is bordered with an attractively profiled oblong stone frame. The space over the portal is in the form of an isosceles triangle, used for an inscription ([arih) identifying the founder of the mosque and the year of construc- tion. Ortar that was used for stone walls was rnade with a high proportion lime so that, with the passing of time, the whole wall mass turned into rock. Motifs used for decoration (stalactites, stylized flowers) are typically Ottoman. Frequently we find a geolnetrical ornament. It is formed by two bands in shallow relief which cross each other rnaking hexagonal areas and six-pointed stars.

The mihra b is highlighted by .a stone frame. The minber is architecturally stmilar to minbers in this type of mosque. It consists of three principal parts: doorway leading to a staircase with stone handrails, an upper pyramidal part borne by four octagonal columns, and triangular structures covering the space under the stalrcase. The rnahfil is a gallery adjoined to the inner side of the front wall. In the Karadjozbegova Mosque it rests on four eight-sided columns. The fence around the rnahfil is deco- rated with rnotifs of six-pointed stars and hexagons.

The the lecturer's chair (curs) is situated in the corner left of the mihrab, It is made of wood and covered with a rug.

The interior space is lit through five openings on each of the side walls, two on either side of the portal, three on the mihrab wall, and eight in the dome ring. The lower windows are rectangular, nicely profiled stone frames with built-in iron bars.

The original wall painting was darnaged during the rernodeling of the mosque in 1909. On the basis of preserved details, however, it is possible to produce a rough recon- struction of the original decoration, which stems frorn the 16th century and repre- sents the artist's vision of landscape in Eden.

The mosque has been continuously in use since its construction

68

69

Memorial Architecture

Memorial Architecture Wall painting An important aspect of Ottoman architecture is related to the Muslim tombstone

Wall painting

An important aspect of Ottoman architecture is related to the Muslim tombstone called niscu: or ba.stuk: and to the stone mausoleum called turbe. The beauty of these morrurnerrts is apparent in their finished forms, cutting techniques and a combina- tion of ornarnents and calligraphy. Their specific value stems frorn their unusual lo- cation: they are situated close to mosques, busy roads, and even close to the houses previously occupied by those buried in thern. Muslim graveyards, full of greenery sharply contrasting with snow-white tombstones of different dimensions and forms, are irnpressive oases of celestial serenity and earthly beauty.

irnpressive oases of celestial serenity and earthly beauty. Nisans When first sighted, the tombstones look almost

Nisans

When first sighted, the tombstones look almost identical. A closer look, however, will discover differences that soon dispel any impression of monotony. The shape of the gravestone indicates whether the deceased person was a man or a ~oman and what his or her profession was. The rnemorial structures were constructed ill local stone ~y domestlc rnasters. They reflect strong influences of the pre-Ottornans gravestone In Bosnia and Hercegovina called stecak.

r--- - - ' .
r--- - -
'
.

The Sejh Jujino turbe in Mostar

70

71

Turbe. The mausoleums were built by prominent and powerful persons for them- selves or someone else. usually for someone of great religious standing. although this practice is contrary to Islamic teaching. The turbes were built for the purpose of pro- viding isolation and complete peace. They share all the features of the creative proc- ess which starts from the spatial concept of a tent to develop into a -dom ed structure. They resemble mosques but are slmpler and do not have a porch.

~)

~)

~)
~)
~)
~)
~)
~)

The Ibrahim Beqouo turbe in Foca, the Sejh Jujino turbe in Mostar, and the Halii. BaSino turbe in BanjaLuka

The most valuable structures are those with a cupola. and an octagonal or a hexago- nal ground plan: the turbes of Gazi Husrevbeg and Murat Beg in Sarajevo. and of Ferhat Pasa in Banja Luka.

The second kind of turbe has four pillars carrying the cupola like a canopy. There are two four-pillared turbes at Alifakovac in Sarajevo and one close to Sinan 's tekija , also in Sarajevo. With aorne turbes the cupola is made of wire rather than fully con- structed, and serves only to mark the space under it. This is the case of the Sejh Ju- jino turbe in Mostar and the turbes in Travnik.

The third kind is represented by the uncovered turbe with perforated walls and lat- tice-work a s in walls around mosque courtyards. The "roof' of this walled space is a usually large crown of a tree planted close to the grave inside the wall. The tree and its crown are considered to be a part of the architecture , and not its external cornple- l11ent. 47 -

Turbes of very modest diInension s

a re very frequ ent.

They are actually s imple tiny

l)( ll1SPS with 8

s ;ld rl lp

o r

hip

r o nf.

TI 1l'

l11 ;lt ITi . 11

is

locn l s to n e .

u n ha k e-d brick o r w oorl .

locn l s to n e . u n ha k e-d brick o r w

The turbes of Gazi Husrevbega a nd Murat Bega in Sarajevo

47

An o u ts ta nd ing exa m ple 01" this lyp(~ 01" m au s ol eum is Sil1 811 BI JY'S tur be at Ohricl in M a ced oni a .

72

 

73

   
A lifakovac, Sarajevo Ed uca t ion a l Facilities An integral part of the

A lifakovac, Sarajevo

Ed uca t ion a l Facilities

An integral part of the mosque complex was the mekteb, the primary religious school. Mektebs were built eve ryw he re, but usually next to mahala mosques. The mahala

m ekte.bs

tures. So m e m ektebs w ere two-storey hous es with s everal r00111S.

were

usually small , often one -room buildings. s imilar to residential struc-

Alth ough there were m any of them (about seventy in Sarajevo, for example).

s ing le o ne h a s b een pres erved in its original

fonn.

not a

le o ne h a s b een pres erved in its original fonn. not a

The Gazi Husreub eqooo: Medresa in Saraj e vo

Medresas. In the c o u rs e of the 16th century te n m.d resas were built in Bosnia and Hercegovina , five in Sarajevo. two in Foca, and one in Mostar, Caj nice , and Banja Luka. By the end of the 17th century 54 new medresas were built. which raised the total n um ber to 83. 48

The Gazi Husrevbegova (Kur-s umllja) medreaa in Sarajevo deserves special cornrnerit. From its founding in 1537 to the end of the 19th century, it was considered the IUOSt important centre of Is larnic education in the Balkans. Its curriculum included the three disciplines of a classical university (theology. law, and philosophy) and, in ad- dition to preparing its students for various religious functions, it served as a training cen tre for sharia judges (/cadija). It can be rightfully considered the precursor of to- day's Univers ity of Sarajevo.

J .1 --1 _ I 1i "';' ~ r>. e jl . r-c: / -----;
J
.1
--1
_
I
1i
"';'
~
r>.
e
jl .
r-c:
/
-----; --~~
'"
//
A
",
/ ;
!
/
'-'y:
::/;~.~ . i
. /
('
,
"

Various locations of the mekteb in relation to the mosque

48

::/;~.~ . i . / (' , " Various locations of the mekteb in relation to

74

75

Though a relatively s111a11 building. this medresa is a monument of high artistic value. Its s mall inner courtyard with its porticos and a sadrvan (water fountain) creates an interesting contrast to the towering dome and minaret of the ilnposing Gazi Husrev- begova Mosque across the street from the medresa.

A m edresa usually had one lecture hall (dershana) and up to dozen ro01US for board-

a library with built-

in bookcases. The courtyard is surrounded by porticos leading directly into all the rOOI11S. each with its own fire-place. The vaulted roofs of the rooms with their tall c hirn n eys created an orderly ensemble of a unique architectural rhythm. Books were kept either ill the rnedresa or in a smaller building beside the mosq ue. The dorned Osrnan Sahcli -efendi library (lcllt.ubhono) near tl1f' Careva Mosque in Sarajevo is a typ ica l exa mplc of this type of library .

ing students. Some, like the Karadjozbegova in Mostar , also had

students. Some, like the Karadjozbegova in Mostar , also had The Mel uned. Pasa. Kulcaoicina: Mosque

The Meluned. Pasa. Kulcaoicina: Mosque with medresa in Foca.

Mel uned. Pasa. Kulcaoicina: Mosque with medresa in Foca. The Sisman Agina Medresa in Pobitel] One

The Sisman Agina Medresa in Pobitel]

One source lists eight rnedresas in Mos tar.f? the Karadjozbegova, the Dervts-Pastna. the Roznarnedzijina, the Koski Mehrned Pasina, the Cejvan-cehajina, the Hadzl Balina and the Buka. They were located close to the mosque of the same name. They were built of cutstone and were provided with a saddle roof. although the Karadjozbegova was covered with a row of vaults. In front of the structure toward the courtyard was the porch. Four medresas in Mostar had public fountains. The largest medresa was the Roz namedzijina with 10 rOOlUS and 2 lecture halls.

was the Roz namedzijina with 10 rOOlUS and 2 lecture halls. The Koski Mehmed Pas ina

The Koski Mehmed Pasina Medresa in Mostar, reconstructed in 1979

All these rnedresas have long since ceased to function and all the buildings have dis- appeared except that of the Karadjozbegova medresa. A large section of the structure used by the Koski Mehrned Pasina Medresa was reconstructed in 1979.

the Koski Mehrned Pasina Medresa was reconstructed in 1979. The Koski Mehmed Pas ina Medresa in

The Koski Mehmed Pasina Medresa in Mostar

49 S et'

l-l.H nsand edj c: Sp om enici kultur c 11lrs1cog cioba 11 Mostaru, Saraj evo 1980.

76

77

Tekija (tekl{e, dervish lodge) are special buildings used by dervish orders for their rit- ual a n d as housing for the Sejh (h ead of a dervish group). Beside the house th ere is ofte n a sl11a11 graveyard for th e order 's di gnitari es. S01l1e of t he tekijas even had sepa - rate r00 111S o r whole buildings for guests iniusofirh ana) with a free kitchen (imareL). Mus nflrha n as and Im arets also existed ind epend ently from tekijas as s eparate insti- tu ti ori s (such as the Ga zi Husrevb egova Musafirhana in Saraj evo), and sornetun es as

a pa rt of a rich person's residential com plex,

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