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ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA
AMIR PASle

* Urban culture, architecture, housing, master-builders
* The Bazaar-core of the town
1l

The mosque complex-nucleus of the settlement

*Christian elements in Islamic architecture'Islamic.influence in Christian architecture

* Sarajevo, Mostar... heritage destroyed in the 1992-94 war
'"Reconstruction and preservation

The colourful cultural life nurtured in Bosnia and
Hercegovina for centuries has embellished this land
with marvelous structures. Each of its different
communities which blended together have contributed
to the creation of a harmoniously diversified culture.
Mosques, churches, and synagogues, houses, schools,
and markets of Bosnia- and Hercegovina symbolize
the spirit of multicultural unity which has been the
essence of the Bosnian identity.
This architecture represents an undeniably distinct
cultural identity. Its ruins will continue to speak for
themselves until reconstruction .
.

Ekmeleddin ihsanoglu

Foreword by
Ekmeleddin iHSANOGLU

ORGANISATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE
RESEARCH CENTRE FOR ISLAMIC HISTORY, ART, AND CULTURE

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA
AMIR PASIC

Translated by
Midhat Ridjanovi6
Foreword by
Ekmeleddin lhsanoqlu

Istanbul / 1994

STUDIES ON THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA, NO.2
PC/94-2
ISBN 92-9063-050-7

Organisation ofthe Islamic Conference (OIC)
Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (IRCICA)

Location: Yildiz Sarayi, Seyir Kosku Barbaros Bulvan Besiktas, istanbul, Turkiye
Mailing address: P.O. Box 24 , Besiktas 80692 , lstanbul-Turkiye

Printed at Ylldlz Matbaacihk A~ . 1994
Cover design: Hatice Polat
Index and layout : Acar Tanlak

Transcription of Bosnian Words
A large number of Bosnian words appear in this book. They are either proper nouns
(names of Bosnian places, persons, institutions, etc.) or common nouns used to denote various aspects of the life-style specific to Bosnian Muslims, and as a rule loan
words from Turkish. Words of Arabic and Persian origin were also largely adopted in
their Turkish form.
All the Bosnian words in this book are written in the Latin alphabet of the Bosnian
(Serbo-Croatian) language. The sound values of the letters correspond roughly to
those of other European languages. The sounds peculiar to Bosnian are explained
below.

Letter
Pasic, Amir
Islamic architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina /by Amir Pasic; translated by
Mithat Ridjanovic; foreword bv Ekmeleddin lhsanozlu. - Istanbul: Research Centre
for Islamic History, Art, and Culture, 1994.

viii, 259 : ill.; 27.5 cm.-(Studies on the history and culture of Bosnia and
Hercegovina; no. 2)
.
Bibliography: p.228-235.
Includes index.
ISBN 92-9063-050-7
I.Architecture. Turkish-Bosnia and Hercegovina 2.Architecture, Islamic-Bosnia
and Hercegovina ' I. Ridjanovic, Midhat ·11.lhsanoglu, Ekmel~ddin
III.Title
IV.Series

c

-c or c
dz or dj
j
lj

nj
S

Z

Pronounced approximately as the bold-faced letters in
Turkish
English
cats
satsa
chip
c;ok
joy
carni
yes
yemek
value
bilye
onion
Konya
shoe
§eker
measure
ajans

720.94792

III

FOREWORD

This book is about a centuries-old heritage now being gratuitously
destroyed.
The colourful cultural life nurtured in Bosnia and Hercegovina for centuries
has embellished this land with marvelous structures. Each of its different
communtties which blended together have contributed to the creation of a
harmoniously diversified culture. Mosques, churches, and synagogues,
houses, schools, and markets of Bosnia and Herzegovina symbolize the spirit
of multicultural unity which has been the essence of the Bosnian identity for
centuries. This spirit Or'llullticultural coexistence, kept intact from the 15th
century onwards through different periods and under different
circumstances in the history of Bosnia, is threatened today by a dreadful and
iniquitous attack on the Bosnian nation and its cultural heritage.
The Serbian aggression struck a heavy blow to the Bosnian historical
heritage. In their monstrous policy of annihilation of the unique Bosnian
character, Serbs, and lately Croats too, not only attacked the Bosnian people
with the most lethal weapons at their disposal but also subjected them to the
worst kind of torture. From the beginning of the war in April 1992 until now,
the massacre and mayhem of innocent people became more brutal day after
day. Cities, houses, monuments, and most of the architectural and literary
heritage of the country were turned to rubble. The atrocities perpetrated
against the people of 'B os n ia and Hercegovina have added a new tenn to the
vocabulary of genocide and vandalism in their twentieth-century version:
"ethnic cleansing", The outrageous plan of the aggressors is to "clean '! a
major part of the Bosnian territory and merge it with Serbia, which involves
the annihilation of the Bosnian cultural identity by an "eradication of the
culture", another inhuman policy devised by Serbs.
This genocide and eradication of culture are perpetrated on a land where
once reigned an atmosphere of peaceful coexistence of communities of
different ethnic. cultural, and religious origins. A system of rights and values
based on mutual respect between different communities was established in
Bosnia and Hercegovina as early as the fIfteen hundreds. Islam, introduced
to Bosnia by Ottoman Turks in the 15th century, defended and preserved
the Christtan population and their property on this land. For centuries,
communtties of Orthodox, Catholic. and Judaic faith lived together
peacefully with Muslims. under the Islamic principle which teaches that
there is no enforcement in religion. Unfortunately, the aggressors' fanatic
ideas managed to sway milltons of people, and prevented those communities
from carrying this ethic into the civilised world of the last decade of the 20th
century. Furthermore, the world community has been quasi-indifferent to
such flagrant and repeated violations of basic human rights in the middle of
Europe. In spite of persistent breaches of the right of the Bosnian people to
life. liberty, security, to freedom of religious belief and cultural identity, the
world powers and international organisations have adopted an utterly

v

insensitive attitude. Their indifference also threw serious doubts on the
concept of universal human rights, because if this concept is not workable in
the geographical context in which it originated, it is to be questioned whether
it can have any validity or applicability on a universal scale. While
continuing its heroic struggle for survival, the Bosnian nation does not give
up the hope that the world will regain its moral sense and take action to stop
the aggression against its existence, its identity, and its territory.
This book is probably the first comprehensive review of the arts and
architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina published in the English language. It
is one of the products of a large-scale research project on the history and
culture of Bosnia and Hercegovina which was undertaken by IRCICA soon
after the beginning of the war.

CONTENTS

Page
Preface
Chapter I Introduction

1

An Ou tline of the History of Bosnia and Hercegovina (Medi eval Bosnia. Bosnia and Hercegovina a s an a d m in is trative unit of the Ottoman State. Mu slims. post-Ottoman period)

4

Chapter II Urban culture

Co m mo n e lements of Islamic c ity

13

Th e or ig in a n d d evelopment of s everal cities (Foj n lca a n d Kresevo , Foca. Livno. Tr avnik.
Ba nja Luka , S araj evo a n d Mostar)
.

20

Th e bazaar - the core of the town

40

Wa ter a n d the ci ty

43

Mahalas - residential m icro region
Th e mosque com p lex-the nucleus of the s ettlement

50

45

Chapter III Architecture

The Centre's first publication in this field was a study on the demographic
history of Bosnia and Hercegovina, by Dr. Adem Handzic. The present book,
second in the series, resulted from extensive research carried out under the
coordination of the Bosnian architect and urban planner Dr. Amtr Paste, who
joined the Centre after the beginning of the war. This book holds a special
place in this series of publications, because it is a record of indisputable
evidences of the Bosnian national and cultural identity.
The centuries-old architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina represents an
unquestionable national existence and a distinct cultural identity. Its ruins
will continue to speak 'for themselves until reconstruction and prove that
such attempts as "ethnic cleansing" and "eradication of the culture" of the
Bosnian nation will never be possible.

Mosque (space of the mosque. domed mosques. basic typ es of mosques. mosques without
d omes . d ecoration of mo sque. the Karadjozbegova Mosque)
Memorial a rc h itectu re
Educatio nal fa ctlittes (m ekteb, medresa , tek ija )
Co m m u na l fa cilities (tr affi c n etwork. bridges. water supplies. h amam, clo ck-tower)

53
70
74
80

Business fa cilities (hans a n d caravansaries. beztstans, shops and storehouses. dalre. mills.
bakeries)

93

Chapter IV Housing

103

Origin a n d d ev elopment of the house
Houses in Mostar
Functlonnal division of the hous e
Furniture a ri d household eq u ip men t
Influ ences a n d rela tionships

108

Other kind of housing struc tures

135

116

121
127
131

Chapter V Buildings and Builders

Hoping wholeheartedly that the time for peace and reconstruction is not too
far away. I would Iike to express my appreciation to Dr. Amir Pasic for his
scholarly contribution to the right cause of his country. My special gratitude
goes to Professor Midhat Ridjanovic for the excellent translation and editing
of the text. I would also like to thank my colleagues Zeynep Durukal and
Acar Tanlak for their contributions in flnaltstng this publication, as well as
the staff of the Yi ldi z printing house.
Prof.Dr. Ekmeleddin Itisanoqlu
Director General. IRCICA
February 1994

Matertals a n d structures
Builde rs

141

151

Chapter VI Decorative Arts

Ca llig ra phy
Or name n ta l Ar ts (book a r t . textile.
h andiwork. stone d ecorations)

157
em broide ries

and carpets. wood-carving. m etal
162

Chapter VII Characteristics of the Islamic Architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina

(Co nve r tlo n to [sl am. the Iexlcal Influence of Isl am. s ettlements and houses. Islamic e lemen ts in C h r istia n a r c h itectu re. intluences of pre-Ottoman period. Christian architectural
ele me n ts in mosques. C h ris tia n int1u ences in housing co ns t ructio n )
Peculiarity of the house .

181
196

Chapter VIII Preservation of Architectural Heritage in Bosnia and Hercegovina

(Saraj evo. Mostar. con te m por a ry Islamic architecture. heritage d estroyed in the 1992-93
war. proposal for reconstruction and preservation.)

199

Appendices
1. List of Isl amic monuments in Bosnia a n d Hercegovina

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

VI

List of destroyed Islamic monuments in Bosnia and Her cegovina
Bibliography
List of illustration
Glossary
Index of names

VII

209
212
226
239
242
247

PREFACE

This book is a survey of the Is larnic cultural heritage in Bosnia and Hercegovina, especially of its architecture, generally regarded as the main art form of Islamic civilization. Most extant books on Islamic architecture focus on public buildings with
moriurnenta l characteristics. The present monograph , however, airns to present integral urban structures with different components and their interrelations.
Is lam appeared and developed "in a historically iInportant region, from which it spread
to thre e continents. For many centuries now it has been one of the most significant
fa c tors influencing the s plritua l and material development of nations across Asia ", Africa , a n d , to a lesser ex t e n t . Europe. particularly the Balkan lands of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Kosovo , and Macedonia. The rnajor ity of the people living in these lands in
origin. upbringing, and education relate closely to Is larnic culture and civilization,
which may not be mirrored as much in religious practices as through a complex
s p ir it u a l physiognomy with which every individual identifies hiInself.
Due to the large nurnber of Mus lims in Bosnia and Hercegovina and other regions of
the Balka n peninsula , the influence of Is larnic culture is also evident in the non-Isla mic e n vir on ru e rrt s of the area. as well as further beyond. This, therefore, requires a
study of the Is larnlc culture so that those el ements of modern civilization that developed under the influence of Is lam 111ay be better understood.
The town of IVIostar is described in greater detail because it can be used as an exam- ,
pl e of the his tory of Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Is larnlc architecture and urban
culture of Mostar largely created in the period between the 16th and the 19th centuri es as an integral part of Ottoman culture. Most attention is devoted to housing
units, both because they represent the largest segment of the architectural heritage
and b ecause of their specific Bosnian characteristics , not encountered in other regi ons of the Ott0111an Empire. Mostar is compared with other importa nt cities in "
Bosnia -H ercegovina: Sarajevo , Banja Luka, Travnik . and Foca. Well-known structures
with Is larnic characteristics in other parts of Bosnia-Hercegovina are merrttoned , as
w ell.
The most unportarit fact to bear in mind about Bosnia and Hercegovina is that it was
here that different ideologies , c u lt u r e s , and civilizations met or collided; here were
torn asunder great empires and religions , here was drawn the line marking the first
a n d 1110St tar -reaching division of Christianity into Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
Equally important was the religious and cultural tolerance of the Ottomans . which
gave rise to numerous Christian and Jewish places of worship and other cultural
a ss e ts of inestiInable historical value.

I

INTRODUCTION
Despite evident differences steuuning from social and national dls tinctioris , a unique
Is larnic culture has developed which has for centuries defined the Is lamic people's
view of the world, moral and esthetic norrns , tradition, way of life. ideals. psychology.
social institutions, and behavior. The Holy Qur'an is the book of Islam, the last of the
celestial religions. that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h).
The Arabian peninsula was the cradle of Islarn. Its southern parts depended on
agriculture and trade .
This area was inhabited by peoples with an ancient culture based on different beliefs,
cus torns and rituals.
The North of the peninsula was characterized by vast deserts and oases. Peoples in
this area mainly lived on s tock- breeding that consisted of sheep and goats as well as
camels: thus they led a more modest life.
The holy Qaaba in the city of Mecca was built by Abraham. Since that time it was
circumambulated by Muslims during the pilgrimage.
Mecca also flourished as the most important center of trade and culture in the
peninsula.
The caravans of trade that were loaded here travelled to Syria, Yernen,and the city of
Kufa.
linguistic and literary taste was very advanced in Mecca at the tirne when the Prophet
emerged.
Is lamic belief had spread all over the peninsula and the life style began to be shaped
by the Is la mic identity when Prophet Muhammad passed away in Mecca in 632 .
The Mus lim mujahids began to spread the lnessage of Islam from the North to the
East and West of the peninsula during the period of the Four Righteous Caliphs.
Is larn spread up to Morocco in the West, the walls of istanbul in the northwest, Trari- '
soxiana and northwestern India in the East during the first half century of the Hegira.
Various peoples with different languages, cultures, arts and social compositions lived
in this 'w id e geographical area .
They influenced one another and ass umed a new identity by becoming Muslirns.
They. however, also kept their own identities within the principles specified by Islam.
Thus. Is larnic Civilization carne into being and contributed greatly to the history of
hurnaruty.
Movernerits of culture. art and learning that emerged within this framework were
inf1uenced by the different identities of these peoples under the Is larnic principle of
tawhid.

3

An Outline of the History of Bosnia and Hercegovina

The oldest setrlernerrts found on the territory of present-day Bosnia and Hercegovina
date back to the Paleolithic Age and represent the Mousterian culture.
They are located in central Bosnia.
Archeological finds indicate that. during the Neolithic Age . there were two groups of
s ettlemerits with different socio-cultural characteristics. one in the Bosnia river valley
and another in the valleys linked with the Neretva river.
There is also evidence of relatively large settlements in the Bronze Age. Two cultural
groups are known to have lived here during the Iron Age, starting from the middle of
the 8th century B.C.: the Illyric group in the South and the Panonic group in the
North.

The struggle of the native Illyrians against the invading Romans was a protracted agoriy which lasted almost two centuries and culrninated in the definitive inclusion of
this region in the Reman Empire.
Remains of Roman settlements, thermal baths, houses, temples, sculptures and
artistically fashioned artifacts testify to the new level of civilization introduced by
Roman legionaries and colonists and to the Romanized Illyrian population which set
upon it the s ta mp of its own spirit and traditions. In the early Middle Ages, the region
of today's Bosnia was a temporary settlement area for migrant cornmuruttes.
A variety of nations sojourned in the territory before moving on elsewhere. until
finally the original population was replaced by a new one of Slavic origin.
Frorn the long-lasting process of symbiosis involving the cultural heritage of the
indigenous and trnmigrant populations, a new Romano-Slavic entity emerged.
The tribal communitles gradually underwent transformations which led to the later
feudal structures.
The name of medieval Bosnia was mentioned for the first time in the year 948 A.D. in
the book De administrando imperio by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII
Porphyrogenitus .

Position of Bosnia and Hercegovina in Europe

Illyrians are the oldest ethnic group known to have lived in this territory. Different
sites dating from the Bronze and the Iron Ages, Le., fr0111 about 2 ,000 B.C. to the be ginning of the Christian era, have provided arnple and varied archeological evidence
for students of European history and culture.
They also revealed the continuous contacts between Illyrians and the Greek colonies
on the Adriatic coast during the last centuries before Christ, which left many
interesting examples of cultural symbiosis. In the first centuries A.D ., the natural
wealth of the country attracted the Romans.

4

5

Medieval Bosnia. The country's constitutional and socio-political integrity dates frorn
the middle of the 12th century. At that time, several "b a n s" ruled in different parts of
Bosnia. The rnost powerful ruler of the period was Ban Kulin (1180-1204), who made
Bosnia a signifIcant factor in Balkan politics. Ban Kulin's 1189 Charter, preserved in
the St. Peters burg Academy of Arts and Science, is not only an important diplornatic
docurnent that deals with socio-political circurnstances of its time , but the oldest
docurnent written in a living. corrternpor ary, national language in the entire Slavic
world.
In the second part of the 14th century Bosnia became a kingdom. It was the most
powerful Slav state in the Balkans, In 1377, Tvrtko I Kotromanic (1353-1391) carne to
the throne under the Hungarian influence , as the "King of the Serbs and Bosnia and
the Coastland". He and his successors laid clairn to the throne of the disintegrating
S erbian Empire. Meanwhile, opposing this kingdom, in 1448, Stefan Vukcic took
power in the southern part of country, and assumed the title "Herceg of St. Sava". It
was frorn this title that the region of Hercegovina acquired its name.

Rel ations with the governrnents of neighboring countries played a significant role in
the mutual battles between feudal lords. Leaning to one side or another was a ploy
often us ed in battles for property and other advantages.

The remains dating from the period between of the 12th and the 15th centuries include sorne three hundred fortified towns and a number of palaces and churches.
They show peripheral reflections of the Mediterranean and Central European Romanesque and Gothic styles and , in certain cases, of Byzantine art.

FrOIn the religious viewpoint, medieval Bosnia was not unified. The so-called Bosnian
Church" was the dominant religion of the time. There was also a sizable Catholic commuriity as well as small groups of Orthodox along the left bank of the Drina river.

The aesthetic and artistic ideas of the religiously tolerant medieval Bosnian society are reflected in the srnall number of illuminated manuscripts which have been preserved. A
rich repository of those ideas, however , is to be found in the art of the stecak; medieval tornbstones, sorne 70 ,000 of which are found, in clusters of varying numbers ,
throughout the country. In their reliefs and inscriptions crudely carved in stone is
mirrored the distinct and unique reality of life in the Bosnian valleys, on the periphery of the great European cultures.
Iku.nh in the lOth crnlury

l1nVliM

flI»e

In the limo

011,,0 KuHn IIHO·I: IJ.I
UOUltVl. U:aIl: In 1"- lime

01 LInG T'nko Il.\l·tl91
lIonlcu orlh Um.nhn
_Iale in the

1~ lh

nnllu)

Dmnhkllertel:Dvlnll III
lilt JoKNlIl h ill(
I f~ h

. . ... . ..

(If

11111

lc nillry

lr.uJe lU\11 tll.,11 mult .
Sc n ~lI'C1\b

Bosnia and Hercegovina as an administrative unit of the Ottoman State. A century
before conquering Bosnia, the Ottoman Turks "vis it e d " these territories for the first
time. In the a uturnn of 1386 the Ottornans carne to these regions for the flrs t time and
reached the Neretva ' river. Later they made other incursions. From then on, the
strings of almost all important political and milltary actions in this region were held
by the Ott0111an Sultan and his regiments stationed on its borders .

I n'' lll In ' lit 10th ( Cll M)·

o

D~,I /ll lllhlU

Inwn"

."

c..'u \h1llltJIOU~'

i

lown, BOO thdr \uhllrh,

The political circurnstances were favorable for the Ottoman conquerors. The local feudal lords invited the Ottornans as "allies" in their mutual battles. Thus, in battles
fought in 1435 between the Kosaca's and the Pavlovic IS , the Ottomans sometimes
supported one side and sometimes the other.

HISTORIC
MAP
OF TI lE MEDIEVAL
BOSNIAN STATE

Map of medieval Bosnia

The medieval Bosnian state was gradually weakened by several factors which undermined its social structure and integrity, namely:
internal battles caused by opposing interests of individual feudal lords,
constant changes in the size of the Bosnian state brought about by fluctuating power of local lords and the central government, as well as by changmg relations
with neighboring states,
lack of the shared national consciousness (frequently a feudal lord from one state
or e t h n ic tribe would join forces with one from another state or from an ethnically
different tribe).
.

Vladislav, the Herceg's eldest son, pursued a policy similar to his father's and the
Turks sometimes fought on his side, too . Such relations with Ottomans were characteristic for that time. The king of Naples, the Hungarians, and the Venetians also al lied themselves with Ottomans occasionally if it served them in their battles against
thetr opponents.

4

6

1\ IYIH:' of d ua lis tic religion known a s Boq otntl, ortglnally a her esy d ertvered from C h rts tla ru ty.

7

These social institutions survived numerous rulers and their different systems of
administration, from the Byzantine era through the Ottoman period until our own
day, keeping as its main characteristics an extraordinary sense of group loyalty and a
permanent fear of urban civilization.
Followtng the Siege of Vienna in the period between 1683 and 1699, the borders of
the Bosnian beylerbeylik were almost identical with those of present day Bosnia and
Hercegovina. The Ottoman State recognised the inherttarice rights of Bosnia's feudal
lords. Muslim lords In the region enjoyed considerable independence. This enabled
thern to rise ill. open rebellion against reforms unposed from Istanbul In the 19th
century and to seek Bosnian autonomy. The strongest expression of this rebellion
was the uprising by Captain Husein Gradascevic in 1831, which continued for years
and was suppressed only in 1850.

Th e B",n i411

~,.,

"nround 1606

Borders or " nJ. b
~I.,

• • - • - -

Bord... or the

SllI'l1jcvo .

The a:~'er or .he c)'lb'

In 1718

Bosnia and Hercegovina as a part of the Ottoman State

In rnid-15th century Ottornan armies penetrated the territory of Bosnia. The Bosnian
Kingdom fell in 1463. Several subdivisions were created as military and adrninis trative units (sa nclialc) of the Ottoman State. From 1463 to 1528, Ottornans and Hungarians fought successive wars claiming parts of the territory. In 1580, Bosnia becarne a beglerbeglulc. a province with the highest military and administrative rank
within the provincial organization of the Ottornan State. Its first seat was In Banja
Luka , rnoving to Sarajevo in 1639. then to Travnik in 1697, and back to Sarajevo in
1850. By 1463 the medieval feudal society of Bosnia was structurally destroyed. A
considerable proportion of former feudal lords, especially from the petty nobility, soon
adapted to the Ottornan spahi-timar feudal system.
In introducing their rule the Ottomans acted in a way which did not disrupt the earlier socio-econornic establishrnent. Their policy was one of a conservative adjustment
to local conditions with the aim of gradually removing the pre-existing and Irrtrod ucillg the new Ottoman social order.
Every Christian could become a land-owner (spahija) if he was of noble origln and
loyal to the State. Even mariy powerful Christian feudal lords became owners of large
estates and thus retained a great part of their heritage. If they converted to Is lam they
acquired the title of beg and were able to advance to the highest positions , including
the position of Grand Vizier.
The largest part of the Bosnian population was Itving outside of the township areas. It
was divided into two categories with regard to their dominant economic activity: landtillers and livestock raisers. the former being mostly Muslims. the latter Christians.
The basic unit of social structure of the livestock raisers was a form of extended family organized on a cooperative basis and known as the zaclruga. Each consisted of 20
to 60 members, Iiving in a common houshold headed by an elder who represented his
cornrnunity before authorities. paid taxes, settled debts, and looked after the affairs of
the cooperative in general.

8

During the period of Ottoman rule , the population of Bosnia gradually embraced Islam. This process created a basis for new cultural and civilizational developments of
an Islarnic and Middle-Eastern character. But here, arnidst medieval Bosnia's distinctive traditions, on the extreme periphery of the Ottornan state and in direct daily
contact with the Mediterranean and Central European world, emerged a most remarka ble example of reconcilation and coexistence of peoples of different origins. The
structure of this civilization, especially its urban part, assumed a peculiar BosnianIs lamlc character, which itself exhibited clear regional variations.
The religious pluralisrn of medieval Bosnia persisted to a certain extent. The Bosnian
Church expired. while Catholicisrn was in the hands of Franciscans, who obtained
from Sultan Mehrnet II special guarantees allowing thern to carry out their work. Most
of the Orthodox land-owners adapted to the new feudal system, while the Church organization itself recovered with the 1557 restoration of the Pee Patriarchate . Orthodox
Serb and Vlachs groups , s mall In number and clustered near the eastern border with
Serbia clur ing most of the Ottornan period at that time, later spread to western areas.

Muslims. Islam, the dominant religion of the Ottornan State, was very influential in social. cultural, and economic life. Islam had appeared in Bosnia even before its conquest by the "Ottomans. However , in the decades following the Ottoman conquest of
Bosnia, Is lam became the most prominent spiritual dimenston in Bosnian life. Islam
was accepted by all social classes, from the peasantry to the aristocracy. The majority
of the Bosnian population adhered to Islarn. In this way, a particular group of people
of Slavic ortgin and Islamic faith carne into being, This group differed fr0111 the "
remaining population in its social, political, and econornic characteristics as well.
Contemporary studies have shown that the number of people of foreign origin living
among Bosnian Mus lims was negligible. In the course of rnore than four centuries,
Bosnian Mus lims as a population group developed a culture of their own, incorporating and assirnilating elements of both western and eastern civilization. Duriri.g the
second half of the 16th century, Jewish refugees fr0111 Spain settled In Bosnia, especially in Sarajevo, and developed a distinctive life style. in which most of their traditlorial cultural and artistic elernents were well preserved. Throughout the Ottoman
period , justice and tolerance "prevailed within this religiously cornplex community. in
which people of different faiths were often close relatives. Ottomans showed an unprecedented and examplary tolerance towards various Christian denominations all
through their centuries-long rule. Religious differences were to become grounds for
political manlpulation only at later times.

9

Pos t-Ottoman p e riod. Following a long period of decline of the Ottoman State, the
European powers decided at t h e Congress of Berlin to have Austria- H ungary assume the
a d minis t ra t io n of Bosnia and Hercegovina in 1878. This m a rked the end of over four
ce n t ur ies of Otto m a n rule and the beginning of new socio-economic relations in the
region. Bosnia was set on a path t oward s Central European civilization. This orientatio n
was m arked by a n ew economic and administrative system, as well as by a m o re clear-cut
religious d ifferentiatio n within the Bosnian society.

DUling World War II, the kingdom of Yugoslavia disintegrated. In April 1941, the governm e rit ca pit u la ted to Nazi rule and , together with the king and his entourage, fled abroad.
The country was occupied and divided among Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria.
Bosnia and Hercegovina became a par-t of the so-called Independent State of Croatia,
created under foreign occupation.
The concept ofa federal Yugoslavia prevailed among the lea d e rs ofTito's Par-tisans. W ithin
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Hercegovina become a separ-ate
federal unit, equal in status to the other five Republics (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia,
Montenegro , and Macedonia). This was, actually, a recognition of the country's historical
existence.
~he

c::::::J
c:=:J

Serbl. nnd Montenegru 'III the wa" In 1876nB
E..'~pllru l(1n ! of Serbin Atld Montenegro In 1878

~

'Thrrf!onc'I whhln lhcOllumutl llnlc

UOllllht&Hcl7.cgovlnR In 1878

BulDn,lo In 1878.

c:=:J

Tcrrilorlo'l within AtJ!lllro·HuQgury after f878

-

State bord ers allcr the Congrc:M or Berlin in 1878

-

-

-

Bosnia and Hercegovina as a part of
the Austro-Hunqarian. monarchy

After World War 1, with the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes,
later renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ("Yugoslavia", in fact, means the country of
South Slavs), a basis was created for the realization of a pan-Serbian hegemony aiming to
achieve ethnic unity for Serbs and their dominant position among the South Slavs. This
idea had been formulated much ear-lier, in 1844, in the formula "Serbs - together and everywhere," launched in a secret document prepar-ed by the Serbian Minister of Internal Mfairs Ilija Garasanin and entitled "Nacertanije'' ( Plan).5
In the period between the two ' World Wars Bosnia and Hercegovina was divided for the
flrst time in its long history, which was a step towards the achievement of Serbian ideals.
In order to destroy the identity of the country, the goverrunent divided it into several administrative units. Subsequently, as a consequence of increasing conflicts between Serbia and Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina was divided into thirteen administrative units
by the 1939 Cvetkovic-Macek agreement. These units were then added to the newlyformed regional entity called the Banovina of Croatia.

5

Vranduk: A settlement founded i n pre-Ottoman times

Botdct1 of Yugo,lnvla Me r 1945

However, the centralist and unitarian policy based on the ruling totalitarian ideology continued after World War" II. It brought about new ethnic and inter-Republic tensions, w hich
come to a head in the late sixties. In order to resolve these tensions, the regime had to reSOli to a policy of ideological repression while at the same time recognizing and, by the
Constitution of 1974, formally affirming the individual federal units as sovereign states
within a loose federation.
The loosening of Yugoslavia, originally a Serbian creation devised to enhance their national interests, angered Serbian nationalists and revived their expansionist policy, expecially after Tito's death in 1980. Serbian actions took increasingly aggressive forms. After
the secession of Slovenia and Croatia in 19 9 1, and a same orientation of Macedonia,
Bosnia a~d Hercegovina also held.a referendum in which the majority of the people voted
for independence from the curtailed "Yugoslavia" (Le. Serbia and Montenegro). Serbian
nationalists refused to accept this democratic decision. They argued in favour of keeping
BOSIlia and I!ercegovina within Yugoslavia or, at least, deviding it among Serbs, Croats,
and Muslims in the hope of eventual annexation of the Serbian pari: to Serbia (and
presumably, of the Croatian section to Croatia), leaving Muslims, who made up 44 % of
the population of Bosnia and Hercegovina, without a state of their own. The unresolved
political disputes tliggered a brutal Serbian aggression on the now sovereign
internationally recognized Repu bic of Bosnia and Hercegovina.

Belgrade was th e greatest Ottoman city in the western part of the State from the 16th to the 19 th
century, Its 78 mosques. 11 Turkish baths. six large cara va nse ra is. 45 inns. a n d all other buildings
with Isl amic chara c te ris tic s were later destroyed in the name of S erbian national gIOlY.
.

10

11

II

URBAN CULTURE
Common Elements of the Islamic Urban Settlement
A city reflects the ' whole life of a cornmunity. Several elernents are common to every
Islarnic town.
The choice of a living space is essentially determined by factors of safety and by the
necessity for proper performance of Islamic worship.
An irnportant elernent is security of access to the town, which required good roads to
connect it to other important locations, as well as safety within the town itself, which
called for fortification. A third comrnon element of Islamic settlements is the existence
of various public facilities (rnosques, schools, hospitals, public baths) which were
usually endowed by the monarch or a member of his family as a religious duty, or by
other rich persons, through the charitable religious foundation called valcuJ.
"A general and enduring characteristic of Islamic town planning and one which derives directly frorn sunnah, is that the commercial and residential areas are kept
strictly apart. 116
The rnarket (bazaar, suq, carsija ) is the vital part of a city, usually located at an important junction on the main road, or near a fortification or a river crossing.
Housing areas are situated outside and often around the market, connected to it by a
network of usually narrow streets.
Houses are self-contained and detached with a courtyard and a garden enclosed by a
wall, particularly on the side facing the street.
Is lam favoured urban life because it rnade for easy access to mosques, public baths,
schools and other institution of religious irnportance.
This .urban rnilie u is found in every Islarnic environrnent, frorn the Magreb in the West
to Indonesia and Malaysia in 't h e east, and from Arabia in the South to Bosnia in the
North.
As a general rule, the Ottornans kept the basic pre-existing urban layout wherever
they settled.
In the transfonnation of existing settlements or in the creation of new ones, the construction of a religious complex (mosque with a mekteb or medresa, musafirhana,
Imaret, several shops) represented the key element of change and, at the same time,
created the nucleus of the new town.
When they seized a fortified town with an ernpty space inside the walls, they would
build an annex to the existing structure. If an old town was overpopulated, they
would then build a new one on the grounds outside the city walls'? Medieval towns
and fortifications were very numerous in the Balkans in the pre-Ottoman period, the
main rnotivation for building them being defense frorn the Crusaders.
6
7

QfIslam. Common. Language and Meaning. p. 189.
A more detailed analysis is found in the book by S.H.Eldem: Turk Eoi, Ostnanli donemi I-III, Istanbul
1984-87.

T. Burckhardt. Art

13

The fea tures of t h e inla nd towns were deter mined by t heir military function a n d loc a tion on a particula r t erra in, resulting in a remarkable view of the s u r ro u n d ings. They
were u sually s ituated on s teep c liffs o r very high hills, a n d cou ld be rea ched on ly fr om
one sid e , w h ich wa s mas sively fortified . Their a rch itect u re refl e cted b oth easter n a n d
western influences . External s t r uct u res were a d ded a s HIe t owns grew a n d : in the
c ours e of time, d evel oped int o bi g sett le m en ts . The average distance b etwe en n eighbouring t owns wa s a bou t a d ay 's walk .

Travnik

Medievalfortresses and towns: Ljubuski, Blagaj, Sto lae, and Soko l

The cities d iffered in size , year of foundation , sur rounding terrain, purpose, structure,
use of rnatertals and building technology, and availability of water, all of which influenced the livtng conditions of the inhabitants.
The building material used for city walls was mainly stone, while wood was predominantly used fo r hous ing u nit s within t h e fortress and for supporting structures. The
ci ties and fortifications in the Balkan area conquered by the Ottomans can be divided
into f hre e grou ps, each with a la rge number of common features: coastal towns ,
inland t owns and fortresses, and fort ified monastery complexes,
Coastal towns mainly originated in the antiquity. They were repeatedly demolished,
rebuilt, and remodeled over the centuries
The best fortified structures alnong them are the military citadels. Inside the walls are
densely fitted buildings for habitation, and other facilities. The use of gun-powder and
h eavy cannons required strengthening the original walls, which In G kedly changed
their appearance.

The Ottomans rarely erected co mpletely n ew urban settlements (among the few such
towns are Rudo and Trebinje) , but generally built a new sect io n adjoining the medievalone (as in Bitola, Prilep, Travnik, arid Banja Luka). This process of adaptation of
former settlements and their expansion over the course of several centuries has so
thoroughly obliterated the older urban scheme and developed a new Ottoman-Balkan
urban pattern that the pre-Ottoman aspects of these urban agglomerations can
hardly be detected.f
Ottornari Turks quickly d eveloped the existing towns and established new settlemerits , both small (lcasaba) and large (seher). In fact, the conversion of t h e local
population to Islam and the rapid development of trade and crafts were accompanied
by physical changes in the settlements. Numerous new crafts that the Ottomans
brought along with them were added to the existing ones. Association of craftsmen
(esna)l had a great impact upon the development of the Ottoman towns and signifi cantly contributed to their Middle Eastern character.
The Vakuf. The vakuf was a religious endowment created on the basis of Islamic
tenets, It was of enormous Importance for the development of urban settlements.
Various vakuf buildings, with their iInposing architecture, usually created the basic
urban skeleton of a city. In the continuously expanding Ottoman State, the state
devoted mos t attention to the governlnent and the army, while concern about cultural
and educational facilities was largely left to private Inrtiative, mainly through the institution of vakuf. The vakuf usually supported a free realization of the will of its
founders, and vakuf buildings served as a basis for the establtshment and further developmerrt of the settlements around them.
8

14

S ee l-l .R edztc: Studtje

0

fslwllslcq} artiitekionskoj bastini, Saraj evo 1983.

15

We should stress the Importance of the investors - persons of Bosnian origin occupying high adrnlnis'trative positions and frequently related to the sultan, AInong them
were Hercegzade Ahmet Pasa, son of Herceg Stjepan and son-in-law of Sultan Bayazit
II, become the Grand Vizier five times for more than eight years in the period between
1497 and 1516; Rustem Pasa Hrvat, son-in-law to Suleyman the Magnificent, was the
Grand Vizier for seventeen years, from 1544 to 1561, and Mehmed Pasa Sokolovic,
also the Sultan's son-in-law, was the Grand Vizier for fourteen years, from 1565 to
1579. There were many other highly positioned investors who contributed to the
developmerit of different towns or monuments.

When these requtremerrts were met, an official request by the local administrators
would lead to an imperial edict granting a settlement the status of a kasaba. This entailed exemption of the Mus lim population of the kasaba from taxes which members
of other religious groups were obliged to pay.
A typical Ottoman-Islamic settlement centered around bazaar or carsu which is
usually located at an intersection of regional roads, and the word carsija, as the core
of a future settlement, is etymologically related to the meaning 'square, intersection of
four roads '. Another requirement is for the settlement to be situated near a stream of
running water, often a river, and to adjoin one or both of its banks. One of its main
c om m u ruc a t io n lines is approximately parallel to the river. Thernosque, the
caravanserai, and the public bath were interconnected with two or three streets. From
this basic core of a town a whole network of small often Irregular street branches off
in all directIons. The shops, where more often that not consumer articles are both
made and sold, are dispersed throughout the city. Besides the usually small shops,
there were also several large buildings used as warehouses or for other trade
purposes.
The needs of the army, which was . constantly in motion, gave rise to the formation of
craft-and-trade centers in every town. A large variety of things were Inade in the bazaar. SOIne fifteen guilds were involved in the equipping of a horseman. The bazaar
was a place of busy trading, and as a rule, did not contain family dwellings. In larger
towns there came into existence, moreover, a smaller peripheral bazaar, which took
some of the burden off the central one, such as at Vratnik and Hiseti in Sarajevo, in
Banja Luka. J!' and in Belgrade. 11
A further Importa.nt element in the formation of the cities is the administrative cornplex. In addition to their residential quarters, the provincial governors (valija) in
Banja Luka, Sarajevo, and Travnik erected a whole range of other public buildings as
t okens of their presence in the area and the power that they Wielded. The residences
h ave lnos~ly been demolished (the exception is the konak in Sarajevo), while the public butld ings have been preserved through the institution of the vakuf,
In other towns (e.g. Belgrade and Bihac) the residential part was built on top of an
o ld e r structure of medieval origin. A characteristic example of a fortified residential
t own is Gradacac.

Maglaj, Tesanj, Stolac, and Visegrad

The state had a vested interest in the establtshrnerrt of a city and its development because all important government officials lived there and, especially, because it was
there that artisan workshops were established to m~ke various items for the army. .
The word Icasaba denotes a small urban settlement and at the same time represents a
legal term, In order for a settlement to be named kasaba, it had to meet the following
minimal rcquirements.P
a ) It had to be permanently inhabited by a Muslim population filling at least one important residential district;
b) There had to be a mosque in which all of the five daily prayers would can be
performed;
c) It had to have a bazaar;
d) A particular day of the week had to be declared as its "market-day".

Gradacac
10

9

S ee Ad em Han d zic: "0 formiranju n eklh g ra d s k ih n asel]a u Bos ni

1I

XVI vij ek u ." POI" XXV . S arajevo

11

S ee All]a Bej tic, "Banj a Luka pod Turskorn upravorn". Nase s tu r ine I. S araj ev o 1953.
Dlvn a Durtc-Zimolo , B eograd k ao orijentalna [ lUras p od Turcinui 1521-1867. Beo g rad 1977. p. 197.

1975 .

16

17

Sometimes . in a d d it io n t o a fortified residential area. there was another one by the
riv er. usually surrounded by pleasant greenery. (e .g. the inn for ove r n ig h t guests .
k onak in Travnik , Begovina a t Stola c), or further away from the m ajor s ettlement. e .g.
Havzi -P a stn Koriak at Bardovci, a n d the All-Pas a Rt zvanbegovica Konak at Buna n ear
Mos t ar.

Trebinje

Balkan -Is lamic cities are chiefly situated in valleys (Skopje. Bltola, Tetovo, Prtstina.
Nis ), but a ls o on hill slopes and the valleys beneath them (Belgrade. Foca, Sarajevo.
Ohrtd ), o r m ostly on slopes (Galicnik, Krus evo . Pocitelj), intertwined with greenery.

Pocitelj

Ed ucatio na l a n d c u ltural fa cilities we re m ostly fit t ed into the a rea a rou n d the b a za ar:
institutions of higher ed ucat io n (Muslim school or niedresa, independent d epartm ents . the dar-ul- tefsir, dar-ul-hadis) a n d libraries were locat ed in t he vicinity of the
bi g m osque . while primary ed ucatio n schools were built n ext to a peripheral m osque .
S u fi centers (te 1cij a ) were a lso u sually located further a way fro m the baza ar. but the r e
were some in t own centers a n d res iden t ial areas a s well.

Intrusions or con q ues t s by European a r m ies (e.g. Venetian and Austrian) in the 17th
a n d 18th cen t u r ies brought about a phas e of rapid fortification of the predominantly
Muslim settle men t s . Generally a s malle r. more eas ily d efendable part of a town was
fortified: for in stance Vratnik in Sarajevo or the a rea about the Stari Most (Old Bridge)
in Mostar. The smaller towns in border areas were completely encircled by walls
(Po crtelj, Trebinje) or s q ueeze d within the m edieval fortified areas. Since s ecurity was
a n important co n s iderat io n. an inhabitant of a Balkan -Islamic dwelling was protected
by a triple wall . the first went a ro u n d his own house complex. the second around the
baza ar with its controlled gates; the third was a thick w all with towers and c it a dels
a ro u n d the military complex.

Residential areas fo r t he most part surro unded t he bazaar. A maliala , a res ident ial
d istrict of fo rty t o fifty h ous es . had at its core a s mall m osque o r m escizid , (in Bos nia
this u sually de notes a m osque w it hou t a mina ret). In the immediate vic inity of t h e
m o sque w a s a m e/ct eb (primary s chool), a graveyard . a fountain. a bakery. a nd a foo d
s ho p. The Balka n Is lamic u rba n c u lture is m a rked by a k een sen s e of nature: builders
m ake good u s e of t he te rrain config uratio n. build on hill slo pes so a s t o offer a n ice
view o f t he valley. a n d pos it io n b uilding com p lexes in a way that will provide t hem
wi t h pl enty of s u ns h ine.
Water in e ve ry imaginable pla ce a n d in quantities well beyond p ractical n eeds . lush .
gree ne ry bendi n g ove r fa cades or acros s railin gs of staircas es leading to dioanhane
(u p pe r floo r h all ), t he s un c ut by the eaves a n d penetrat in g through lines of windows ·
d e e ply in to r oom s a n d creatin g colo r con t ras ts on different building materials are the
in dispens a bl e e le men ts of the p oetic a m b ie n ce of a Balkan Islamic dwelling. They a ls o
offe r e vidence of a highly d eveloped urban c u lt u re es tab lis hed for centu r ies .

18

Maglaj. in the Bosna river valley

19

The Origin a nd De v elop m e nt of Several Se lected Cities

We now propose t o describe two main g roups of u rban settlements diffe ring in respect
of fo u n d a t io n and development:
- s ettlements founded in mediaeval tirnes, and continuing to exist in the Ottoman period a s rnining centers (such as Fojnica and Kresevo), or market-places on a main
road (Fo cal. o r fortresses (Tr avnik , Pocitelj , Ostrozac).
- settle rn e n ts founded in the Ottoman period as administrative and government cen te rs (Sarajevo , Banja Luka ), or iInportant strategic points (the bridge in Mostar).
A rnajority of forttfled towns of the rnediaeval Bosnian state, such as Kraljeva Sutjeska
a n d Bobovac.I? mostly country seats of semi-independent local rulers, lost their imp ortance in the great Ottoman State with its d ifferent state organization.

Fojnica and Kresevo. These settlernents whose economic prosperity was based on
mining. date back to the ' 14 t h century. Fojnlca was also a market-place where important cormnercial transactions took place. Merchants from Dubrovnik played a major
part in t h is trade. When Ottornan rule was established the exploitation of the rnines
in the Fojnica and Kresevo basins continued without interruption. For the Ottornan
s tat e, t oo , these settlernents were primarily irnportant for their rnines of silver, copper,
go ld, and lapis lazuli.
The transformation of these towns into Ottornan type settlernents was very slow during the first century of Ottoman rule. Resistance was partly due to the activities of the
Ca t h o lic church, because it was in this area that the F ranciscans had founded t h e ir
moriastertes in the 13th c en t u ry, a n d because the Ottornans were careful to rnaintain
t h e local mining p rod uction.
According to the land registers frorn the year 1468/9, Fojnica, with its 329 households , h a d the largest population in all of the Bosnian sandzak. In the sarne year Kres ev o had 299 hous eholds. As these settlements began to lose their former importance,
due to a s t a gnation in the mining industry, especially in respect of silver, t h e ir popu lation d ecreased so that in 1516 there were only 142 householders in Fojnica and 112
in Kres ev o , At the beginning of the 17th century. silver mining a t Fojnica was res urned.
During this period the religious structure of t h e population also changed, as a consequence of Muslirns moving into the area , but frorn the beginning of the 17th century
o n the process of converston to Islam was rather slow.

Positions of selected settlements
12

Fo r more than a hun dred years Bobovac was the capital of the Bosnian King d om . It is situated on the
s ho rt est co rn m u nlcatto n lin e between the Sos na a n d the Drtna rivers. It wa s a typical exam p le of fortifle d arc hitect u r e of th e m edi eval lime, befo re the appearance of ca n nons . The fortr es s is five hundred
meters long. a nd wa lls s urro u nd ed th e settleme nt. In 146 3 Otto mans started s h elling Bo bo vac from th e
s u rro u nd ing hills , a nd the local ga rriso n s urrend ered the fo rtress q ui ckly. In 1626 Bobova c, as a fortr ess a nd settlem e nt. wa s aba n do ned.

20

Kreseoo

21

.Foca. The town of Foca can serve as a model illustrating the standard mode of transformation of a medieval Bosnian settlement into an Ottoman town. The medieval town
of Foca owes its development prtmarily to its favorable position. It is situated between
the Orina and the Cehotina rivers on the Dubrovnik road connecting the Adriatic
coast to the central areas of the Balkans. The embryo of the town was a marketplace.F' around which were built houses, shops, and workshops . The original urban
pattern created by what are now Prijeka Cars lja and Pazariste, and a part of the Ou brovnik road, has remained unchanged.

Before 1465, when the Ottomaris conquered this area, there had been three important
buildings in Foca: a caravan station, on the Oubrovnik Road 650 meters south from
the confluence of the Cehotlna and the Orina, the Roman Catholic Church of Our
Lady on the south side of the market-place, and an Orthodox church with monastery
on the right bank of the Cehotina river.
The residential quarters lay.on the north side of the road, towards the confluence of
the Cehotina and Orina. Foca was not fortified. It thus differed from a big village only
by the market-place and the shops around it. Historical records mention that 95
shops were run by merchants frorn Oubrovnik and 82 by local merchants.I"

The changes in the structure of the population and the architectural transformation
of the settlement during the Ottoman period are recorded in numerous census books
- clefters. The new settlement did not spread in concentric circles around the mediaeval Foca. Rather, its general plan of development was based on configurational and
socio-economic factors.
The oldest residential part, the Ortakolo mahala, is situated on the periphery of the
mediaeval settlement, its larger part occupying the valley towards the confluence of
the Cehotina · and the Orina. A second mahala was built on the right bank of the
Orina river. A third section of the town occupies a favo rable position on the right
bank of the Cehotina. The fourth, the Atik mahala, was built on the south side of the
Pazarrs te . the fifth was nestled in a land corner bounded by the two rivers, while the
sixth was attached to the Aladza Mosque on the right bank of the Cehotina river.
With the construction of its six separate sections , Foca was iInplicitly defined as a
spacious urban area spreading to both banks of the Cehotina river and along the
right bank of the Orina. In the 17th century the modern layout of Foca was already
established based on a plan drafted as far back as the second half of the 15th century. The polycentric principle of urban development marked a great advancement in
relation to the medieval towns and settlements in Bosnia.
By building its mesdztd or mosque, the future mahala was allotted sufficient space for
further construction and growth. The choice of urban areas and their urbanization
were carried out with careful attention to the terrain, particularly with respect to
water utilization. Whenever it was possible, the Ottomans founded settlements on
b oth banks of a river or stream. Thus , t h e river becomes the spine of a settlement. Foca is a paramount example of this concern for water. From its very beginning, the
town was built on both banks of the Cehotina river. As the left bank of the Orina river
is very steep and unfit for construction Foca spread only along its right ba nk.

FOCA
P"-f M..... ... U~T"' IJS KON\ I"l",,,,,'"
Il. 1.'4\ .

A co n t in u o u s development of Foca during the previous two and a half centuries was
a rres ted in the 18th century. The following century was also a period of stagnation in
the development of this interesting town in southeastern Bosnia.

Foca: an e xample of transformation of a medieval sett lement int o an Ottoman town

13

14

Th e m ark et-place. was ca lled by th e Latin word: mercatwII in pre-Ottoman tim es. a n d by the Sl avic
word try olliste or by Turkish root words pazarts! « a nd carsija in Ottoman times. This m arke t-pla ce was
m entioned for th e first tim e in 1366..
S ee: H.Redzic. Studije 0 lslattiskoj bastilli. "Urbani razvoj Face". Saraj evo 1983.

22

Foca,1895.

23

Livno. Livno was founded in the 9th century as a varas. 15 and in medieval Bosnia
had a history stmilar to those of other s mall fortified towns. During the Ottoman period, Livno was developing as a settlement in the borderland of the Empire. In Ottoman sources it was first mentioned in 1485, as a settlement with 37 households and
26 inhabitants without permanent dwellings. The population were stock-raising
Vlachs, who lived a sernl-nornadic life. It was a policy of Ottoman rulers to organize a
type of "movable" economy in frontier areas where conditions had not yet become
stabilized .

Travnik. The Ottomans conquered the medieval fortress of this town, added to its
fortification, and stationed a powerful garrison there because Travnik was in the borderland at the tune. After Jajce was conquered in 1527 and the border was moved
farther North, Travnik began to develop more intensively. This was particularly true in
the period between 1697 and 1850, when it was the seat of the Bosnian beglerbegluk.
There the Bosnian viziers built more than a hundred public facilities, including five
mosq ues , five rnekrebs , three medresas, eight public water taps, two fountains, and a
water supply system, and thus gave the town its Bosnian-Islamic urban and architecrural characteristic.

Livno, the Glavica Mosque with a clocktower

Within the next forty years there occurred profound changes in the development of
Livno. There arose an embryo of a new settlement with Ottoman characteristics, with
a developed handicraft economy and first Islarnic buildings. In 1537 Livno become the
seat of the sandzak of Klis, the border was moved further west, and crafts and trade
were developed to serve the needs of the military garrison. In that time, Livno was
fonnallya kasaba, with four mahalas , three mesdzids. and one mosque. In 1574 Livno
had seven Muslim mahalas and a Christian one, with 653 Muslim and six Christian
households. In the second part of the 17th century, the township of Livno began to
lose its former importance and started on a path of stagnation and decline.
Travnik
15

,-I word of Hungarian origin. is used in Bosnia. to d enote a s ettlement at the loot of a fortlflcation. with a c h u r c h and a square .

Vnro.;:;.

24

25

Banja Luka. The first structure out of which the town developed was the medieval
fortress on the Londza hill. It was situated in a natural triangle formed by the Vrbas
river, the Suturlija stream, and the mountainous area of Sibovo.The fortress was conquered by the Ottomans in 1527, at the sarne time as Jajce. Settlement of the town
continued along the old road in the area of the Vrbas river. The first big investor was
Sofu Mehmed Pasa, who built a mosque, a caravanserai, a hamam, several shops, and
a pedestrian bridge over the Vrbas river.
In 1580 Banja Luka become the capital of the newly founded Bosnian ,beglerbegluk.
Until 1639, when the governing body of the Beglerbegluk was moved to Sarajevo,
Banja Luka acquired rnost of its Islamic style buildings. The greatest benefactor in
Banja Luka was Ferhat' Pasa Sokolovid, the first beglerbeg of Bosnia. He built a
mosque with t hree mausoleums (turbe), a medresa, a mekteb, a darul-hadis, a hamam, a fountain, the clock-tower, the caravanserai, the bezistan with several shops,
the water supply system, and the governor's palace (saraj).

Sarajevo. The oldest traces of human habitation in the area of present-day Sarajevo
go back to the third mlllermium B.C. There are also remains of a Roman colonia 8. 16 It
was Isa-Beg Isakovic.Vthe second Ottoman governor (sandzaJc-beg) of Bosnia, who
laid the foundation of a new town here in the middle of the 15th century. Its name
derives from the Turkish word saray meaning 'palace' or 'court'.
The choice of the location for the city was a deliberate act by the governor, mainly in
the light of the following factors:
1. There was already a fortress (Hodidjed).
2. There was a good east-west road along the Miljacka river valley and another one
crossing it at a right angle.
3. The existence of a marketplace in the area at a place called Stara Yaros.
4. Presumed existence of a colony occasionally inhabited by merchants from Dub-

rovnik (LaiinluJc).
5. The existence of a settlement the village of Brodac on the banks of the Miljacka
river at the foot of the hill topped by the Hodidjed fortress.

)

i
;

,I' . - I~

Sarajevo in 1462

After having a bridge constructed across the Miljacka river (latter named Careva
cuprija, 'the Tzar bridge') at the main crossroads, Isa-beg Isakovic built a mosque, a
palace, a hamam. a barracks, and a hippodrome on the left bank, as well as a big caravanserai (Kolobara han) on the right bank close to a former square, on an axis to the
mosque. This structure , with its several adjoining shops, was the nucleus of the future grand bazaar, to be called Bascarsija. The bazaar was thus set between the new
bridge, the Latinluk quarter, and a nascent Christian-Orthodox quarter (today's area
around the Old Orthodox Church). In the Brodac village, Isa-Beg had a dervish home
(ieleija) built with a guest-house (musaji.rhana) and a public kitchen (imaret), as well
as several water-mills.
Banja Luka:a map of 1882.
16
17

26

Thus called because in the only archeological find bearing the colony's name all but initial letter Shad
been obliterated.
Isa-begova vakufnama written in 1462. contains many details about the urban development of Sarajevo .

27

The surrounding settlements on hillsides were transformed into , housing micro-regions, the mahalas, There, streets followed the natural configuration of the terrain,
while the bazaar itself was laid out in an orthogonal network, with streets parallel and
perpendicular to the Miljacka river. The name Saray-ovasi ("the plain around the palace") was merrtloried for the first time in 1455, and the form Sarajevo is first encountered in a letter written in Cyrillic by one Firuz Beg in 1507.

After the fall of the Bosnian Kingdom to the Ottomans in 1463, Sarajevo quickly
spread westward, through the Miljacka valley, and onto the surrounding hills. During
the last decades of the 15th century, two sandzak-begs, Mehmed Beg Minatovtc and
Ayaz Beg, built mesdzids , a hamarn, and several shops. This resulted in integrating
the Latin.luk quarter into the bazaar.

In the first decade of the 16th century Skender Pasa Mihajlovlc revived the Stara
Varas quarter. He had a bridge (known as Skendertja ) built there over the Miljacka
river and close to the bridge, on the left bank, a tekija, a musaflrhana and an imaret,
as well as a caravanserai, eleven shops, and several water-mills art the Kosevo stream
on the right bank of the Miljacka. In 1509 Firuz Beg had the Cifte hamam, several ,
shops in the bazaar, and a water supply system from the Sedrenik hill in the North to
the bazaar, as well as a medresa. In 1518 Mustaj Beg, the son of Skender Pasa, built
the first domed rnosq ue in the vicinity of the tekija constructed by his father. Mehmed
Beg, the son of Isa Beg, built a mesdzid with a medresa, and the first bezistan in the
bazaar. IS The second domed mosque was built in 1526 as a donation by Muslihudin
Cekrekcija, and a third one located in the bazaar was donated by Havadza Durak in
1528.
In 1530 Sarajevo had 35 lnal~alas with 6 mosques and 23 mesdztds , two caravanserais , four ha marns , six tekijas, and several hundreds shops.

The biggest contribution to the development of Sarajevo, came from the sandzak-beg
Gazi Husrevbeg Ferhatpaaic.U' Among some three hundred buildings built with his
donations, several are regarded as the most valuable structures in the whole architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina: the mosque (1530/1, architect Ajim Esir Ali),
tianika): (a higher school of Sufi philosophy), the medresa (1537),20 the harnarn, the
, ca ra va n s e r a i, the bezistan, and the musafirhana with the imaret. Gazi Husrevbeg
then gave the Sarajevo bazaar, which came to be called the Bascarslja.f! and made
the city into the cultural and social center of Bosnia.

Sarajevo: a panoramic view

In addition to the monumental domed mosques. many small mosques and mesdztds
were built using traditional construction, methods and local material; they usually
had wooden porches, four-eaved roofs, and stone or wooden minarets. In the course
of the 17th century construction slowed down considerably, but by this time the total
number of mosques had exceeded one hundred, with numerous mektebs, madrasas,
and ten tekijas.
Although Islamic culture is dorninarrt in Sarajevo, it has never been a town of one religion.

In the second part of the 16th century several important structures were built in
Sarajevo: the Brusa bezistan (1551) and four new domed mosques the Buzadzi Hadzi
Hasanova Mosque (1555/6), .t h e Ali Pasina Mosque (1560/1), and the Ferhad Pasa
Vukovic-Destsallc Mosque (1561/2). The Careva Mosque was remodelled and provided with a dome .

IS
19

20
21

Burnt down in a big fire in 1697~
His fath er was from Hercegovina a n d his mother was the granddaugther of Sultan Beyazit.
The m edresa is knowns as Kllrs!1Illlya. because Its domes a re covered with lead (the Turkish word for
lead is kursuui;

Sarajevo: The Old Orthodox Church, The Jewish Synagogue

From Turkish bo.s- care: "main bazaar".

28

29

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In the Latin1uk quarter, where merchants from Dubrovnik lived both in pre-Ottoman
and in Ottoman times, there was a Catholic church. 22

During the second half of the 16th century, at the time of the consolidation of the
Orthodox Church in the Balkans prompted by the restoration of the Pee Patriarchate,
the Orthodox population settled in the vicinity of the bazaar and built their church,
today known as the Old Orthodox Church.
In the sa me period Sefardic Jews, expelled from Spain, founded their community in
the central part of the bazaar, mostly in and around the Stjavus Pasa daire. In that
district the first synagogue was built in 1581.
More than 80 craftsmen carried on their business at Bascarstja. They were organized
in various esnaJs (guilds), each with its shops concentrated in a particular street of
the larger area of the bazaar. 23
More than fifty hans and caravanserais provided lodging for 2 000 guests with horses
and merchandise.
The Careva cuprija,24 the Latinska cuprija built in 1541, the ~eher-Cehajina cupri]a
(1585), the bridge near the village of Brodac, named Kozja Cuprija (1572), and the
Skenderija Bridge, made for easy communlcation between the two banks of the Miljacka river.

The use of wood as construction material was the main reason for many fires in the
his tory of Sarajevo, especially in the area of the bazaar. In 1697 Prince Eugene of
Savoy broke through the Ottoman defense line,25 and set flre to Sarajevo, destroying
it almost corripletely. In the aftermath of this event the seat of the beglerbeg was
moved to Travnik, where it remained until 1851.1n the time following the return of the
beglerbegluk seat to Sarajevo, in 1851, the architecture of the city began to show
signs of West-European ,influences. They are visible in the new barracks at Bistrik,
the Jajce barracks, the Military and vakuf hospitals, and the Konak at Bistrik.In 1872
an Orthodox church in the vicinity of Bascarstja was built in a Byzantine-Baroque
style.

In 1879, the first year of the Austro-Hungartan occupation, a big fire destroyed overnight the entire part of the town situated in the valley, from the Gazi Husrevbegova '
mosque westward. This fire reduced the bazaar area to half of its former size and
opened the way to a rapid transformation of Ottoman Sarajevo into a Middle European provinclal center.

22
23

24
25

It burned down for the ftrst time in a fire in 1697, was later rebuilt and flnally destroyed in the big fire

of 1879.
More than forty streets still bear names related to the craft that were (and still are. through to a lesser
degre practiced in them: Kujundztluk = "goldsmiU1's" street (from Turkish kuywncu "goldsmith"). Kovacl
= blacksmiths street (from the Slavic word kovac "blacksmith"), Saracl =sadd1er. Ascilul{ = place with
restaurants.
(~uprUu, is Slavic adaptation of the Turkish word Jcopn! "bridge".
His troops passed the Vrancluk fortress above the Bosnia river. 30 kilometers to the north of Sarajevo,
and used the road through the Bilino Polje. near Zeruca. Later. the Ottomans built a fortress at Bilino
Polje.

32

Mostar. The large area of Mostar has favorable living conditions. The mouritatns on
the north side of the town enclose the whole region within a typically Mediterranean
climate. This makes for very high temperatures in summer and moderate temperatures in winter, a great number of sunny days in the course of one year, planty of rain
in au turnri and spring, refreshing showers in wann seasons, north-easterly winds in
winter, and pleasant southerly breezes in spring and auturnn.
Mostar has a remarkable position on the Neretva river and its tributary, the Radobolja. The Radobolja offers its inhabitants as many advantages as the Neretva takes
away because of its violent temper. Nevertheless, the valley along the Neretva is very
fertile, as well as allowing easy southward access to the sea and northward into the
interior. The valley of the Radobolja river, however, is surrounded by hills on all sides .
The residential part of the city first spread to the hillside of Stolac, a foothill of the
Velez mountain. The oldest housing center was the Atik or Sinan Pas ina mahala, to
be followed by the quarters of Brankovac, Bjelusine and, Mazoljice.
Building houses on hill slopes was advantageous not only from point of view of security, but also with regard to public hygiene because of the possibility of using rain
as a natural street cleaner. Not least of all, it provided a pleasant view of the valley.
The housing microregtons on the western bank of the Neretva originated at a later
period. The terrain had a very gentle downhill grade and the Radobolja with its arms
and little canals offered exceptional housing conditions.
Agricultural products typical of this climate were grown in the city gardens mostly on
the west bank of the Neretva and on land outside the city, 5 -15 krn away, the most
important alnong them being grapes. sweet cherries, apricots, peaches, pomegranates. figs, and various vegetables. The craggy hills around the city were rich in sage
and heather, which rnade possible the developrnerit of apiculture.
A shop in the bazaar, a house in the mahala, a barn for a cow or perhaps a horse, a
vineyard ill. the vicinity of the city and several bee hives nearby the average city
dwelling craftsman from Mostar owned all of this!
Traces of the prehistoric era and the Roman days, discovered at more than one locality, provide evidence that the valley of Mostar has been inhabited since very ancient
times . An old settlement in the Immediate vicinity of Mostar - the Old Town at Blagaj developed from a Roman settlement into an important medieval town which became
horne to Herceg Stjepan Vukcic, the ruler of the region in the 15th century, who gave
Hercegovina its name.
.
A document written in 1440 refers to a fort next to a bridge on the Neretva river, associated with the name of Oost Radivoje, a member of Herceg Stjepan's suite. This is
in fact, the first historic reference to the locality of present-day Mostar. Another historic record dated April 3, 1452, is letter by two Dubrovnik merchants informing their
wrote to their compatriots ill. the service of the Serbian king Djuradj Brarikovic that
Vladislav Hercegovic had fled from his father Herceg Stjepan and conquered, alnong
others, the bridge with adjoining forts on the Neretva river. 26

26

V. Corovld. Moster i njeqora srpsico-pravoslanna opiittna, Beograd 1933, page 9 : ". .vha preso quello ele
Togena c . Vra tar in S'utischa , Blagay et do castell al ponte ele Neretva" :
M. Vega in the book: Nascija srednjoojekonne boscuiske driave, Sarajevo 1957, gives the fasclmlle of the
original document with the translation and the correct elate .July 3, 1452.

33

In 1468 the Ottomans took Blagaj and, most likely, the fortresses close to the nearby
bridge over the Neretva. The small settlement around the bridge got its name from its
keepers, because mostar, in fact, means 'bridge keeper'. This settlement was first referred to as Mostar in 1474, when it was described as the seat of the Ottomans suba(police superintendent) Skender. 27

sa

Because of the strategic importance of this crossing over the Neretva, the insecure
bridge was replaced by a new timbered one in the period of Mehmed Fatih's rule, before 1481. Since the main road from Bosnia towards the Adriatic coast used this
crossing over the Neretva, the bridge brought about a rapid expansion of the city and
a concomitant development of crafts and trade. The city became also the center of
culture and education in this part of the Ottoman State. It was rounded off as a
completed urban entity about 1670, and did not change significantly until 1878, the
year of the Austro-Hungarian .occupation.
The reign of S u leyrna.n II the Magnificent (1520-1566) was the tiIne of the greatest rise
and prosperity of the Ottoman State. In that period, huge wealth flowed into Istanbul,
brtnging about unprecedented economic and social progress. The Sultan's aspirations
after the glory of the antique world supported cultural development, especially the art
and architecture of Islam.
Numerous structures of extraordinary beauty were built in this period: mosques,
bridges, and harnams. It was at this tune that Ottoman architecture established certain spatial, constructional and decorative systems, based on its own aesthetic principles. It was also during this period that the most important architectural moriumerits of Mostar carne into being: the Stari Most (Old Bridge), the large Karadjozbegova and the Vucijakovica mosques together with some smaller ones, schools , IraInal11S , and a large rrurnber of other public buildings and housing structures.

Mostar's favorable geographic location caused it to be considered one of the most important cormnercial centers of the area with Widely developed connections to other
centers. This factor stimulated the development of craftsmanship, which thrived in
more than 30 different crafts.
The city was at its peak in the late 17th century, when its population reached 10 000,
when it boasted over 30 mosques, 7 medresas and several mektebs. 2 hamams, and a
number of other importan~ public facilities.
The dominant Muslim population developed their cultural activities to a considerable
extent during the Ottoman period. There were many learned persons, writers and poets, some of whom some were famous and recognized far beyond from their native region. The city also became the seat of the muftija. (supreme religious leader of the
area) from lnid-17th century. Almost all trades and crafts were in the hands of Moslerns in the 16th and 17th century.
Christians (Orthodox and Catholic) have always lived in the city along with Muslims,
with their nurnbers increasing since the early 18th century, The first record of Christian population in Mostar dates back to 1575. 2 8 The Orthodox population had their
own church in the 18th century and Mostar became the seat of the Metropolitan
(head of an ecclesiastical province) in 1767. Another Eastern Orthodox church, the
largest in all of Bosnia and Hercegovina, was built in Mostar in 1873.

I

Mostar: panorama, 1 9 0 8

The Stan Most

27

See Nedlm Ftlipovtc : "Pogl ed na osmanskl feudalizarn sa n aro cltlm osvrtom n a agrarne odnose."
Goriislljuk istorijslcog drustoa [--W-I IV. Saraj evo 1952. He c ite d the TU]Ju tahrir d efter from 1477. when
th ere ~ere only 20 households in Mostar, All the houses were on the left bank of the Neretva river. betw een the bridge a n d the s q u a re (1lU.jdanl

34

Catholics built their first church in 1847 along with the Bishop's restderice at Vukod ol. A cathedral was built at Podhum in 1866 to meet the needs of the Increastng
Catholic population. These two churches represent the last large-scale architectural
structures built during the Ottoman administratton.
28

Vl adirnir (Y
:o rovi c . ibid .. p.16

35

The Hercegovinian Sandiak as a part of the Bosnian Beglerbegluk was established at
the beginning of 1470 and lasted until 1878. Its seat was in Foca, then at Pljevlje and,
in 1833, it rn oved to Mostar. The sandzak-beg resided in Mostar from 1522 to 1530. 2 9
Mostar also becarne the seat of the regional JcadiluJc (area covered by a Jcadija - the
sharia judge) in the late 15th century.P? The kadija had legal authority and the vojvocia with his 50 soldiers had police authority. All of those high officials had numerous
clerks under them, who also resided in Mostar.
The janissary headquarters with their commander (serdar) were also located in Mostar until the abohs hment of janissary troops in 1826.

The dizclar commanded the soldiers defending the bridge forts during the period up to
the establishment of a regular European-style army in the middle of the 19th century.
A captaincy was also set up in Mostar between 1700 and 1706 and was revoked in
1835. The offices of the captaincy and the dizdar were hereditary. Captains were chos en frorn the farnily of Vucijakovic and the housing complex that they occupied is still
called Kapetanovina.
Mostar had its Mimar-Aga (builder), its ajans (representatives in the Bosnian governor's council), and, for a time, a musellim - the Pasa's representative.
A part of Mostar was walled in the Ottornan period, and the fortification was reinforced several tunes during the wars with Venice, especially after the armistice at
Karlovci. During the Holy Alliance War, mercenaries from Venice headed by Stojan
Jankovic attacked Mostar in 1687 and burned sorne housing areas on the west bank
of the Neretva, but could not penetrate within the walled part of the city. Another attack , by the duke of Venice Mezzenigo in 1717 , was even less successful.
Two other rnajor armed conflicts in Mostar were the Basas' rebellion in 1782 and the
con flict between the feudal lords Ali-Aga Dedic and Ali-Aga Voljevica in the second
decade of the 19th century,

Mos t a r : Urban scheme
Mostar 1895: A viewfrom the south
29
30

H . Kr esevljakovic . Esnofi i obrti
Ibid .. p . 129.

11 Bo sni

i H erz eqonini, II Mostar /1 4 6.'3-1878/. Zagreb. p . 72 .

36

37

But Mostar also had its share of other misfortunes. It was hit by the plague in 1507,
1689, 1731 and 1813, and a cholera epidemic raged through the city in 1845. There
are historic records about these epidernics as well as references to thern in folk poetry.

There are no records of the exact number of fires but we are certain abolit two big
ones, which occurred in 1852 and 1861/1862, burning down a large number of
shops and houses. A powerful earthquake occurred in 1563 and floods caused great
damage several times.

The conflict between Ali-Pasa Rlzvanbegovlc and Orner Pasa Latas brought about tumultuo us events in 1851.

Diseases, disasters, rebellions, and wars were elernents of a larger picture of the
weakening Ottornan State, which in turn weakened the economic potential of the city
and the Itving standards of its people .
The decline of the Ottoman State led to the occupation of Bosnia and Hercegovina by
Austria-Hungary in 1878. Mostar was taken on August 5, 1878. This date rnarked the
beginning of a new era, introducing radical changes in the economic and social
relations.

The foregoing outline of the historical developrnent of Mostar during the time of the
Ottornan State is meant to serve as a typical example of the transformation of an
urban environment in Bosnia and Hercegovina from a rnedieval settlement to an important Ottoman-style town.
The Ottomans considered the rnedieval fortress next to the bridge as the central point
of the cornmunlcation system for this region. The fortress also became the nucleus
around which the city developed very rapidly. The bridge was replaced by a more solid
s t ru ct u re before 1481 , but only the stone bridge completed in 1566 was able to withstand the intense military and commercial traffic over it. The bridge was built most
probably within a period of two years from designs by Mimar Hajrudin with the
lTIOney collected in Hecegovinian counties (lcadilulc). The adjacent towers of Tara and
Halebija were rebuilt during the construction of the stone bridge.
The new bridge was a powerful stirnulus to the growth of the city. The bazaar was
considerably enlarged and the city fortification system was expanded and reinforced.
All cornrrrurricatiori leading to the Old Bridge was protected by the towers, which were
linked by walls . A systern 'o f towers and gates rnade up a genuine fortress next to the
bridge itself.
The main bastion (Labija) of the town walls was situated at Suhodolina , with the
co mma n d e rs " residence located nearby. These structures dominated the city. The
konak (the governor's residence) was restored by Ali-Pasa Rlzvaribegovic , who also
a d d e d another section to it. In that period he also had a second residence built for
hirn outside the city at a place also called Buna, close to the Buna river.

Mostar : Urban development

38

39

The Bazaar: t he Core of the Town
The bazaar, or carsija 3 1 is the vital focus of any Islamic town. It is usually located at a
road junction, at an important point on the main road, around an important fortification, or at a river crossing. The bazaar attracted craftsmen and merchants of every
known kind. There was usually a central square with many small streets around it,
each designated for a particular craft. Craftsmen were organized in associations
(esnajl, rnuch in the way they still are in certain European countries. The esnaf was a
typically urban institution set up to stimulate development of the particular, craft and
to rnairita in a good balance between individual initiative and the solidarity in the
group. In Islarnic towns, these group never aspired to political power, as was often the
case with siInilar groups in western Europe.
The biggest bazaar in Bosnia and Hercegovina is the Bascars ija in Sarajevo, which
has all the structures typical of a large eastern bazaar: a mosque complex, a bezistan,
a hamam, a claire, and a multitude of shops.

The bazaar is the center of an Ottornan town's commercial zone, where most of the
town's econornic activities take place. In larger towns these activities spread out to
other points outside the rnain market, For example, in Istanbul, which was divided
into three separate sections, there were, besides the main bazaar, other smaller bazaars in each of these sections. Belgrade had six bazaars. Banja Luka, consisting of
several completely separate settlements, had four smaller merchant-trade centers.
There was us ually no roorn in the bazaar for family houses.
In Mostar, the bazaar was formed on both sides of the Old Bridge, on the left bank
from behind the Halebija tower in the south to the clock tower in the east and to Sinan Pas ina Mosque in the north. The "upper" bazaar was located on the main road
and was called Velika Tepa, while the "lower" bazaar, called Mala Tepa,32 was situated
in the vicinity of the Koski Mehmed Pas ina Mosque. A third part of the bazaar was
called Kujundziluk and was situated between the Mala Tepa and the Stari Most. The
Prijecka business area was located on the right bank of the Neretva - from the Bridge
to the Tabacica Mosque and the tabhana (the tanners district). There was' a line of
important watennills in the area, too.
The bazaar in Mostar was particularly important during the construction of the Old
Bridge between 1550 and 1570 when only 'three donors had 153 shops an~ many
other facilities built there. The donors were Hadzi Mehrnedbeg-Karadjozbeg, Cejvancehaja, and Nasuh-Aga Vucijakovic. Their donations gave rise to mosques, hamams,
mektebs, rnedresas, iInarets, shops, warehouses, water-mills, as well as water supplying facilities. This period of 'intensive building gave the city all its public structures
and influenced the formation of the housing mlcroregions. the mahalas, which provided housing space to all those who worked in the bazaar. Evlija Cele bi, the famous
Ottornan traver-writer, described the bazaar very briefly: " It (i.e. Mostar) has a bazaar
with 350 solidly built shops." This estimated nurnber of shops is probably accurate
and the term "solidly built' no doubt refers to the stone partition walls and roof cladding.
There were 30 different guilds in Mos tar. The following 11 existed in 1762: ekmekcizije
(bakers " guild), ierzije (tailors), baemakcije (shoemakers). dyers, cUT'cije (furriers), cebed.zije (mariufacturers of shaggy homespun blanket), kujurict.zijo: (goldsrniths),
titnurd zija (blacksmiths, locksmiths. makers of sabres and rifles), iabaciztje (tanner's),
berber! (barbers) and duncizeri (builders). In 1875 these 11 crafts comprised 122
shops with 199 rnaster-craftsmen and 563 workmen.
The tanners' guild was the rnost developed. Their shops were the most solidly built
and a row of tanners' shops was located within the northern section of the city walls.
The tanners also had their own mosque, the only one of its kind. Red sahtijan or ka jser (goat leather), one of their products, was considered the best in the Islamlc world
at the time and was a valuable export commodity.
After watering rnany a garden and s upplying water to the inhabitants of the west
bank of the Neretva, the Radobolja river rarnified into several streams flowing through
the bazaar. There, it provide power for numerous rnills. A water-mill was particularly
precious at the tirne, and a leasehold on it was more costly than on a shop, a harnam,
or a house with a garden.

Bascarsija in Sarajevo
The Austro-Hungarian survey at the end of the 19th century

32
31

In Bosnia and Hercegovina the word carsija is always used to refer to a Ottoman style bazaar.

40

Tepa derives lrorn th e Turkish word for "hill": the Bosnian word ueliica and malo m e,111 "b ig" a n d
"small." Both places are on a h igh er level in relation to the Olel Bridge.

41

All business activity in the bazaar (outside the public facilities) was carried out in two
types of structures: shops and storehouses. Shops were srnall ground-floor structures
attached to each other C?n both sides of narrow streets. They were usually built of
wood, combined with lateral stone walls and stone roofcladding. They were raised a
little above the street level and closed with two horizontal wooden shutters in front
making up the so-called cepetiak: The lower shutter was used to sit on and work
when the shop was open . This means that people sat on the floor as they did at home.

It is very interesting to note that a major portion of the trade was in the hands of merchants of Orthodox faith from the middle of the 19th century onward. Orthodox merchants lived in several mahalas, especially at Bjelusine in houses that were slightly
different from those of the Muslims of the same economic class. They lived and
worked in the bazaar together with Mus lims and shared with then an almost identical
life -style .

Water and the City
There were also shops with storage r00111 behind them, because the downhill grade of
the bazaar made it fairly easy to construct them.
A third type of shop, the "storehouse" (magaza), was occasionally a two-story structure. At the ground floor was a shop, while the upstairs or the basement was used for
a storage. Thick stone walls, ceilings made with timber beams, vaulted stone roofs
with roof cladding made of stone slates, windows protected by it-on bars (demir) and
iron shutters were features of this new type of shop. Stone storehouses were built on
lots "cleared" by fire, a practice begun in the middle of the 19th century under Oal marian influence .

From time Immemorial people were inclined to build their settlements near water as a
necessary element of life . Water, more than any other feature, characterizes an IsIarnic settlement. It is easential to life and an indispensable e lement in ablutions. At
the sarne time, it is regarded as a kind of image of the soul, of its fluidity and purity.
"We made from water every living thing" (Qur'an XX1:30), this great Qur'anic truth
which has since become a scientific statement, may still be read in ornate Arabic letters engraved even today on old stone fountains.
Mostar is fortunate to be located on the banks of the Neretva river, the jugular vein of
the whole region of Hercegovina. This life-generating quality of the Neretva is intensified through its tributary the Radobolja flowing into the Neretva in the immediate vi cinity of the Stari Most. The Neretva is an ice-cold rapid river, not easily accessible
because of its steep craggy banks. It was therefore not very useful to the inhabitants
around it . It was very hard and dangerous going down the bank to fetch water frorn it
in winter or on rainy days. People mostly used a pulley with a thick chain to take
water out of the Neretva. There were also stmilar smaller devices in the courtyards
adjoining the Neretva bed.

n
~

I

yJ

1iF..1 ._

,The bazaar in Mostar, in 1905

The mosques, the inns, and the
Stari Most and its fortifications.
quality, on a considerably larger
the ground. All these structures
ingly urban character.

--

public baths dominated the bazaar together with the
Those structures were built of cut stone of a higher
scale, separated from rows of shops, placed freely on
added to a harmonious composition of an outstand-

Those who worked in the bazaar used the bazaar's mosques for prayer during the day.
The harnams were used by all the inhabitants of the city.

Sadrvan in Hafiz HavacUe's Mosque courtyard in Mostar
(photograph taken in 1905)

42

43

The Rado bolja contrasts to the Neretva by offering many possibilities for human use.
At a very early stage in the development of the city, a large-scale system of canals was
constructed in residential areas on the west bank of the Neretva for the irrigation of
gardens and for household needs. The Radobolja starts frorn springs at the village of
Ilici, 2,5 - 3 km from the Old Bridge, soon dividing its waters arnong several beds and
uniting them again immediately before flowing into the Neretva. Numerous canals bifurcate successively from the riverbed and their network irrigates a large rrumber of
gardens in the housing areas of Podhum and, especially, in Cernica.
Canals crossing the bazaar were used to move the wheels of water-mills. The latter
were 19 in number and played an important role in the life of the city and its inhabitants. Water from canals was also used by craftsmen, producers of blankets, tanners,
and others.
There were also hamams in the town, one near the tannery, another close to Sinan
Pasina Mosque at Mejdan. They were an important element of the highly developed
Ottoman housing culture and, at the same time, were connected to the cult of water
brought to these parts by Islam. People meeting in a hamam, relaxed by the murmur
of the water within its interior, discussed their affairs and made business deals.
The first water supply system was built most probably in the 15th century and was
used originally for supplying water from the Neretva to the harnam at Mejdan. The
first water supply systern tapping the Radobolja had pipes installed across the Old
Bridge on the Neretva during the actual building of the bridge.
Evlija <;elebi recorded that Ibrahirn-efendija Rozriarnedzija had built the first water
supply system, which brought water through brass pipes over the Old Bridge to the
left bank of the Neretva and then caused it to flow in different directions to mosques,
rnedresas, and harnams. The first water supply system over the Old Bridge was made
of wooden stove pipes; the second was built in 1629/30 with earthen pipes, whose
remnants are still in evidence.
The water supply system from the springs Djevojacke vode (girls' waters) at Carina
was built before 1650. It supplied water for three fountains (sadrvan) and 12 public
water taps (ces mo ).
In 1885 the Austro-Hungarian adrninistration built a new water supply systern using
the water from the springs of the Radobolja. The housing units were not connected to
the water supply systern. Unless they used pulleys to take water from the Neretva,
households obtained their water from the Radobolja and its canals. Water was also
ta.ke n from the public fountain next to the rnosque or public water taps in the parts of
the city further away from the Neretva or the Rado bolja. The Buna river provided
water to houses close to its banks.

Houses located on high hillsides used water from cisterns built tor comrnon needs in
courtyards of the rnosques or other public structures. The larger housing complexes
had their own cisterns. The water at the Mus libegovic family household is interesting
for its capacity and convenient location.

Mahalas - Residential Microregions
Mahalas were traditional neighbourhoods found in all parts of the Ottoman State.
They were residential areas with their own mosques, shops, schools, and other facilities needed in daily life. Every mahala had its own commurial spirit and mutual-aid
system which contributed to the identity of each mahala and to a high degree of social cohesion. This was particularly true of small towns. Every mahala had its wealthy
and poor inhabitants. In some the wealthy prevailed over the poor, in others the poor
may have outnumbered the better-off, but slum-like settlements were not known-to
exist. The poorer inhabitants were always under the patronage of the rich neighbor1100d families so that extreme social differences were greatly neutralized.

Banja Luka: mahalas in the central part of the town
1. Haciztbeqoua ,2 . Dzoferoqtna. 3. Humcartja, 4 . Tabaci, 5 . Kubandoqa, 6. llidia, 7, Sofu Mehmed Paso. 8.
Osman-Seth, 9. Gomji Seher, 10. Sehitluk

The number of mahalas was indicative of the size of a settlement. In 1878 Banja Luka
had 37 mahalas, 1,741 houses, and 9,560 inhabttants.V In 1845 Sarajevo had 104
mahalas.P" Livno had 9 mahalas with 660 households.P'i
In Foca, which was an important town in Ottoman times, there were 17 mahalas with
a total of2,730 inhabitants in 1585,36 and 2,968 inhabitants in 1879. 37
33
34
35
36
37
The Velagica house close to the Buna river in Blagaj

44

See Alija Bejtlc: "Banja Luka pod Turskom vladavlnorn." Nase starine I. Sarajevo 1953.
See: Alija Bejtic: Ulice i trqot» Sarajena , Sarajevo 1973. pp.15-16.
Fehun Oz. Spaho. "Llvno u rantm tursklrn Izvortrna", POF 32-33, Sarajevo 1982-83. pp. 147-162.
The census of 1585 registered sixteen Muslim and one Christian mahala. At that time Foca had 545
Muslim and 11 Christian households.
In the Austro-Hungartan census of 1879 registered 2.329 Muslims, 638 Orthodox, and 1 Catholic, a total of 2.968 inhabitants.

45

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The inhabitants were predominantly Mushm. but the number of Christians began to
grow from the beginning of the 18th century. They were only 10 in riumber in 1630,
by 1813, 339 Catholics were registered as living in Mostar and at Ilici. Mostar had
684 houses with an Orthodox population in 1848, and 2,534 Orthodox inhabitants in
1856 . In 1879, a year after Austro-Hungarian occupation there were in Mostar 1,909
houses with 2,535 households and 10,848 inhabitants, of whom 6,421 were Mushrns.
3,026 Orthodox, 1,366 Catholics, and 35 Jews. 3 8.In 1885 Mostar had 1,975 houses,
2,104 dwelling units occupied by 12,665 inhabitants, of whorn 6,442 were rnen and
6.223 women. There were 6,825 Musluns, 3,369 Orthodox and 2,359 Catholics, 98
.Jews , and 17 followers of other religions. 39 Of the total number of inhabitants 7,035
were bachelors and 4,356 were married. When compared with the statistics from
1703, the latter number seems to be exaggerated. The number of housing units increased up until the end of the 17th century to a nurnber which remained stable up
to the time of the Austro-Hungarian occupation.

Foca : 17 mahalas
In tile I 5 til century uierefoundcd: I. Hcunzabeqoua; 2. Fatime Sultan, 3. Mustafa Pasa: 4. AWe;

in tile I 6tll century: 5. DzqIerbegooa; 6. Hasan Naztrooa; 7.Dzafer Ceiebijina: 8.Meluneclbegooa;

P. Kaeli Osman; 10. Hadzi Mustafa; 11. Seih Pirtjina- Tabaci; 12. Hadz! Seferooa; 13. Varas;
14. Muminbeqooa;
in tile l Ztli century: 15. Hculz i Oemanooa; 16. Sulejman. beqooa, and 1 7. Ali Pas ina.

In Mostar, housing areas were built rather freely outside the city walls for a long period of time. They were different from those near the bazaar close to the Old Bridge,
which were rnore compact and orderly. The first mahala originated in the Vicinity of
the Old Bridge around the Mejdan square, where the provincial governor Stnan-Pasa
built a rnosque in 1474. According to the register of real estates, the so call Tapu tahri
defier, Mostar had only 19 houses in that year.
The biggest population growth occurred around the middle of the 16th century as a
result of rapid economic development of the city. Mostar had several rnahalas on the
left bank in 1566, along with many rnesdzids and four mosques. In 1670, the city had
24 rriahalas. At this time it reached its peak number of inhabitants, which was not be
exceeded until the arrival of Austria-Hungary. Evlija Celebi was in Mostar in 1633
and registered 3,040 solidly built houses and 53 mosques. Both figures are
exaggerated. In 1703 the population of Mostar was about 12,000.

46

The Roenarneddijina. mahala in Mostar,' above the Neretva river

38
39

H . Kresevljakovlc: ibid .. p.'72.
Karla Peez: Mostar unci seine Kulturkreis, Leipzg 1891.

47

In the official documerrts, court registers 40 numerical data on the mahalas is given on
an annual basis. It appears that the city had 24 mahalasIn 1633 and 30 in 1670 .
Only t hree mosques were built in Mostar after 1663: Hadzi Ibrahima Cevre, .Kotlina
and Ali -Pase Rtzvaribegovica . The mahalas were usually named after the mosques and
mesdztds they were situated by. Since, apart from the bazaar mosques, most of the
others were centers of particular mahalas, the number of latter can be gauged fairly
accurately from the number of mosq ues. A total of 35 mosques were built in Mostar
during the Ottoman time. Since the Koski Mehmed Paslna Mosque, the Tabacica
Mosque, and the mesdzid of Sultan Javuz Selim II were within the area of the bazaar,
the number of the mahalas would have been 32.

14

10
11
9
5

~

19
1
13
7

The city developed first on the left bank close to the bazaar, then spread to the south
and north, passing onto the right bank close to the hill of Hum on the left bank of the
Radobolja around the middle of the 17th century. Mahalas first originated on the east
bank of the Neretva. This bank was considered healthier and safer. The commander's
residence was built there, as well as all administrative structures and some wealthy
persons' houses.
The following factors influenced the formation of a mahala: ground configuration,
safety, availability of roads, pleasant views of surrounding area, insulation, rivers or
s trearns. and orchards. Most mahalas in Mostar met these requirements, except for
the ones on the slopes of the Stolac hill, which had difficulties with running water,
and a group of mahalas at the foot of Hum which did not have adequate amounts of
sunshine. The same rriaha las were Inhabited both by Muslims and Christians.
Mostar had a clearly differentiated urban scheme taken over from the East: the
housing area was clearly separated from the business section of the town.
In the old part of the town, however, mos t of the earlier structures were preserved and
only a few new ones were built because the Austrians did not find this economically
advantageous and were reluctant to invest in it.

19
20
2
15

18
,31

17

26

3
27

12

32
21

Mostar- mahalas
The mahalas on the left bank: 1. Karadjozbegova (the mosque in this mahala was built in 1557)2. Cejvan(eh<:ljina -(1552) 3. Saric"a(1637) 4. Roznamedzfjina (before 1620): 5. Kjose .Iahlja Hodztna (before 1620) 6.
Sinan Pashia (1474) 7. Hadzl Salina (before 1612) 8. Husein Havadztna (before 1633) 9. Fatima Kaclun (before
1633) 10. Mernl Havadzlna (before 1633) II . Mehmed-cehajlna (befo re 1592) 12 . Kotlina (before 1768) 13.
Hafiz Havadztna (before 1633) 14 . Tere Jahijlna 15. Ahrneta C:uri~ije (before 1650) 16. Bajazlt Havadztna
(before 1612) 17 . Kotlevlna (before 1633) 18. Kamber Aglna 19. Hadzt Velijina 20 .Brankovac (the Nasuh-Aga
Vuciakovlc Mosque, 15 18) 21. All-Paslna (before 1847). The mahalas on the right bank: 22. Nezlr Agtna
(before 1550) 23 . Dervis Pastna (1592) 24. Hadzl Lanna (before 1633) 25 . Baba Beslrova (befo re 1633) 26.
.Jahija Esfelova 27. Sevri Hadzt Hasanova (before 1621) 28. Hadzl Memijina. known as Cernica (before 1650)
29. Ali Havadztna (before 1633) known as Raljevina 30. Hadzl Ahmet-Begova (1649/50). Rlclna 31. Zlrajlna
,
32 . Cevrina (before 1686)

40

The Inforrnatlon presented here is to be found in the court registers. so called sicl'iils, from the years
1633 (at the Institute for Orlental Studies in Sarajevo). '1768. 1828 and 1829 (at the Hercegovlntan Archives in Mostar).

48

An overview of several mahalas of Mostar (1. Karadjozbegova, 2. Roznameddijina,
6 . Sinan-pasina,7. HadZi Balina, 8. Husein HavaclZe, 13. Hafiz Hauadde, 15. Ahmeta CUrCije, 28.

Cernica)

49

The Mus lim house was strictly isolated from the street, while the Christian one was
more open to public life. This is the only major difference between the Muslim and the
Christian parts of a rnahala. The houses at the Brankovac mahala offer a good example. By its internal organization of space the Christian house differs somewhat from
the Muslim one, but all the basic design elements are very much alike. The cult of
neighborhood is one of the basic principles influencing housing construction in this
part The philosophy of housing is deeply social and humane.

In the urban composition of the city, a very important place is taken by religious
structures, especially the mosques, which were usually located so as to dominate the
whole city area. The mosques were places were people of a neighbourhood got together, and were therefore both social and spiritual centers of the mahalas. The
mosque has a threefold purpose: socio-religious. educational, and political.

!l

"

In the period of Austro-Hungarian occupation the city spread northward on the right
bank of the Neretva, where there was plenty of free space for building. The railroad
station and a new hospital were built in this part. The new structure reflect radical
changes in the economy, in administration, and in the life style of the general populace. The city was divided into eight areas: Carina, Brankovac, Bjeluaine, Old Town,
Luka, Cernica, Poclhurn, and Zahum.

The Mosque Complex: The Nucleus of the Settlement
The nucleus of a typical Ottoman-Balkan town or settlement is the religious complex
with accompanying buildings, which provided for the cultural, social, and judicial
needs of the inhabitants. Mahalas grew around these complexes, their size being
largely determined by the service capacity offered by the complex itself. This means
that an Ottoman town is not dominated by a single place of worship, as was mostly
the case in medieval Europe . As the Ottoman towns were administered by a centralized adrninistration in Istanbul, their basic structure was very much the same on the
entire territory of the empire.

The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque Complex in Sarajevo

The mosque complex represented the center of the housing micro region, the mahala,
and consisted of a mosque, a mekteb, and a cemetery (harem or mezarlulc). Higher
schools, the medresas , were usually built near the most Important mosque of a city.
Every mahala also had at least one public water tap, which had both a utilitarian and
a human value because it was a place where spontaneous socializing took place.
Bosnians have always been very sociable and have derived great pleasure from talking
to people ill their homes, numerous coffee -houses, shops , or in and around the
Inosques.
Graveyards took up almost all empty spaces in the city giving it a special" visual d imerision - snow-white tombstones scattered over a green patch. Their inner peace
contrasting sharply with the busy life around them, they seemed to be located at
places where they could remind people of the transitoriness of human life on earth.
Tombstones not only mark the graves, their special features also symbolize the person buried, his or her sex, profession, and social standing. The Ottoman-Balkan
tornbstones reflected both the indigenous influences of Bogornil tombstones (stecalc)
and the Turkish-Islamtc ones. They manifest outstanding workmans hlp and artistic
finesse, especially ill their rich and heterogeneous decorations and inscriptions.

Mosque complex - nucleus of settle.nent

50

Their decorative motifs were based in a domestic tradition but were amply enriched
by Islarnic features as well as, in many cases, by beautiful original creations. Carved
Arabic-alphabet inscriptions ill Arabic, Turkish, or Persian, together with other elemerits of the tombstone structure, often told stories about the lives of deceased persons, so that they represent an important source for the history of the settlement, especially with regard to its notables and their contributions to the community at large .
51

III

ARCHITECTURE
Islarnic art is characterized by a great integrative power, especially in the domain of
architecture, which is the rnost developed kind of art in all Islamic countries. The architecture of Bosnia and Hercegovina during the Ottoman time shared all basic characteristics of Ottoman Islarnic art.
The ruler's court, and more irnportantly the institution of the vakuf, supported architectural activity. During the Ottoman reign there was hardly any aspect of life that
was not influenced by vakuf. An endless number of religious, charitable, business,
and public institutions within the boundaries of the Empire were set up using the
systern of vakuf, All kinds of structures - from roads, bridges, and water-supply syst ern, to moriurnerrtal religious structures - were built with vakuf endowments.
One of the twelve court generals, who was called bostanctzi-basa, s upervised gardene rs and masoris.v! Even the main architect of the empire was subject to him. In the
period of culrnination of the Ottoman state in the middle of the 16th century, the
position of the rnain architect was occupied by Kodza Mirnar Sinan (1538-1588).
In the Ottoman army there was a special branch of mechanics, which also included
builders, who were charged with building all the fortification structures, bridges, and
other rnilitary facilities. Construction activities were also administered at the level of a
s andzak. 42 Renowned builders were known to obtain aristocratic titles as well as
large estates. All of this bears witness to the fact that architecture held a position of
special irnportance in the socio -economic and state system of the Ottornan State.
In the general flowering of architecture handicrafts played an important role, especially those connected to work in textiles , stone, wood and metal, and, in consequence, these crafts blossorned during the Ottoman period. Almost all of the artisans
worked at the bazaar. The bazaar was not only the main resource of the economy, but
was itself the prime model of the architectural and decorative art. The main characteristics of Ottoman Islarnic architecture are contained in the monumental dorned
rnosques, the public butldings. and in urban residential structures.
Mosques

The religious architecture of Islam is inspired by the idea that man's esthetic sense is
a gift of God and should be cultivated to the utmost. In this architecture the search
for beauty and the rnethod of construction always go hand in hand, there can be no
s eparating of art from technology.

The Karadjozbegova Mosque complex. Mostar

The main concerns of Ottornan architecture were to connect the rational and the
d ecorative in a building systern and to accentuate the rnonolithic aspect of this archit ecture. The typical structure is a cubic building surmounted by a hemispheric
c rown , the transitional zone between the sphere and the cube being composed. in the
interior , of triangular facets assembled in more or less open fan-shapes.
41

42

52

S ee Hu sref Redzt«: Isiamsku uinjetn ost, Beo grad 1982 . p . 39.
MOTll1l1WTlIa turcica , Book 1. p. 29 . Th e Institute for Ori ental studies. S araj evo .

53

After the Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453, they discovered the archltectura l marvel of Hagia Sophia with its Immense dome "suspended from the sky".
This building prompted Ottoman architects to explore new methods of construction,
largely with the aim of building monumental mosques comparable to the Hagia Sophia. The great mosque of Sultan Selim II in Edirne, designed by Mimar Sinan,
showed that this aim was soon achieved. Prior to the construction of this mosque, Sinan and other architects had built many mosques of different dimensions and artistic
features, but most of them were rather small and modest buildings.
Developing space within a mosque complex is perhaps the most iInportant task of an
architect working within the frame of Islamic architecture. "The artist who wishes to
express the idea of the 'unlty of existence' or the 'unity of real' has actually three
means at his disposal: geometry which translates it into the spatial order; rhythm,
which reveals it in temporal order and also indirectly in space; and light, which is to
visible forms what Being is to limited existence. "43

The Byzantine influence was manifes ted in a "floating" dome on four pillars and
combtnations of domes with half-cupolas. This model, however, was limited to the

large mosques in Istanbul. A single-space domed mosque was considered to be adequate for setting man apart from the endless external space of nature through a
construction of pure geometrical bodies of the cube, the sphere, the cylinder, and the
cone (the latter two making up the minaret).
The interior of the mosque contributes to an atmosphere of intimacy and is arranged
in such a way as to make possible absolute concentration of thought and perfect
peace.

The oldest Arab mosques are characterized by a partly covered space, multi-aisled
porches, and recurring rectarigular surface of the same altitude, as well as by a lack
of emphasis on any particular part. The spread of Islam into colder climates required
a more enclosed space.
In the course of time, a spacious domed mosque became the basic model to which
everybody aspired. The dome (lcube) is a symbol of sanctity and leadership. In the preIslamic period the dorne was a small tent made of leather where holy stones were
stored. The Seljuk type of mosque, called ulu 44 mosque - several square spaces
covered with identical cupolas - became a model for other subsequently built public
structures. Another type of structure of Seljuk provenance - a central dome
connected to a rturnber of small cupolas over the entrance porch - remained the
model used as a basis in searching for a perfect composition.

2

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."

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Development of spatial structure of the mosque:
1. Arab Mosque: multi-naved porch 2. The Seljuk Ulu Mosque
3. Standard single-space domed mosque
43
44

T. Burckhardt: Art cfletatn. Common Lanquaqc and Meaniiu], p. 76.
1",/

~ ro -r- , : :' l:is h

The interior of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo, the Sulejmanija. Mosque in Travnik and
the FerhatpaSina in Banja Luka

for 'gr eat. large'.

54

55

All parts of the interior are equally valuable. Only the place of the mihrab - the im.am's .
niche - is emphasized: The mihrab has a symbolic meaning because it shows the dir ection to Mecca, to which the faithful must turn in their prayers.
The mihrab is indisputably a creation of sacral art. The form of the rnihrab is the focus of a particularly rich and profound symbolism, Sim.ilarity between the rnihrab and
a niche with a lamp is mentioned in the Qur'an (XXIV: 35 ).
The word Jami is also used for mosque. This Arabic word derives from a root meaning
't o assemble , to unite. ' Originally it referred only to a mosque which could also be
used for the obligatorily collective Friday noon prayers. These prayers regularly
included a sermon (hutba) for which a pulpit (mimber=minber) was constructed. The
prototype of the minber was a stool with three levels, which the Prophet used in his
rnoaque in Medina to talk to the faithful. Today's shape of the minber originated in
the Seljuk period: a narrow staircase with hand-rails on either side, a cone or
pyramid-s haped roof over the top landing, and a doorway at the foot of the stairs .
The interior of the mosque also included a gallery (mahfil) in front of the entrance wall
and a raised fenced seat (curs) adjoined to the left wall and used for lectures (vaz) unrelated to the ritual
The Ottoman mosque is in many ways reminiscent of the kind of tent (yurt) used by
Turkic nomads. The interior space of the mosque is almost a replica of the inside of a
yurt. The carpet which in a yurt was placed on the ground and made the space warm
and pleasurable, becarne a regular feature of the mosque, too. The cozy atmosphere of ,
a yurt's interior has been largely kept in the Ottoman house, the mausoleum, and the
mosque.

During the 16th century Istanbul and other major Ottoman cultural centers were the
sources of new concepts and ideas in sacral architecture. While Bosnian caravanserais, bezistans, and hamams continued to be built acco rding to t he Ulu-rnosque style,
the domed mosques in Bo~nia and Hercegovina , wi th few exceptions , were b u ilt u s ing
n ew, up-to date ideas which had been conceived a mere decade earlier, in the architectural workshops of the capital. This Interesting phenomenon can be explained not
only by the dono rs' awareness that the capital boasted the greatest numb er of expert
a rchitects , b ut also by an even keener awareness of t he r ich a rtistic t raditio n of t he
old im.pe rial ci ty , that time -h o n o u r e d m etrop olis w hich , s ince its fo u n d a tio n by Con- .
stantine the G reat, had presented Europe wi t h grand edifices. These powerfu l Byzantine traditions also inspired a rtistic c reatio n in Ottoman Is t a n bul, particularly in
arc h it ec t u r e , throughout the '16th century, and a lso exerted infl uence on t he artistic
a c t ivity eve n in the far -fl ung provinces o f t h e va s t Ottornan S tate.
Basic type s of mosques. So far no class ification of the various types of Otto man Is larnic architecture has been carried out in Bos nia a n d Herce govina. S uch a class ification c o uld be based on typological var iatio ns w ith regard s t o t he or igin of the
b u ild ings and on the gradual acceptance of cer tain s patial a n d const r uct io nal con cepts wi thin each p articular type . The dorned m osques, cer tain ly t h e m ost r eprese n t a t ive ex a m ples of Is lamic m o numental a rch itect ure in Ma c e d onia, Ser b ia, Kos ovo
a nd Bos nia a n d H erce govina, may be cate gorized into fo u r b a s ic types.

The minaret is used for the call to prayer. At the beginning of Islam, the muezzin
called from the roof of the mosque or any other raised surface. Later the minaret with
its tapering top pointing toward heaven acquired an irnportant symbolic meaning.
Domed mosques. As early as the 15th century the Ottomans began to introduce into
the central Balkan area their by now well-defined and mature designs for a new kind
of domed temple, along with other typically Islamic buildings such as the medresa,
the hamarn, the bezistan, andthe caravanserai. They built various buildings in Macedonia , Kosovo, Saridzak and Serbia which bear the stamp of the Bursa and early Istanbul styles. The Bursa style is evident in the Sultan Murat II Mosque (1436), and
the Isa k Beg Mosque (1438) in Skopje. The former is a three-riaved basilica with
hipped roof, while the latter is a multiroorn mosque covered by a central dome and
apse vaults . The dome is a rnassive construction, yet it has a perfect shape. A minimum of decoration and a modest interior are the main peculiarities of this style.
The early Istanbul style retains the architectural decor of the Bursa style , but is oriented toward a big space. The manner of construction and the building materials
were taken over from Byzantium. In the course of building, the local builders trained
in Byzantine times played an Important role. The most important structures erected
under the early Istanbul style are the Mehmed Fatth Mosque in Pristina (1461), the '
Gazi Isa Beg Mosque in Skopje (1475), and the Mustafa Pasa Mosque in Skopje
(1484). The Me hrned Fatih Mosque has a square room covered by a dome, spanning a
distance of 13.5 meters, which'suggests an aspiration to build a very large domed
mosq ue. This aspiration is also manifest in the Mustafa Pasa Mosque with a dome of
16.3 m in diameter. Gazi Isa Beg Mosque has a prayer space consisting of two square
surfaces covered by domes of the same size, with an overall length of 20.5 m.

B a sic p lan of d omed mosques .
a) T he m os que in NiS, b) t he K a radjozbeg ova Mosque in Mostar,
c) the Gazi H usre vb eg o va Mos q u e in Sarajevo , d)The Ha s anagin a Mosque at R ogovo,
e) The H adun Mosque in Djako vica , .fJ Pe rtiatp a bina Mo sque in B anja Luka

56

57

The rnost widespread type in the 16th century was the standard single-unit mosque
with a porch roofed by three small cupolas and one minaret adjoining the central
cube. Such rnosques were built in Macedonia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, and Serbia,
and there was hardly a town worthy of the name which did not boast at least one
such rnosque. Another less nurnerous but nonetheless interesting group of singleunit darned rnosques are those built at Nis (1521 - 23), Novi Pazar, Skopje and Mazier
near Stari Trg (all of thern prior to 1550) with a porch roofed by only two small
cupolas. The portal is placed rnore to the left in relation to the symmetrical axis, and
a second accessory mihrab is found on the side of the front wall facing the porch. The ·
right half of the porch, specially designed for prayers has a higher floor level. This
interesting type of rnosque with a double-traved porch, whose direct analogies are to
be found in the older monurnents of Hadrianopolis in Asia Minor, occurs only in
Macedonia and Serbia and is not to be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

The AladZa Mosque in Foca
The Aladza Mosque in FoiSa, plan, cross section and tanh

58

59

The Ferhad Pasina Mosque in Banja Luka

60

The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in sarajevo

61

The third type of Ifith-century Balkan Islamic structures is represented by elaborately designed multi-urut domed mosques. These were most representative of the
period and were usually built by Ottoman provincial officials of the highest rank. The
difference between these buildings and mosques of the standard type was not so
much in the design of the central prayer cube as in their general composition which
included added side annexes and, sometimes , a protruding space fronted by the mihrab and covered by a half-dome. Among the monuments of this type are the JahjaPaslna Mosque in Skopje (1504), the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo (1531),
and the Ferhad-Pasa Sokolovic Mosque in Banja Luka (1579). The first two were
originally built as multipurpose buildings used by dervishes, wliile the third was
s imply a singularly large place of worship.

The last group of domed mosques is typified by a twin building whose domes rest on
hexagonal or octagonal bases. These two type of bases, introduced into Ottoman ar.c hlt e c t u r e by the mature Mimar Sinan in his later years, soon appeared in MacedoIlia, Serbia and Bosnia. We find one such mosque with a dome on an hexagonal base,
in. the small village of Rogovo near Prizren (1580), and another at Djakovica with an
octagonal base dome (the Hadun Mosque, 1594/5).

Examples of all the above-mentioned types of domed mosques may be found in the
contemporary architecture of the mother country. In fact, most of them originated in
Istanbul and a few in Edirrie or Bursa, from where they were introduced to other Ottoma n regions in the Balkan Peninsula. The architecture of the 16th century domed
mosques found iI1 these parts of the Empire showed great siInilarities in spatial design , the matertals used for building, and the actual construction technology. Most
fr equently they were completely identical to buildings found in the European part of
Turkey and in Asia Minor.

Sulejrnariija Mosque in Travnik

A separate sub-type is represented by the mosque with a wooden cupola inside a
pitched roof, like the Jahija Mosque in Skopje (1506), the Sarica and the Tabacica
mosques iI1 Mostar, or with wooden barrel vaults , like t h e Magribija Mosque in Saraj evo. A 1110St beautiful example of this sub-type of mosque is the Rozriamedzijlna
Mosque in Mostar.
.

As usual, the basic building material was stone and brick , but while mosque facades
in Macedonia and Serbia were made by applying the ancient Byzantine technique of
picturesque alternation of layers of brick and stone as well as by inserting bricks between cut stone in the manner of cloisonne, the mosques in Bosnia and Hercegovina
were built without the multicolored elements and have only stone facades, sometiInes
c ove r e d by a layer of mortar and then whitewashed. However, domes throughout the
region used squinches or pendentives as a transitional structure connecting them to
the sq uare base on which they rested. The size of the domes was proportionate to the
total height of the rnosq ue.

Mosques without domes. Mosques covered with a hip roof structure were built during the entire Ottoman era. In terrns of relative nurnbers , this is the dominant type of
mosque in the Balkans. Mosques of this type are frequently of modest dlrneris ions ,
alrhough there are a few monumental ones , like the Sulejmanija in Travnik. This
mosque is interesting because it consists of two floors: the ground floor is occupied
by a bezistan, and the upper floor is used for praying.
The Sejh Bagdadijin mesdZid in Sarajevo

62

63

Far away from the ,center of the State, in distant provinces, local creations materialized at the hand of domestic builders. Building materials for mosques were unbaked
bricks with a lot of wood, often used for minarets, too. In central and Northern
Bosnia, and in the Sandzak, mosques were built as log cabins.
Under the influence of the Fethija Mosque in Bihac, which had resulted from a transformation of a medieval Gothic church', mosques of elongated projections and with
. high narrow windows were built 'in the Una river valley.

The Predojeoica Mosque at Plana near Bileca

Decoration in mosques. Decorative carvings were usually in stone, less frequently in
s t u c co or marble, covering the minarets , columns, accessory mihrabs. portals, win dows , and fountains , while interiors were decorated with shallow relief on stone furniture , mihrabs. and mahflls. As with the architecture of domed mosques, decorative
carvings of the 16th century in these regions changed along with the changes of style
that characterized most of the other monuments of Ottoman art in the Balkan Penins u la.
By the middle of the 16th century, the classical style completely prevailed as most
representative of the period and numerous lnosques under the influence of this style
were built in the Balkanss. The decorative stone ornaments became Inore widespread,
very strnilar to the colorful decoration on Sinan's monumental structures. The last
decades of this century bear witness to the sa me puritan reduction and rejection of
unnecessary decorative detc:lil 8S is evid ent in the 8rt of the capital at that time.

.

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The Sarica Mosque in Mostar

In the territory of ancient Hercegovina, at Bileca, Mostar, and in the surroundings of
Nevesinje and Stolac, there were , besides the domed mosques , many smaller mosques
with hip roofs, built under the influence of local architectural traditions. Minarets
took the shape of square- based towers reminiscent of the late Romanesque and the
!ate Gothic styles. On the other hand, Ottoman influences (stalactite decorations, low
domes, Turkish-style window shapes) can be seen in all the churches and synagogues built in the period fro m the 16th to the 19th century.
Stone decoration in the AladZa Mosque in Foca

64

65

Colours reveal the interior richness of light. Light viewed directly is blinding: it is
through the harmony of colours that the divine unity reveals its true nature. The
Qur'an merrttories of light (nur) (XXN:35). Colored wall decorations, mainly floral in
character, eornetirnes with the names of the first caliphs or iInportant quotations from
the Qur 'an written in stylized calligraphy and less frequently with siInple views of
Mecca, Medina, or Istanbul, covered not only the outer surfaces of the walls and the
arched parts of mosques but also hama Ins , tekijas, and even the interiors and
porches of most domed mosques .
The number "o f such decorations can be inferred more from historical documents than
from discoveries on the site, but according to chroniclers and travelers' records it is
evident that subsequently added layers of mortar or lime hide a rich repository of this
type of pairrtirig. It can be seen nowadays on the walls of the 16th century mosques in
Foca , Sarajevo, Livno, and Mostar.
It is now obvious that decorative painting in l Gth-cerrtury mosques was carried out
a cco r d in g to a tacitly accepted method: the areas of the mosque more closely conn ected with the cult itself were more highly decorated. Inside. the dome was most
e la bo r a t e ly decorated, usually with a large painted rosette, and beneath it the surfaces of corner pendentives or squinches, the front wall facing Mecca, the decoration
becoming richer in and around the mihrab niche, while on the remaining walls the
decoration was mainly limited to sections between windows.

Both styles sprang from the court tradition of painter-decorators who used them in
decorating the walls of sultans' and viziers' palaces, mosques, mausoleums, hamams,
~nd other public buildings, as well as from the famous patterns on faience tiles from
Iznik and textiles from Bursa.
The prayer carpet, the rnihrab , and the minber met the modest requirements for all
types of religious service in a mosque. Being strictly opposed to idol-worship of any
kind, Islam, in contrast to Christianity. does not permit the representation of human
or aniInal shapes and forbids the use of any special objects in the actual ritual.

The Karadjozbegova Mosque. Karadjosbeg, brother of the grand Vizier Rustem-Pasa
(1544-52,1554-61) erected a "m os q u e as his mernortal in 1557. Kodza Mimar Sinan is
cited as the builder. 45 Karadjozbeg had an iInmerse influence on the development of
Mostar, since he built a whole range of structures for public, sacral, and business
uses. He was also connected with the building of the Old Bridge.

Outside, on the porch , the front wall of the mosque had the finest decoration, where,
somettmes both to the left and right of the portal, there were ela borately painted acc essory rnrhra bs. It is generally believed that the painted floral ornaments and particularly the occurrence of entire fruit trees with fruits on the walls of the mosque,
were not accidental or inspired by folklo re, but rather represent a more profound iconography in the fonn of pictorial transpositions of parts of the Qur'an that conjure up
a n cien t Islarnic images of heavenly landscapes.
Although the development of. style in this branch of Islamic art in Bosnia and Hercego vin a cannot be followed with as much certainty as that of architecture and its
s t o ne decorations, it is still possible observe two parallel trends dominating Islamic
decorative painting in the 16th century. One of them tended towards an expressive
stylization of densely painted tiny floral motifs, minute in form , rhythm, and harmony
(the Rumi and Hatay ornaments in the Aladza Mosque in Foca and the Ferhadija
Mosque in Sarajevo), while the other was a more realistic representation of large
plants, even of whole trees , as in the original paintings in the Karadjozbegova Mosque
in Mostar.

The Karadjozbegova Mosque
45

Wall decoration in the AladZa Mosque in Foca

66

The m osque Is c ited In thre e lists of Mim ar Sinan works : Tezklret ul-Bunuyan , No 1-72. Tezklret ulEbnlye No 1-75. a n d Tuhfet ul- Mlmartn No I-52 .

67

The Karadjozbegova mosque was built in the iInmediate vicinity of the bazaar, by the
main road, in an area that was large enough for the whole range of structures usually
built as a complex: mosque, medresa, mekteb, han, and imaret (public kitchen for the
poor). Architecturally, it belongs to the simple domed type , with a porch under three
s mall cupolas, a second porch, and a minaret.Y'The walls, the minaret and all interior
elements are constructed with cutstone. All cupolas are made of liInestone. The central space is walled in by l.lrn thick walls, and makes an almost perfect cube (l0.8 m
by 10.8 In by 10.8 m) vaulted by a dome whose highest point is 16 In from ground
level. Transition from the square bases to the circular tambour is effected by means of
squinches decorated with stalactites with a roken frontal arch and eight wide spherical triangles.

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The Karadjozbegova Mosque: position of wall paintings

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The portal is of an irnposing size and is bordered with an attractively profiled oblong
stone frame. The space over the portal is in the form of an isosceles triangle, used for
an inscription ([arih) identifying the founder of the mosque and the year of construction. Ortar that was used for stone walls was rnade with a high proportion lime so
that, with the passing of time, the whole wall mass turned into rock. Motifs used for
decoration (stalactites, stylized flowers) are typically Ottoman. Frequently we find a
geolnetrical ornament. It is formed by two bands in shallow relief which cross each
other rnaking hexagonal areas and six-pointed stars.

~ c;' ,

I,

The mihra b is highlighted by .a stone frame. The minber is architecturally stmilar to
min bers in this type of mosque. It consists of three principal parts: doorway leading to
a staircase with stone handrails, an upper pyramidal part borne by four octagonal
columns, and triangular structures covering the space under the stalrcase. The
rnahfil is a gallery adjoined to the inner side of the front wall. In the Karadjozbegova
Mosque it rests on four eight-sided columns. The fence around the rnahfil is decorated with rnotifs of six-pointed stars and hexagons.
The interior of the Karadjozbegova Mosque

A high and light porch is supported on the outside by four monolith stone columns.
The capitals of the colurnns are decorated with stalactites. On the porch a transition
from the square base to the circular base of the cupola is made by pendentives. In
front of this porch. another spacious one with a slanting roof was built at a later
date. The entire structure was covered with lead. Adjoining the right front corner of
the central cube is a very slender 34.5rn high fourteen-sided minaret. The minaret's
balcony (sereJet) is decorated with stalactites.
46

The double porch appears in several of Mlmar Sinan's mosques: the Mihrtrnah Sultan Mosque at
Uskudar. in istanbul. built in 1548. the Rustem Pasa Mosque at Tekirdag built in 1553. the Karadjosbegov,] Mosque in Mostar. the Rustern Pasa Mosque at Tahtakale in istanbul built in 1562. and the
Atik Sultan Vallde Mosque in istanbul built in 1583. The interesting fact is that the double porch is
found on Ilve building constructed Jar the family of Rustem-Pasa. See G. Gooodwin: A History qf Ottoman Architecture. London. p . 213 .

68

The the lecturer's chair (curs) is situated in the corner left of the mihrab, It is made of
wood and covered with a rug.
The interior space is lit through five openings on each of the side walls, two on either
side of the portal, three on the mihrab wall, and eight in the dome ring. The lower
windows are rectangular, nicely profiled stone frames with built-in iron bars.
The original wall painting was darnaged during the rernodeling of the mosque in 1909.
On the basis of preserved details, however, it is possible to produce a rough reconstruction of the original decoration, which stems frorn the 16th century and represents the artist's vision of landscape in Eden.
The mosq ue has been continuously in use since its construction. .

69

When first sighted, the tombstones look almost identical. A closer look, however, will
discover differences that soon dispel any impression of monotony. The shape of the
gravestone indicates whether the deceased person was a man or a ~oman and what
his or her profession was. The rnemorial structures were constructed i l l local stone ~y
domestlc rnasters. They reflect strong influences of the pre-Ottornans gravestone In
Bosnia and Hercegovina called stecak.

Wall painting

Memorial Architecture

r-- -- - ' .

An important aspect of Ottoman architecture is related to the Muslim tombstone
called niscu: or ba.stuk: and to the stone mausoleum called turbe. The beauty of these
morrurnerrts is apparent in their finished forms, cutting techniques and a combination of ornarnents and calligraphy. Their specific value stems frorn their unusual location: they are situated close to mosques, busy roads, and even close to the houses
previously occupied by those buried in thern. Muslim graveyards, full of greenery
sharply contrasting with snow-white tombstones of different dimensions and forms,
are irnpressive oases of celestial serenity and earthly beauty.

The Sejh Jujino turbe in Mostar
Nisans

70

71

Turbe. The mausoleums were built by prominent and powerful persons for themselves or someone else. usually for someone of great religious standing. although this
practice is contrary to Islamic teaching. The turbes were built for the purpose of providing isolation and complete peace. They share all the features of the creative process which starts from the spatial concept of a tent to develop into a -d o m ed structure.
They r esemble mosques but are slmpler and do not have a porch.

The most valuable structures are those with a cupola. and an octagonal or a hexagonal ground plan: the turbes of Gazi Husrevbeg and Murat Beg in Sarajevo. and of
Fer hat Pasa in Banja Luka.
The second kind of tur be has four pillars carrying the
two four-pillared turbes at Alifakovac in Sarajevo and
in Sarajevo. With aorne turbes the cupola is made
structed, and serves only to mark the space under it.
jino turbe in Mostar and the turbes in Travnik.

cupola like a canopy. There are
one close to Sinan's tekija, also
of wire rather than fully conThis is the case of the Sejh Ju-

The third kind is represented by the uncovered turbe with perforated walls and lattice-work a s in walls around mosque courtyards. The "roof' of this walled space is a
usually large crown of a tree planted close to the grave inside the wall. The tree and
its crown are considered to be a part of the architecture , and not its external cornplel11ent. 4 7 Turbes of very modest diInensions a re very frequ ent. They are actually s imple tiny
l)( ll1SPS with 8 s ;ld rl lp o r hip r o nf. TI 1l' l11 ;lt ITi . 11 is locn l s to n e . u n ha k e-d brick o r w o or l .

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The turbes of Gazi Husrevbega a nd Murat Bega i n Sarajevo

The Ibrahim Beqouo turbe in Foca, the Sejh Jujino turbe in Mostar, and the Halii. BaSino turbe in
BanjaLuka

72

47

An o u ts ta n d ing exa m p le 01" this

lyp(~

01" m aus oleum is Sil1811 BIJY'S tur be at Ohricl in Ma ce d onia .

73

The Gazi Husreub eqooo: Medresa in Saraj e vo

Medresas. In
Hercegovina ,
Luka. By the
total n um b er

the c o u rs e of the 16th century te n m.d resas were built in Bosnia and
five in Sarajevo. two in Foca, and one in Mostar, Caj nice , and Banja
end of the 17th century 54 new medresas were built. which raised the
to 83. 48

The Gazi Husrevbegova (Kur-s umllja) medreaa in Sarajevo deserves special cornrnerit.
From its founding in 1537 to the end of the 19th century, it was considered the IUOSt
important centre of Is larnic education in the Balkans. Its curriculum included the
three disciplines of a classical university (theology. law, and philosophy) and, in addition to preparing its students for various religious functions, it served as a training
ce n t r e for sharia judges (/cadija). It can be rightfully considered the precursor of today's Univers ity of Sarajevo.

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E d uca t io n a l Facilities
An integral part of the mosque complex was the mekteb, the primary religious school.
Mektebs were built eve ry w he re, but usually next to mahala mosques. The mahala
m ekte.bs were usually small, often one -room buildings. s imilar to residential structures. So m e m ektebs w ere two-storey hous es with s everal r00111S.
Although there were m any of them (about seventy in Sarajevo, for example). not a
s ingle o ne h a s b een pres erved in its original fonn.

74

"

Various locations of the mekteb in relation to the mosque

48

75

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Though a relatively s111a11 building. this medresa is a monument of high artistic value.
Its s mall inner courtyard with its porticos and a sadrvan (water fountain) creates an
interesting contrast to the towering dome and minaret of the ilnposing Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque across the street from the medresa.
A m edresa usually had one lecture hall (dershana) and up to dozen ro01US for boarding students. Some, like the Karadjozbegova in Mostar, also had a library with builtin bookcases. The courtyard is surrounded by porticos leading directly into all the
rOOI11S. each with its own fire-place. The vaulted roofs of the rooms with their tall
c h irn n eys created an orderly ensemble of a unique architectural rhythm. Books were
kept either ill the rnedresa or in a smaller building beside the mosq ue. The dorned
Osrnan Sahcli-efendi library (lcllt.ubhono) near tl1f' Careva Mosque in Sarajevo is a
ty p ica l ex a mplc of this type of library.

One source lists eight rnedresas in Mos tar.f? the Karadjozbegova, the Dervts-Pastna.
the Roznarnedzijina, the Koski Mehrned Pas ina, the Cejvan-cehajina , the Hadzl Balina
and the Buka. They were located close to the mosque of the same name. They were
built of cutstone and were provided with a saddle roof. although the Karadjozbegova
was covered with a row of vaults. In front of the structure toward the courtyard was
the porch. Four medresas in Mostar had public fountains. The largest medresa was
the Roz namedzijina with 10 rOOlUS and 2 lecture halls.

The Koski Mehmed Pas ina Medresa in Mostar, reconstructed in 1979

All these rnedresas have long since ceased to function and all the buildings have disThe Mel uned. Pasa. Kulcaoicina: Mosque with medresa in Foca.

appeared except that of the Karadjozbegova medresa. A large section of the structure
used by the Koski Mehrned Pas ina Medresa was reconstructed in 1979.

The Koski Mehmed Pas ina Medresa in Mostar
The Sisman Agina Medresa in Pobitel]

76

49

S et' l-l.H nsandedjc: Sp om enici kulturc 11lrs1cog cioba 11 Mostaru, Sarajevo 1980.

77

Tekija (tekl{e , dervish lodge) are special buildings used by dervish orders for their ritual a n d as housing for the Sejh (h ead of a dervish group). Beside the house there is
often a sl11a11 graveyard for the order's di gnitaries. S01l1e of t he tekijas even had separate r00 111S o r whole buildings for guests iniusofirh ana) with a free kitchen (imareL).
Mus nflrha n as and Im arets also existed ind ependently from tekijas as s eparate institu ti oris (such as the Ga zi Husrevbegova Musafirhana in Saraj evo), and sornetunes as
a p a rt of a rich person's residential c om p lex,

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The t elcija. at Blagaj
The Sinanova T'elcija. in Sarajevo

7'd

79

Co m m u nal Facilities

Streets and roads. The streets of every city may be likened to a living organisrn, but
with an iInportant dlfference : they are born. they develop , and they grow old, but they
rarely die a full death . They constantly adapt to new life -styles; they change in size
a n d appearance, and especially in their contents . The streets of the Ottoman city can
be divided into roads, streets, lanes and blind alleys . By Widening, streets becarne
squares (mejclan), or market-places (paza r). Musaia is a special square that served for
outdoor prayers.

Different type of streets in Mostar

In the mahalas, we can distinguish one part of the city network with a public charac ter, as a first stage: the public area only for the daily needs of one mahala: it is be tween the approaching road and the housing complex. The next stage starts .a t the
gate of housing complex: circulation continues in the enclosed wall area, ftrst, in the
selamlulc Isemt-prrvate unit), as a buffer zone, and finally : it ends in the liaremluk:
(protection private unlt), a basic unit of the Islamic society. With all intermediate
gates closed, the city resembled a series of boxes, the la r ge r one enclosing the smaller
all protecting the integrity of the respective social units, as well as maintaining a
compact structure of the Ottoman city as a whole .
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S tree t n etwo rk: S a r ajevo

The stre et network is totally integrated in to the u r ban system. Housing com plexes
we re conn ected to t h e bazaar s quare by a large n umbe r of streets, t h e baza a r itself
being the traffic n ucleus fro m which wiele and narrow streets branc hed out in a ll d ire ctions. each w ith s hops of o ne par t icu la r craft.
Th e bazaar a ls o contained all majo r public b uild ings, easily a cc es s ib le t o p e d estrians
and a lw a ys w it h in sight: Because of t h e special social funct ions of thes e buildings ,
t h ey were prote cted with .walls and appropriate gates. Th e inner s pace includ ed m a ny
d iffe re n t elements which emphasized t h e p ublic character of t h es e com p lexes . The
larger bazaar a r ea was a ls o freq ue ntly p rot ected wit h a wall a n d c ontrolled gates for
secu r ity reaso ns .

The stages of traffic network in a mahala

81

Bridges. No matter how much people used river valleys as communication lines, they
often needed to remove the lirnitations to free movement imposed by geographical
obstacles. The bridge, as a rnan -rnade link between two river banks, not only establishes a connection between two geographically divided areas, but also symbolizes the
victory of the human spirit over capricious nature , as well as a primordial social instinct towards cooperation among the people Iivtng in each other's proximity.
Wood and stone were the main materials used in constructing bridges. Bosnia is rich
in wood and Hercegovina is rnainly rocky land. Therefore, the bridges in Hercegovina
were mostly built of stone, and in Bosnia mainly of wood. Their formal features resulted from the nature of the materials used. There were two main types of bridge
structures: the stereothomic vaults built in stone, and the tectonic wooden construction with continuous beams over pillars. According to preserved records, an outstanding bridge of the latter kind was situated near Foca on the Orina river. More complicated, more expensive, and therefore less numerous were stone bridges . Some 50
such bridges , built in Bosnia and Herzegovina between the 15th and .the 19th
century, have been partly or completely preserved to our day.

The Mehmed Pase Solcolouida: Bridge on t he D r ina r iver

Stolae: an example of a simple stone bridge

The 1110St beautiful bridges were created in the second half of the 16th century at the
tune of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent and his grand viziers Rustern-Pasa Hrvat
and Mehmed-Pasa Sokolovic. The latter's bridge on the Orina in Visegrad is a work of
the greatest Ottoman architect Kodza Mimar Sinan, and the Old Bridge in Mostar of
his disciple Mimar Hajrudin. Also from this epoch are the Arslanagtca Bridge near
Trebinje, the bridge near the confluence of the tepa and the Orina rivers, and many
others .

82

The Arslanaqid Bridge on the Trebisnjiea river

Sernicircular or, rarely, pointed arches of these bridges for the most part spanned a
distance of 10-15 m. The span of a very "brave" arch might even be close to 30 meters.
Bridges over wide rivers would consist of several arches (at Buna 14, in Visegrad 11),
while those spanning deep riverbeds would have only one arch. In the lower part
bridges were usually built of resistant limestone, arches are often made of plaster,
and the finishing cornice and fences were of limestone boards. The roadway was
paved with cobblestones, separated by transversal stone thresholds.

83

The big and long bridges sometimes had a stone sofa in the middle, backed by a high
wall in the form of a portal decorated with ornamental patterns and containing ins c r ip t io n s about the construction of the bridge. Simple stone bridges were built by local artists, especially in the latter part of the Ottoman rule in the Balkans.
The Stari Most (Old Bridge) in Mostar, on the river Neretva, gave its name to the city
of Mostar.
It was built in 1556 between two medieval towers on the location of a former wooden
bridge. The architect was Mimar Hajrudin, a disciple and collaborator of Kodza Mirnar
Sinan. The bridge is really one stone arch with a span of 28.70 meters. The supporting vault is 77 ern thick, four meters wide. and its height in summer when the water
is low is about 20 m. Three ribs rest on its vault. a middle one and two at equal distances on either side of it, to support the roadway. The entire construction is thus
c o n s id e r a b ly lightened.

The stone used for the bridge is the local tenelija, a lirnestone of exceptional physical
and chemical qualities. It is used for the entire bridge including the balustrade, and
its sides were cut so smooth that there was no need for an intervening adhesive material. The roadway is made of limestone resistant to the wear of people and animals
crossing the bridge. Pieces of stone were joined to each other by iron clamps and then
filled with lead.
The basic architectural form of the bridge reflects an extraordinary marriage of cons t r u c t io n a l logic and beauty, rnaintained in its original form. The bridge has been an
object of adrniration by people COIning from both East and West: the poet and statesman Dervis-Pasa Bajezidagtc (16th century) compared it to a rainbow. geographer
Hadzi-Kalfa said that its vault "will astonish all masters of the world" , Evlija Celebi,
the famous Ottoman travel-writer said that he "has crossed sixteen empires and has
not seen such a high bridge; the French traveler A. Poulet wrote in 1658 that this
bridge is "more courageous and more iInpressive than the Rialto in Venice".
The bridge was built within the previous ly constructed medieval fortification system
and represents the center of gravity for the entire urban network of Mostar. Some
twenty rnahalas have been built in the area around the bridge. The commercial zone
in its Vicinity makes up the historical core of the city.
The Old Bridge is a monument of exceptional value from an artistic and scientific
point of view, representing a masterpiece of bridge construction and architectural and
landscaping design.

'- ' -' -'-'

The Stari Most in Mostar: the down stream side, sections and urban position

The Stari Most in Mostar

84

85

Water-supply system. In keeping with Islamlc tradition, the Ottomans provided their
cities with water-supply systems of varying capacity. The pipes were made of wood, or
less commonly, ceramic bricks. The aqueduct near Skopje in Macedonia, built in the
6th century and probably enlarged in the 16th century, is the most important Ottoman water supply line in the Balkan region. Of its arches, have been 55 preserved. In
the vicinity of Bar in Montenegro, the remains of two small aqueducts have also been
preserved.
Wooden wheels for transporting water from the river to a higher elevation were frequently used in Hercegovina. In the 17th century a wheel with a water-tower was
built near Pocitelj to carry water to a nearby hamam on the principle of joined plates
with the help of ceramic pipes.

The sadrvan in the courtyard of the Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar

Hamams. The public baths or hamams were irnportant communal facilities that developed in cities provided with good water supply systems. A very small number of
them have been preserved.

Acesma

During the building of the - Old Bridge in Mostar in 1566, a water-supply line was
built by which drinking water was brought from the right to the left bank of the
Neretva with the aid of wooden pipes. From then on "water ran both over and below
the [Old] Bridge as writer Evlija <;elebi recorded. The line then branched out to supply
water to public taps or fountains in town squares, in front of mosques, in the courtyards of caravanserais, and to a number of drinking fountains in the mahalas.
II ,

While drinking fountains were rnostly of sirnple construction, with one or two pipes
from which water ran constantly, the big fountains were built primarily to add to the
decorative splendour of mosques and, from the 17th century onwards, of rich persons houses as well.
I

86

A hamarn included a centrally located anteroom (mejdan or sadrvan), which was used
as a resting place, as a transitional warming-up space (lcapalulc), a bathing
space(halvat), and a furriaceIcuihun). Large hamarns had several halvats, which were
entered through a comrnon anteroom. All of the rooms were lit through openings in
the dome, and all were heated under the floor. Sorne hamams had two separate sections for men and women, while the smaller ones were used by women only on certain days of the week, but when men were excluded.
The Ottomans borrowed the concept of the hamam from the Seljuks, who had in turn
borrowed it from the Arabs. The Arabs had carefully studied the entire cultural heritage of Greece and Rome, so that the Roman termae were in fact at the root of public
baths in the Ottoman State. They eliminated from the tennae plan every room that
was not used for bathing.
The rnost beautiful hamarns were in Sarajevo, Mostar, Stolac, Blagaj, and Pocitelj. Of
the seven harnarns in Sarajevo only the Gazi Husrevbegov has been preserved.

87

........
;I>

........
;I>

--

""

I a sadrvun I b sadrvan 1 kapal uk -

me n 's bath anteroom
women 's bath anteroom

warmed up bathroom r
rnejdan - massage room
halvat - basemen t room
Jell ish poole (for ritual washing)
renifa - lavarorv
hazna - fire-room

Ground plan

culhan -

""

tn

.....

tn
.....

place where ushcs are kept

reconstruction of original state

EAST ELEVATION
~m

The Gazi Husrevbeg Hamam in Sarajevo

A-AKESiTi
~

The Cejvan Begov Hamam in Mostar

Clocktowers. Clocktowers are high towers with clocks in square or, less frequently,
octagonal frames. built as a rule next to the main mosq ue. Only rarely were there two
of them in the aarne town . They appeared in the late 16th century in Skopje, in Banja
Luka, and in the course of the l Zth and 18th centuries in many other settlements.
The clocktower possibly originated under the influence of Italian campaniles. Clocktowers were masstve structures with a square base of 3 -5 meters, and a hight of 1035 meters. In the interior of the clocktower there was a wooden staircase. a clock
mecharusm. and the bell - often a war trophy - which struck the time .
Hamam in Sto Lac

88

The clocktower in Travnik

Twenty c lo ck towers were built in Bosnia and Hercegovina in the Ottoman period: in
Banja Luka (built before 1587 , 19 m high) , Sarajevo (built in the first part of the 17th
c ., 28 In), Mostar (17th c. , 15. In), Pocitelj (before 1664, 16 rnl, Livno (17th c. , 15 rn) ,
Graca ri ic a (17th c ., 27 In) Jaj ce (in one tower of the castle), Prusac (17th c ., 10 m), Tesan] (1703 , 18. In ), Trebinje (18th c., 18 In), Stolac (16th c .), Travnik at Musala,
Travnik at Gornja Cars ija (1758), Gornji Vakuf (18th c ., 9 .00 m '), Donji Vakuf (1720 ,
10 In), Foca (1758 , 20 m) , Maglaj (18th c., 17 m), Prozor, Nevesinje (after 1664, 15m),
Gra dac a c (182 4 . 21.5 m ).

4I

The c lock to wer in Sarajevo,

90

91

Style varied in accordance with the location. For exarnple, clocktowers in Mostar,
Pocitelj, and Trebinje were built under Dalrnatian inf1uence. Some other clocktowers
were styled somewhat like mo n nta in huts and rnanifested Central European influences. In Ottoman days clocks showed the tirne "a la turka", namely with the sunset
falling exactly at 12 o'clock. The unequal hours of daylight during the year required
constant control, so there was usually a small room in the clocktower. or close to it,
with basic astronomic equipment.

Business Facilities

Hans and caravansearais. Hans were large inns where travelers could stay overnight.
They were of various sizes and their outside appearance was not very different from
that of ordinary houses. The rooms for sleeping were usually on the first floor , while.
the ground-floor was used for stables and other auxiliary rooms. Travelers and guests
slept side by side. Bedding was not available and anybody who wanted to have it
would bring his own.
The hans were mainly privately owned and rnanaged in contrast to other public facilities, which were adrnirus tered by vak ufs.
The sirnplest han was an oblong building with a large ir-on gate on one of the two
longer sides. There was a courtyard inside the building for horses and goods. The
roofed structure around the courtyard had a podiurn for sleeping on and several fireplaces on the outer walls. Remnants of such hans are found in Dobrun and Pocitelj.
Much more frequently hans were two-storey structures whose ground floor was reserved for stables, storage of goods, and often a coffee-room. The upstairs consisted of
a large number of rooms around the central corridor (the Kukavicln han in Focal.

..

"

The clocktower in

~lostar

The Kukavii!in han in Foca.

92

93

Large hans in the big trade centers, Invarlably two-storey structures, had a closed, approximately square courtyard, with a fountain in the m.i.ddle. Around this courtyard
were porticos for loading and unloading goods, a storehouse, stables, sleeping rooms,
and a coffee-room. The interior courtyard with porticos about it was borrowed from
Hellenistic architecture. Arabs had adopted this pattern in the Mediterranean countries . They had not only taken over Hellenistic courtyards, but also developed and refined them a rtistically by making spring water available within the architectural ensemble. These innovations spread throughout their huge empire. Seljuks became acquainted with this new type of courtyard in the Persian area, transferred it to Asia
Minor, and successfully incorporated it into their caravanserais . Finally the Ottornans
inherited it frorn the Seljuks.
In Sarajevo the Kolobara-han (151:h century), Tasli-han (15th century) and Moricahan (17th century) we re of this type .

Big hans can be divided into . two groups:(1) a more or less square two-storey structure with a courtyard in its rniddle and upper-floor bedrooms entered through a wide
porch, and (2) an oblong building on pillars with courtyard a underneath it and two
large bedrooms devided by a corridor.
Only the biggest hans were built of stone and were often vaulted. Most of the hans
were built of unbaked bricks in a wooden framework, with wooden floor-constructions
and roof structures.
Ku rs urnli-han in Sarajevo, with two interior courtyards and a two-floored porch, with
riurnero us cupolas over square guest rooms, oriented toward an interior courtyard,
represents the pinnacle of Ottoman monumental public architecture in Bosnia and
Hercegovina. The second biggest preserved caravansearai, the Morica han, is also a
monumental building with regards to its spatial set-up.
In Mostar, the first known han was built by Cejvan-cehaja before 1558. It was located
the in the Kujundziluk. Other well-known hans were: the Karadjozbegov han (built
before 1570) close to his mosque, the Koski-Mehrned Pasatn han. the town's l:::rgest
and, in its time , the most modern in terms of utilities. The Djinovica han, the Sevin
han, the Hindu! han, the Cadrin han, the Lelekov han, the Baltin han, and the han of
the Orthodox parish.
All hans in Bosnia-Herzegovina were closed tmmediately after the Austro-Hungarian
occupation. Afterwards, they were either demolished or adapted for different
purposes.

The Mo dea h an in Sarajevo

94

Hindin. han in Mostar, photo 1946

95

Bezistans. In addition to individual shops and storehouses, special department
stores or b ezislaris were built in big commercial centers. They were used primartly for
selling valuable textiles, and were organized so that every sales man controlled his
own business. Structures of this kind were to be found in Sarajevo (3), Banja Luka (1)
a n d Tra v n ik (2).

- a basilical structure: street covered by a large barrel vault, with small shops on both
sides, also barrel vaulted ( the Gazi Husrevbegov bezistan, with 52 shops, built before
1555).

The bezis t ans in Sarajevo were of t w o main types:
- a single oblong space divided into square sections by coltunns and arches and cove red with do m es (t he Brusa-bezistan in Sarajevo, foundatio n of Rus tern-Pasa. built in
1551); the spatial layout of the Ulu Mosque seems to have served as the m od el fo r
this type o f lv-z is ta n .
5
I

10

IS 10""
I

I

The Gazi Husrevbegov bezistan in Sarajevo

Bezistans were surrounded by massively built storehouses and shops, then entrances
were accentuated by monumental portals.

5
I

The functional link between the wholesale trade, usually carried out in the courtyard
of a han, and retail sale, done in bezistans , is apparent in a structural connection of
the Taslihan with the ' Gazi Husrevbegov bezistan in Sarajevo. The two structures,
connected by a covered passage , represented the commercial center of Sarajevo until
1879.
Sarajevo's third bezistan was built in the second half of the15th century as an endowment of Mehmedbeg, son of Isabeg Isakovic, the founder of Sarajevo. This bezistan was heavily damaged in the fire in 1697, and was totally destroyed in a second
fire in 1842.

The B rusa be z istan in Sarajevo
The beeisian. W ider the $tilejrnanijaMosque in Travnik

96

97

Shops and storehouses iduccu: and magaza) were mostly found in the bazaar itself.
They were built in continuous rows covered by a common roof. and separated by thin.
often wooden partitions. The front side of shops could be closed -by a cepenak; a horizontal double door which was opened in daytime to expose the whole shop to the
street, and whose lower flap served for displaying articles on sale and frequently for
the shop-keeper to sit on. too. As a rule, a customer did not enter a shop. The
cepenak is so typical of Bosnian Ottoman-style shops that the word itself is used
figuratively to refer to bazaar trading in a general sense.

Shops in the Prijecka carsija,Mostar .[Reconstnj.cted layout)

'm
~: ~ il3l1 .

Illl

~I

.

dl

A old shop in Sarajevo

A storehouse (magaza) in contrast to a shop was a massive structure with thick stone
or brick walls, and windows protected by iron gratings and shutters. The door was
also made of iron; the ceiling was a structure of densely lined beams or a stone vault.
There was also a type of shop with a storehouse attached behind it. While storehouse
were used only for keeping goods in storage, shops served for both manufacture and
sale. The combination of the shop with a storehouse behind it was almost the rule for
the bigger shops. which required ample storage space for the articles that could not
be sold at the rate at which they were manufactured.

jZl

1

2.

~

4 "' .

J~
Storehouses in Mostar, at KujundZiluk (the groundj1.oor, facades and sections)

98

99

"The leather-workers sit with legs folded and heads lowered, while they cut and craft
the leather, or work on equipment for horses. Some just cobble footwear and their
shops look more - like household cupboards attached to the genuine shops of true
crafts men. A)J. .of them, together with that narrow street in which they work, typify a
part of the bazaar, living and breathing with it.

The daire was a separate type of commercial stone structures built around a common
courtyard and under a common roof. Access to them was through a vaulted door built
so that a horse with its load could enter. There were no other opening besides this.
There were five daires in Sarajevo.

Eaves on the shops are low and the street is so narrow that it resembles a sheltered
room into which the sunlight and the noises of the market penetrate only occasionally. It is very damp in that narrow street, and there is a damp and still silence, interspersed with the steady pounding of the craftsmen's hammers. Exceptionally a louder
shout can be singled out of a passer-by or of a customer sitting at a shop door leisurely negotiating a purchase and haggling about the price with patience and dignity.
Then there is silence again, only heightened by the well-orchestrated clatter of numero us hammers. The sounds of these blows fly through the air and collide with others or with echoes reverberating from the opposite side of the street. In the end the
sounds all blend and shatter, creating the characteristic resonance of a working day
above that damp and dim narrow street. into which the sun never fully shines.
Two neighbours, leather-workers, sit in their shops, divided only by a wooden partition-wall rnade out of spruce-boards which have been a little disjoined by times. "50

The daire in Sarajevo

Mills were very useful structures. Water-mills were built on all accessible rivers. In
their architectural make-up they were very similar to other small business structures.
The building material used varied according to the climate. Mortar mills were built
usually close to the grain mills. Sorne documents a lso mention windmills b ut they
seem to have been very rare.

The bazaar in Mostar, 1905

50 This is how the Yugoslav writer Iva Andric. the winner of th e 1961 Nobel Prize for lit erature. describes the
a tm os p her e or small shops in the bazaar in Sarajevo.

Water-mills on the Radobolja river in the bazaar of Mostar

100

lO!

Bakeries were special business facilities whose ovens occupied the space of a large .
room. Bakeries built further away from the bazaar were often an integral part of a
dwelling. Their number closely corresponded to the number of mahalas in an urban
settlernent.>!

IV
H O USING

A house is more than a human residence with one or more rooms. It is also ·one of
rnan's basic means of survival and, on the psychological plane, a symbolic expression
of the cultural and personal self. 52 Islamic architecture aimed to bring men into a
hannonious relationship with his environment on all levels. First and basic was the
level of the room. which provided the necessary privacy. The second was the housing
cornplex, i.e., the house with all other structures and outdoor spaces which belonged
to a household. The third was the area of the bazaar, and the last, fourth level was
that of the city, with its numerous aspects and possibilities.

dCf<:';:~~~~~~
tm~

llij

§3§3 .

E=3EEBBE ~·

fI
[Q

bakery
oven

I

~

passage
hamerluk (place for
kncading bread)

·,Iillill!

anteroom

lavatory
verandah with
stairs and balcony
kitchen
room

Due to the irnportance of family as the basic social unit of an Islamic community, the
farnily house was made the basic structural cell of an urban settlement. It is a closed
unit, turned to itself. Its occupants' almost mystical attachment to it was largely responsible for the remarkable cohesion of family life in the Bosnian Islamic society.
A Balkan - Muslim dwelling is a complex composed of three parts:
1. the house per se,
2. the courtyard (avllja) with a ~itchen (mutjalc), a wood-shed, a toilet, a stable
(ahar) for a cow or a horse, a pantry, a drinking fountain, a pergola: and often a
flower garden,
3. a vegetable and fruit garden ibasca), with a lawn, a small pavillion, and,
.possibly, running water.

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The residential complex: basic structures
Houses with bakeries in Sarajevo
(after D. Grabriajan)
51 See Mililar-statistische Uebersicht von Bosnteii

1111([

Herzegovina . Wien 1881.

102

52

Here we present a picture of a typical Ottoman-Islamic city house. A village house. though different,
still shared many characteristic features of its urban counterpart. See Muhamed Kadld: Starinska
seosJca kuca II Bili (The Old Village House in Bosnia-and Hercegovina). Sarajevo 1957.

103

The entrance gate into the family courtyard was a barrier against impurities, because
of the great concern for hygiene in the dwelling section. The way from mud-covered
streets into that section was across the stone-paved courtyard, which was always
kept immaculately clean. Anything that was in any way impure was kept strictly out
of the house proper and located in the avlija. Nevertheless, the courtyard area was
very rationally used so that there was no hard and fast border between the house and
the courtyard, especially in the more modest dwellings.
J

H

D"II'c'I •. n ' uIly.l ul "r
U l ll rly•• ,, 1

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--fo_ _

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The residential complex: principles of spatial-organization

Access to the housing complex and movement through it were determined by the location of the doors and gates. The courtyard (avlija)was regularly separated from the
street by a thick wall were the main door called Jcapija, was located, the link between
the world of one's family and the outside world. Another function of the wall and the
kapija was to prevent strangers from upsetting the privacy of family life. In the larger
housing cornplexes there were two courtyards: an "economic" one, oriented to dealings with the outside world, and a more intimate family courtyard. They were also referred to as the the "male" and the "female" courtyard respectively. A large number of
rnediurn-size and small housing complexes also had a space known as araluJc between the outside kapija and the door to the courtyard, roofed by the first floor of the
house . It was , in fact, a modest version of the economic courtyard.
Auxiliary structures were usually attached to the courtyard wall, which were therefore built quite thick. An alternative was to make the kapija the door to an auxiliary
structure through which one passed in order to go to the courtyard.
In the economic courtyard the most important structure was the stable with its hay
loft. The rnain facilities in the "female" or family courtyard were the kitchen, tl .e
drinking fountain, and the toilet.

c

B

A

o

E

Courtyard: the Alajbeqouica. house in Mostar
d ur k: house and Slain,
l i~hl: coun yurd
C.hHICU : communicat ion . san itarv

and kitchen space)

F

H

G

.

The kitchen in the courtyard , used rnostly in sumrner, was a small room with a
hearth, which either did or did not have a chimney, and a number of shelves and
wooden chests for storage. An auxiliary pantry (ciler) was close to the kitchen or the
storeroorn.

Householdfacilities in the courtyard (After D.Grabrijan)

If water was brought up to the house, the tap (cesma) with a stone trough underneath
it was usually placed between the kitchen and the toilet so that the clean water used
for cooking and washing would later drain out through the toilet and wash it. The
kapija was sometimes located so as to isolate the drinking fountatn from the toilet,
which in turn, was placed closer to the garden

104

105

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cn u anc~

a:

laval or )·

I

__

~-=='~~

Courtyard of the Karabegova house in Mostar
1

D

E

F

G

i~ C~;~;,iill
An example of the kapija,

Courtyard of the Biscevica house in Mostar

and position of the kapija in relation to the house

106

107

!.,'

H

Gardens are an integral part of the Islamic residential culture. as well as a form 'of artistic expression. They originated as a kind 'of relief from the harsh environment of
Arabia. and are often described in religious writings as the earthly reflection of paradise .
.
The sirnilarity of the gardens throughout the Islamic world provides additional support to claims about the unified character of Islamic art. The cult of the garden had a
strong influence on all types of decorative art.
The gardens of the rich differed from those of the less rich only in size, and they were
an equal source of refreshment and joy to all. Wherever possible, running water was
brought into the garden.
In Mostar, gardens developed under different conditions on the two banks of the
Neretva river. On the West bank. the Radobolja tributary was used to bring water to
the houses. which enabled abundant vegetation in the gardens. On the East bank,
however. water was gathered in cisterns and, in consequence. the gardens were more
modest.

Origin and Development of the House
The basic conception of the Ottoman-Anatolian house, begun inside
the Ottornan State, has spread over a period of almost 500 years to
Europe and Asia and has survived up to the present. During this time,
tered varying influences. Nevertheless certain fundamental principles
plied almost everywhere. 53

the borders of
a vast area of
it has encounhave been ap-

Due to the extensive utilization of non-durable construction materials (e.g. wood. unbaked brick), houses were rather short-lived. Most of the ones preserved to our day
are less than 150 years old.
Throughout history. these houses maintained a characteristic style largely fashioned
by requirements of the Islamic way of life. In the wake of the Ottoman conquest this
style spread to Europe and established itself in certain parts of what are today Serbia,
Bosnia and Hercegovina. Macedonia. Bulgaria. and Greece. In the course of time it
developed new characteristics and absorbed some foreign traits. From the 15th and
16th centuries onward, the Ottoman type of house supplanted all other existing types
wherever Ottoman Turkish settlernents or local communities amenable to Ottoman
culture were found. It is not easy to define these areas precisely, for apart from the ,
existence of concentrated settlements. there were areas where infiltrations only had
occurred and, in some provinces. the Ottoman style rnade no more than a passing or
superficial impression.

In the Aegean islands, where the Ottomans had established themselves, the influence
of the Anatolian house made itself felt to a degree but was restricted to the use of
typical decorative motifs. On the other hand. the style of the typical house in the big
cities was entirely Anatolian. In the 17th century the houses of Istanbul and Edirne
were the standard models which were copied everywhere in the Near East and in the
south-east of Europe.
Even in the 19th century when the Ottoman Empire was already falling into decline.
the pervading influence of the Turkish house did not come to an end. In that period.
the houses and settlernents in territories which were gradually being severed frorn the
Empire were beginning to fall into ruins.
There are Muslim districts and settlernents which have remained largely untouched
by new developments and have therefore succeeded in retaining their former aspect.
Such settlernents have been used here as sources of typical models of Ottornan
houses.
The house has undergone many stages of development in the course of five centuries.
As can be expected. different types of houses were produced in the different regions
where the Ottoman style penetrated and took root. but where land. climate, and folklore were so dissimilar. These differences arose from the use of local building material, from different weather conditions, as well as from assimilation of local customs
peculiar to each region. It is a remarkable fact, however , that houses which were
hundreds of kilometers away from each other and which were built under vastly different conditions share a common basic plan. It is this plan that will be the focus of
our attention.
The house originating in Anatolia had two main components: individual well-defined
rooms, and roofed spaces (hajat) adjoining one or more rooms.
The Anatolian Turkish house bears some irnportant marks of the "removable. portable
tents of the nomads. " 5 4

In the eastward and Southward directions. however, the Ottoman house did not proceed fu rthei; than the Anatolian frontier. The Persian type of house which extended
from the Caucasus to Iraq and Arabia and the "Arab house" which predominated in
Syria set a lirnit to the expansion of the Ottoman type. Beyond this limit. we fmd only
individual locations in which the Turkish influence is clearly visible.

5

A tent and a room compared with regard. to layout and use
(after 6. Ku~ukerman)
53

In his book 'Tiirt'£ rJi, Osmanli 'DiiT,cmi, I-III. (istanbul 1984-87). Sedad Hakki Eidem claims that the Ottoman house reflects an
Anatolian origin but that, in its spread to other parts of the world, it absorbed many foreign elements.

108

54

This th esis is ela bo ra ted in several works. particularly in Onder Kucukerrnaris The Turkish 'Ho us e in
Search of Spatial Identity. published in istanbul in 1991.

109

The main factors which have characterized the different types of houses can be classilled as follows:
'
1. The climate (continental or Mediterranean) or, lnore specillcally, the amount and
type of precipitation (affecting the selection of roof type), and the topographic conditions.

Like the tents of the ' nomadic period, each romn could at any time be made into a
dining room, a bedroom. or a work-room. This flexibility was enabled by a kind of
partitioned closet (musandera) built along one of the walls. with a section for the
mattresses and bedding (duseJcluJc), a storage section with bookshelves (dolaf) , and a
wash-closet (banjica or hamamdziks next to an earthenware stove. The outside wall of
the stove had a concave space for keeping a bucket with water, which was heated
when the fire was burning in the stove. Such multi-purpose rooms, multiplled in a
systemlc way, produced the basic design of an Ottoman house.
The internal organization and the formation of the rooms were closely related to the
structure of the building as a whole, which, while determining the external features
such as windows, doors, and size of the rooms, did not affect the fundamental principles of the organization of the interior space.
The main feature which links the different types of houses is the layout of the different parts. The Ottoman house usually consists of two floors . Even though there are
cases where a house has several floors, never does it have more than one main floor.
The other floors are usually used for auxiliary purposes. The main spaces for living
and receiving guests are always located on the upper floor. When there is only one
floor, it is always raised above the ground to protect it against humidity. Pillars were
often used for lifting the house off the ground, so that the space below remained

empty.

The house was divided into a harernluk: - the private section for family use, also referred to as the "women's" section, and a selamluJc - the part nearer the entrance
where guests were welcomed and business discussed, also known as the "men's" part.
This division originates from the tendency of separating the interior spaces of an Otroman house from the outside world as well as from the Islamic custom of keeping the
womenfolk away from adult male strangers. In the larger houses the haremluk and
the selarnluk were two separate structures linked by an inner courtyard. In the case
of small houses, the men's section consisted of only one or two rooms in the part of
the house nearer the street. The two-fold division did not influence the general character of the house as it mainly concerned only the use of the rooms.

Different arrangements of the three basic elements of the Ottoman house - rooms,
halls and staircases - produce the following different types of house plans:
The climatic zones in Bosnia and Hercegovina

2. Geological features and type of soil, affecting the selection of building material.
3. Social conditions and type of economy in individual regions, as well as their relative wealth. A wealthy city saw rapid changes as old houses were superseded by new
ones reflecting the spirit of the new times.
In the basic design of the Turkish house, the hall had a special significance. It was
the commonly shared space which connected all the rooms issuing onto it. As well as
providing easy access to the rooms, it served as a gathering place for the entire family.
The parts of the hall which were out of the way had sofas and benches for sitting. On
the other hand, each room was designed so that it could serve any purpose of day-today living,

110

A: The type without a hall. This is the sitnplest type, consisting of one or more rooms
in a row, with an entrance from the courtyard or the street. This type occurs mostly in
the south~rn parts and was not widely used.

B: The type with an outside hall. This type represents the first step in the development of the original Ottoman house. The covered hall connects the rooms with one
another. This arrangement had been taken over from the Hittites and the Greeks, but
the Ottomans made adjustments to suit their particular needs. Thus, the hall is open,
with pillars instead of walls. This open hall can be found even today, in the form of a
gallely, in the wanner areas. There are riurnerous subtypes, depending on the number of rooms.

111

t '1

n
~

This was a very popular model, especially in Istanbul during the second half of the
18th and the first half of the 19th century. After this period , it begins to decline because of its over elaborate and costly ornateness. This type can be subcategorized ac- '
cording to whether the hall was closed on all four sides or not, wether the staircase
was in the alcove between rO~Ins or at the side of the hall, according to the number of
alcoves and staircases , the size and contour of the hall.

r-

:-

H
Il

...

A

c

a

In addition to the four types of the house described above, there were housing structures which combined elements from two or more of the four types. Such combinations, however , were rather rare as they required great architectural knowledge and
skills.

D
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"~
" ='-1
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Basic types of house plan

(After S. H. Eldem)

SAFRAf\.3BOLU

C: The type with an inside hall. This type represents a further important step in the
development of the house plan and is the most common type in the Ottoman State. It
is also referred to as the "two-sided" type because it originated from the addition of
other r oo rn s on the outward side of the open hall.

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The inside-hall type was a great improvement from the point of view of economy and
hygiene. The hall is now sheltered; communicatton between the rooms is much eas ier , t h ou gh at the expense of a direct contact with nature. TIllS type was present
mostly in the cities, where spatial economy began to be a factor in the process of town
planning. In the early variants of this type the hall was only a space open on two
sides with a roof set on pillars. In the later variants these openings were closed with
glass panels. The hall was usually provided with wooden sofas on two opposite sides.
Alcoves as additions to halls can be found in some houses of this type. .They are
mos tly found between two adjacent rooms and were meant to enlarge the space of the
hall as well as to provide a rest from t h e square shape of the hall. The staircase was
placed either in an alcove or at one of two sides of the hall.
A subclassification of the inside-hall type of the house can thus be based on whether
there is an additional hall , one or two alcoves, or on the shape of the hall.
0: The type with a central hall. This type represents the last phase in the development of the Ottoman house . The hall tsIocated in the center of the house and the
rooms are on all four sides. This layout completely protected the hall from damage
that might have been caused by the weather.

112

Houses in different: regions of the Balkan Peninsula
Safranbolu, Turkey (after R. Gunay), and Sarajevo, Bosnia (after D. Grabrijan)

113

Cr.:>.=.T

EP' R. GREeCE

PLOVOI V.8UQARSKA
C'AJA <0

S'CORO floor

.o.PYrII cnpar

FAt Ad'

TETO\lO,

MAKE.Do~r JA

Flpun cnpar

OHR ID.

MACEDONIA

FACid'

.

DJAKOVIC~ ,

KOSOVO

BELGRJ:\DE, SERBIA

Houses in dWe'·"'. . r regions of the Balkan Perun suto

Houses in different: regions of the Balkan Peninsula

Plovdiv, Bugarska, Tetovo, Macedonia, and Djakovica, Kosovo
(after B. Kojie5)

Epirus, Greece, Ohrid, Macedonia, and Belgrade, Serbia
(after B. Kojic)

114

115

Of all the houses observed, it is the Kolakovica house at Blagaj that best illustrates
the d evelopment of the Ottoman-Bosnian house. What was first a s imple room-hallro om house built in t h e 17th century was later considerably enlarged by the addition
of a big and a s m all room with projecting bay windows (casa le). As a result of this enlargernent, t h e h a ll of the house assumed a cross-like s hape , whose one end widened
t o cr ea t e a veranda. The East side of the hall was connected to the family part of the
house. The house with an aralule, may be considered as a separate subtype. It was
quite frequent in parts of the town close to the Neretva.
As there was no division of rooms according to function, it was possible to make a
house bigger s imply by adding more rooms to it. Thus, the difference between a poor
family's house and one owned by a wealthy family was not in the basic concept but
rather in the number of rooms and the size of the house. Furthermore, a rich family
might have a summer and a winter house within the same complex or, in a single
str uct u re. s eparate sections for the family and guests.

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Development of the house in Mostar
A survey of the Kajtazova House in Mostar

118

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119

to~te1.

Fu nc tional division of the House
Multipurpose ro om. The basic unit of the Ottoman house is the multifunctio nal
roo m. Flexible use of a single roorn, without heavy fu r n it u r e and ltmtta t to ris as to seasonal occupancy, is the m a in c haracteristic of an O tto mari -Bos riian d welling.
There was as a rule, no movable furniture in the roo m. Instead , t h ere were t w o fix tures: a wooden int e r n a lly p a rtit io n e d closet a lo ng o ne of t he w a lls (musandera), and
a w ooden built-in sofa covered with matt resaes ts ecija ; against o ne, t w o o r even t hree
walls. It was this basic set-up that e nabled a flex ible utilization of t he r OGlU.

/'

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5

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The Kajtazova House in Mostar

120

~
~
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2

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The rnu sariclera is fixed onto the wall with the door in it, opposite the one with windows. The partition of the musandera next to the door is usually the dolo], a cup board. closed by a door for storing small objects. Next to it is the ciueekluk: the place
Jar keeping the bedding during the day. Under the dusekluk and the dolaf there is a
c u p b o a r d with shelves on which dishes are kept. Then comes the 1110St Important part
of the musaridera , the ho matncizik: ('little bathroom') situated i.n its corner and separated from the room by a door reaching up to the ceiling. The floor of the harnarndztk
is made of wood and stone. sloping down toward a little drainpipe. Next to this small
bathroom is the furnace used for heating the roOlU. The furnace is shaped so that a
large copper vessel filled with water can be placed on it. The heated water was
scooped out with a big ladle (/cevce) or poured into an engraved copper jug (ibrUc) to be
used for bathi.ng. The bathroom is very important for personal hygiene. which is
strictly regulated in Is lam (e.g.. a rnarried couple should always have access to a
bathroom), If there was a 'fir e p la c e (aclialc) in the room. water was heated there and
hro ught to the lrarnarndz.lk.

121

Houses in Mostar

The town of Mostar is of average size and is suitable for observing the development of
the Ottoman house in t his area because , in addition to the main impact deriving from
t h e center of the E mpire, it m a y be used to illu s t rate local, indigenous influences from
Dalmatia and Dubrovnik, only several dozen kilometers south of Mostar.
The systematic observations reported in t h is section were made in the period b~tween
1979 and 1991. It should be pointed out t h a t during the last hundred years or so , t he
largest n u m b e r of old houses w ere demolished or ruined so that o ur description of the
hous e may not be as complete as we should like it to be. The important thing, however , is that the observations were made before t h e beginning of the c urrent hostilities
in Bosnia a nd Hercegovina, which means that then may be used fo r restoration and
reconstruction a ft e r t he w ar.

1

Our description is based all. an exarniriation of the following: all housing structures in
the Old Town. area and several structures in other parts of the city (Bjelustne, Luka,
Donja Mahala. Cernica, Carina, and Brankovac). Three housing complexes were observed at Blagaj and two at Buna, small townships in the vicinity of Mostar.
Although nearly all the structures described are t w o -s t o ry houses, this does not mean
t h a t single-floor structures did not exist. The core of all structures investigated , however. is the same: one room adjoined to an open hall on the ground floo r, w ith the
firs t floor b eing a replica of the gro~lnd floor.
The next step in d evelopment is the addition of another room all. the ground floor in a
s y m rn e t r tca l relation to the hall, the first floor being again a r e p lic a of the floo r be neath it.
At a later stage the favored house plan was a large square d ivided into four m ore or
less square spaces: three rooms adjoined a hall, located on the courtyard side of t h e
house. The rOOI11 all. the far side of the hall was smaller than the others to make s pace
for the door to the room located diagonally in relation to the hall. The same layout
was again repeated on the first floor.

I
I

B

i

1.2

1.1

In a subtype of this plan the ground floor room diagonal to the hall functioned as the
kitchen . while the same room on the first floor was used for smoking meat a nd fruits
frOI11 the srnoke generated by the kitchen fire downstairs.

1.3

2

2.1

2.2

2 .3

4.2

4.3

In the n ext developrnerrt the hall was closed off on its third side by a new room. A
1110re complex variant is when the closet room (tiler or liud.zera.; is at the back of the
h all. A s eparate stage in the development of this type of of house is represented by the
duplication of the base room-hall-room, which produced a deep hall with two rooms
o n e it he r side. The space of the upper level of the hall facing the avlija was u s e d as
jazlulc or Icarnerija (a type of veranda used especially on summer nights).

3
O

A

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I

E

II

A

3.1

4

4.1

5

B

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5.1

5.2

De velopme n t of t he h o u s e comp le x i n Mo s t a r

116

-

-

.

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5.3

The Kolakovica house at Blagaj

117

Korub.ll,V.logiC»
hlujic. Had£iom.r.....

icA

The sccija is placed usually against two, but often against three walls. The width of
the secija is 80-90 ern and its height is 20-50 CIn. It is basically a wooden sofa, covered with a straw mattress (mincler) on which are placed cushions filled with wool
(siUe). Thick straw-filled pillows. placed upright against the wall, are used as the back
of the secija. The jatnbezi, a long band of fine white linen with embroidered often zigzag edges, is placed over the top of the back pillows as a decoration. The seat of the
secija is covered by a piece of linen or cloth. or a rug with an attractive design. The
matertals used for covering the sccija are always highly embellie hed.

M"mino~ica,

KoloNoVico•...

homondiik,bonjic·o.
duhklUk

_

dolo!
. ~~~

_ o d to ~

KojlOIOYQ

The top of the musaridera reached to about 20-30 CIn below the ceiling. It was used
as a shelf (rqn on which decorative copper dishes were kept and fragrant fruits dried
in wintertime. At about the same height silnilarly decorated shelves were usually fixed
onto the other walls of the room as well. There were also one or more smaller built-in
clolafs in the room, in addition to the one in the rnusandera.
In Muslirn houses there was also a washstand tobdesilulci used for ablutions, obligatory before the daily prayers, recitmg the Qur'an, etc .... It was usually located in a
separate alcove in the hall and has its own outlet for used water.

Secija

Musandera

The rooms fireplace, dolaf and raf

122

12J

A house was often occupied by an extended family consisting of several rnarrted
brothers and their children. The Ottoman multipurpose room enabled individual nuclear Ia milies to maintain their independence and privacy as the room contained everything needed for day-to-day living.

' --

.~ - ._'"":::< - _/. /~ -----....--- -....-.-

.--

~,

It is interesting to note that many of the old houses are still used for living and that
the old fixtures in the rooms are functional even today. Only the hamamdzik is often
converted into a moderri shower bathroom.
ii

\

! .

The eathernware stove close to the hamamdeik:

A room in the Bisceoica house in Mostcir

Chimneys

124

]25

The hall. The conunon space in the house used by all members of the extended farnily was the hall or liajat: It is in fact, one spatial 'e n t ity spread over two floors with a
connecting staircase, placed by the wall opposite the open part of the hajat.

A part of the first floor haja: which was not usually walked on was raised about a foot
abovea floor level and made into a veranda called a yazlulc (from Turkish yaz
's umrner) or kamerija (from Arabic al leamer 'the moon'), As can be seen from its two
names. this space was used for relaxation and socializing in the summer, especially
on 11100nlit nights. The jazluk was often partly closed on the outside by a tnitsebak: - a '
lattice structure of criss-crossing diagonally laid slats. Because of the warm climate of
Hercegovina the jazluk in this, area was generally larger and more ornate.
One of the basic functions of the hajat was to provide a pleasant view which would
enC0111paSS as much of the surrounding area as possible.

Furniture and Household Equipment

The most beautiful pieces of furniture have been damaged in the last hundred years
so that collecting and evaluating this aspect of Ottoman housing culture in Bosnia
and Hercegovina has been rather difficult.
Furniture and household items in general developed under the influence of the aarne
factors which conditioned the layout of the house as well as its spatial and formal
features. For example, sleeping on mattresses spread over the floor and sitting on the
secija required the windows to be low, so that the overall horizon beca rne lower. Also
the rOOI11 height was generally only 210 to 230 ern, which caused the door to be quite
low. The rooms on the upper floor were usually higher and bigger. Because of the low
ceiling, however, all the rooms looked larger and I110re spacious.
Various household items were stored mostly in the musandera, especially in the dolaf
rind on the raf.
People sat on the secija or on the floor, often using the sille to sit on. At mealtime everybody sat around a very low wooden table ieintja or soJra), which, when not in use,
was hung on the wall of the hajat or was put in the rnutfak.

The room interior in the Velagica house at Blagaj

The hajat: staircase in the Cisica house in Mostar and the upper floor in
the Kajtazova house in Mostar

126

VVOIl1en'S clothes were stored in wooden chests (sahara), kept either in the rnultlpurpose room or In a closet room called ciler or hucizera, Men's clothes were placed over
the pole (srg) in the room or in the upper part and covered with a sheet to protect
them from dust.

127

All wooden fixtures in the interior of rich persons' houses were decorated with ornamental carvings. The motifs were most frequently drawn from the local tradition in
the art of wood carving. It is worthy of note that furniture with traditional carving is
still kept as a mark of distinction, even in modern houses and flats.

The following containers were used for water: iestija, an earthenware pitcher with a
spout, djuqurn. and ibrik; a big and small copper container shaped like a pitcher, the
small one with a narrow curved spout, and ledjen, a copper wash-basin with a lid.
Turkish coffee was made in a cizezoa, a small metal (usually copper) pot with a long
handle, or sometimes in a small ibrik: (see above), and drunk out of e fild ain, a small
enamel cup without a handle. The coffee was served on a sometimes very ornate tray
called a iabak; Many well-off familles owned a mangala, a big copper bowl fitted on an
often highly ornarnerited copper stand. The bowl could be filled with burning charco~l
to make coffee on or to keep it warm as well as to generate some heat; when not In
use the marigala was kept in the middle of the rOOIn as the most important decorative
piece.
Kitchen utensils included the pothook , a kettle, a copper cauldron ibakrac'; a three
legged iron support for the kettle (sacliale), a grill, cooking pots and pans, coal and
cooking tongs. a dough tray, ladles, copper plates with lids (sahan), milk and SOllP
bowls (casa), round baking copper pans (lepsija) , a large and round copper tray for
serving food (demirlija), and an iron pan for baking bread (sac).

128

Furniture: chairs

Burning pinewood, an oil lamp made of sheet metal, oil cans, and candles on a candlesticks were used for lighting. These utensils are not found in today's houses, except for a small number kept as souvenirs and objects d'art.
The main entrance door (lcapija) is a very important element of the house from a
functional and decorative point of view. The kapija was usually a large double door
big enough for a horse with a load to go through. It consisted of a structural skeleton
- a frame built in the wall and one or more separate flaps, each with own frame
crossed by two or three horizontal bars. The inidividual flaps were made of vertical
panels fastened to the crossbars by big nails whose enlarged heads, densely lined up
prod uce an impression of great safety.

129

New motifs were brought from the East, especially from Persia and other parts of the
vast Ottoman Empire. Each workshop did something distinctive, which encouraged
people to decorate different rooms with carpets of different designs. This practice
continued after the Ottoman rule , and people in Bosnia and Hercegovina are still very
particular in their choice of carpets.
Popular embroidery usually represents the most characterisitic art of an ethnic group.
It was specially developed in Muslim families, both with regard to quantity and vari-

ety, because Mus lim women mostly stayed at home, and embrotdering was the most
COI1UllOn way of passing the time. Almost every piece of fabric or cloth regularly used
was ernbro idered.
Plant motifs are the most frequent patterns embroidered in Bosnia and Hercegovina. They
represent many varieties of flowers with a "source" flower in the middle . Animal figures are also found, though they are not so common. Urban embroided ornaments
borrowed from typical folk elements but made them more elaborate and 'r e gu la r. The
naive symmetry of rural embroidery was enhanced by a simple adaptation of the embroidery technique in accordance with the material. Urban embroidery represents a
lyric expression of the spiritual superstructure of the urban milieu. Embroidery is
also applied to write Qur'anic verses in sophisticated calligraphy on pieces of fabric
that were framed and hung on walls much like paintings in Western houses.
Wood was used for almost all elements of the interior: doors and windows, shutters,
Inusanderas, musebaks, wall panelling, floors , ceiling, chests.
Decorative wood-carving was done on numerous varieties of wood (beech, walnut,
linden, maple , fir), with many different motifs (purely geometric, floral, calligraphic),
and using different techniques. Wood-carving had a very rich tradition in this area before the arrival of the Ottomans. During their dominance, however , this tradition was
enriched by influences coming from the larger Mediterranean area.
Different kinds of the kapija

A special kind of door is the ceJcnle dolo], a movable cupboard for passing from the
men's to the women's part of the house. In all. the housing complexes that we have
o b se rved there was only one example of this gate , in the house of the Kolakovica family at Blagaj.

Glass, crystal and ceramic articles were not produced in this area. They were usually
acquired in Istanbul, though some were of Western origin, too, and were iInported by
merchants from Dubrovnik.
Burning pieces of pinewood , oil lamps made of sheet metal, and candles on a candlesticks were used for lighting. These utensils are not found in today's houses, except for fragrant pinewood, which is sometimes used during religious ceremonies.

The door between the courtyard and the garden is called a 1capidzilc ('srnall door'). It
was particularly frequent in the houses close to the Buna and Radobolja rivers.

Influences and Relationships
Decoration commonly consisted of stylized floral motifs which covered most surfaces
of the house open to view, in some cases through repetition or interlacing. There are
a ls o many examples of calligraphy used for decorative purposes. Drawings aim at
symmetry based on an ornamental net and are often made of a simple unbroken line.
Fabrics were the most frequent domestic handicraft products, which had both a
practical and a decorative purpose. They included carpets, rugs, quilts, mattress cove rs, pillow cases, and towels.
.

Islamic influences. Muslims have .been in the majorrty in the Bosnian popialation
ever since the first decade of the 16th century. Islam has had a strong impact on all
aspects of life in Bosnia and Hercegovina. but it is in the area of housing that its influence has been the most conspicious.

Carpets covered the floors of the rooms completely. Carpet weaving had been a well
developed craft in Bosnia even in the pre-Ottoman period but gained mo rneritum
during Ottoman times.

Islam also brought with it a new relationship between housing and outside space. The
house is a genuine sanctuary which must be cherished with utmost care. It is above
all the domain of the woman , whom Islam tends to separate from public and commercial life, thus protecting her from the outer world. It is also a relatively autonomotis unit both from a social and a religious point of view, because every household
master is like an imam to his family. This is reflected directly in architecture.

130

131

A house was closed to the view of the people in the street, because both women were
hidden from strangers and for reasons of hygiene. In the bigger housing complexes
there were usually two courtyards: an "economic" one and a second intimate family
courtyard .
In an Is larnic society every dwelling and every other clean place is, in principle, a potential place of worship, and may be used in the manner of a mosque. This means
that architecture in general and all decorative arts and crafts have a religious aspect.
Is larn's prohibition of the presentation of hurnan figures in the visual arts has been
no doubt responsible for the unprecedented flowering of decorative art, which was
applied to almost every artifact and to all the spaces within the iInmediate human
environrnen t.
Is lam brought to the Bosnian house the abdestluJc (place for ablutions) and the liamamd iik: (small bathroom).

The warm climate with its balmy air in the southern parts of Bosnia and Hercegovina
made it possible to transfer many of the house functions to the courtyard, as was
done in many other Mediterranean and eastern countries. Thus, Ottoman-Islamic and
indigenous aspects of living intermingled with Mediterranean influences to create a
unique new way of life.

Relation with nature. A house was fitted into its natural environment by the use of
local building materials combined with remarkable skill in a harmonious ensemble.
The house was horizontally placed so as to follow the contours of surrounding roads,
while always respecting the neighbor's right to a pleasant view. Care was also taken
to have the house surrounded by plenty of greenery as well as to locate it in an area
accentuated by a minaret, preferably among tall pine trees.

"On e day the owner of the neighboring garden brought a carpenter to the site and told
hun to build a house.
They stopped on a spot where the ground sloped gently downwards. The carpenter
had a look at the trees , the ground, and the town in the valley. Then he proceeded to
extract aome pegs from his tool-bag, paced off the distances , and marked them with
the pegs.
Thus he carne to his main task. He asked the owner which trees might be sacrificed,
moved the pegs for a few feet, nodded and seemed satisfied. He found that the new
house would not obstruct the view of the valley from the neighboring structures.
Then the carpenter reflected whether the new house would have enough light and
sun. When he found that the east wall of the house would be far enough, from the
neighboring structure, he proceeded to examine the site for water. There was a spring
nearby but the ground was inclined and he said that water would do no harm to the
house. Having satisfied hirnself on all these points, he concluded his reasoning by
saying that he was willing to erect the house. In view of the above we must ask: what
is the use of a drawing board ?"55
If water was in the vicinity an approach was built to it and, if possible, it was drawn
up to one's garden (as in the gardens along the Radobolja in Mostar) or even within
the house complex (as in theVelagica house at Blagaj).
Great efforts were made to fit the house into its natural surroundings, which were
somettmes blended into the house complex as its integral part. In this process of
blending, however, nature was left untouched and was caught as if by a net in the
spaces of the house, producing a high degree of unity.

Ottoman houses in different parts of the Balkans. The creation of the Ottoman
Balkan house was influenced by the already existing houses and their elements,
which originated with the coming of the Slavs to the Balkan peninsula and which developed further under local influences. The Slavs brought their own conception of the
house, dominated by the log cabin; their way of life and their social organization; their
own building materials and construction techniques. They then adapted all these to
the Illyrian and Roman conceptions and methods which they encountered in the Balkans and which had, in turn, already been adapted 't o the previous ly existing local
conditions.
Since the Ottoman State covered most of the territory of the Balkan peninsula, inhabited by different ethnic group with their different cultures, the Ottoman building
tradition was variously influenced by the various indigenous cultures. In the northern and northwestern parts Western and Central European influences are amply evident, while the areas closer to the Adriatic coast were affected by the Mediterranean
housing culture. The European influence is reflected in the houses being smaller and
nearer the street with the rooms on the upper floor facing the street projecting over
the ground floor. Moreover the roofs are usually covered with wooden slates or roof
tiles , and there is generally a loft above the first floor. In the s unnier regions of the
Balkan peninsula, however, the gardens and the open areas within the house were
more spacious. The roofs were often covered with stone slates because of strong
winds, and there was frequently no loft, the roof itself being the ceiling to the rooms
(hall or kitchen) below it.

Sarajevo: positions of houses on the terrain

132

55

cl.Ba h: "Ar h ite k t closer Pospisil" , Htuatska rellya XVII 1943, pp . 596-597.

133

Relation to the house in Christian Europe. The medieval city of western Europe
usually consisted of several settlernents, each enjoying some degree of autonomy. The
city was divided into districts and each of them had its church or churches, very often
its own rnarketplace and a water supply systern. The city district was often similar to
a country parish.

o

Medieval Venice is good example of this type of urban set-up. The underlying structure of the area of San Marco is repeated on a minor scale in every other quarter of
Venice: each has a square, a church, a fountain, a school, and sometimes also a
guild 's council building. Channels both separated and connected the different settlemerrts.P" Thus, the urban structure typified by Venice in many ways resembles the
structure of an Ottornan city.
Dubrovnik, a city republic with a long history of independence was a large trade center on theborder of Ottoman Bosnia and a good exarnple of a city with a high level of
organization by the rnedieval standards of Christian Europe. It therefore seems appropriate to compare the urban structure of Bosnian towns with that of Dubrovnik.
In Dubrovnik, houses were densely built into a small space within the city walls.
There was a close connection between economic activity and dornestic life: the
ground-floor was used for business, while the rnain floor served as living quarters for
the family and , possibly, workers employed in the business. The kitchen was usually
in the attic, next to the servants ' room.

At the beginrung houses had only one storey and were built in rows, along either side
of the street. Later they becarne higher and more dense. Airing the rooms became
rnore difficult and the amount of sunlight reaching them decreased considerably. The
interior space was not differentiated cornpletely according to its function.

Similarity between houses in Mostar and Dubrovnik
Zimonjica palace at Rijeka Dubrooablca, and Muslibegovida house in Mostar

Other Kind of Housing Structures
In addition to the single-family dwelling houses, there were also other kinds of housing structures: twin houses, l.e. two separate apartments on the first floor, and row
houses, each with up to three apartrnents under one roof, of which the third one
originated by an adaptation of the twin house. These other structures were laid out in
the sa me basic way as the smgle-famtly house and they were made of the sarne materials. Although the different elernents of these houses often originated at different
tunes, they appeared as if they had been built according to a single plan.

It is thus qurte clear that houses in Dubrovnik were totally different frorn Ottoman
houses in Bosnia and Hercegovina in terms of their urban setting, position in immediate environment, and with regard to their internal organization.
.i

In contrast to the house within the city walls of Dubrovnik, mansions in the surroundings of that city share some features with the Ottoman housing complexes, especially those in Hercegovina , because they have gardens and courtyards as well as a
nurnber of auxiliary structures. Dubrovnik mansions also resemble Ottoman houses '
In their spatial set-up: the ground floor and the first floor have an identical arrangemerrt of roorns (usually two rooms on either side of a big hall).57 Furthermore , houses
around Dubrovnik and those in Mostar, Trebinje, and Stolac provide privacy and
plenty of comfort.

<

I

. . . .. . ..

· ·1

Western influences came to Bosnia mainly through Dubrovnik but also, beginning in
the 1830s, as a result of increased trade with the west, especially by way of Trieste.
Sorne Western influences came to Bosnia even from Istanbul , which had by this time
adopted many Western (a lafran/ca) fashions.

56
57

Luis Mumford. 'Ilic Cit!! ill fiistor!.l. its Origill, .its 'Iiansjomuuions' ami its Prospects. Translation in Croa tian: qraa II Iiistori]! Zagreb
l Y71 , pp.31 4-364.
Ivan Zd ravko vic, 'fJ1I6rOl'at Rj duorci, Beograd 1951.

134

Row houses at Cernica in Mostar Groundfloor and southfacade

135

A specific kind of housing structure is represented by the residences of high officials
of the Ottornan State, called leanale or sara). These buildings were built in the capital
cities of the Bosnian Beglerbegluk: Sarajevo, Banja Luka, and Travnik. The only
example of this type of structure, the Konak in Sarajevo, is also the latest to be built
in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

Hercegovina enjoyed the status of a pasalule from 1831 until 1851. During this time a
konak was built in Mostar on a hill overlooking the Old Bridge, and a surnmer saraj
at Buna, both for Ali Pasa Rizvanbegovic. In addition to their residential function
these buildings were used for administrative purposes.
The house of the Ej u bovic family at the Majdan square in Mostar was a specific
structure in that it was a complex consisting of a house occupied .b y the judge
(lcadija) and a separate unit for the courtroom (medz!1ana).
Housing complexes outside the city consisted from a semi-fortified tower (kula) and a
two-storey building (adzale). They were built by feudal lords on their estates outside
the city. The fortified cities of medieval Bosnia were used as models for these structures. Addition of Ottoman-style housing elements is what transformed them into a
specific Ottoman structure known as leula.
The kula with the odzak was a single compound structure. An odzak was, in fact, the
residental unit built next to a kula. There was a spacious courtyard encircled by a
high wall around or next to a kula and adjoining the odzak. All auxiliary structures of
the housing complex were placed in the courtyard. The tower itself was built of stone,
with vaulted ceilings for each level and metal shutters pn the door and the windows.

SI. l. ~ i 3. Vali iski konak u Trav nih. Tlocrt oricem i i,
{sredi na] i kara (,~: o rc) te puprecn i orr-sick .d c l it;;

SI. i i

.j ,

Valijski kOI1Jk u Tr avniku . Juin:l i

istp~·nJ.· \t~ti3.

SI. 6 i 7. Valiiski konak u Travniku, Sievcrna i zanadna strana

Saray in Travnik
1. Ground-floor. 2. photo 1946, 3 First.floor, 4. Section,

RetliepuSiifamily complex, Caj/to near Nevesillje

The towers lay on square foundations and often included as many as three floors and
a cellar Some towers had a top story made of wood , with corner porches on one or
more sides . The entrance to the tower was usually raised above the' ground for security reasons and was accessible only by a staircase. It had a small sturdily built door.

5. South side, 6. East side, 8. North side, 9. West side

136

137

Every t hing necessary for day-to-day living - the musandera with the hamamdztk, fireplace, the toilet, etc - was located wi thin the kula it s e lf so that those defending it
could withstand a lo n g siege.

Several hundred kulas have been identificed in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Prominent among them are the
Firdus-begova kula inLivno, the Husein-Kapetan Gradascevic in Gradacac, Redzepasic kula atCajno
near Nevesinje, the Cengic kula at Rataji near Foca, the Cengi« kula at Odzak near Ustikolina, the
Sulejmapasic kula near Bugojno, the Kulenovic kula near Mrkonjic grad. 58

I

I

The kula in Biiuui

According to our in ves t iga t ion s t h e re were two kulas in Mostar: both were on the left
bank of the Neretva and belonged to t h e families Kreso and Hadzic. In the vicinity of
the city there are 12 towers.v" still in use. 26 other kulas 6 0 have been preserved well
enough to be worthy of reconstruction.
The most important towers in the surroundings Mostar are: the Alajbegovica tower in
Vrapclct. the Dzabica in the Suhi Do , and the Cemalovica tower at Buna. The Cemalovica tower at Buna is famous for its interesting built-in furniture made of carved
wood . It is kept as an exibit at the National Museum in Sarajevo.
58
59

60

See A. Bej tic , "Spo m e nici osman lijske a r hltekt ure u bos ru i Hercegovinl.", POF 3- 4. Sarajevo 1952-53.
Hadrovlca. Golica at Gnj ojnj ice. Lju bovlca at Hod bln a , Catlca. Allk al flca . a nd Temim a at Ilicl . Zallhica
at Vlhovic l. Fazllbegovica. a nd Glav ovida at Lljevce, Alaj begovtca at Vrapcic i. and Dza blca at the S u hi
Do.
K os tc a at B laga], H asa n agt ca at Hodblna, Cemalovica at Buna, Peco at Ortijes. Kahvtn a , Blllda. and S efica at Rodo c , Cisica. and Fazil at Donja Jasen ica. Djlki ca . Djozllca and Kara hasanaglna at ZHomislici.
Hurnlna (21, a nd S ablca at C im , Tlp u r tna, Bubal o, a nd Fej lca at Lljevce. E fica a t S tu dena c . Ha djalica at
Mal o Polje . Pestelova at Hodbin a , Ce larova. Laktst ca , a n d Fa ztlo va at Ba cevt ct, Cevrina at Vlhovlcl,
Lakisi c a a n d Co rdina at Ras tanl .

138

The Cemalovica kula at Buna
Axonometry and schema of complex
( 1 . Kula, 3. OdZak, 4. & 6. Rooms, 5.Hajat ,7.&2. Toilets,

8. M u ifa k, 9. eiler, 11. Water cistern, 12. Storage)

139

v
BUILDINGS AND BUILDERS
Materials and Structures
Ottoman buildings are generally divided into two groups on the basis of construction
materials an~ predominant types of structures: monumental public buildings made of
stone, with a number of domes and arches as well as elaborate decorative elements,
and residential buildings more independent in shape, adjusted to human needs, and
made of less durable material.
Construction of the dome represents the highlight of material use and building technique. The architecture of domed mosques and other buildings with domes and
arches found in this area bore a close resemblance to similar structures in the rest of
the Ottoman State with regard to materials used, building techniques and types of
structures. In fact, in many cases there was cornplete identity between individual
buildings of the same kind in the European part of the Ottoman State and in Asia
Minor. The basic building materials are stone and brick, and lead for roof covering,
with occasional use of special matertals and techniques.
Squinches or pendentives were used as transitional structures to rest the circular
dOlne onto the square base below it. The size of the domes was in a harmonious relation to the total height of the mosque, their spans being usually much wider than
those of the cupolas used in earlier medieval domed structures.
Mosque facades in ' Macedonia and Serbia were different from those in Bosnia and
Hercegovina because they were constructed by applying the ancient Byzantine
technique of picturesque alternation of layers of brick and stone, as well as by
inserting bricks between cut stones in the cloisonne manner.
But Ottoman architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina also took on regional
characteristic as well. 61 Thus, facades were sometimes covered with a layer of mortar
and then whitewashed.
Mosques without domes generally preserve all the other elements of domed mosques .
Along with domed mosques, a series of smaller mosques with hip roofs and minarets
shaped like bell-towers with a square cross section were built in the eastern part of
Hercegovina. The construction of the roof and the covering is exactly the same as in
the residential buildings of the area. The local building tradition is best exemplified
by simple wooden mosques in the villages of central and northern Bosnia. The materials used mos tly come from the immediate vicinity of the building site. Because of
'this. structures made of wood are usually located in mountain regions, while stone
buildings are regularly found in coastal areas.

61

Andrej Andrej evlcrIstarnskc tnonumentalno: umjetuost XVI ueka

141

II

Jugoslaoiji, B eograd 1984. p . 118 .

The construction of a two-storey family house is very simple: one wall on top of another wall, a room over another room, resulting in the floor above usually being a
replica of the ground floor. The house had a rnassive ground floor and a more loosely
constructed floor above.

As housing space in cities became scarcer towards the end of the 19th century, people began to make cellars and rooms in the attic; this new type of house gradually
supplanted the traditional str.ucture with only two storeys.

ne. pendentive, a geomerrical an:illysis.

The foundation was a crude stone filling of at least 60 em in depth, with lime plaster
used ,?-S the binding medium. The main walls were also built of rubble, very much like
the foundation, but care was taken to place large, well-shaped pieces of stone on the
outward side of the wall. The treatment of the surface of the wall was twofold: mortar
was applied either to cover it completely or only to fill the spaces between contiguous
pieces of stone. The use of cut stone was generally restricted to marginal structures
such as wall corners, window frames, arches, and doorways. Wood, on the other
hand, kept its natural appearance and structure and represented both a construction
element and architectural decoration.
Walls were reinforced as well as made more flexible by means of two horizontal beams
(hatula) connected with wooden crossbars and placed along either edge of a wall,
creating a space between them to be filled with rubble and mortar. There might have
been two or three such structures within a room-high wall. This kind of reinforcement
was also used above doors and windows, unless their tops were vaulted.

Tf7ADITJONAL STfiUCT URt 5
WIT!-1 TROMPES EXPOSED
M','D NOT EXPOSED OUTS/Uf
(THF DOME IS GENEl1ALLY
WITI-/()UT A DRUM)

TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE
WfTH TROMPES'NOT
EXPOSED OUTSIDE

Twin horizontal beams were used to support very heavy structures and, in case of
extremely large spans, columns with reinforced tops were placed halfway along the '
bearn to fortify it.
The floors were made of wooden joists which were' often reinforced with cross slats
dovetailed into each other and fitted into grooves on the sides of two neighboring
joists. The floor structures without the reinforcing cross slats had joists with a rnuch
bigger cross section and boards fastened to both the upper and the lower side of the
joists. Floorboards 16 to 20 em wide were fastened onto the upper sides of the joists.
If the floor structure separated two storeys and thus served also as the ceiling of the
story underneath it, the visible parts of the joists and the slats were often painted to
prod uce an attractive decorative ceiling. The ceilings were most frequently decorated
with carvings. Sometirnes a central round section of the ceiling was highlighted with
different elaborate decorations; this piece is called ortaluJc and is found in the Kajtazova house in Mostar, in the Kolakovica house at Blagaj, and the Cemalovica kula at
Buna.
As boards in the ceiling assumed part of the overall stress, it was possible to use
beams with a small cross section. Masters saw to it that each element in a structure
had a role in the neutralization of stress.

SOUARE -BASE WITH
PENDENTIVES

OCTAGONAl. ·E3ASE WITH
rnOMPES

HEXAGONAL-BASE WITH

T/iOMPES

If the above elements were not used then the joists would be bigger and were covered
by boards from the bottom which were 15-20 em wide.

Domes, squinches and pendentives

142

143

B

B

ot-~
05 1
2m

h:---"1

\

I

~* Q'l.Z'.(~~~

-

\

15-19

~

_b-

\

.. -y'

- :.:;,-

\ B-2\l \

-'j

Details of the ceiling

The staircase ibasamacu, connecting the two levels of a hajat, consists of two slanting
beams fitted with treads. The banister, called trobozani, is a series of wooden colonnettes under a handrail. Very often, the two or three bottom steps were made of stone.
Sornettmes the opening 'on the ceiling of the stairs is closed by a horizontal door
which, when opened, leans against the upstairs wall. The upper-floor space above the
staircase is fenced off, and there is usually a large shelf tahiapes over the bottom part
of the staircase, which is used for keeping valuable dishes and similar household articles.

.

-~-

,

The first floor often has a projection on the side facing the street. This so called doksat or cosale adds to the aesthetic value of the house as well as provtding extra space

on its more important first floor.
Staircases: forms and details

144

145

I!

,

The structure of the doksat

The Biscevica house in Mostar

In the largest number of cases the walls on the first floor are identical to the walls on
the ground floor. Doors and windows are usually laid out in the same way as on the
ground floor, except that they are often somewhat higher. Thin beamed walls called
catma functioned as partition walls, but also as outside walls on the doksat. These
walls were constructed of vertical beams reinforced by horizontal ones. the space between the beams and the struts being filled with different materials. The wooden
skeleton of the hajat was regularly constructed of very thin piers or of only one sturdy
column with a bolster reinforcing its connection to the wall. Small struts carrying the
attic floor are connected diagonally to this wooden skeleton.

The ceiling on the first floor is constructed in the same way as the ground-floor ceiling. except that the top side of the first floor ceiling did not have floorboards because.
unlike the ground -floor ceiling. it is not used as a floor.
The doksat of the Kajtazova house in Mostar

146

147

I

-l0

......

Windows were short and few in stone walls, but taller and more numerous in other
kinds of walls. A window was made of a w ooden frame with usually four oblong single
sheet of glass fitted into it. It lined up with the outer side of the wall, but if it had a
wooden lattice (musebalc) or an iron grid (demir) it was set in toward the inside . In
addition to the predorninant type of window with two parts opening sideways some
houses had sash windows (na s u r m u ), which were opened by moving the b ottom half
over the top one. If there were iron bars on the window, these were built either into
the wall or into the wooden frame-fitted inside the window.

8 0-120

I

Muleb aks on the hajat

L/'I
ClO

G5-

ss
lJemi ri

-

-t

7D-90

f loor

~

0-

;\Structure of the window

The roof was supported by a wooden structure consisting of pole plates (h a tu la), rafters, purlins, tie beams, and struts if the roof had eaves. The individual elements of
this structure were always shaped with hand tools a t the actual building site .
The roof cladding consisted of either stone slates or clay tiles (ceranlida), or, in
mouritatns regions, of wooden slates. It is, thus, a criterion in defining the type of
house and region . The matertal for roof cladding was usual~ extracted from nearby
quarries. Clay tiles were manufactured in Sarajevo and Foca. 2

Th e size of stone plates was 30 ern by 80 crn, and their thickness was 2 -3 ern. They
were placed diagonally and in an overlapping arrangement, the lines of their mutual
contact being overlaid with lime mortar. The rnain facade of the house was usually
marked by projecting eaves supported with slanting struts. The wide eaves and the
slight roof slope made a gutter superfluous .

Certain difficulties arose' when a house was inserted among neighboring structures,
as this meant that two walls could not be used fo r openings. In such a house a s e c tion of the ground floor immedtately behind the entrance was made into a cov.ered
courtyard (ara lulc ) and the total number of rooms was reduced.

Windows

148

62

S ee Allja Bejtic:"Spomenici Osmanlijske arhitekture u Bosn.i i Hercegovtnl'', POF 3-4, Sarajevo 1952-53 ,
p.239 .

149

Builders

Drf::b
At,. I ...."----I<i.i'JI:2.~

f--'===-O;"------"=:: +
23

'------+
.6.E;~"c~TA

~

+

20

..."---='---_---Y

+.,,+

+

-18

+

-16-+

Builders are the bearers of creativity in architecture. In its beginning architecture developed without architects. Building was carried but by the entire family, tribe, or
cornmuntty. It was based on common knowledge and was accompanied by complex
rituals, such as consecration of the roof, sacrifice, the hanging of gifts on rafters, and
the burying of cult items. All the inventive achievements of architecture, from its
natural and organic functions to the 'r a t io n a l solutions and perfected craft details,
were respected in the process of building. These characteristics were retained almost
throughout the Ottoman times, especially in the residential sector.
Building was a well organized activity in the Ottoman State. There were special departments within the administrative system of Ottoman Turkey, from the Sultan's ,
court to the district administration, that financed and carried out all types of construction, from roads and bridges to monumental sacral buildings. Builders were
known to receive titles of nobility and land for their services. This indicates to us that
architecture held a high position in the socioeconomic and state system of the Ottoman State.
The Ottornan monumental art and craftsmanship of the 16th century represented the
peak of artistic creativity of the Islamic world. Irnperial in character and urban in
spirit, the highly developed art of this rigidly centralized State dominated Islamic
artistic expression for about 400 years, Ottoman culture and art dominated all over
the Ottornan lands extending from East to West, from North to South, namely fom
Eastern Europe to the Gulf, and artistic ideas originating in the Ottoman-Turkish
culture reigned s uprerne in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

A roof - supporting ,s t r u c t u re

\OO~ secnol'1

cerQfY'I,da

The phases through which Ottoman morrumental art went from the beginning of the
16th century until the end of Mimar Sinan's activity in 1588 manifested variations of
solemnlty and power, which were reflected throughout the Balkan Peninsula. The
dorned edifices endowed to their own land by representatives of the new establishmerit - the pashas, the begs, and other dignitaries - with their noble spatial and constructive qualities and the stylistic purity of their stone ornaments and wall paintings
were to be the real interpreters of the new Turkish-Islamic ideology in the recently occupied regions and were rneant to overshadow all that had previously been constructed in this part of Southern Europe.
Ottoman monumental art appears over a very broad territory of the Balkan Peninsula,
from Thessaloniki, Edirne, and Sofia In the Southeast to Temisoara, Budim, and
Banja Luka in the Northwest, generally displaying the same basic qualities. The logical explanation of this uniformity is to be found not, only in the fact that both the
founders and the artists shared the same Ottoman-Islamic culture, but also in the
dominant schools of architecture whose adherents were all educated on models in the
State's capital city with its nurnerous works bearing the same hallmarks. If there were
any differences, they were mostly reflected in dimensions, building techniques, storie
ornaments, and particular wall-painting motifs. rather than in the spatial concept,
construction design, or general artistry.

The architect's role. We do not exactly know how significant the role of architects
was in the erection of residential buildings in Ottoman Turkey in the period between
the 16th and 19th century, but it was certainly not the role that the architect has today. It is very difficult to find documentary evidence on this subject.
Different. kinds of roof covering: stone slates and eeramida

150

151

In the past the architect probably detennined the basic structure of the building and
methods of construction in the early phase of a project. and would subsequently
delegate further work to qualified craftsmen. He would also supervise the craftsmen
and workers at the building site, and sometimes design the main decorative elements
of the more important buildings.
Those were times when structural and decorative arts were so closely connected and
standardized that they had common esthetic norms, making the personal influence of
individuals almost unnecessary. Until the very end of traditional Ottoman
architecture , architects, craftsmen, and masons shared the common artistic trends of
their epoch.
The architect (miTnar. muhendis) or in case of lesser structures, the builder or simply
a dundjer (a craftsman who was skilled at all the crafts applied in building a house)
would first set the basic shape of a house, making a simple plan based on generally
accepted laws and fonnulas. The craftsmen tended to adhere to these norms rather
strictly, which resulted in most architectural elements, including, for instance, windows. doors. and ceilings, retaining much the same shapes for several centuries. The
high level of standardization demanded a high level of cooperation between the different craft-guilds in the course of a construction project. The traditional Ottoman
house was most frequently the work of the "craftsman-of-all-trades", the dundjer. The
building techniques and styles changed slowly. We can classify them according to
plans and structures.
It is hard to find a residential building or even part of a building that can be con-

nected to the name of an architect. The situation is somewhat different regarding
monumental architecture. In general, although the name of the particular builder
may be known. it is usually only the main imperial ' architect of the period who was
credited with a large-scale project.
The Ottoman architect and other artists brought to Bosnia and Hercegovina the
building influences of the Islamic East. The builders from Istanbul and Asia Minor
carne to various parts of the Balkan peninsula in the 16th century, when most of the
building took place, producing the most valuable monurnents of the Ottoman period.
Amongst the builders Kodza Mimar Sinan was certainly the best known. He was the
greatest Ottoman builder of all times. He built the famous bridge in Visegrad. the
irnaret and the saraj in Sarajevo. and the Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar.P-' Adjem
Esir Ali, Mimar Sinan's predecessor, built the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque, the rnedresa and the library in Sarajevo.P" Hajrudin, the builder of the Old Bridge in Mos tar,
built the Husein Pasa Boljarevic Mosque in Plevlja, and fortification in Makaraka.v-" :
Ramadan Aga built the Aladza 'Mosque in Foca. 66

There are numerous records about the connections between builders in Bosnia and Hercegovina and Dalmatia. Thus, in the pre-Ottoman period 't h e Dubrovnlk builder Antun and his son built a well for Duke Sandalj Hranic in the Sokol fortress in 1417,67
and in 1452 the Du brovrilk government sent four masons with assistants to Duke
. Ivanis Vlatkovic to build a fortified bridge over the Neretva river. In the same year
builder Juraj Dalmatinac was sent to Vladislav, He rceg Stjepan's son, probably to examine the Gorica fortification. 68
It is believed that the Dubrovnik government also sent its state builder Paskoje
Milicevic to supervise the building of the bridge over the Neretva river at Pocltelj in
1469 , where the Hungarian king Matija Korvin wanted to make a strong fortification
against the invading Ottoman Turks. Stone masons from Popovo polje are mentioned
as apprentices in Dubrovnlk in. the 14th century. 69
Under the Ottoman rule in Bosnia and Hercegovina these connections were intens ified. In 1509 two masons and four craftsmen came to Sarajevo to assis t Ferizbeg in
t h e building of a public bath, and in 1530 five stone masons were sent to Gazi Husrevbeg to assist in the buildin.g of his mosque. Master builders and stone masons
from Dubrovnik also took part in works on numerous others structures: the Ferhadija
Mosque in Banja Luka, the Tas lihan, the Gazi Husrevbegov bezistan and the big hamam in Sarajevo, the Aladza Mosque in Foca, the Stari Most (Old Bridge), and the
Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar. In the summer of 1568 twelve well-known rn a s ons
from Dubrovnik worked on the Arslanaglca bridge. 7 0 Workers from Imotski participated in the construction of the Mostar bridge. 7 1
The rn ovem e n ts of smaller groups of village builders from Hercegovina, Dalmatia, and
western Bosnia, who worked as miarant workers, had an influence in shaping many
Bosnian-Ottoman houses. Dedijer=72 notes examples of migrating masters from
Mokrina at Boka, Krusevtce and Ravno in Popovo Polje. For the greater part of the
year they would travel through different Ottoman-held areas. The masters from Popovo Polje are rnentioned as builders of the Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo, the
Aladza rnosque in Foca and the Stari Most in Mostar. 73 This resultated in Mediterranean influences. mostly in the form of Rornanesque-Gothic elements , visible on many
buildings in Bosnia. The influence, however, was reciprocal. Thus, there a re many examples of Christian structures in Bosnia and Hercegovina with Is lamic architectural
and decorative elements.
Even through the role of Ottoman and Dubrovnik masters was important, the loc a l
builders carried the main burden of construction not only as co-workers but also as
designers and creators of the largest number of structures especially in the rea lm of
residential architecture. In accepting t h e ottoman architecture, the lo cal Muslim
builders always managed to adapt it to the domestic traditions and potentials of the
environrnent, thus creating .a n architectural expression of their own. The domestic
builders did not build large and complicated structures because by the 16th century
they had not mastered the art of construction and in the later centuries there was no
ec on om ic basis sufficient for large building projects.

67
68

63
64
65
66

Aptullah Kur an, :Jd imarS iua1I, Istanbul 1986., Zeki Somn ez. 9Y(il1lar Sillall,
Husref Red zi c, St urfijc a Ldnms/igj 6nXtilli, Sar ajevo 1983 , p. 169-209.
Zeki Sonm ez, ibid p.
Andr ej Andrej ev ie ' Jq(aaf.a rf::.a mijau j'oCi, Beograd 1972 , p. 53, 57-64.

152

[Ic ifgift tari/i.i, yazma(ar-'!Icfgck r,

Istanbul 1988.

69
70
71
72
73

Cvito Ftskovlc, Nasi qradttelj! i kipari XV i XVI s iolj ec a 11 Dubrooniku . Zagreb 1947. p.52.
J.S tojanovic- Makslmovlc. "Racl Djordja Sibencanina u Dubrovnlk u", Nauiini priloz i studetiata Filozofskog
fakult eta 1I Beogradu, 1949 . p.135 .
Cvito Ftskovlc, Ibid, p.19.
Oz. L:eli c-M. Muj eztnovtc, Start tnostoui u Bosni i H erceqooini; Saraj evo 1969 . 245 .
Ibid, p. 49.
.
.I . Dedlj er. H erceqonina. Klljiga XII. Naselja, Knjiga VI. Beo gr ad 1909. 165.
A. Andej evlc. Aiaciza cizo m ija 11 FoCi. Beograd 1972. pp . 57-63 . a n d A. Po lim a c. "Novi dokumenti 0
Starom mostu. " Most . 14-15, p . 114.

153

In the oldest preserved records by a judge from Mostar, dating from 1633-34, there is
a reference to d undjer, carpenters, and masons. In a document from 1 762 mention is
lnade of a builders ' gUild 7 4 whose members were builders , carpenters, masons, waterworks maintenance men and merchants dealing in building materials.
The Mostar masters worked outside of Mostar, too . It is known that they worked in
Bosanski Novi, Tuzla , Zvornik, Kresevo , Ljubuskt, and even in Budim.
Because stone was the main building material, stone masons were in great demand.
There were also many carpenters. In 1875 Mostar had four carpenter workshops with
20 masters and 40 workmen. The waterwork builders and maintenance men worked
in Mostar from the 17th century till the construction of a new waterworks system.
Between 1701 and 170 4 they completed all major work on the expansion and repair
of the city's waterworks.

The Neretva river, running roughly along a north-south line, was the border between
eastern and western influences , a border between the Christian Orthodox and Catholic churches , and a border between two dialects of the Bosnian language. It is therefore natural that its valley, and especially the city of Mostar located on its banks,
should have been fertile ground for cross-cultural influences of every kind. There was
also a major communication line running right through Hercegovina: from Dubrovnik
on to the valley of Neretva, then along and across the valley to Foca, from where it
linked up with the road to Istanbul. It was this thoroughfare that ennobled Mostar to
reach out to faraway lands and their influence.

Builder

Masons, stone-masons, and carpenters were also referred to as dundjers, so that the
entire guild was named the dundjers1ci esna].
Hercegovina, especially the Neretva river valley, attracted many migrants from neighboring areas. It was also a passage for people migrating further northward . There were
two rnain mlgratton lines: one , originating in Montenegro, came from the east and
southeast and led towards the Neretva and further upstream, and another connected
central Dalmatia and the Neretva valley.
74

Hamdija Kresevljakovtc, Esnofi i obrt i u
80.

BOSI1 (

Influences on the Neretva river

In the latter part of the Ottoman period, however the Muslim population in the Balkans was less prone to outside influences. Having by now developed an architectural
style of their own, they were more inclined to preserve and improve it in ways that
suited their own requirements. This is another reason why residential architecture of
the period acquired features common to a larger Balkan area.

i Herc eqooint. II Mostar /1463-1878/, Zagreb 1951 . pp . 78-

154

155

VI

DECORATIVE ARTS
In the traditional Islamic culture religion is totally integrated with daily life. Islamic
art is not restricted to a liturgical function or to a privileged class of people. Rather, it
was meant to contribute to the establishment of a satlstying human environment by
encornpasstng and combtnlng architecture, interior decoration, carpets, books, and
many other objects of daily use. As their specific vocabulary is based on geometric
patterns, calligraphy, and arabesques, Islamic arts and crafts found universal application in all fields of human existence. The utilitarian and aesthetic functions of an
object are viewed as absolutely inseparable: if a thing is not beautiful, it is useless.

Calligraphy
Along with architecture, calligraphy is the most significant art in Islam, as it was also
the source of decorative art which refined architecture. In Islamic architecture and
calligraphy, as well as in all the visual arts, geometric and organic lines merge, making a comprehensive entity.
The Arabic alphabet had been in use for several centuries before The Prophet's mission. It had been used in the writing of famous II Muallecate" , and had been the med iurn of a thriving poetic tradition; There had been regular annual festivals including .
poetry contests. The best poems were exhibited on the Ka'ba walls, and poets were
granted the respect and honor dueto war heroes and other distinguished persons.
It seems hard to fmd another nation in the world which showed such enthusiasm and
admiration for literary expression as the Arabs did. No other culture appears to cherish as much the written and the spoken word. It is unlikely that any other language
exerts such a deep influence on the souls of.those who use it as does the Arabic language. Rhythm, rhyme, and linguistic music produce in the listener an effect that
they name II permitted magic II'.

A calligraphic inscription (the gur'an, CXlI)

in the Aladza Mosque in Foca

157

When the Prophet had conquered Mecca, he ordered that all the 360 idols and wall
paintings on the Ka'ba be removed and destroyed. This fact demonstrates the
mearring of Muslirn aniconism. "Therefore, the destruction of idols, and, by extension,
the putting aside of every image likely to become an idol, is the clearest possible parable of the Islamic teaching that' the 'one thing necessary' which is the purification of
the heart for the sake of tawhid, the bearing of witness or the awareness that 'there is
no divinity save God ' . "75

The monotheistic belief and the rejection of idolatry, emphasized in the Qur'an, led to
the absence of the representation of living beings as 'w e ll as sculptures in Islamic art.

This explains why no pictures. of hurnan beings can be found in a mosque, although
we do occasionally find them on palace walls and in books. In rulers' palaces, wall
fresco-painting was generally- used from the earliest times to depict scenes from legends and history, court life, tournaments, and love poetry. Sirnilar scenes are found
on mtnlarure paintings used as illustrations of manuscripts of the rnost diversified
content.
Calligraphic inscription in circular fonn

The original source of Islamic decorative art can be traced to the Muslims love of the
Qur'an. In copying the holy book, they wrote as beautifully and with as much grace
as possible. In the process they developed new systems of writing and created new
strokes in calligraphy, which served as a major inspiration for the developmerrt of
other kinds of decorative art.
I

The emphatically lyrical Qur'anic language has inspired Muslirns to write with passion and warmth in order to produce the rhythm and grace in the form of the written
Qur'anic word, worthy of its content. We find Muslim artists accentuating line more
than 'a n y t h in g else. A powerful and colorful line born of a strong inovement can acquire fascinating forms that pulsate with charm, that enchant. "Line" is what matters;
everything else can provide for itself. No matter whether it is a straight or a curved
line, it is always designed to produce an aesthetic spell. It is the supreme criterion of
beauty.

The inclination to paint evidently existed in Islamic communities, as it no doubt exists with all groups of human beings. However, at the very beginning cif the Islamic
epoch, this inclination was subdued by religious requirement and redirected towards
a new approach that has manifested itself in arabesque and in floral and geometrical
ornarnentation.

Through its renunciation of naturalistic representation of objects, by definition limited ill scope, Islamic art opened itself to the infinity of abstract geometric patterns
and floral arabesques and, thereby, to the possibility of conveying a timeless message.

7S

at the Sinanova tekija in Sarajevo

Calligraphy is, in fact, artistic expression by means of an alphabet. In Arabic culture,
it goes back to the alphabet, which; as is known, evolved from an old cuneiform
script. But when the need appeared to preserve the Qur'an in written form,
calligraphy identified itself with the alphabet and the artistic pursuit of a calligraphy
with a quest for spiritual perfection: Because of its task of immortalizing God's word,
calligraphic art was encouraged from the earliest days of Islam.
At the beginning of the Islamic art calligraphy was equated with ornamentation, while
in the later period it was largely associated with the illumination of manuscripts.
Irnportant developments in the art of calligraphy occurred in the second and third
centuries of the Muslim era. Due to the previously mentioned approach on painting,
calligraphy,soon developed into one of the leading Islamic arts.
Ornarnental writing in Islam is a code whose message is as clear to a Muslim as that
of figurative religious art of the West is to a Christian. Calligraphy is a truly Islamic
art. Through it Muslims have given vent to their aesthetic sense, which could not be
expressed by means of the representation of living beings.
In architectural decoration and in the art of book production, calligraphic inscriptions
are frequently intertwined with arabesques.
A calligrapher had a much more elevated and respected position than a painter.. Even
the rulers strove to gain religious merits by copying the Qur'an. Historic and literary
works were preserved with special reverence and their authors were honored and
remembered, while the names of numerous architects, painters, and engravers were
mos tly ignored.

T. Burckhardt: Rrt ~f Is{am, Lallguageand 9.[CCWillg ,p. S.

158

159

Arabic letters were suitable for decorative purposes and therefore b ecame a major
medium of Islamic art. They became, moreover, religious symbols . The Arabic alphabet has twelve basic types of letters , which have been elaborated into 180 calligraphic
styles, although, in principle, endless variations are p ossible .

During the reign of Sultan Mehrned II, the Re naissance infl u e n ces were beginning to
be felt in Is t a n b u l. The example of Gentille Bellini s hows with what re s p e ct they were
re ceived there. Artists frOITI It aly and Persia, Moldavia and Hungary, from t he Balkans
a n d Anatolia , as well as Arab Iands contributed to the quick development of Otto man
a r t, which a c h ieved its classical perfection in the 16th ce n t u ry .

The basic types of the Arabic alphabet are : Kufic , Naskhi, Sulus, Ta'lik, Muhaqqaq, .
Shikeste, Siyakat, Reyhany, Maghrtbi, Diwani, Riq'a, and Riqaa.

Callig ra p h y also occupied a significant place in the Ottoman educat ional system.
The most famous calligrapher was Sejh Hamedullah. Hafiz OSlTIan a nd Mustafa
Ra krm. who had their own schools of calligraphy, also rank high in the his tory of
Is la mic calligraphy.

> 0

<

o

Calligraphic i n s c rip tions i n t h e Sinanova tekija i n Sarajevo

The bes t-known Ottoman Illuminat ed manuscrip t "Hu ne r n a rn e ", a b oo k about t he
bra ve deeds of Ottoman sultans , was illustrated in 1577 by two artists : Mirza Ali and
Osman , who were of Bos nian origin.
The tugra. the sultan's official monogram, represents an interesting exarnple of calligraphy and shows how a monarch's name could become a heraldic syrnbol.
.
Ottoman calligraphy does not differ essentially from eastern Arabic calligraphy. Its
p e culiarity, however, is a kind of magic "knot" - a graphic emblem created by symmetric reduplication of lines .

Calligraphic i nscriptions in the Sinanova t ekija in Sarajevo

In parts of the Balkan peninsula dominated by the Ottornans calligraphy was pract iced in the educational institutions of the big towns but also, to a significant extent.
by large numbers of artisans in the bazaars. Naturally. calligraphy created in these
regions had a ll the fea tures of the Ottornan tradition in this art.

Calligraphy in the Ottoman State. Muslim Turkish culture is a c omplex mixture of
different a n d diversified elements

160

161

There are rrurnero us data about well-known calligraphers in Bosnia from the 16th
century onwards. The leading calligrapher was Muhammad el Hjurani, whose pseudonyrn was Mejli and who lived in the 18th century. Two narnes also stand out:
Husein Is larnovic , who lived in the 19th century and worked on the Gazi Hus revbegova Mosque, and Esref Kovacevic, born in 1924 and still living.

Arabic orriameritation has a mathematically defined line at its base which, though
drawn with Imagination, follows a geometrical exactness that can be traced in the
min utes t detail. Persian ornamentattcn is also oriented to logically ordered ensern bles, but more frequently involves elements of plant life.
Ottoman ornarneritatio n is, in fact, an artistic transformation of the surrounding
world. The forms are taken from Nature but are siInplified to the point of losing any
direct connection with the model, There remained only the essential features . A large
variety of models were used.
Interlacing is another conspicuous feature of Islamic art . It first appeared in sculptured trellises on the outside of mosque windows, but was later applied more broadly.

A calligraphic inscription by Esref Kovacevic
in the dome of the Alacaa Mosque in Foca

Ornamental Art

One iInportant consequence of religious regulation of artistic expression in Is larnlc
visual arts was a canonical organization of artistic experience, which made the individual artist's personality less prominent. In fact, there was no artist called painter.
Rather, it was the craftsmen themselves who created works of art in a constant endeavor to ernbellish everything that they produced or constructed. Sculpture resulted
from formative possibilities of stone, metal, ceramics, and glass, used in architecture
or in the manufacture of various utensils.
Interlacing: windows of a Mosque in Pocitelj

With the arrival of Ottoman Turks in Bosnia and Hercegovina the existmg crafts developed very qu ickly and many new ones were introduced. Craftsmen practicing the
same craft - Mus lims, Christians, and Jews - worked in the same guild, although
there were aorne differences in artistic expression . The old motifs, originating from
Romaricsq uc, Gothic, Renaissance, and Byzantine influences, were combined with
the new motifs brought by Ottomans, which greatly contributed to an enrtchrnent and
diversification of the artistic craftsmanshlp as practiced in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

To the decorator-craftsman geotnetrical interlacing probably represents the intellectually rnost rewarding art, as -i t challenges hirn to seek harmony in the multiplicity of
forms.

The Is larnic influence was the major factor in the development of the crafts. The Ottoman Turks relied on their Arabic and Persian heritage in the formation of their own
artistic style .

The Rlll111 and the Hataji styles, along with geometrical models, were the most freq uently used ornamental patterns in Ottoman decorative art. The Rurni style of decoration was of Selj uk origin, and its motifs originated from both the plant and the animal worlds. The Hataji style has a Chinese origin and is characterized by a predornlnance of plant motifs, realistic lines, and by accents on individual sections of a decorative ensemble.

162

163

Book art. Book art combines calligraphy, Illuminated manuscripts, miniature painting, and book-binding.
The art of miniature could not be used in any religious context because of the Islamic
a nicorrisrn . but it played an important role in the creation of an Islarnic spiritual atmos phere by representing real events from the life of Mus lims ,

Geometric decorative motifs

Floral decorative motifs
The Qur'an: manuscript written by Mizan Sharani

Unfortunately, few of the original ornaments in the structures built in western parts
of the Ottoman State have been preserved as most of rhern were painted over as part
of rernode llng or renovation projects. A remarkable exception was the wall ornamentation of the Aladza Mosque in Foca, The motifs are mostly floral and represent a
c o m b ln a t to ri of the Rumy and Hataji styles.

(The Gazi Husrevbegova Library, Sarajevo)

Ottoman miniature painting in the 16th century was characterized by two trends:
cultivation of indigenous styles by artists from the Balkans and Asia Minor, and introduction of Persian elements by artists frorn Persia and their local followers. Beginning with Murat II, artists from the West, especially from Italy, were welcome visitors
to the Saray, bringing the spirit of the Renaissance with them. In addition, important
cultural rnorrurnerits of the conquered regions were accessible to illurninators.
Amorig farno us miriiaturts ts from the second half of the 16th century were Matrakci

Nas uh. the artist of the miniatures in Suleyman-name , Kasirn, Mehrnet, Iskender. Pervane. Hasan. and Ferhat, said to have come from Bosnia. The greatest Ottoman
miruaturtst of that period, Osman Nakas (also known as Ali Osman) was a Bosnian,
too .?" Os man Nakass rniniatures are characterized by realism, studious coruposition ,
a nrl rr-markably ltfe-Iike movements of the characters.

76

The Hataji and Rumi styles in the AlaclZa Mosque in Foca

164

The biggest co llec ti on of his miniatures is found in the m anuscript Hourncrnomu, a famous book of ('mpvrors . co m pos ed in the period of the Grand Vizi er Mehmed Pasa Sokollu (Soko lovl cl. between 1579
and 1584 . Osman painted 65 of a total of 107 miniatures in the manuscript. For d etails see Dzernal
t :elic<: "Minijaturie! Osmun Nakas ," Odjek-L«, Saraj evo 1975.

165

Most of the manuscripts found on the territory of Bosnia and Hercegovina, were

The number of manuscripts illustrated with miniatures is relatively small.

c o m p os e d during the Ottoman times and were products of a very active regional

school of copyists and illuminators. 77

A manuscript on astrology
(The I nstit ute for Or iental Studies, Sarajevo)

"·1

An illustration of the book-binding craft

Manuscripts were mostly decorated with the stylized floral ornamentation known as
Rurny as well as with other types of plant decoration close to natural models . In the
18th and the 19th centuries this naturalistic decoration was t ransformed into
roughly drawn small vines with interspersed rose-like flowers . This type of ornament
was largely limited to decorative titles (unvan), usually occupying the whole of the
upper third of the page and composed in the shape of a portal, a crown. or a cupola.
There was also a narrow strip "u n d e r the title, embellished by ornaments making up a
little cartouche for headings or su.btitles.
Dornes tic masters . calligraphers, and Illuminators were rather eclectic in that they
based their work on models from different periods of Islamic art. while at the sarne
time atternpting to realize their own artistic ideas . The palette of their manuscripts
was limited to ten colors. Tempera and water colors were used most frequently. Gold
and silver also played a prominent role in the decoration of manuscrtpts. often being
used to create a foundation layer which helped to highlight the drawings.
"

77

T he main coll ecti on s of Is lami c manuscripts from Bosnia an d Hercego vin a are in the St ate A rchi ves in Zagreb (coll ection of
Ba ro n O ttc nfe ls) , the Gazi Hu srevb egova Library in Saraj evo, the Archive of the Yugoslav (Croatian) Academ y of Art and
Sc ie nc es in Zagreb (th e Or ie ntal collecti on ). the Si.ue Archives in Skopj e, the University Library "S . Markovic" in Belgrade,
the Be lg rade Mu seum of Appli ed Arts, and the Institute for Oriental Studies in Saraj evo. The Institute was burnt down on
Ma y. 17. 1992 in a S erbi an-terrorist rocket attack. For detail s see IR CICA Newsl ett er No. 29. April 1992.

166

In Bosnia and Hercegovina leather was alrnost the exclusive material used for binding
books. The ornarnentation on leather was drawn in relief, formed by fine chiseling,
embroidery. color. and gilding.
The book-binders in Ottoman Bosnia were called mudzeliti, a word borrowed from
Turkish. Two streets in the Sarajevo bazaar are still called Velilci mucizeiiti and Mali
mucizeliti, rneaning "t h e big book- binders' street" and "the small book-binders' street".
Two streets filled with book-binders' shops: what other testimony is needed to show
the importance given to books and learning by Bosnians as long as "500 years ago?
The best known book-binders from Sarajevo were Memi-Kalif from the 17th century,
a n d Dino, Mustafa, and Hadzi Salih from the 18th century,
Textiles, embroideries, and carpets. Among the most important products of the Ottorna n textile ind us try were Ottoman silk brocade, velvet and velvet brocade. highly
valued for their quality and ornamentation. They were mostly used to make table "
c lot h s, covers, and curtains.

Making knotted carpets is the nomadic art par excellence. Though carpets from the
beginning of the Islamlc era have not come down to us. we can find them pictured in
later rniniatures and paintings. Carpets are perhaps the best preserved aspect of nomadic art in Islamic culture.

167

Once adopted into the urban environment, carpets underwent a swift transformation
in different schools of style. Ornamentattori was in the shape of a bouquet of carnations or s pear-Iike leaves arranged strictly symmetrically in intenninable rows. Patterns were always stylized , sometimes even geometrical, and because of this Ottoman
fabrics differed from those of Persia, in which naturalistic patterns prevailed. Ottoman
fabrics were produced mainly in the imperial works hops and in individual households. Carpets and covers from Turkey were highly appreciated in the west . Artists
fr0111 Venice Imitated Ottoman masters and this art spread all over Europe.
Well-known centers of carpet manufacture in Bosnia and Hercegovina were in Stolac,
Gacko, F'oca, Livno, Sarajevo. and Visegrad. Carpets from these towns differed, both
in the use of colors and in decorative mottfs .

Embroideries

Embroidery was also used to write Qur'anic verses or wise sayings on usually rectangular pieces of cloth (levf1a), which were framed and hung on walls. much like pictures in Western houses. Sometimes the inscription was combined with additional
decorative elements.

Carpets

Embroidery was perhaps the most "popular" art in the sense that almost every woman
practiced it . It is also an art that goes back to the oldest of folk traditions of all the
ethnic groups inhabiting the Balkans. Although it was not introduced by the Ottomaris , they contributed to a flowering of the art of embroidery by introducing new
patterns and styles .
Almost every frequently used household article made of cloth was embroidered,
especially towels, pillows, belts, wedding gifts, womena' shirts and kerchiefs.
materials used for embroidery were fine silk and cotton thread, as well as gold
silver wire , while those to which embroidery was applied were, in the beginning,
oriental linen, cotton, or silk, but later also transparent manufactured fabrics.

but
The
and
fine

Urban embroidery represents a lyric expression of the spiritual superstructure of an
urban milieu . Urban embroidered ornamentation was different from the traditional
kind found in villages . The naive symmetry of rural embroidery was gradually transfonned by adaptation of embroidery techniques to new materials acquired fr0111 cities .

16K

Levhafrom the Karabegova house in Mostar

In general, however. embroidered motifs mos tly represented different varieties of flowe r s with a big one in the middle. the tree of life, or, less frequently animal figures as
well . Embroidery never covered the entire piece of fabric. It usually had a predorninantly vertical or horizontal layout, with the main pattern filling up the center of the
piece and composed of a single unbroken line producing the illusion of an endless
How.

169

In a d d it io n to dornes tic fabrics. a very la rge number of textile products brought from
the eas t e r n parts of the State were in everyday use. Domed structures housing exclusively textile shops (bez isian) testify to the highly developed textile trade in Bosnia
and H ercegovina during the Ottoman period.

Wood carving. There is a long and rich tradition of wood c a rvin g in densely forested
Bosnia. with its beginnings going as far back as the Neolithic Age . With the arrival of
the Ottornans , this tradition was enriched with elements and styles stemming from
other Is larnic regions . from India to Nor t h Afr ic a . De c o ra ti ve wood carving was done .
on many k in d s of wood (b e e c h . walnut, linden. maple , etc.), using many d ifferent mo tifs (purely geolnetric, floral, but also animal and even human figures ) and different
t e chniq ues .

Fine examples of wood carving with calligraphic inscript ions are fo und at t he Begovina in Stolac. the Kolakovica house at Blagaj, the Celnalovica kula at Buria, a nd the
Gavran -Kapetariovtca house at Pocitelj . The last was done by the Christian mas ter
Zimja Pejan, who no doubt had a knowledge of Arabic. Other inte resting examples of
th is k ind of carving a r e the lev h a s carved in wood by Ha s an Kafi from Prusac (17t h
c e n t u ry ).7 8

W ood was used for making almost all the elements of a house : several kinds of wall
structures. doors , window frames and shutters. lattice (musebalc), fixed cupboards
(11lusancle ra), wall paneling. roofs and floors . In mosques, s taircase used for Friday
noon-prayer sennon (m inber), . the gallery (ma /l [i l) and the lectern (curs ) were regularly
made of wood. as was the sarcophagus in a ma uso leum. Most household articles and
persona l effects - from chests to Cigarette-holders - we re als o regularly made of wood .
All these wooden structures and objects were richly decorated with carvings , espe ci a lly if they were open to view and belonged to a rich house.

S Ol11e of the most interesting wood carvings found on the territory of Bosnia and Her ce go vin a are in the Suburina house in Sarajevo (1 7th century), the Krslakova house
in '-',Ja.ic e ( 18th c entury), the CelnaloviCa kula at Buna (19th century), the Svrzina
h ou s e in Sarajevo. the Kajtazova house in Mostar, the Ko lakovica house at Blagaj. t h e
RizvanbegoviCa houses in Sto lac, t h e Res ulbegoviCa house in Tre b lnj e , as well as on
the doors of t h e Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo, and the Mosque at Pocitelj .

T he tekija at Blagaj: Decora t ion of t he ceiling

Metal work. In Ottoman Bos nia side arms and firearms , d ishes. jewelry, a nd decorative objects were made of metal. Decoration of weapons had been done before the arrival of Ottomans . Gold work had also been developed. but t he coppers mtth's c raft
was brought in by the Ottomans .
Techniq ues of engraving. emboss ing, encrustation . and ftligree wo rk were u s e d fo r
decoration of metal things . Th e main metals used in decoration were steel, copper,
brass , silver , and gold. Engravers used copper-tin plating on whic h the drawing was
carve d . mostly for decoration of utensils.
The d oor in the Kajtazova house in Mo star

78

170

Sl't'

Dzern a! h~lk : "D rv or ezba

II

Bos n l i !-!t'rc pgovini ". Most - 1 1. M os tnr l 9 7 6 .

171

Engraved copper dishes

The e m b o s s ing of ornaments on copper or silver sheet metal , was a technique of decoration also introduced by the Ottomans . Encrustation is a distinctly Middle-Eastern
technique and involves carving recesses in wood, steel. or ivory, and then filling them
with silver and gold wires or mother-of-pearl. It was used very often in decoration of
side anus and firearms.
Filigree work. also known as "moriasrery work", was mainly practiced by Christian
c r a ft s m e n and therefore included a variety of styles i.n the decorative patterns: Romanesque. Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and Byzantine, with Is larnic motifs brought
in by the Ottomans .
Silver was the most frequently used decorative metal, though gold is often found on
very precious objects. Well-known centers for the manufacture of side arms - short
c u r ve d daggers (l1andiar) or double curved sabers Uaiagan) - were Foca, Travnik,
Prizren. and Skopje. Rifles were made i.n Skopje, Fojnica, and Foca. The best-known
mas t ers of engraving and erubossing were from Sarajevo, Travnik , and Mostar, while
goldsrlliths and filigree workers of wider repute were !o be found in Sko~~e, Prizren,
Banja Luka , Foca, Sarajevo, Mos tar, Fojnica. Kresevo , Cajnice, and Livno.

79

For dr-tatls

~·;t-'e

Several examples of metal handiwork

Swords. long knives, old-fashioned guns (lcubura) were the basic anus, but they were
not considered valuable unless they had the designer's narne engraved on them. A few
have been preserved with engravings of a remarkable precision and subtlety, displaying the manufacturer's name and aurname , place and the date of making. as well as
and the purchaser's riarne. About two thirds of the entire surface of a saber or dagger
were covered with engravings. Guns were also engraved with s imilar inscriptions,
which often covered everything but the barrel. Iron was also used for decoration.
Worked in geometrtc or floral patterns , it often embellished - and additionally protected - gates. doors. and windows .

M. Kararnehmedovic: Uiujctn lckc: o b racla tn etala, Saraj evo 1980.

172

173

Stone decorations. De c o r a t ion s in lirnestone or marble were frequently used for
prominent parts of the buildings: the mihrab, the mimber, portals, window frames,
pillars, arches, ceramics.Tattlce on windows, fences. a nd fountains.

Stone decorations were very often colored . Because of the great iInportance Islarn attaches to the written word both for ritual and decorative reasons, all important
structures had Inscrtpttons on them (laril1), containing infonnation about the builder,
the year of c onstruction, 'and the person to whom it was dedicated. A very large rrurn ber of inscriptions have been preserved ill mosques, schools, dervish 101Ms, bridges,
fountains and other public structures, but especially on tombstones .
The large
nurnber of epitaphs in Muslim graveyards represent a rich repository of historical
facts about people a n rl t he ti11lPS i ll whic-h t hev l lved

Fountain in the cou rtyar d the AladZa Mosque in Foca

The main decorative device was the stalactite - a combination of prismatic and pyrarnida l forms making up a geOlnetrical relief of an arabesque type.

'!
!

'1

I .I
!
i

I

1

Dec oration o n stone pillars: the Sisman A gina M o sque in PoCitelj

80

See M . Muj eztnovki Is tums i«: eptq raftk«

IJ

Dec oration in sto n e : d etai ls from m osques

Bos ni i Herccqouint. I &. II &. Ill. Sarajevo 1977-1982 .

174

175

.------~
,.
I

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:1

I. ,I
j

ooor

entrance

I

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I
', -,

. - - _._ -' '' - ' ' . - .

~

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c:olumn

..,.I

window
' - - - - - - - - -- ._ - - - - -

-

. .

-__- - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - ..

Dec o ration in s to ne:
the Ka radjo z b eg ova Mo s que in Mostar

D ec oration in s to ne: t ombstones

176

177

Decorations on glass, ceramics, gypsum and stucco-gypsum. Turkish influences in
arts involving ceramics and glass have not been considerable in Bosnia. Ceramics has
not advanced significantly since the Middle Ages. Faience remained an import
corumodity d urtng the whole period 'o f Ottoman domination and was mainly used for
wall cladding in architecture.

'.
'I ~

EJ
~----4

I

~

Glass was not produced in South Slavic regions under the Ottoman reign. Glass
lamps for mosques , multicolored glass bottles for the nargila (a pipe for cooling tobacco smoke) and stained-window glass were imported both from East and west.

i

I

;

Gypsum and stucco-gypsum were used for flat and relief ornaments in luxurious
buildings, for cornice trimming, for making stalactite ornaments, and for delicate
treatment of internal walls.
The influence of Arabic script in fresco painting of medieval Serbia should also be
merrtioried. Ornaments on 'fr es coes developed from the Kufic script and appeared on
the IUOSt important medieval monuments. They originated under different influences'
and were copied from different models .

.T t:

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o

0.5

I

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DD

BB
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Decoration in stone: doors and windows on storehouses

178

179

VII

CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN BOS NIA AND
HERCEGOVINA
Our objective is t o establish specific features of Islamic architectu re in Bosnia and
Hercegovina, as an integral part of the social and cultural life of the Ottoman State. At
this point, wE; want to throw more light on the intermingling of pre-Ottoman, Ottornan, Christian, Is la m ic , Mediterranean and Middle Eastern influences . We want to
address ourselves to the questions of identification of the pre-Ottoman features of
this architecture, it s genuine Islamic component, and its characteristics resulting
from Mediterranean and broader European influences.
A srnall group of architectural c reations with monumental characteristics were built
following a pattern d evelo p ed and standardized in Istanbul and several other centers.
A rn u c h larger group consisting of shops in the bazaars, mosques in the mahalas, and
private houses, while sharing the basic features of Islarnic architecture, manifested
marked regional characteristics produced by specific environmental and cultural fac tors.

Convertion to Isla m . Islam appeared and developed in an historically important
area , frorn which it spread on t o three continents. Since its advent it has been one of
the rnost significant factors in the life and developrnent of many nations in Asia, Afr ica, and Europe, especially in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, and
Albania.
A large rnajority of the Bosnian population converted to Islam in the century after the
arrival of the Ottornans in Bosnia. Islam was accepted in place of the Bogomil faith, a
dualistic religion which started out as a Christian heresy but later developed into a
religious system which had more in common with Islam than with Christianity. Islam
was not only a new religion; it regulated the way of life and the behavior of its followers, causing p rofound changes in both the material and spiritual aspects of life in
Bosnia.
The majority of the people ltvtng in Bosnia and Hercegovina by their origin, upbringing, and education relate to Islamic culture and civilization, mirrored not so much
through religious rnanifestations as through a complex spiritual physiognomy. Because of the large number ofMuslims in Bosnia and Hercegovina this physiognomy
has also affected the non-Muslim inhabitants and environment of Bosnia and
Hercegovina.

The le xic al infl uence of Islam. The Qur'an has always been the p rime linking factor
in Islamic culture. The religious impact of the Qur'an as the basis of Islam and the
greatest authority in spiritual and ethical matters represents only one of its aspects.
Muslims con s id e r theology, law, and science as different aspects of the same
underlying subject. The Qur'an is considered as the perfect example in literature.

- - - -~

181

Ottoman Turks had previously accepted an eastern conception of housing and applied it in the Balkans, while at the same time assimilating ideas from the Slavic
people with whom they came in contact and adapting them to their needs. On the
other hand, the local Muslim population continued to live in their old houses,
gradually adapting individual elements to the requirements of the Islamic way of life.
The organization of an Ottoman Balkan settlement was carried out on the basis of a
clear differentiation of purpose so that the residential areas (mahala) were strictly
separated from the business section, the bazaar.

Hill

The gur'an, example from Ga~i Husrevbegova library, Sarajevo

The long period of Ottoman domination in the Balkans, especially in Bosnia and Hercegovina, left a deep impression on the Bosnian language. This influence was mostly
mediated by Bosnians who were educated in Turkey, rather than by relatively small
members of Turks who lived in Bosnia. Upon their return to their homeland, they felt
that their native language was not equipped to handle many aspects of the Turkish
culture with which they had familiarized themselves and, naturally, introduced
Turkish words, which gradually became fully assimilated to the Bosnian language.
Another domain of strong Ottoman influence was music. Muslim folk-songs acquired
a typical Ottornari- Turkish sound, itself a product of the different tuneful styles in
which the Qur'an is recited. The music of Muslim folk-songs later became a frequent
source of inspirations for Yugoslav composere.s!

Main road
\

River

Hill

Garden

Many Turkish words relating to Ottoman architecture and housing culture in general
have been borrowed into Bosnian, e.g. carsija, mahala, oda (room on the first floor),
kios k:, konak, and sofa.
It is interesting that aome Bosnian words have also found their way into Turkish, e.g.
saba, pee (stove) are used in the area where the Bosnaks lives around Istanbul.V The
rmrnber of Bosnian words of Turkish origin has been estimated at about 6,000. 83
Settlements and houses. After the arrival of Ottoman Turks the Balkan Peninsula
radically changed its economic, social, and cultural make-up. The local population
continued to live in their settlements and non-Muslim subjects called "raja" were
burdened with rnore and more taxes. With the establishment of Ottoman administration. however, many new settlements were erected in which Ottoman standards of
housing, dressing, and eating habits prevailed.

MOSTAR (16th C.)
Structure of a settlement - Mostar
- - • - - -Border of dwelling areas
1. Mejdan (The first Mahala);
2. Musala;
3. At Mejdan;
4.

81

82
83

Stevan Mokranjac, '1(Jd;gvct za tnjc10rJiti hor iz 'Bosne.
S.H.Eldeni ,'Triri(;£vi- Osmanlt aonetnit, p. 47.
See A. Skaljic, tTurciz m i IIsrpsK;griruatsK;gtnjeziK,]I, Sarajevo 1965.

182

Konak [Military Headquarters);

5. Complex of the Orthodox Church;
6 . Complex of the Catholic Church

183

~!l,71..

1 . · JtvztUlL~
S~

The best examples of the Islamic influence on Christian art are the Old Orthodox
Church in Sarajevo, built in the 16th century, the Church of the Moscaruca Monas tery built in 1540, the Papraca Church from 1540, and the Lomnica Church built in
1587. In the orthodox churches in Mostar and Sarajevo, the galleries on the first
floor , reserved for women, are partitioned with a wooden lattice, a clear example of
Is lamic influence.
Ornaments on Orthodox illum.inated manuscripts from the 14th and 15th centuries
had a large number of Is lamic motifs.v? The best-known example of a Christian book
written in the Cyrillic alphabet and decorated with typically Islam.ic elements is the
Gospel of Karan from 1608.
SiInilar Islam.ic style ornaments also appeared on religious household articles made of
metal, wood, cloth, and leather. This was especially true of articles of rural, folk
provcnance.P''

Structure of a housing complex

The m ain unifying feature of the various types of Ottoman houses in Bosnia and Hercegovina is the basic layout of the different functional units. The largest number of
houses contain the same essential elements of composition, structure, and volume,
with variables reflecting the social and econom.ic level of the house owner. A survey of
the housing structures in different regions of the Ottoman State reveals that there are
some distinctions in the appearance of the house in Anatolia, B ulgaria, Greece, the
Morava Basin in Serbia, Macedonia, and Hercegovina. 84

2.
Islamic e lemen ts in Ch ristian archite cture. Christian art in the Balkans had in a
minor way been influenced by Islam even before the arrival of the Ottomans to the
Balkans in the 15th century.85

o

In 1557 the Patriarchate of Pee was renewed as the supreme authority ofthe Serbian
population, in the Balkans, and a t ole ra n t policy toward the Franciscan order resulted in the improvement of llving conditions of the Catholic population.Y' This contributed to an enhancement of mutual influences between the Christian and Muslim
c o m m u nit ies in all spheres of life, but particularly in architecture.

86

0

000

The period of the greatest influence of the Islamic artistic tradition on Christian art
was the 16th century and ' early 17th century. The first Islam.ic elements in Christian
religious art were evident in the wood-carvings on the iconostasis. The Islam.ic Saracen arch, semi-circular vaults, as well as shallow and small rosettes were pictured in
a large riurnber of Orthodox icons. Sim.ilar phenomena were evident in other artistic
fields , especially ill the interior decoration of churches.
84
85

'

4.

Is la m ic elements in Orthodox monument: ,
Calligraphic m o t ifs onfresco i n Serbia, 1 3 th century:
1. The Studenica Monastery, 1265; 2 . The Djurdjevi Stubovi Mona s t e ry, 1 2 71 ;

For details see Chapter IV.
See : Zagorka Jane, Ornamenttfresoka iz Srbije i Makeclontje oci 12. do sredine 15. ueka, Beograd 1961.
On May 28. 1463 Sultan Mehrned II issued a d ecree tadhnamev granting fr eedom of activity to the
Fran ciscan order. on the territory of his Empire. S ee : M.Orsolic. Sedamstoljetno dj eioranje franjeuaca 11
Bosni i H erceqouinl. Zagreb 1988 .

184

3. The Sopocani Churc h, 1265; 4. The Bogorodica Periv leta Church, 1295

87
88

Sv. Radoj cic, Star e srpske tninijatur e, Beograd 1950, p. 14.
Zagorka Jane , Is/all/ski rukopisi u ju goslavenskim kolekcijama, Beograd 1956' p.20.

185

Influ enc e s fro m the pre -Ottoman period. These influences have been identified on
the basis of archeological evidence, archives , historical records, studies of graphic
arts, and data taken from the Bogomil to mbstones (stecalc).

rI-- ~
"

For a long time prior to the a rrival of the Ottomans , Bosnia was a meeting p lace of different, indeed at tunes mutually opposed cultural elements: Greek and Latin alphabets, Byzantine and pre-Rornanesque artistic traditions, Romanesque and Gothic
s tyles, the Christian-Orthodox faith and Catholiclsm. Creative interrelating of a ll
these elements , which took place during the several centuries of the independent
Bosnian state, gave rise to a series of valuable cultural assets that Bosnia came to be
known for well beyond its borders: in the religion it was the Bosnian Bogomil Church,
in the domain of literacy it was Bosnian Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts , in graphic arts
it was the specifically Bosnian book illuminations.
-__ 1 _

The majority of written records from medieval Bosnia were in a Cyrillic script called
Bosnian Cyrillic or Cyrillic cursive oj Bosnia (bosancica) because of its peculiar fea-

t u r es . The Cyrillic script took deep roots in the Ottoman period and was later to become predomlnarit in adrninistrative documents. The Bosnian Cyrillic script was used
widely by the local Muslim population, as well as for diplomatic correspondence with
neighboring states , especially with Dubrovnik.

Islamic a rch i tect u ra l d etail in Orthodox c h u rches:
I.Niche in The Ozren Ch u rch 1587; 2 .A window, in the Old Orthodox Ch urch in S arajevo

Cyrillic cursive of Bosnia
The Old Orth o dox Ch u rc h in Mo star

186

187

»

"bosaniiica"

Architectural investigations of the pre-Ottoman period produced few results. There
are only fragmentary observations on surveys of the towns of Kljuc, Kamengrad, Sokol
on the Pliva river. and Visegrad in the travel-writing of Benedict Kurepesic from 1530,
illustrated by the Gennan painter Jorg Bren Jun. Historical evidence on visual arts is
also scarce.
The houses of medreva l Bosnia were dug in the ground so that ground rock represented one wall of the house. Housing structures were off small dimensions. the
usual ground-plan being in the shape of a single quadrangular space with only a
ground-floor structure. The construction material was tiInber; stone was used for
certain parts. together with Iime mortar.
The g reatest cultural achievement of pre-Ottoman Bosnia. however, is considered to
be the Bogomil tombstones with their large variety of stone reliefs.
Architectural motifs on stecalcs have also been studied for infonnation about the pre- .
Ottoman period. The architectural elements engraved on them are arcades, shingles,
log-cabins, net-like shelters, and fortified castles. The regional distribution of the
tombstone motifs is in correspondence with expected differences of the building styles
in the given regions: in log cabins and shingle covered roofs in the mountains. arcades with Rmnanesque and Gothic arches in Hercegovina, especially in the contact
areas with the Dalmatian hinterland. There are, unfortunately, no written documents
contairung infonnation about the time and historical circumstances in which this
type of house beco rne prevalent.

Romanesque elements on stecaks and Islamic houses

Romanesque arcades on Islamic houses

The elements of Western and Eastern cultural influences in the medieval Bosnia and
Hercegovina are abundant and sufficiently known. The country was obviously a
middle ground on which these influences both combined ,:nd clashed.

Architectural motifs on a stecak:

Most of the large fortified structures were built by landowners. They had very close
relations with the cities on the Adriatic coast, especially Dubrovnik. They constructed
their own villas in Du brovnik and educated their children there too. In that way they
farniliar ized themselves with the cultural and architectural creations of the Dubrovnik
milieu, especially with Romanesque and Gothic styles. The same families made possible a "painless" acceptance of Ottoman and Islamic influences by their conversion
from Christianity to the new religion of Islam.

188

189

Dornes tic builders and local .m a t e rta ls were the main linking factors between the Balkan building tradition and Ottoman architecture. Construction materials used were
usually the ones available in the vicinity of the building site, as investors generally
lacked resources for purchasing and transporting materials from distant localities.
In medieval Bosnia the people of Dubrovnik controlled most of the commercial, financial, and organizational activities related to large business ventures. They built
their own usually separate structures for housing and warehousing, applying their
own architectural models. The involvement of Dubrovnik merchants and builders in
Bosnia did not stop or even decrease with the coming of the Ottomans; they remained
a perrnarierrt cultural and architectural influence in the area of Hercegovina, and beyond.

There are also conspicuous deviations from the standard format in the construction
of minarets. whose shapes range from the archaic short type (the Careva Mosque in
Trebinje) to structures resembling Romanesque and Gothic campaniles (the Fatime
Kad un, the Cejvan-cehajina, and the Sinan Pasa Mosques in Mostar, as well as
mosques in Nevesinje, Bileca, Plana, Opllcict, Dabrica, Bijeljina and even special
variations of a cylindrical tower at Donja Dreznica and Kotezi near Ljubinje).

The city of Dubrovnik was, thus, constantly the main window of Bosma and Hercegovina
towards Western European culture, both during the Bosnian kings and in the course
of over 400 years of Ottoman rule. Together with other Croatian towns on the Adriatic
coast, it played either a direct or an intermediary role in bringing features of European art - especially pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, Gothic, and Renaissance - to
Bosnia and Hercegovina. Whatever the influences, however, we can observe a basic
continuity of the pre-Turkish building tradition even through the Ottoman period,
with changes affecting different types of structures in different degrees. For example,
a high level of continuity was maintained with regard to fortified structures.
In medieval Bosnia a "town" would begin as a fortified defensive structure. At the second stage it would include housing for admtnlstrattve officials, landowners, and other
prominent individuals. As the number of inhabitants increased, it became necessary
to develop the infrastructure required to meet the living needs of a settlement. This
brought in a variety of craftsrnen and merchants and, eventually, a church was built
as a sign that the settlement indeed became a town
Elements of the important styles of Christian architecture were visible already in the
medieval towns of Bosnia. Rornanesque elements are manifested in the s lrnple
ground-plans with uniform space, low and narrow ramparts, and towers with rectangular bases. These features persisted for a long tiIne. Gothic influence resulted in an
increased number of "interior" towers and their greater height, taller and thicker ramparts, introduction of couriterforts, and especially in the rounding of the main tower.
Characteristic constructional details and decorative ornamentation also emerged.
The Ottomans kept all the existtng defensive structures, reinforcing and enlarging
them if necessary. SometiInes, a former town remained as a separate entity and the
sertlemerit was enlarged by the addition of new housing units within or outside the
town walls.

Christian architectural elements in mosques. One would expect mosques to stay
away from pre-Is larnic influences. Since a place of worship is a spatial symbolization
of a separate ideological background of a society, it is usually built with a commitmerit to some standard forms of construction.
However, although standard forms prevailed, there were also frequent deviations.
Thus, the Fethija Mosque in Bihac, a transformed former church kept many features
of the late-Gothic style in which the church had been built, such as a large groundplan, and high pointed stained-glass windows and rosette on the main facade. Moreover, the mosque was used as a model for almost all the mosques built in the Una
river basin. The spacious ground-floor was also used in the construction of the
Cejvan-cehajlna Mosque in Mostar, and the Careva Mosque in Stolac.
°

Christian architectural elements in mosques: atypical minarets
Bijeljani, Nevesinje, Predojeoica, Plana, Dabrica, and Kotezi

190

191

The influence of Italian campaniles and Dubrovnik town clock-towers is visible in the
construction of Ottoman-Bosnian clock-towers with a quadrangular one-piece body.
high windows and pyramidal roof. They are s imllar to the Romariesque bell-towers
built in Dalmatia during a later period. Such clock-towers were built in Sarajevo,
Banja Luka, Donji Vakuf, Gradacac, Mostar, Pocitelj, Neves inje, Livno, Prozor, Stolac,
and Travnik.

Christian architectural elements on clock towers

We can find Christian stylistic elements in SOIne other structures in the region of
Hercegovina. such as the Mosque of Nesuh-Aga Vucijakovic in Mostar, built in 1568.
with its porch consoles and window frames. designed under the influence of Dalmatian Renatssance.f'" the round windows at the Koski Mehrned Pasa caravanserai in
Mos tarv? and in the courtyard kitchen of the Kolakovica house at Blagaj . arcades on
the ground floor, and rows of windows with pointed arches on the facades of houses .
closely resembling a row of Gothic arches.

89
90

Cvito Flskovic. Dalmatlnskl majstorl LI Bosnl i Hercegovin1. Muz ej Orada Zenice III. Zenlca 1973. p. 163.
DZ. Ce lie . .I edna nouootkrtoena qradenina starijeg cloba 11 Mostatu , Nase starine S arajevo 1956. p. 262.

192

Christian architectural elements on mosques:
The Vucijakovica Mosque in Mostar

The cornice , the arch, and the windows with protruding pieces of stone in the clocktower at Trebinje, built in the 18th century. clearly show that Islamic masters accepted the Mediterranean forms of the Renaissance and Baroque styles.

193

Construction of churches in Bosnia and Hercegovina in the same period was also influenced by trends in. European architecture that carne by way of Dalmatia. The church
of St. Nicholas in Gr abovs ko Polje, built in 1499. represents an early model for a
whole range of churches built in the following several centuries . These churches have
s imilar layouts and details. They are also characterized by pre-Rornanesque blind
arches and pilasters, as well as relief zones in the vaults, and represent the standard
for subsequently built churches in Hercegovina.

This period also saw certain changes in housing architecture brought about by technological and scientific advances in general. One example was the tendency to bring
more light to roorns , and another was the construction of chiInneys for fireplaces to
elirninate the harmful effects of srnoke produced by earlier open-hearth fires. Sorne
houses also began to use contemporary sanitary facilities. These changes were particularly apparent in the guest-house irnusofirhana ; of the tekija in Blagaj.P! and in
the Kola kovica family house. also in the same town.

There are n umero us sirnilar churches with a single-nave base and a serni-circular
apse with a srnall round window, the portal with a lunette above it and the bell in the
shape of a spinning wheel; these elements are clear evidence of the influence of Dalmattari Gothic.

Christian architectural elements:
circular forms of windows

The Orthodox churches of that period were characterized by a conspicuous traditioria lis m, with only minor influences frorn or via Dubrovnik. However, the irnpact of
the building schools of the Morava and Raska regions became stronger, along with
penetration of Ottoman Is lamic and oriental elements.

Christian influences in housing construction. Western influences. which reached
Bosnia and Hercegovina largely via Du brovnik, brought about a division of the large
Ottoman house into separate housing units.
Another change in the houses built about the middle of the 19th century in Mostar
and other towns in Bosnia and Hercegovina was a result of the influence of the decadent
Ottoman architecture prevalent in Istanbul at the time , itself a product of previous
influences of the Baroque and Rococo styles in architecture . This introduced over by
elaborate reliefs which clashed with the typically Is larnic decorative patterns: polychrornatic decorations on wood, ineffective niches in the walls of rooms. plastic orriamerrts of an uninspired imagmatton instead of a calm searching for aes the'tic pleasure.
194

The Musafirhana of the tekija in Blagaj

There were also major changes in the dornain of socio-economic relations, brought
about by the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Hercegovina. As the value of
lanel increased, the sprawling Ottoman house became a luxury that few could afford.
People started living in butld ings which no longer had a favorable orientation, adequate exposure to the sun, ventilation, or spatial variety. The traditional urban
structure was also upset. There also appeared a transitional style in which the
ground-floor kept its earlier features, while the first floor was built according to a
European model.

9\

Dz . (:elic':. "Mu snflrha na blagajsl«. tek ije''. Nase sturine II. Saraj evo 1954. p . 189.

195

Peculiarity of the house. We can clearly differentiate three basic types of houses in
Bosnia and Hercegovina durtrig the Ottoman period. The building materials used are
the most important factor detennining the differentiating characteristics of BosnianOttoman houses.
The type that we shall, for lack of a better term, call oriental is characterized by low,
square-based pyramidal roofs covered with ceramida, open porches facing an interior
garden, and a walled and cobbled courtyard. This type is found only in Sarajevo and
Foca. The Svrzina house in Sarajevo from the 17th cerrtury, with its fully decorated
interior, the Djerzeleza house and the Suburina house in the aarne city, the Avclagica
house in Foca and several others, are beautiful examples of Bosnian domes tic architecture.

Houses in -Jajce

The Sureina. house in Sarajevo

A typical Mus lim house in Hercegovina is distinguished by its characteristic roof
made of stone slates. This region also has certain climatic advantages which make it
possible for llving functions to be moved to the courtyard, as is usually done in other
countries of the Mediterranean and the Near East region. Interesting examples of this
type are to be found in Stolac, particularly in the complex known as the Begovina, as
well as at Blagaj (the Kolakovica house, the Valagica house, and the musafirhana of
the tekija), in Pocitelj (the Gavran-Kapetanovica house), Trebinje (the Res ulbegovica
house), and in Mostar (the Biscevtca. the MuslibegoviCa, the Kajtazova house, the
Zn1iro, the Karabegova, and the Kapetanovina houses).
I

The Mus lim houses in northern and central Bosnia were shaped by influences both
fr0111 Is larnic and Alpine countries. This house is, as a rule, of a closed, sturdy, cubic
forrn. : with . a high timber roof and shingle-covering, without walled courtyards, or
open hajat. The Krs lak house in Jajce, the EminbegiCa house in Tesanj, the
Dusparina house in Kraljeva Sutjeska, and the Pozderac house in Cazin are wellknown examples of this type of ho ns».

The Dusparina house in Kraljeva Sutjeska
The Resulbeqouida house in Trebinje

196

197

The Ottoman house of Hercegovina, a splendid example of architecture suited to the
climate of the area, also bears evidence to the tolerant and open character of the Ottoman-Ialamic milleu: it readily accepts elements of previous architectural traditions
as well as the hand of the local master, with all the creative factors constantly evolving through the several centuries of the Ottoman presence, remaining permanently
open to fresh influences.
It is clear that Bosnia and Hercegovina. in spite of being the area of rnany conflicts
between the East and the West. has also been. perhaps longer than any other region
in the world. the middle ground where the two worlds met in peace. where their artistic traditions intenningled to create unique styles and forms.
The following are the most important factors which have been Insrrumental in creating a specific regional style of architecture in Bosnia and Hercegovina:
the dominant religion of Is lam and the CUSt0111S associated with it; unifonnity of
social and economic relations on the entire territory of the Ottoman Empire:
specific urban set-up dictated by a specific economy:
a tendency to preserve and cultivate the natural environment:
a standard ground-plan of the house;
s pecific Islamic architectural details and household items:
specific geographical and conditions;
mainly domes tic masters and local materials and building technology;
a C01111110n life of Mus lims and Christians;
constant involvement of people frorn Dubrovnik iI1 building activities in both the
pre-Ottoman and Ottoman periods.
A specific regional architecture was thus created, leaving behind a series of characteristic architectural achievements. mostly modest by physical diInensions but of considerable Imporrarice for the cultural history of its people. The creative process which
produced t hern was a constant flow of various cultural influences which, like strearns
merging into a single river, become much more than a rnere total of the individual
contributing elernerrts. It became a significant new contribution to the world's artistic
heritage and an example of cultural cooperation of people with different histories and
tradition.

VIII

PRESERVATION OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
IN BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA
At the time of the Ottoman arrival Bosnia had a large number of structures of a
monumental character, which by and large remained unchanged throughout the Ottorna n period. with regard to both form and function. Only a small number of
churches were transfonned into mosques , a case in point being the Fethija Mosque in
Bihac.
Most damage to urban settlements. especially to bazaars, was caused by fires, delibe ra t e ly set or started as part of military campaign. In 1697 Eugene of Savoy set fire to
the entire city of Sarajevo. It took the city a whole century to recover from this disaster. In 1870 the Ottoman admlnis tration of Bosnia and Hercegovina issued a decree
ordering its officials to l~ake steps toward preservation of all historically valuable objects and structures.
The change from Otto man to Austro-Hungarian rule. which occurred in 1878,
brought with it considerable intensification in all areas of construction as well as a
reorientation towards West-European building concepts, methods. and materials. In
1879 a big fire. probably started with a blessing by the new admlnlstration. cornpletely destroyed the central part of Sarajevo. enabling the construction of new
buildings with an increased degree of land utilization and accumulation of profit.
In 1888 the Austro-Hungarian rulers began to organize their activities aimed at preservation of archeological remains, especially those related to classical antiquity. Part
of this organized drive was the construction and establislunent of the State Muse urn
(ZemaljsJci muzej'; in Sarajevo. At the same time, however. rrurnero ns mo rrurnerrts from
the med ieval and Ottoman periods , including some very old Catholic churches and
monasteries, were demolished to make rOO1n for new structures built in pseudoGothic or a neo-Renaissance style. The mosques and other Islamic buildings acquired
<1 n ewly invented pseudo Egyptian-Moorish style.

The Town Hall in Sarajevo. 1892
designed in pseudo Egyptian-Moorish style

198

199

Ent ir e - fo r tified tow ns d ating fr om the Midd le Ages disappeared (Bihac , Derve rit a,
Bos anski No vi). B r idges we re alte r ed and "a d a p t ed " in a rather t a s t e les s rnarmer (e.g.
Seti erceh ajiua and LatinsJca cuprija in Sarajevo) . The same destructive and
"reno vative" p o licy was contin ued u nt il the e nd of World War II. Rare initiatives tow ards t he p reservatio n of t h e cu ltu ral h e r ita ge m ad e no p ro gr es s.
During t he Second World War the greatest dama ge wa s suffe red by bridges a nd tra d it ional Bosnia n ho uses , m os t ly m a d e of w oo d. Imme d iate ly a fter t h e war , t he initial
"revoh. rtionary e rrt hus ia sm'' of t h e new socialist orde r was re s p onsible fo r t h e destruction of n u merous rnori urn ents w it h relig iou s fu n c t ion . As early as 1945, h o weve r, t he new re g iln e p a s s ed a law about the p rot ectio n of the cu ltu ra l heritage a nd
set u p a specia l institution ent r usted with the care a nd preservatio n of t he c ultural
a n d n a tur a l he ritage of Bos nia and He rcegovin a . The new govern lnent und e r t o ok
plan n e d and organized activities on the preservatio n of cultural m onuments . As a
firs t s tep, individual m o num ents were selected to be placed u nder state p rotectio n
and restored , if n e c e s s ary . The restoration work p roceeded a t a varying pace, mostly
d epend ent on the general economic situation in the country.
In the p e r iod between 1945 and 1992 work was done on the p reservation of the fo llowing types of monuments: archaeological sites: Illyrian fo rtifications, about thirty
basilicas fro m thelate antique period. and as many as 60,000 Bogornil t ombstone s
found on ov er 3 ,000 localities; m e d ieva l and Ottoman fortified settle ments: some 300
s u c h settlements. mos tly in r u ins , we re uncove red, with only a t h ir d of that n urnb er
b eing restoration worthy; t h e meet importan t restoration projects were carried o ut on
fortifi c ations in or around .Jajce, Maglaj, Doboj, Bobovac , Gradacac, Dobor , Travnik,
Po citelj , Sokol. and Kastel in Banja Luka: sacral structures erected in t h e Ottoman
p eriod: nearly 2,000; 137 of them were· registered as state-protected monuments: 76
m osq ues , 4 3 Christian Orthodox churches and monasteries, 16 Catholic churches
a n d m onastertes. and two synagogues; sec u la r structures from the Ottoman period:
these include five schools, the Sokolovica bridge a t Visegrad, The Stari Most (Old
Bridge) in Mostar, The Kukavica han in Foca, a hamam in Sarajevo, the Resulbegovic a house in. Trebinje, the Dusparina house in Kraljeva Sutjeska, a nd the GavranKapetanovica house at Pocitelj: architecture of the Austro-Hungarian period, which
was included in preservation programs only in the last decade with the establtshrnent
of a n integral urban conservation policy, whose avowed goal was equal treatment of
a ll historical periods; monuments of socialist revolution and Partisan warfare memori al architecture.

Between the two World Wars the deterioration of the Sarajevo carsija continued. In
this period the oldest business facility in the bazaar , the Kolobara han , burnt down as
w ell.
In t h e years after World War II many local architects. influenced by Le COl-busier,
supported the view that individual structures of the carsija should be p reserved and
matntained a s InUSeUlTI exhibits in a park-like environment. But after the demolition
in 19 49 of a s eries of old shops called Trqouke, located right next to the central square
of the bazaar , it was realized that a removal s ection of the cars ija affected the most
importarrt aspect of its Ottoman character - its unique integrity. In consequence,
there was a sudden change of professional and public opinion in favor of a preservation of Bascars ija. This resulted in a conservation and restoration plan for the larger
a rea of all Bascars ija , whos e principal elements w ere carried out by the year 1975.
Thes e includ ed the Brusa b ezis tan, the Gazi Husrevbegov b ezistan, t h e Morica han,
t h e Trgovke , the D aire , and t he Gazi Husrevbegov hamarn.

i« I;;it.lULACIt:lNI

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Of a ll the preservation and restoration activities undertaken in the post-World-War II
p eriod, however, the most important are the large-scale project on the Bascarsija in
S arajevo and the Old Town in Mostar. These two Ottoman bazaar complexes had a
s irnilar htstory: because of the radical changes in the manner of production brought
about by the Austro-Hungarian rule, t h e old -style bazaars began to fall into disuse
and were rapidly deteriorating.

Sarajevo. The idea of legal protection of the carslja in Sarajevo was first conceived by
a r c h itec t Josip Pospisil in 1915. But as Bosnia was involved in the First World War at
the time. the idea could not even begin to be realized. Pospisil's proposal was , in fact,
a reaction to a long period of destruction of the carsija by fires and others means and
subsequent construction of multi-storey buildings in a deliberate attempt to do away
with the Ottoman character of old Sarajevo.
The Babcareij a. conservatio n a nd re storation plan, mad e in 197 2,

200

NA.

"',,1-4.

C . .... K ... T ...

20 1

Mostar. The idea for the preservation of the old bazaar in Mostar, conceived some thirty
years ago, developed in time into a comprehensive project of conservation and restoration
of the histolical city core by taking into account all the relevant socio-economic factors.
This idea was institutionalized in 1977 with the establishment of the Stari Grad Institute,
which undertook to develop an integral concept of urban conservation. Toward this aim,
expelience from similar projects all over the world was collected, examined and tapped to
create a plan, which also paid due attention to the specific cultural and sociological
conditions of Mostar. After a peliod in which public opinion was mobilized in favor of the
project, the condition of the structures to be preserved was examined, basic technical
documentation was provided, and an evaluation was made of a number of competing
proposals C?n the actual steps to be taken in carrying out the project.
More than 200 different Interventions on the structures were undertaken as parallel activities. The area covered by the whole project grew larger and larger: 0.10 sq. kID. in 1979,
2.8 sq. kID. in 1985, and 4.7 sq. kID. in 1991. In 1986 the Aga Khan Award for
Architecture was given to Stali Grad Institute for the remarkably conceived and realised
conservation of the entire sixteenth century Old Town in Mostar.

Some interrelated components ofMostar's urban conservation project might be of value to
the development of urban conservation in general; they include:
1. Self-financing system by which funds were supplied by those persons, institutions,
and social structures which were to benefit most from the project;
2. Balance between the mix of people and uses of the space;
3. Education, which enabled the creation ofa specific tbeory of urban conservation.
These components helped to determine a special methodology of urban conservation,
which was successfully applied to the whole of Mostar, a city of 130,000 inhabitants, as
well as to several other towns in former Yugoslavia in the peliod from 1989 to 1992. We
believe that this methodology can be successfully applied to other towns, especially in the
rebuilding of Bosnia and Hercegovina to be undertaken after the war which began in
1992.

Contemporary Isla m ic architecture. In the last decade or so before the current war
there was a trend to modernize the construction of mosques and other Islamic structures in Bosnia and Hercegovina. This was a natural outcome of contemporary movemerits in the architecture of former Yugoslavia, mostly of West-European provenance:
tnoderna between the two World War, socialist realism after World War II, under the
influence of Soviet Union, the international style in the sixties responsible for large
apartment buildings in the suburbs .
.While famtliartztng themselves with modern developments in architecture, Bosnian
architects continued to cultivate the values of the Bosnian-Ottoman building tradition. It was therefore natural for them to attempt a symbiosis of the two "schools" of
architecture. In a number of such attempts they produced some remarkable designs
not only of mosques but also of other public buildings, which have caught the attention of architects throughout the world. We have included three illustrations of this
peculiaty Bosnian modern trend in architecture: the department store in Jajce,92 the
Sejfudin Mosque, (also known as the Bijela Mosque) in Visoko,93 and the mosque in
Zagreb (Croatia l.P"

The shopping center in Jajee
designed by Radivoj Jadrie, Kika Karia, Nedzad Kurio, and Greta Ferusic

92
93
Mostar's Old Town conservation and restoration plan, proposal for Mostar 2004
94

202

The project received the annual award for best architectural creation in Yugoslavia in 1976. awarded by
the Borba newspaper competition. Its authors were on the staff of the Faculty of Architecture. University of Sarajevo.
Its designer Zlatko Ugljen then a professor at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Sarajevo.
received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1983.
The designers Dzemal Celie and Mirza Golos were professors at the University of Sarajevo.

203

Heritage destroyed in the 1992-94 war. The collapse of the former Yugoslavia began
in 199 I with the secession of two member republics, Slovenia and Croatia. When
Bosnia and Hercegovina declared its independence on the basis of a referendum held
in the beginning of 1992, it was brutally attacked by Serbian nationalists, who
wanted to keep it within the Serb-domtnated r urnp Yugoslavia consisting -of Serbia
and Montenegro. The predominantly Muslim population of Bosnia and Hercegovina
was totally unprepared for war and, in the months to come, became victims of untold
atrocities committed by the aggressors. The Bosnian Mus lims were to be killed or exiled , and their five-centuries-old cultural heritage reduced to ashes. 95
Serbian forces besieged all the big towns in Bosnia and Hercegovina by taking positions
on surrounding hills and hitting them with the IUOSt destructive weapons at their
disposal.
As Serbian forces also attacked Croatian settlements in Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Mus lims and Croats became natural allies fighting a common eriemy. In the course of
fighting Croatian leaders declared an independent Croatian state within Bosnia and Herc egovina and started persecuting Muslims who lived on the territory which they arbitrar ily proclaimed as theirs. The Mus lims were thus forced to defend thernselves from
Croatian ex t r e m is t s while continuing to fight the much stronger Serbian forces.
At the present time Croatian forces have joined with the Serbian army in order to destroy every aspect of the Is larnic cultural heritage. Having "chosen" the Muslim
populated Mostar for the capital of their mini state within Bosnia and Hercegovina,
they have made this historical city, a genuine repository of some of the greatest archit ectural treas ures in the Balkans, the main target of their artillery attacks.
The Bijela Mosque in Visoko
built in 1980 and designed by Zlatko Ugljen

The Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar
The Mosque in Zagreb built in 1988 and

in June 1992 and before the war

designed by Dz. Celie and M. Golos
95

204

S et" "List of d estroyed monuments in Bosnia a n d Hr-rcego vln a " in Appendix.

205

The Jezero village near Jajce destroued. in June 1992.

Proposal for reconstruction and preservation. On the experiences of the preservation work in Bosnia and Hercegovina before the war, and on the world experience our
proposal for reconstruction and preservation of cultural heritage in Bosnia and
Hercegovina is based on following:
1 Heritage of Bosnia and ' Hercegovina is an integral multicultural heritage created
during five centuries of common living.
2. Organization of preservation work must be .ca rr ied out in small regional offices
connected in a network with a central information office.
3. All activities are an integral part of the general program for reconstruction both
economic structure and a social life of Bosnia and Hercegovina.
4. All activities should be carried out by experts educated in a scientific-working
program.

The Old Bridge in Mostar,
Left: New Bridgefrom the restoration project; right: Bridge destroyed on November 9, 1993

206

APPENDICES

Appendix -2

Destroyed Isla mic Heritage in Bosnia and Hercegovina
April 1992-June 1993
Degree of Importance: * Loca l/Regional
* *: Nationa l
** *: Very im portant

Deg ree of Destruction:

D amaged
Seve re D a mag es
*** To tally Destroy ed
*

**

Monuments

Date of
construction

Impor-

Degree

tance

of des truction

BIHAC
1) Fethija Mosque
2) Kula
3) Clock Tower
4) Golubici Mosque
5) Jezero Mosque
6) S rb lja ni Mosque
7) Cekrlije Mosque
8) Ve lika Zalozje Mosq ue
9) Viniea Mos que
10) Pokoj Mosque
11) Baksais Mosque
12) Pre kounjs ka Mosq ue
13) Ku len Vakuf Mosque
14) Spahici Mos que
15) Isla mic Community Center
Cazin
16) Miostrah Mosque
17) Os trozac Mosq ue
18) Prosici Mosque
19) Ma jestici Mosque
20) Glogovac Mosque
21) Stijena Mos que
Bosanska Krupa
22) Mosque
23) Ha dzi Dzemaluddin Caus evi c Mosq ue
24) Mos ques in Bosanska Otoka
25) Mos ques in Bosanska Otoka
26) Isla mie Co mm unity Cen ter
27) Du bov ka Mosque
28) Ara pusa Mosque
29) Ba bici Mos que
30) Klisa Mosque
31) Bes ici Mos que
Ostrozac
32) Mosque
PRUEDOR
33) Carsijs ka Mosque

1492

18th.e .

212

**
***
***
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

**
*
*
**
***
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
*
**
**
**
**
:f:

*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

***
*
**
**
**
**
***
***
***
*
*
*

*

***

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

34) Koza rac Mosque
35 ) Deri Kozarae Mos que
36) MutnicaKozarac .M osque
37) Kamicani Mos que
38) Kozarusa M os que
39) Kozarusa Scho ol
40) Mu jkanovici Mosque
4 1) Brdani Mosque
42) Ja ku pov ica Mo sque
43) Kevljaui Mosqu e
44) Hrus tici M osque
45) Alici M osqu e
46) S red nj i Mosque
47) Mahmuljini Mosque
48) Lisnja Mosque
49) Va kuf Buildings
50) Isla Hu e Community Ho uses
5 1) Lib ra ry
52) Zagrad Mosque
53) S ta ri G rad Mosq ue
54) Cela Mosq ue
55) Brizicani Mos que
56) Zecovi Mos que
57) Careva Mosque a t Ak ov o
58) Ha nbar ine Mosque
59) Rizvauovici Mos que
60) Biscaui Mosq ue
61) Ccjreci Mosq ue
62) Go ru ja Pu harsk a Mosque
63) Do nja Puhars ka Mosque
64) Lju bija Mosq ue
Bosanski Novi
65) Vill age Mos que
66) S red nji Mosq ue
67) V ido uij a Mosqu e
BANJA LUKA 3
68) Arnavudi ja M osqu e wi th Sadrvan
69) Fe rhat Pasa Mosque
70 ) Fe rhat Pas ino Tu rbe
7 1) Fe rhat Pasa Sadrvan
72 ) Ferhat Pasina Tow e r
73) Gazaufe rb eg ov a Mos que
74) Gaza nfer Beg Turbe
75) Ba rka ta r Tu rbe
76) Sa ri Kadm Turbe
77) Ha lil Pasa Tu rbe
Kotor Varos
78) Vrba njci Mosque
79) Hrvacaui Mos que

1820/1
1883
1870
1694/5
1579

159 0

*
*
**
*
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
*
*

213

***
***
***
**
**
**
***
***
**
**
**
***
**
**
*
***
***
***
***
***
*
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
*
***
*
***
***
***
***
***
***
. ***
***
***
***
**
***

80) Vecici Mosque
81) Vecil~.i Nova Mosque
82) Han ifici Mosque
83) Donia Yaros Mosque
84) Cars iiska Mosque
85) Seven Vakuf Buildings
86) Kotor Mosque
87) Ravne Mosque
88) Vranic Mosque
89) Hadrovci Mosque
90) Garici Mos que
91) Siprage Mosque
92) Olovo Mosque
Sanski most
93) Bosa nska Krajina Mosq ue
94) Bosanska Krajina Vakuf houses
95) Trnova Mosque
96) Kamen Grad Mosque
Slatina
97) Slatina Mosque

1990

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

***
**
**
**
**
***
**
**
**
*
**
**
**
*
*
*
*
*

*

***

JATCE
98) Dizdarusa Mos que
99) Esmahan S ultan Mosque
100) Hadzi Muharembegova Mosque
101) Ra rnaza nbegova Mos que
102) Sinan -begova Mosque
103) Tekija with musafirhane and imaret
104) Ibra himbegova Mosque
105) Vinac Mosque
106) Sipovo Mosque
107) Sipovo, Four Vakuf House
108) Vrazic Mos que
109) Pliva Mosq ue
110) Doganovci Mosq ue
111) Divca ui Mosque
112) Hadadan Mosque
113) Bcsnjevo Mosque
Kljuc
114) Gra dska Mosque
115) Pudin Han Mosque
Mrkonj ic Grad
116) M ustafa Agina Mosque
Bosanski Petrovac
117) Donja Mosque
118) Gornja Mosque
LIVNO
119)Balagina Mosque
120) Hadzi Ahmet Bega Mosque at Glavica
121) Clock Tower

16th - 18 12/3
1749/50

17.c.
1972

1514/5
1587

214

**
***
**
*
**
**
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

***
***
***
*
**
*
*
. ***
***
***
**
***
***
*
*
*

**
***

*
*

**

*

*
*

*
*

***
***
***

*
*
*

122) Mustafa La la Pas ina Mosque
123) Mustafa Aga Milosnik Mosque
124) MustafaAga Milosnik Fountains
125) Piri Agina Kula
Glamoc
126) Omer Basaga Tomb
BUGO.JNO
127) II.Sultanahmet Mosque
128) Medressa and cemetery
129) Kopcici Mosgue
130) Kopcici Comlex
131) Plan inci Mosque
13?) Drvetina Mosque
133) Kupres Mosgue
134) Veselo Mosque
135) Poril~ Mosque
I'rusac
136) Haudan Aga Mosque
137) Sejh Hasan Kafi Mosque
138) Sejh Hasan Kafi Complex
139) AlayBeg Malkoc Beg Mosque
140) Clock Tower
141) Ali Beg Kopcica Mosque
142) Carsijska Mosq ue
143) VakufHouse
144) Ajvatovica Mosque
145) Cemetery
Donji Vakuf
146) Duzic Mosque
147) Hadzi Yusuf Mosque
148) Scherdtik Mosque
149) Korjenidi Mosque
150) Jema nlici Mosque
151) Sta ro Sclo Mosque
152) Torla kovac Mesdzid
153) Dobra Brdo Mesdzid
154) Sokolina Mesdzid
155) Ceha iil{i Mesdzid
156) Suhodol Mesdzid
157) Balhodzici Mesdzid
GUADA(:AC
158) Husein Kapetan-Gradascevica Mosque
159) Husein Kapetau-Gradascevica Turbe
1(0) Clock Tower
1(1) Medjedja Mosque
162) Zeliuja Gornja Mosque
1(3) Zelinja Donja Mosque
1(4) Ledeuica Mosque
1(5) Krecevina Mosque
1(6) Omeragici Mosque

**
**
**
**

*
*
*
*

***

*

1693

**
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

**
**
**
***
***
**
***
***
*

16.c..

**
**
***
**
**
*
*
*
***
*

**
**
**
*
*
***
*
**
**
**

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
*
*

**
*
**
*
*
*
*
*
*

**
*
*
**
**
*
*
*
*

1826

215

167) Mionica Mosque
168) Lukavica Mosque
1(9) Rajska Mosque
170) Vuckovci Mosque
171) Sviracka Mosque
172) Medresa
173) Kapetan Muratova Medersa
174) Bukovaca Mosque
175) Nova Beg ova Mosque
176) Okanovica Mosque
177) Library of Islamic community
178) Lukovac Donia Mosque
Bosanski Brod
179) Husein Beg Mosque
180) Sultan Azaz Mosque
181) Don ie Kolibe Mosque
Bosanskl Samac
182) Mosque
183) Vakuf Houses
184) Is lamic Community Center
Derventa
185) Gradska Mosque
186) Sejh Omer Mausoleum
187) Islamic Community Center
188) Omerazici Mosque
189) Nova Mosque
190) Doniacka Mosque
Modrica
191) Sta fa Mosque
192) Osma nbegova Mosque
193) Hadzi Alibegova Mosque
194) Terevica Mosque
195) Vakuf Building
196) Islam Yaros Mosque
197) Goruji Tarevci Mosque
198) Modrica Lug Mosque
199) Jakes Mosque
DOBOJ
2(0) Carsijska Mosque
2(1) Oras je Mosque
2(2) Kotorsko Gornja Mosque
2(3) Kotorsko Donia Mosque
2(4) Severliia Mosque
205) Sije Mosque
206) Odzak Mosque
2(7) Islamic Community Center
2(8) Graca nica New Mosque
209) Bosansko Suho Polie Mosque
210) Garpska Mosque
Zavidovici

IS .c.
18.c.
1812/21

1990

16.c.

IS .c.
19 .c.

216

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211) Borovnica Mosque
212) Oseiaui Mosque
213) Vozuca Mosque
214) Rujnica Mosque
215) Carsiiska Mosque
Tesli c
216) Teslit Mosque
217) Vakuf House
218) Hr a nkovici Mosque
219) Ruzevici Mosque
220) Pribini<.{ Mosque
221) Kamenica Mosque
222) Ma rica Mosque
223) Ba ric'i Mosque
224) Gornii Mosque
225) T rnovaca Mosque
T esan]
226) Debbazhhane Mosq ue
227) Ferhadbegova (Carsijska) Mosq ue
228) Cas tle
229) Lepenica Mosq ue
230) Milianovci Mosque
Maglaj
231) Kalavun Yusuf Pasina Mosque
232) Sukij a Carsiis ka Mosque
233) Clock Tower
234) FazIJ Pasa Mosque
235) Ulisniak Mosque
TRAVNIK
236) Hadzi A libegova Mosque
237) Hasa n Agi na Mosque .
238) Sulejman Pasina Mosque
239) Muhsinzade Abdu lla h turbe
240) Dzela l Pasino Tu rbe
241) Sarena Mosque
242) Fevziie Medersa
243) Karaula Mosque
244) Mudrike Mosque
245) Goles Mosque '
246) Bijelo Buce Mosque
247) Prusac Stara Mosque
248) Prusac Mosque
Zeni ca
249) Sultan Ahmet Mosque
Vit ez
250) Vitez Mosque
251) Ahmici Mosque
Bijela
252) Bijela Mosque
KO NJIC

1985

16 .c.

217

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1763-1865
1550
181 5/6

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XVIII .c..

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253) Repovacka Mosque
254) Mehmet Cavus Mosque at Tekije
255) Prknija Mosque
256) Vardacka Mosque

1648/XVIIc..

257) Rc povacka M osq ue
258) Kon iic Medersa
259) B ielinici Mosque
260) Glavicini Nova Mosque
MOSTAR
2(1) Baba Besirova Mos que
2(2) D e rv is Pasa Bejazidagica Mosque
263)
264)
2(5)
2(6)

1631
159 7

Hadzi Balina Mosque.
Hadfi Kurtova Mosque

1612
16th c .
1651
16th .c .

Hadzi Ahmet Aga Lakisica Mosque
Hadzi Mernije Cernice Mosque

2(7) Hadzi lahia Mosque
2(8)
2(9)
2 70)
271)
272)
273)
2 74)
2 75)
276)
277)

1620

Karadjozbegova Mosque (designed by Mimar S ina n)
Karadjozbegova Medresa
Cejvan Ceha ja Mos que
Cejvan Cehajin Mekteb (Museum)
Koski Mehmet Pasina Mosque
Koski Mehmed Pasina Medresa
Koski Mehmet Pasa S ad rva n
Ko tlina Mosque
Kjose Jah ja Mosque
Ahmeta Curci je Mosque

278) Hadzi Lafina Mosque
2 79) Nasuh-age Vucija kovica Mosque

1557/8
1552/3
res . 1895 ..
1618/9
17th c .
1618/9
1768
17th c ..
16th c ..
1633

280)
281)
282)
283)
284)

Ibrahim-age S a rica Mosque
Sevri Hasan Mosq ue
Yavuz S u lta n . Selimov Mesdzid
Stari Most (Old Bridge) designed by Hajrudin
Kujundziluk Carsija

1528/9
1637
1633
1520
1566
15th-19th cc .

285)
286)
287)
288)

C lock Tower
Bridge a bove the Radobolja River
Roznamedzi Ibrahim Ef. Mosque
Musala with surrounding buildings

17th c.
b .1566
1620
17th -19th cc .

289) Imam's hea dquarters

1932
17th c .

290) Biscevica s treet wi th several houses

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291) Bjelusine dwelling complexes
Blagaj
292) Ca reva Mosque
293) Tekija's musafirha na
294) Gnojnice Mosque
Buna

1557/8

295) Ali Pasa Rizvanbegovica Mosque
STOLAC
296) Hadzi S alihova M os que

1812

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171 7

297) Hadzi AJijina Mosque
298) S ulta n Se Jim Javuz Mosque

218

299)
300)
3(1)
302)

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1562

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1558

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Sila htar Y usuf Pasa Hamam
Ali Pasa Rizvanbegovica House
O ld House (Museum)
Dzulhauumina House

Pocitelj
303) Sisman Ibrahim Pasa Mosque
304) Sisman Ibrahim Pasa Medersa
305) Sisman Ibrahim Pasin Han
306) Si s ma n Ibrahim Pasa Hama m
307) Gavran-Kapetanovica house

Ljubuski
308) Nasuh-age Vucijakovica Mosque
VISOKO
3(9) G raca nica Mos que
310) Sadirva n Mosque
311) SaraCica Mos que
312) Tabhana Mosque
313) B ijela Mosq ue
314) Pertaca Mos que
Kiseljak
315) O ld Mosq ue
Breza
316) Vratnica Mos que
31 7) Vrbovik Mosque
318) Izbod Mos que
319) Mahala Mosque
SARAJEVO
320) D iva n Katib Hajdarova (B ijela) Mosq ue

16th c ..

32 1) D ivan Katib Hajdarovo Turbe
322) Turbe
323) Ali Fakih(Veki liharc Mustafa Ef.) Mosque
324) Ali Fakih turbe
325) Ali Pasa Mosque
326)
327)
328)
329)
330)

Ali Pas ino Turbe
Ba li Be ,g (Malkoc) Mesdzid
Ba li Beg Hamam
Bascarsi jska Hodza Du rakova Mosque
Boza dzi Hadzi Hasan Mos que

331)
332)
333)
334)
335)

Cekrekdzi M us luhiddin Mosque
Coban Hasan Vojvoda Mosque
Coha dii Sulejmauova Mosque
Cobadzi Sulejman Saban D ed ino Turbe
Cohadzi Sulejmau Yedi ler T ur be

. 1560

1557/8
1526
1562
1565
17th c ..

336) Dova nh Hadzi Ibrahim Mesdzid
337)
338)
339)
340)
341)
342)

17.c.

Dovanli Hadzi Ibrahim Turbe
Ferha tbegova (Ferhadija) Mosque
Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque
Gazi H usrevbegova Medersa
Gazi H usrevbegova Hanikah
Gazi Husrevbegova Bezistau

1561/2
1530

219

?i:

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343)
344)
345)
346)
347)
348)
349)
350)
351)
352)
353)
354)
355)
356)
35 7)
358)
359)
3(0)
361)
3( 2)
3(3)
3(4)
365)
3(6)
36 7)
368)
3(9)
370)
371)
372)
373)
374)
375)
376)
377)
3 78)
379)
380)
381)
382)
383)
384)
385)
386)
38 7)
388)
389)
39 0)
39 1)
392)

Gazi Husrevbegov Hamam
Gazi Husrevbegovo Turbe
Kursumlija Medresa
Muratbegovo Turbe
Merica Ha n
Clock Tower
Gazi Mehmetbegova Mosque
Hadzi Ali Kazgani Mesdzid
Hadzi Dzafer Mosque
Kulovil! Esad Efeudijino Turbe
Hadzi Hajdar (Sarae) Mesdzid
Balic Hadzi Mehmet Mesdzid
Hadzi Sejdi Mesdzid
Hadzi Timurhau Mesdzid
Hadzi Turhan Mesdzid
Hitri Sulejman Mesdzid
Hadzi Ahmet Mesdzid
Hubjar Aga Mcsdzid
Car Fatih S .Han Mo sque
Sultan Fatih sadrvan
Ibrahim Efendija Bistirigi Turbe
Ivekov Hadzi Mehmed Mesdzid 1528/40
Kad: Hasan Mosque
Kadl Abdulfetah Dedino Turbe
Kara Fetah Mesdzid
Ka ra FcUa h Turbe
Kant Fcttnh Rufai Tekija
Kasapovic Ibra hima Mesdzid
Kasapovica Mosque
Catib Kasnna Mesdzid
Kazgani Hadzi Ali Mesdzid
Kcccdzi Sinan Mosque
Kecedzi Sinan Mausoleum
Komatin Hadzi Memi Mesdzid
Kjose Sina n Mesdzid
Kulin Hadzi Balin Mesdzid
Kucuk Katip Mesdzi d
Mimar S inan Mesdzid
Mimar Davut Mesdzid
Makrozade Ha dzi Si nan Mesdzid
Nebirdi lo Hadzi Ali Mesdiid
Nedta r Ibrahim Mesdzid
Pacadzi Hadzi Nasuh Me sdzid
Pel tek Husamettin Mesdzid

1537

148 5
16th c ..
16th e ..
16th e..
1562
1562
1588
1578
1598
1545
1565/7

1528/40
17th.c..
155 7

16.c.

1561
1544
16th.c..
16th.e..
1528
1528
1600
1531
1556
1556
1700

Razozade Mes dzid
Ragoza de T urbe
Sa ir Had zi Ali Mesd zid

1549

..

Sagrd zi Hadzi Mahmut Mesd zid
Sa rae A li M osq ue
Sa rae Ali Tekija

1528

220

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393)
394)
395)
396)
39 7)
398)
399)
400)
4(1)
4(2)
4(3)
4(4)
4(5)
4(6)
4(7)
4(8)
4(9)
41 0)
411)
412)
413)
414)
415)
416)
4 17)
4 18)
419)
420)
421)
422)
423)
424)
425)
426)
42 7)
428)
429)
430)
43 1)
432)
433)

Had zi Sinanova Tekija
Hadzi S ina n and Sakine Hatun Turbe

17th c ..

Sante Ismail Mesdzid
S ina n Voivodina Mo sque
Se jh Faruk (Abde sthane) Mesdzid
Se jh Faruk Hamam
Magrlbija Mosque
Se jh Muslihiddin Mesdzid

1552
1541

15.c.

Terzibasi Mesdzid
Timurhan Mesdzid
Tokmozade Evnehan Mesdzid
Uskuda rli Ahmed e elebi Mesdzid
Ja hia Pas a Mosque

1524
1602
1580
1528
1482/3
1516
1551
19th .c ..
1591/2
17.c.

Za.g rkci Me sdzid
Brusa Bezistan
Svrzina House
Hadzi Os man Mesdzid
Dzinovi ca Mos que
Sc hool of Islamic Law (C ity Museum)
Kobi lja G lava Mosque
Ugorsko Mosque
Semizovae Mosque
Buljakova Potok Mosque
So lolje Mosque
Briiesce Mosque
Butmir Mosque
Kotorac Mosque
Hadzi Ilhan Aza (L ubo) Mosque
Trnovo Mosque
Grivic Mosque
Sv ra kino se lo Mosque
Kovacl Mosque
So kol ovic Ko lonija Mosque
Brcka Mosque
Islamic Comm unity Leader's building
Islamic Co mm unity L1W Building
Hrasno Mosque
Sv rakiua Mosque
Uzorsko Mosque
Hrasnica Mosque
Bakaric Mosque

152 5

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1887

nH.c:KO
434) Dizdarusa M osqu e
43 5) Celin ei Mosqu e
436) Th ree Mosq ues in Kora j
43 7) Gorn ji Rahici Mosq ue
Bijeljina
438) Sulta n Su le jmanova Mo sque
439) Sali hbeg ovica Mo sque

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221

TUZIA
440) Bijela Mosque
441) Austrurja Mosque
442) Cindzi Mosque
443) Hadzi Hasanova (Carsijska) Mosque
444) Stara Mosque
445) HafIz Harum Mosque ,
446) Tur Alibegova Mosque
447) Gradska Mosque
448) Mehmet Aga Mosque
Zvomik
449) Dere Hadzi Mahmuta Mosque
450) Zvornik Mosque
451) NovaMosque
452) Rijecanska Mosque
453) Zamlaz Mosque
454) Beksuja Mosque
455) Divic Mosque
456) Tekija in Divic,
457) Tekija in Divic
458) Vakuf House in Divic
459) Drinjaca Mosque
4(0) Dulici Mosque
461) Kozlucka Mosque
4(2) Skocic Mosque
463) Sepek Mosque
464) Gradska Mosque at Kula
465) Sapni Mosque
466) Glumini Mosque
467) Islamic Community Center& Archives
468) Klisa Mosque
Kalesija
469) Ajvazi Mosque
470) Prnjavor Mosque
471) Kalesija Mosque
472) Memici Mosque
473) Caparde Mosque
474) Seher Mosque
475) Jelovo Brdo Mosque
476) Rajinci Mosque
477) Miljanovci Mosque

16th c.
1548

1988

SREBRENICA
478)
479)
480)
481)
482)
483)
484)
485)

Bijela Mosque
Carsijska Mosque
Skelani Mosque
Ljesca Mosque
Daljegosta Mosque
Osatnica Mosque
Tokoljaci Mosque
Vidikovac Mosque

222

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486) Pataca ri Mosque
487) Osmace Mosque
488) Luka Mosque
489) Suceska Mosque
490) Klotijevac Mosque
491) Pribidoli Mekteb
492) Pribidoli Mosque
493) Slapovici Mosque
494) Pe<.~ Old Mosque
495) Pe<.~ New Mosque
496) Trubari Mosque
497) Sase Mosque
498) Kara cici School and Mesdzid
Bratunac
499) Bratunac Mosque
500) Glogovo Mosque
501) Jogodnja Mosque
5(2) Zapolje Mosque
503) Voljevica Mosque
5(4) Hrucici Mosque
505) Pobude Mosque
Nova Kasaha
5(6) Musa Pasina Mosque
Vlasenica
507) Starn (Hajrija) Mosque
5(8) Pomol Mosque
K1adanj
5(9) Hadzi Balina Mosque
510) Glavna Mosque
GORAZDE
18
511) Sij ercic SinanBeg Mosque
512) Sij ercic Mausoleum
513) AlayBeg Mehmet Beg Mausoleum
514) Ustipraca Mosque
515) Usripraca Imam's House
516) Brijest Mosque
517) Donji Rajinci Mosque
518) Vrauica Mosque
519) Resetnica Mosque
520) Ilovara Mosque
521) Osjccaui Mosque
522) Osjecani, Imam's House
523) Obara k Mektebi
Visegrad
524) Gazanferbegova Atik Mosque
525) Careva Mosque
526) Mehmet Pasa Sokolovic Bridge
527) Sijercica Turbe
528) Medjedja Mosque
529) Dobrun Stara Mosque

17.c.

15.c.
223

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530) Zlijeb Mosque
531) D rins ko Mosque
Rogatica
532) S ellls udin (Carsijska) Mosque
533) Husein Begova (Arnavudija) Mosque
534) t epa Mosque
535) Po dzeplje Mosque
536) Godimilja Mosque
53 7) Kramer Mosque
538) Dedovici Mosque
539) Kovanj Mosque
Caj 11ice
540) S ina n Pasina Mosque
541) Sinan Pasiuo Turbe
542) S ina n Pasa Sons Turbe

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Knezina
543) S ulta n Selim Mosque

FOCA
544)
545)
546)
547)
548)
549)
550)
551)
552)
553)
554)
555)
556)
557)
558)
559)
5(0)
561)
562)
563)
5(4)
565)
566)
56 7)
568)
569)
570)
571)
572)
573)
574)
575)

Aladza Mosque
Aladza Fountain
Dev Sulejman Beg Mosque
Atik Ali Pasa Mosque

1550
1633/4
1546
1500/1
1593 /4
1751 /2

Car ll.Beyazit Mosque
Kadr Osman Ef. Scjh Mosque
Mehmet Kukavica Pasa Mosque
Mehmet Kukavica Pasa Medersa
Mehmet Kukavica Pasa Inn
Mehmet Kukavica Pasa Clock Tower
Defterdar Memis Mosque
Mumin Beg Mesdzid
Sejh Pirija Mesdzid
Mustafa Pasa Mosque
Novi Mesdzid
O ld Mosque
Hamza Beg Mesdzid
Naksibendi Tekija
Ja buka Mosque
Kratine Mosque
Izbisan Mosque
Sadici Mosque
Popov Most School
Viko(l. Mosque
Godijevno Mosque
Godijevno School
God ijevno imam's House
Borovnici S c hool
S uljc i Mesdzid
Susjesuo Mesdzid
AJi Cohodor Mosque
Cohodor School

16.c./1569
16.c.
16.c.
16 .c./1554
15.c.
1470/5
1991

1990

224

Ustikolina
576) Turha nhegova Mosque

1448/9

**

***

*
**
***
***

*
***
*
*

*
*
*
*

**
*
***
*

TREDINJE
577) Os ma n Pasa Resu lbegovica Mos que
578) 1I1.Sult an a hmet Mosque
579) Ars lanagica Br idge
58 0) Resulbegovica House
Gacko
581) Kazanc i Mosq ue
582) Ga c ko Mosque
583) Fazlagic Kula
584) KJjuc Mosq ue
llileca
588) Bijeljaui Telarevic Mosq ue
583) Polj e Mosque
Nevesinje
584) Sulta n Bejazit Mosque
585) Ha dzi Veli jina Mos que
586) S ina n Ded ina (Cucukova) Mosque
587) Ce leb ici Mosque
588) KJjuni Mosq ue
589) Krusevljani Mosque
590) Zulji Mos que
5 9 1) Mc ktcb

1719

17.c .

**
**

17th.c.

15th c .
1515
XVI c..
XVI c..

225

**
**
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
***
***
**
***
**
**
*

Appendix -3

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Important studies of Islamic architecture in the Balkans did not appear until the third
decade of this century. In 1923 Henry Minetti wrote a survey of Islamic architecture in the
Balkans and produced detailed descriptions of several structures in Serbia and Macedonia.vl'he
second major book appeared thirty years later with the publication of Alija Bejtic's detailed
account of the Ottoman architectural monuments in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
The Turkish historian of architecture Ekrem Hakki Ayverdi published two important
books on Turkish monuments and vakifs in former Yugoslavia, one in 1956 and another in
1981, the latter being a valuable and comprehensive work on the structures built by Ottoman
master-builders on Yugoslav territory.
In 1956 Dusan Grabrijan published a very good book about the housing architecture in
Bosnia and Hercegovina. Smail Tihic wrote the chapter on Islamic art in Yugoslavia that was
published as a supplement to the Yugoslav edition of the well-known book rrFie Worfa of Islam;
edited by Bernard Lewis. ,
Mehmed Mujezinovic collected and annotated three volumes of Islamic epigraphy in
Bosnia and Hercegovina, a rich source of data for the study of Islamic culture in general.
Between 1967 and 1973 Husref Redzic produced several valuable publications devoted
to Islamic architecture, urban planning, and the conservation of Islamic monuments.
A valid contribution to the study of Islamic monumental art in Yugoslavia was also
made by Andrej Andrejevic in his work published between 1970 and 1984.

Of the many endowment charters (lIa/(Jtfname) and court records (sic£iif), containing
information useful for our topic, unfortunately only a small number have been preserved to this
day .
'
Both before and after the arrival of Ottomans to the Balkan peninsula, merchants from
the city-republic of Dubrovnik travelled to Bosnia and recorded their observations in numerous
reports preserved in the Dubrovnik Archives. Important notes were left to. posterity by
Parnucina, Cokorilo, and Skenderova, witnesses of, and participants in, significant events that
. '
took place in Bosnia in the first half of the 19th century.
At about the same time a Russian traveler by the name of Gilferding visited Mostar and
described the town and its population, especially with regard to their different religions and
with particular reference to the Serbian population.
Arthur Evans, a well-known Eng lish scholar of the time, stayed briefly in Bosnia and
Hercegovina in 1875. In an account of his Bosnian experience he claims to have "discovered"
features of distinct Roman and Byzantine styles in the architecture of the region.
In 1891 Carl Peez produced what may be considered the most complete description of
Mostar to date . He provided a lot of important data which make his work extremely valuable to
anyone studying the history of the city. The travel writings of Robert Michael contain a more
poetic description of Mostar.
Fewer but nevertheless valuable data for a history of Bosnia and Hercegovina are also
to be found in the work of Radimsky, K.Patch, Lj. Stepanovic, Ciro Truhelka, K.,Jirichek and
some others .
Of the many local authors who studied and wrote about the history of Bosnia and
Hercegovina, three deserve special mention: Vladimir Corovic Hamdija Kresevljakovic, and
Hivzija Hasandedic, Their comprehensive accounts of the Ottoman days contain detailed
information about the social history of the area and are therefore valuable as sources for the
study of its architecture.

The work of Dzernal Celie, a professor onthe architectural faculty in Sarajevo, needs to
be singled out both for its outstanding quality and its thematic breadth. Hi,S most importrant
publications are ora StOlle 'Bricfges in 'Bosnia ana :J{ercegOlJina (co-authored with M. Mujezinovic)
and the section on Islamic art in the 1987 book JIrt in 'Bosnia. and.Herceqooinu..
In addition to the above-mentioned publications focussing on Islamic architecture, there
is also an abundance of writings about other aspects of life in Bosnia and Hercegovina in
Ottoman times . Many of them contain useful information relevant to our topic.
The noted Turkish travel -writer Evliya <;;elebi journeyed through Bosniain 1663 and
recorded many important facts about its administrative system, its climate, the appearance of its
urban settlements and their important buildings and public facilities . Some of his data are
exaggerated - the number of mosques, housing units, and vinyards, for example - but his
writings are full of interesting descriptions and comments.

226

227

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'
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233

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234

235

Ap pe ndix-a

List of illustrations
1.01.
1.02.
1.03.
1.04.
1.05.

Position of Bosnia-Hercegovina in Europe
Map of medieval Bosnia
Bosnia-Hercegovina as a part of the Ottoman Empire
Bosnia-Hercegovina as a part of Austro-Hungarian monarchy
Settlement founded in pre-Ottoman times: Vranduk

2.01. Medieval fortress and towns: Sokol, Blagaj, Ljubuski, and Stolac
2.02. Travnik
2.03. Maglaj, Tesanj, Stolac, and Visegrad
2.04. Gradacac
2.05 .Poc.itelj, urban scheme and view
2.06. Trebinje, urban scheme and view
2.07. Maglaj on the Bosna river
2.08. Bosnia-Hercegovina: position of the chosen settlements
2.09. Kresevo
2.10. Foca, map
2.11.Foca (Photo published in 9{jraa, 1895)
2.12. Livno, mosque and clock tower at Glavica
2.13. Travnik
2.14. Banja Luka
2.15 . Sarajevo, 1452
2.16 . Sarajevo, a panoramic view
2.17. Sarajevo: the Old Orthodox :Church and the Jewish Synagogue
2.18. Sarajevo, 1882
2.19. The Stari Most in Mostar
2.20. Mostar: a panoramic view, 1908
2.21. Mostar: urban scheme
2.22. Mostar 1895: a view [rom the south
2.23. Mostar: urban development
2.24. Sarajevo: Bascarsija
2.25. Carsija in Mostar in 1905
2.26. The sadrvan the Hafiz Havadze Mosque, Mostar 1905.
2.27. The Velagica house close to the Buna river in Blagaj
2.28. Banja Luka: Mahalas in central part of the town
2.29. Foea: 17 mahalas
2.30. Mostar: the Roznamedzijina mahala, above the river Neretva
2.31. Mostar: mahalas
2.32. Mostar: several mahalas
2.33. Mosque complex: nucleus of settlement
2.34. The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque complex, Sarajevo
2.35. The Karadjozbegova Mosque complex Mostar

236

3.n 1. Development of spatial structure of the mosque
3.02. Space of the mosque: interior
3.03. Basic plan of domed mosques
3.04. The Aladza Mosque in Foca:
3.05. The Ferhat Pasina Mosque in Banja Luka
3.06 The Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque in Sarajevo
3.07. Sulejmanija Mosque in Travnik
3.08. The Sejh Bagdadijin Mesdzid in Sarajevo
3.09. The Sarica Mosque, Mostar
3.10. The Predojevic'a Mosque, Plana near Btlcca
3.11. Stone decoration: the Aladza Mosque Fora
3.12. Wall painting:' Aladza Mosque in Foca
3.13. The Karadjozbegova Mosque
3.14. The Karadjozbegova Mosque: interior
3.15. The Karadjozbegova Mosque: a layout of wall painting
3.16. The Karadjozbegova Mosque: wall painting
3.17. Nisans
3.18. The Seih Jujino turbe, Mostar,
3.19. The turbe of Ibrahim Beg in Foca
3.20. The Sejh Jujino turbe in Mostar, survey
3.21. Turbeh of Halil Basa in Banja Luka
3.22. Turbes of Gazi Husrevbega and Muradbega in Sarajevo
3.23. Al ifakovac, Sarajevo
3.24. Various position of the mekteb in relation to the mosque
3.25. The Gazi Husrevbegova Medresa in Sarajevo
3.26. The Kukavicina Medresa with Mosque in Foea
3.27. The Sisman Agina Medresa in Pocitelj
3.28. The Koski Mehmed Pasina Medrese in Mostar, reconstructed in 1979
3.29. The Koski Mehmed Pasina Medresa in Mostar
3.30. The Sinanova Tekija in Sarajevo
3.31. The tekija in Blagaj
3.32. Circulation network
3.33. Different types of streets in Mostar
3.34. The traffic network in one mahala
3.35. Stolac: an example of a simple stone bridge
3.36. The Mehmed Pasa Sokolovica Bridge on the Drina River, Visegrad
3.37. The Arslanagica Bridge on the Trebisnjica river
3.38. The Stari Most in Mostar, downstream side, and sections
3.39. The Stari Most in Mostar, urban position:
3.40 The Stari Most in Mostar
3.41. Cesma
3.42. The sadrvan in the mosque courtyard
3.43. The hamam in Stolac
3.44. The Gazi Husrevbegov Hamam in Sarajevo
3.45. The Cejvan Begov Hamam in Mostar
3.46. The clock-tower in Travnik
3.47. The clock-tower in Sarajevo
3.48. The clock-tower in Mostar
3.49. The Kukavicin han in Foca
3.50. The Morica han in Sarajevo

237

3.51.The Hind in han and the Nezir Aga Mosque in Mostar
3.52 T heBrusa be zistan
3.53 . The Br usa be zistan in Sa rajevo
3.54. The Gazi Husrevbegov bezistan
3.55. Bczistan under the Sulej manija Mosque in Travnik
3.56 . S hops in Sarajevo
3.5 7. The shop in Mostar
3.58. S tore houses in Mostar
3.59. The bazaa r in Mostar, 1905 .
3.60. The da ire, Sarajevo
3.n 1 .Wa termiIIs on the Radobo lja river in the bazaar of Mostar
3.62 . Houses wi th bakeries in Sarajevo
4.01 The residential complex : basic structures
4.02 . The residential complex : principles of organization
4.03 . Ho usehold utilities in the co urtyard
4.04. T he Alajbegovica house in Mostar
4.05 . Co urtyard : the Karabeg house in Mostar
4.06. Co urtyard : the Biscevica house in Mostar
4.07. Kapi ja
4.08. A comparison: a tent and a room (After to 6. Kucukkerman)
4.09 . Bosnia-Hercegovina: Clima tic zones
4.12 . Basic types of housing pla n
4. 11. Review of houses in di fferent regions of the Balka n (Safranbolu, Turkey , and Sarajevo,
Bosnia)
4.12 . Rev iew of houses in d ifferent reg ions of the Balkan (P lodviv, Bulgaria, Tetovo,
Macedonia, and Djakovica, Kosovo)
4.13. Review of houses in different regions of the Balkan ( Epirus, Greece, Ohrid, Macedonia)
4.14 . Development of the house complex in Mostar
4.15. The Kolakovica house at Blagaj
4.16. Development of the house in Mostar
4.17. The Kajtaz house in Mostar
4.18 . The Kajtaz house in Mostar
4.19. The room
4.20. Seve ral kinds of musandera
4.21 . Musa ndera
4.22. Sec ija
4.23 . The odzak, the dolaf and the raf
4.24 . The room in the Biscevica House in Mostar
4.25. Fireplace
4.26. Chimneys
4.2 7. Hajat: a staircase in 'the Cisica house in Mostar, and the upper floor in Kajtazova house
in Mostar
4.28 . T he interior of the Velagica hous e at Blagaj
4.29 . Di fferent kinds of dishes in Bosnia-Hercegov ina
4.30. Cha irs
4.31. Gate de tails
4.32. Pos itions of the house on the terrain in Sarajevo
4.33 . S im ilarity between houses in Mostar and Dubrovnik
4.34. Rowho uses in Mostar

23~

4.35. The
4.36. The
4.37. The
4.38. The

saraj in Travnik
Pasic family complex, Cajno near Nevesinje
kula in Bihac
Cemalovica kula at Buna

5.01. Domes, squinches, and pendentives
5.02. Detail s of the ceiling
5.03. Staircase: forms and details
5.04. The comer porch : the Biscevica house in Mostar
5.05. The structure of the corner porch
5.06. The comer porch of the Kajtazova house
5.07. Musebak
5.08. Windo ws
5.09. Structure of the window
5.10. The roof supporting structure
5.11. Different kinds of roof coverings
5.12. Builder
5.13. Influences on the Neretva river
6.01. Calligraphic inscription (the Qur'an, CXII), Aladza Mosque in Foca
6.02. Calligraphic inscription in circular form in the Sinanova tekija in Sarajevo
6.03. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Sinan tekija, Sarajevo
6.04. Calligraphic inscriptions from Sinanova tekija in Sarajevo
6.05. Calligraphic inscription in the Aladza Mosque, Foca
6.06. Interlacement: windows from the mosque in Pocitelj
6.07. Geometric decorative motifs
6.08. Floral decorative motifs
6.09. The Rumi and Hatay style of decoration in Aladza Mosque in Foca
6.10. The Qur'an , from the Gazi Husrevbegova Library in Sarajevo
6.11. A manuscript on astrology in the Institute for Oriental Studies in Sarajevo
6.12. An example of the bookbinding craft
6.13. Carpets
6.14. Embroideries
6.15. Levha , the Karabegova house in Mostar
6.16. Wood-carving: the door in the Kajtaz house in Mo star
6.17. Wood-carving: a decoration of the ceiling in tekija at Blagaj
6.18. Engraved copper dishes
6.19. Several examples of metal work
6.20. Stone decoration : the fountain, the Aladza Mosque, Foca
6.21. Stone decoration: details from a mosque
6.22. Stone decoration : pillars
6.23. Stone decor ation : The Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar
6.24. Stone decorations : nisans
6.25 .Stone decorations : doors and windows on storehou ses
7.01. The Qur'an , the Gazi Husrevbeg ova Library , Sarajevo
7.02. Organization of the settlement
7.03. Organization of the hou sing complex
7.04. Islamic elements in Orthodox monuments: motifs on fresco , Serbia, 13th c.
7.05. Islamic details on Orthodo x churche s

7.06. The Old Orthodox church in Mostar
7.07. Cyrillic cursive of Bosnia-6osancica
7.08. Architectural motifs on stefa/(
7.09. Romanesque elements on stecaks and Islamic houses
7.10. Romanesque arcades on Islamic houses
7.11. Christian architectural elements on mosques: minarets
7.12. Christian architectural elements on clock-towers
7.13. Christian architectural elements: the Vucijakovica Mosque
7.14. Christian architectural elements: circular forms of windows
7.15. The musafirhane of the tekija at Blagaj
7.16. The Svrzina house in Sarajevo.
7.17. The Dusparina house in Kraljeva Sutjeska
7.18. Houses from Jajce
7.19. The Resulbegovica house, Trebinje

Cernal Eidem contributed photographs number 4.24 and 7.15.
Zlatkn Tulic contributed photographs number 8.07. and 3.40.
Several photographs in this book are from the Aga Khan Program Archives in Rotch Visual
Collection at M.LT., Cambridge Massachusetts. Contribution by students of the Aga Khan
Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard and M.LT., Cambridge are: Kayed 1. Lakhia
(4.27a and 6.22), Kathy Chia (3.22), Geneveva Fruet (4.27b), Aaarati Kanekar (3.57), Peck
Vee Tan (5.04) and Mohamed Radziah (8.05).
Photograph 3.17 taken in October 1989 by Barbre M.Ek.

8.01.
8.02.
8.03.
8.04.
8.05.
8.06.
8.07.

The town hall in Sarajevo built in 1897.
Sarajevo Bascarsija: Plan for rehabilitation and restoration, 1972
A plan for restoration of the historic city core of Mostar: proposals for intervention
The shopping center in Jajce
The Bijela Mosque in Visoko
The mosque in Zagreb
The Karadjozbegova Mosque in Mostar: destruction of the heritage of Bosnia and
Hercegovina:
8.08. The Jezero village near Jajce: destruction of the heritage of Bosnia and Hercegovina:
8.09. Bridge destroyed in November 9, 1993 and the New Bridge from the restoration project

Acknowledgements for illustrations:
I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to my students, later my colleagues, Milan Beatovic,
Tihomir Rozic, Darko Minarik, Seeo Dziho, Srecko Stanojevic, Senad Brkan, Mihajlo Andric,
Esad Humo, and others too numerous to mention.
.
2.02, 2.12, 2.29, 2.34, 3.50, 3.53, and 7.18 are published by Husref Redzic, in the StUifije

°

isUUllS/(gj 6astini, Sarajevo 1983.

2.09, 3.04b, 3.05b, 7.16. 7.17, and 8.4 are published in the book; 'U1ftjetnu/(g 6u7£lo Bosne i
J{~rcego1.tillel Sarajevo 1987, by Djuro Basler, Azra Begic, Dzernal Celie, and Zdravko
Kajmakovic,
3.04a, 3.05a, 3.06, 3.11, 6.01, 6.06, 6.08 are done on the basis of illustrations published by
Andrej Andrejevic in the Is[a11ls/(g- monumentaina umetnost 16 ve/(g- uJugos[aviji, Beograd 1984.
2.19,2.35,3.09,3.13,3.14,3.18,3.29,3.41,4.15, 4.17, 4.18, 4.31, 4.36, 6.16, 6.17, 6.24,
7.06, 7.08, 7.09, 7.10, 7.11, and 7.12 are published in my book Prifog proucaaanju is[a11ls/(gg
statnbenoq graaiteijstva u. Jugos[mJiji, Mostar 1991. Photographs are from the archives of the Stari
Grad Institute in Mostar, taken by eiro Rajic.
3.44, 3.52, 3.62, 4.2, 4,3, 4.11b - after Dusan Grabrian (Ylrnite/(}u..ra 130sne i put u saoremena,
Ljubljana 1957).
2.10, 3.08, 3.26, 3.49, 6.03, 6.04 - after Alija Bejtic; 4.08 - after Onder Kiicukkerman; 4.10. after Sedad Haki EIdem, 4.11a and 5.01a - after Reha Gunay; 2.12 and 4.13 - after Branislav
Kojic; 3.46, 3.38 and 3.39, - after Dzemal Celic, 7.05, - after Zagorka Jane,

240

241

Glossary
a6aestfuJ(
aga
aliur

wash stound used for ablution
master, landlord
stable

6atrai,
banjica
6aJa
6aJca
6aJflll(

a copper cauldron
wash closet (liamamtfzil()
archaic variant of pasa
garden
tombstone, gravestone
nobleman, bey
province ruled by a governor-general
a large, usually domed structure housing clothes and textile shops
Bosnian cyrillic cursive script
supervisor of gardeners and masons

6eg
6egfer6egful(
bezistati
bosaniica
bostan.dei basa

elQnef;fija

baker

fi 1u{z an

small ceramic coffee cup with no handle

liaais
liajat
lia{'{Jat
Iuutuun.

liamamcfiil(
lian
Iuuii/(gJi
hurenuuI(
Iuuuia

liueflera
J{atay styfe
hutba

saying by the Prophet Muhammad
hall in a house
a bathing room in a hamam
public bath
wash closet, as part of musandera
inn
a higher school of Sufi philosophy
.protected private part of a large house reserved for family, also called a
"women's part"
beam, joist, built into a wall
small storage room (same as fifer)
a decoration of Chinese origin
sermon given at dzuma, Friday noon prayer

carsija
cek::!/le doia] '
house

bazaar, market
a movable cupboard for passing from the men's to the women's part of the

imam
imaret

leader of communal prayers who stands in front of the faithful.
a public kitchen where free meals could be obtained

ceS71le

drinking fountain, public water tap

jambeei
jaz,ful(

a long band of fine white linen with embroidery
a part of the liajat (hall) on the first floor used as veranda (also I(gmerija)

fasa
cepenal(
ceramiaa
tiler
Co sal(
Eultuui
curs

milk or soup bowl
"horizontal" door used as a front cover for shops
clay tiles used for roof covering
closet room (liuef.tera)
corner; a bay window in Bosnia.
a room with furnace in a hamam.
a raised fenced seat for a lecturer in a mosque.

1(a'6a

daire

series of storehouses under one roof and a courtyard in the middle.
college of advanced religious studies
house for the readers of the Qur'an
a census book
iron
big, round copper tray for serving food
lecture hall
verandah on the upper story, part of a liajat, or, in some areas, the liajat itself.
bookholder
shop
builder, person skilled at all crafts applied in building a house.
bedding, part of a musandera
a mosque with minaret; a Friday (~uma) mosque with a mimber from which the
Hatib may preach the weekly sermon or hutbe
small metal (usually copper) pot with a long handle used for making coffee
big copper container shaped like a pitcher.

the edifice situated in Mecca which is the liturgical center of Islam 'and towards
whichMuslims turn when praying.
sharia judge
see ja.zful(
a transitional warming up space in a hamam
main door for a housing complex, gate, entrance, doorway
gate on the garden fence
provincial town with a market place
a big ladle
old; large, great, famous
see: saraj
tower
library'
dome
goldsmith '

aar-uf- Eadis
aar-ul-Opr'ati
defter

demir
demiriija
detsana
diuanhuna
dola]
diuian.

cftmdjer
cfttlel([ul(
tf1.ami
cf.lez1Ja

djugum

242

f(Cfai
/(gmerija
/(gpaful(
/(gpija
/(gpiailil(
l(asa6a
l@1Jce
f(~)efz,a

/(smal(
{yfa

/Qltu6Iian.a
/Ql6e
/Q9 uncfl.ija

framed inscription in Arabic, usually hung on the wall.
magaz,a
maliafa
mahfi!
tnedresa
11le/(Je6
tnejdan

storehouse
a housing micro-region
gallery
Muslim theological school; high school or college.
elementary school
square; common anteroom in hamam

243

mihrab

tnimat
tnitnber
ininder

tnuhen.dis
tnusafirhana

tnusala

tnusan.dera.
mlfse6a(

oaaja
odJ:a/(.

the imam niche in the mosque
architect
pulpit in the form of a staircase with a roofed landing
mattress
engineer
building for guests
special square for group prayers
a wooden internally partitioned closet along a wall.
lattice

'[J(j'liotfa

a word of Hungarian origin used in Bosnia to denote a settlement at the foot of
a fort, with a church and a square
lecture
governor of a province
(police) chief

!Jurt

a kind of tent

uaz
'[la [ijl~

room on the first t100r
fireplace; residental unit built next to the tower (/(y-fa) in a housing complex in
the country
the highest title of civil and military officials
marketplace

raf

shelf

sanrf.ia.(
samj

steca(
susa(

sanjak,subdivision of a province
palace, residence of high official of the Ottoman Empire
built-in bench with cushions, settee
wooden chest
the part of a large house reserved for men, business contacts, also called "men's
part"
low round wooden table
hall, anteroom, stone bench
dining table; wooden or metal tray serving as a table
horizontal pole under the ceiling for hanging mens clothes
Bogomil tombstone in medieval Bosnia
water jug

seher
sejfi
serefet
si!te

large town
head of a religious order
balcony around a minaret
cushion filled with wool

tuhtape]

teneliia
timurdija
turbe

a wooden board above a staircase
chronogram
bearing of witness that there no divinity save God; the consciousness or
doctrine of Divine Unity
dervish lodge
a type of limestone
blacksmith, locksmith, saber-maker
mausoleum

'lJafQif
'{IafQifnama.

religious endowment, waqf
deed of religious endowment

seiija.

sehara
sefam!u/(.
sinija.
sof a.
sofra
SlfI

tarih.

tatuhid

te/(jja

244

245

INDEX
Austro Hungarian occupation, 32, 34,
47,50,95
Austro Hungarian occupation of Bosnia
and Hercegovina, 195
Austro Hungarian rule, 199, 200
Austro Hungarian rulers, 199
Austro Hungarian survey, 40
Avdagica House, 196
Avlija, 103, 104, 105, 117
Ayaz Beg, 28

A
Abdestluk, 122, 132
Adjem Esir Ali, 152
Adriatic coast, 22, 189, 190
Aegean islands, 109
Africa, 170, 181
Ahar, 103
Ahmet Pasa (Hercegzade), 16
Ahmeta Curcije, 48, 49
Ajim Esir Ali, 28
AladzaMosque, 23,58,59, 65,66, 152,
153,157,162,164,174
Alajbegovica House, 105
Alajbegovica Tower, 138
Albania, 181
Ali Aga Dedic, 37
Ali Aga Voljevica, 37
Ali Havadzina, 48
Ali Osman, 165
Ali Pasa Rizvanbegovic, 38, 48, 137
Ali Pasina, 46, 48
Ali Pasina Mosque, 28
Alifakovac, 73, 74
Anatolia, 109, 161, 184
Anatolian, 109
Anatolian House, 109
Anatolian Turkish House, 109 ,.
Antun , 153'
Arab lands, 161
Arab Mosque, 54
Arabesque, 158, 174
Arabesques, 157, 158, 159
Arabia, 13, 108
Arabic, 51, 171
Arabic alphabet, 51, 157, 160, 161
Arabic heritage, 162
Arabic language, 157
Arabic letters, 43, 160
Arabic ornamentation, 163
Arabic script, 179
Arabs, 87, 94, 157
Araluk, 104, 118, 149
Architect, 28, 53, 54, 82, 84, 151, 152,
200
Architects, 54, 57, 151, 152, 159, 201,
203
Architectural motifs, 188
Architecture of the Austro-Hungarian
period,200
Arslanagic Bridge, 82, 83, 153
Art of miniature, 165
Asia, 108, 181
Asia Minor, 58, 62, 94, 141, 152, 165
Atik,46
Atik mahala, 23, 33
Austria Hungary, 10, 38, 46
Austrians, 49
Austro Hungarian administration, 44
Austro Hungarian monarchy, 10

B
Baba Besirova, 48
Bajazit Havadzina, 48
Bakeries, 102
Bakrac, 128
Balkan area, 14, 56, 155
Balkan Islamic dwelling, 18, 19
Balkan Islamic structures, 62
Balkan Muslim dwelling, 103
Balkan Peninsula, 62, 65, 113, 114, 115,
133,151,152,161,182
Balkan politics, 6
Balkan region, 86
Balkans, 6, 13, 22, 32, 58, 62, 65, 75,
84,133,155,161,165,168,
182,183,184,205
Baltin han, 95
Ban Kulin, 6
Banja Luka, 8, 15, 17, 20, 26, 41,45,
55,57,60,62,72,73,75,89,
90,96,136,151,153,172,192,
200

Banovina of Croatia, 10
Bar, 86
Baroque, 32, 172, 193, 195
Basamaci, 144
Basas,37
Bascarsija, 27, 28, sz, 40, 200; 201
Bathroom, 121,124,132
Baths, 13, 42, 87
Bayazit II, 16
Bazaar, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19,27,28,32,
33,38,40,41,42,43,44,46,
48,49,53,68,80,98,100,101,
102,103,167,183,201,202
Beg,8
Beglerbeg of Bosnia, 26
Begovina, 18, 171, 197
Belgrade, 41, 115
Bellini, Gentille, 161
Benedict Kurepesic, 188
Bezistan, 26, 28,40,56,62,96,97, 1,70
Bezistans, 57, 96, 97
Bihac, 17, 64, 138, 190, 199, 200
Bijela Mosque, 203, 204
Bijeljina, 191
Bileca, 64, 191
Biscevica, 197

247

Bosnian words, 182
Bosnians , 51, 167, 182
Bosnia's feudal lords, 9
Bo§naks, 182
Brankovac,33,48,50,117
Brankovic, Djuradj, 33
Bridge, 19,20,26,27,28,32,33,34,
37,38,41,44,46,67,82,84,
85,137,152,153,206
Bridges, 34, 53 , 82, 83, 84, 151, 174,
200
Brodac, 27 , 32
Brodac village, 27
Brusa Bezistan , 28 , 96, 201
Budim, 151, 154
Bugarska, 114
Bugojno, 138
Buka, 77
Bulgaria, 11 , 108, 184
Buna, 18,38,44,83,117,130,137,
138 ,139,143,170,171
Bursa, 56 , 62, 67
Buzadzi Hadzi Hasanova Mosque, 28
Byzantine, 7, 9, 32, 54 , 55, 56, 57, 62,
141, 162,172, 187
Byzantine art, 7
Byzantine Baroque style, 32
Byzantine Empire, 54
Byzantine influence, 55, 162
Byzantine technique, 62 , 141
Byzantine times, 56
Byzantine traditioms, 57
Byzantium, 56

Biscevica House, 106, 124, 146
Bishop, 35
Bistrik,32
Bjelusine, 33 , 43 , 50 , 117
Blagaj, 14,33,34,44,79,87,117 ,118,
127,130,133,143,170,171,
.192 , 195, 197
Bobovac,20,200
Bogomil faith, 181
Bogomil Tombstones, 51,187,188,200
Bogorodica Perivleta Church , 185
Boka, 153
Book binding, 165, 167
Bosancica, 187
Bosanski Novi, 154, 200
Bosna river valley, 19
Bosnia, 6,7,8,9, 10, 13,28,62,82,
113, 130, 134 , 153, 162, 165,
170 , 179 , 181, 182, 187, 190,
196,199,200
Bosnia and Hercegovina, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
28,35,38,40,53,57,58,62,
66 ,71 ,75,82,90,95 ,108,110,
116 , 127, 128, 131, 132 , 134,
136, 138 , 141, 151 , 152, 153,
162 ,166,167,168,170,181,
182 ,184,189,190,194,195,
196,198,199,200,203,205,
206
Bosnia beglerbegluk, 31
Bosn ian , 165
Bosnian Islamic character, 9
Bosnian Islamic urban and architectural
characteristic, 25
Bosnian Ottoman building tradition, 203
Bosnian Ottoman houses, 196
Bosnian architects, 203
Bosnian autonomy, 9
Bosnian Beglerbegluk, 9, 25 , 26 , 36 ,
136
Bosn ian Bogomil Church , 187
Bosnian book illuminations, 187
Bosnian caravanserais, 57
Bosnian Church, 9
Bosnian Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts,
187
Bosnian Cyrillic or Cyrillic cursive of
Bosnia (bosancica) , 187
Bosnian Cyrillic script, 187
Bosnian domestic architecture, 196
Bosnian House, 132, 200
Bosn ian Kingdom, 8, 28
Bosn ian language, 155 , 182
Bosn ian life , 9
Bosnian modern trend in architecture ,
203
Bosn ian Muslims, 9, 205
Bosnian origin , 16 , 161
Bosnian .Ottoman-style,98
Bosnian population, 8, 9, 131, 181
Bosnian sandzak, 21
Bosnian society, 10
Bosnian state, 6, 20 , 187
Bosnian towns, 134
Bosnian valleys, 7
Bosn ian viziers, 25

c
Cadrin han, 95
Cajnice, 75, 172
Calligrapher, 159, 161, 162
Call igraphers, 162, 166
Calligraphic inscriptions, 159, 160, 161 ,
171
Calligraphic motifs, 185
Calligraphy, 66, 70 , 130 , 131, 157, 158,
159 ,160,161,165
Caravanserai, 95
Caravanserais, 28, 32 , 57, 86, 93, 94
Careva cuprija, 27, 32
Careva Mosque, 28, 76, 190, 191
Carina, 44, 50, 117
Carpet, 56 , 67, 130, 168
Carpets, 130 , 131, 157, 167, 168
Carsija, 13, 17, 22 , 40, 90, 182 , 200 ,
201
Casa, 128
Cathedral,35
Catholic church, 21 ,32
Catho lic church of Our Lady , 22
Catholic churches, 155, 199 , 200
Catholic population, 35, 184
Catholicism , 9, 187
Catholics, 35, 47
Caucasus, 108
Cazin, 196

248

Constitution of 1974, 11
Convertion to Islam, 181
Corbusier, 201
Cosak,144
Courtyard, 13,43, 76, 77 , 87,93,94 , 95,
97,101,103,104,105,106,
111,117,130,132,137,149,
174,192,196,197
Courtyards, 43,44, 73 ,86,94,95,104,
132 ,134,196
Craft, 167
Crafts, 15,24,34,35,41, 53,132,152,
157,162
Craftsman , 163
Craftsmen, 15, 32 , 40 , 41 , 44, 100 , 152,
153 ,162,190
Croatia, 10, 11, 203, 205
Croatian extremists, 205
Croatian forces, 205
Croatian leaders, 205
Croatian settlements in Bosnia and
Hercegovina, 205
Croat ian towns, 190
Croats, 10, 11, 205
Crusaders, 13
Culhan,87
Cultural heritage, 87 , 200 , 205, 206
Curs, 170
Cvetkovic Macek agreement, 10
Cyrillic, 28
Cyrillic alphabet, 185
Cyrillic script, 187

Cehotina, 22, 23
Ceiling, 98,121,122,127 ,131 ,133,
143 ,144,146,171
Cejvan cehaja, 41 , 95
Cejvan cehajina, 48, 77 , 191
Cejvan Begov Hamam, 89
Cekme Dolaf, 130
Celic , Dz., 204
Cemalovica Kula , 139 , 143, 170 , 171
Cemetery, 51
Cengica Kula , 138
Central European civilization, 10
Central European influences , 92
Central European Romanesque , 7
Cepenak,42,98
Ceramida, 196
Cernica, 44, 48, 49 , 50, 117, 135
Cesma, 44, 86, 105
Cevrina, 48
.Cha nnels, 134
Chimneys, 76 , 125 , 195
Chinese origin, 163
Christian, 8, 24 , 50, 181
Christian architectural elements, 190,
191, 192, 193, 194
Christian architecture , 184, 190
Christian art , 184, 185
Christian book, 185
Christian commun ity, 184
Christian Craftsmen, 172
Christian denom inations, 9
Christian feudal lords , 8
Christian house, 50
Christian households, 24
Christian influence , 181
Christian influences in housing
construction , 194
Christian master, 171
Christian Orthodox, 155, 200
Chr istian Orthodox churches, 200
Christian Orthodox quarter, 27
Christian religious art , 184
Christian structures, 153
Christian stylistic elements, 192
Christianity, 67, 181, 189
Christians , 8, 35 ,47, 49 ,162, 198
Church , 7, 9,21 ,22,27,29,32,35, 64,
134,185,186,190
Church of St. Nicholas, 194
Church organization, 9
Churches, 7,35, 64, 134, 184, 194, 199,
200
Cifte ham am , 28
Ciler , 105 , 117 , 127 , 139
Cisica House, 126
Citadels , 14 , 19
City , 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,27,28,32,33,
34 ,35,37,38,41 ,42,43,44,
46 ,48,49,50,51,57,80,81,
84,85 ,103,110,117,134,137,
138, 151,154,155,190,196,
199 ,202,203,205
Clocktower, 24, 89, 90, 91 , 92 , 192, 193
Congress of Berlin , 10
Conservation and restoration plan , 202
Constantine the Great, 57

o
Dabrica, 191
Daire, 32 , 40, 101, 201
Dalmatia, 116, 153 , 154, 194
Dalmatian Gothic, 194
Dalmatian hinterland, 188
Dalmatian influence, 42,92
Dalmatian Renaissance, 192
Decorative motifs, 51, 109, 164, 168
Demirlija, 128
Derventa, 200
Dervis Pasa Bajezidagic, 85
Dervis Pasina, 48, 77
Dervish Lodge, 78
Dino (book binder) , 167
Divanhane, 18
Dizdar,37
Djakovica, 57 , 62, 114
Djerzeleza House, 196
Djevojacke vode, 44
Djinovica han, 95
Djugum, 128
Djurdjevi Stubovi Monastery, 185
Doboj ,200
Dobor, 200
Dobrun,93
Doksa, 144
Doksat, 147
Dolaf , 111, 121 , 123, 127

249

Ferhad Pasa Vukovic Desisalic
Mosque, 28
Ferhat Pasina, 55
Ferhad Pasina Mosque, 60
Ferhadija Mosque, 66 , 153
Ferizbeg, 153
Ferusic, Greta, 203
Fethi ja Mosque, 64, 190 , 199
Fildzan , 128
Firdus beg ova Kula, 138
Fireplace, 121, 123
Fireplaces, 93 ,195
Firuz Beg, 28
Floor , 18,42,58,62 ,87,93,95, 104,
111,117,121,126,127,133,
134 , 135, 136, 143 , 144, 146,
149 ,182,185,188,190,192,
195
Floors , 62 ,111 ,126,130,131,137,
143 ,170
Foca, 19,20,22,23,36,45,46,58,59,
65,66,72,75,76,82,90,93,
138,149,152,153,155,157,
162 ,164,168,172,174,196,

Dome,28,54,55,56,62,66,68,69,76,
87,141,162
Domes, 55 ,56,62,64,96, 141, 142
Donja Dreznica, 191
Donja Mahala, 117
Donji vakuf, 90, 192
Door , 98 , 100, 101 , 104 , 117 , 121,127,
129 ,130,137,144,170
Doors , 104, 111 , 131, 143 , 146 , 152 ,
170 ,173,178
Drina, 7, 22 , 23, 82, 83
Dubrovnik, 21, 22, 27, 32,33,116,131,
134,135,153,155,187,189,
190,192,194,198
Ducan ,98
Duke Ivan is Vlatkovic, 153
Duke Sandalj Hranic, 153
Dundjer, 152
Dusekluk, 111 , 121
Dusparina house, 196, 200
Dzabica, 138 '
Dzafer Celebijina, 46
Dzaferagina, 45
Dzaferbegova, 46
Dzezva, 128

200
Fojnica, 20, 21, 172
Fountain , 174
Fountains, 25 , 43, 44, 65, 77, 86 ,174
Franciscan order, 184
Franciscans, 9, 21

E
East bank, 49 , 108
Eastern Europe, 151
Edirne, 54 , 62 , 109, 151
Egyptian Moorish sty le , 199
Ejubovic family , 137
Eidem, S oH., 112
Embroideries , 167 , 169
Embroidery, 131, 167 , 168 , 169
Eminbegica house, 196
Epirus, 115
Esref Kovacevic, 162
Europe, 40, 50, 57, 108, 134, 168 , 181
European architecture, 194
European art, 190
European cultures, 7
European influence, 133, 181
European model, 195
European part of Turkey, 62
European powers , 10
European style army, 37
Evliya Qelebi, 41, 44, 46 , 85, 86

G
Gacko , 168
Garasanin, lIija, 10
Gardens , 33, 44,108 ,133,134
Gavran Kapetanovica House, 171, 197,

200
Gazi
Gazi
Gazi
Gazi
Gaz i
Gazi

Husrevbeg, 73, 153
Husrevbeg Ferhatpasic, 28
Hus revbeg Hamam, 88, 201
Husrevbega, 73
Husrevbegov, 87
Husrevbegov Bezistan, 97,153 ,
201
Gazi Husrevbegova (Kursumlija)
medresa,75
Gaz i Husrevbegova Library, 165 , 182
Gazi Husrevbegova Medresa, 75
Gazi Husrevbegova Mosque, 32, 51,55,
57,61,62,76,152 ,162,170
Gazi Husrevbegova Musafirhana, 78
Gazi Isa Beg Mosque, 56
Germany, 11
Glavica Mosque, 24
Gold work, 171
Golos, Mo, 204
Gorica fortification, 153
Gornji Seher, 45
Gornji vakuf, 90
Gospel of Karan , 185
Gost Radivoje, 33
Gothic, 7, 64,162 ,172,187,188,189,
190, 191, 192 , 199

F
Facades, 18,62,99, 141 , 192
Fatih Mosque, 56
Fatih Sultan Mehmet's rule, 34
Fatima Kadun, 48, 191
Fatime Sultan , 46
Ferhat (artist) , 165
Ferhat Pasa, 73
Ferhad Pasa Sokolovic, 26
Ferhad Pasa Sokolovic Mosque, 57 , 62

250

Herceg of St. Sava, 6
Herceg Stjepan, 16
Hercegovic, Vladislav, 33
Hercego~na,6,33t43, 64,82, 86, 126,
134,137,141 ,153,155,188,
190 ,192,194,197,198
Hercegovinian Sandzak, 36
Heritage of Bosnia and Hercegovina,
206
Hindin han, 95
Hittites, 111
Hodidjed, 27
Hodidjed fortress, 27
Holy Alliance War , 37
House, 19,27,33,41,44,50,56,78,
103 ,104,105,107,108,109,
111 , 112, 113, 116, 117, 118,
121,124,126,127,129,130,
131 ,132,133,134,135,137,
143,144,149,152,170,184,
188,195,196,197,198
Household, 44, 100, 103, 104, 127, 131,
144,168,170,185,198
Houses, 13, 18,22,33,38,41,43,44,
45,46,47 ,49,50,51,70,73,
74 ,86,93,102,108,109,110,
111, 112 , 113 , 114, 115, 116,
117,118,122,124,128,129,
130 ,131,132,133,134,135,
148,153,169,181,182,183,
184,188,192,195,196,197
Housing architecture, 195
Hudzera, 117
Hum, 49
Humcarija, 45
Hungarian influence, 6
Hungarian king, 153
Hungarians , 7, 8
Hungary, 161
Husein Havadze, 49
Husein Havadzina, 48
Husein Islamovic, 162
Husein Kapetana Gradascevica, 9, 138
Husein Pasa Boljarevic Mosque, 152

Gothic church , 64
Gothic influence, 162
Gothic styles, 64
Grabovsko Polje, 194
Grab riajan, Do, 102, 104, 113
Gracanica,90
Gradacac, 17,90,138,192,200
Grand Vizier , 8, 16
Greece , 87, 108 , 115 ,184
Greek alphabet, 187
Greek colonies, 5
Greeks, 111
Groundfloor,99
Gulf ,151
Gunay, R, 113

H
Hadun Mosque, 57, 62
Hadzi Ahmet Begova, 48
Hadzi Balina, 48, 49, 77
Hadzi Ibrahima Cevre, 48
Hadzi Kalfa, 85
Hadzi Lafina, 48
Hadzi Mehmedbeg Karadjozbeg , 41
Hadzi Memijina , 48
Hadzi Mustafa, 46
Hadzi Osmanova, 46
Hadzi Salih (book binder), 167
Hadzi Sefe rova, 46
Hadzi Velijina, 48
Hadzibegova, 45
Hadzic, 138
Haf iz Havadze, 49
Haf iz Havadze's Mosque, 43
Hafiz Havadzina, 48
Hag ia Sophia, 54
Hajat, 109 , 126, 127, 139, 144 , 146 ,
148,196
Hajrudin , 82 , 32 , 152
Halebija, 38
Halebija tower, 41
Hall , 18,76,110,111 ,112 ,113 ,117,
118,122,126,133,134
Halvat,87
Hamam , 26, 27, 28, 40, 41,44,56,86,
87,88,153 ,200
Hamamdzik, 121, 124, 125, 132
Hamams, 28, 34, 35, 41 , 42, 44, 57, 66,
67,87
Hamedullah. Hafiz Osman , 161
Hamzabegova, 46
Han , 95
Hans ,32,93,94,95
Haremluk, 111
Hasan (artist), 165
Hasan Kafi, 171
Hasan Nazirova, 46
Hasanagina Mosque, 57
Hataji style, 163 , 164
Hatula, 143
Havadza Durak, 28
Hellenistic architecture, 94
Herceg , 7

Ibrahim efendija Roznamedzija, 44
lbrik, 121, 128
lIici,44
lIidza,45
Illumination, 159
Illuminators, 165, 166
IIlyrian and Roman conceptions, 133
IIlyrian fortifications , 200
Imotski, 153
Independent Croatian state, 205
Indonesia, 13
Influence of Arabic script, 179
Institute for Oriental Studies, 166
Inter Republic tensions, 11
Iraq, 108
Isa Beg , 27, 28
Isa Beg Isakovic, 27 , 97

251

Jankovic, Stojan , 37
Javuz Selim II, 48
Jaz luk , 117 , 126
Jew ish refugees, 9
Jew ish Synagogue , 29
Jews , 32, 47,162
Jezero village , 206
J6rg Bren Jun German painter) , 188
Juraj Dalm atinac, 153

Isak Beg Mosq ue , 56
Iskende r (artist), 165
Islam . People meeting , 44
Islamic and Alpine cou ntries , 196
Islamic and Midd le Eastern character, 9
Islamic aniconism , 165
Islamic architectural and decorative
elements, 153
Islamic architectural deta ils , 198
Islamic arch itecture, 53, 54, 57 , 103,
157 ,181 ,199,203
Islamic Art , 53 , 66, 108, 157 , 158, 159 ,
160 ,163,166
Islam ic artistic tradition , 184
Islami c arts , 159
Islamic arts and crafts , 157
Islamic buildings , 24, 199
Islamic calligraphy, 161
Islamic commun ity , 103
Islamic countries , 53
Islamic cultu re , 29 , 167 , 181
Islamic cus tom , 111
Islamic decorative patterns, 195
Isla mic East , 152
Islam ic education in the Balkans, 75
Islamic elements, 184
Islamic epoch, 158
Islamic era , 167
Islam ic features , 51
Islamic Houses, 189
Islamic images of heavenly landscapes ,
66
Islamic influence, 181
Islamic influences, 131
Islamic monumental arc hitecture, 57
Islamic motifs, 172 , 185
Islam ic residential culture , 108
Islam ic Saracen, 184
Islami c settlements, 13
Isla mic society , 132
Islamic spir itual atmosphere, 165
Islamic style Ornaments, 185
Islamic teaching , 158
Islami c tenets, 15
Islam ic tradition , 86
Isla mic vis ual arts , 162
Islamic way of life, 183
Islamic world, 41 , 108 , 151
Istanbul , 9, 34, 41 , 50 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 62 ,
66,109,113,131,134,152,
155 , 161, 181, 182, 195
Italian campaniles , 192
Italy, 11 , 161, +65
iznik,67

K
Ka'ba , 157 , 158
Kadi Osman, 46
Kadija , 36, 75 , 137
Kadiluk , 36 , 38
Kajtazova House , 119 , 120, 126, 143,
147,170, 197
Kamber Agina , 48
Kamengrad , 188
Kamer , 126
Kame rija , 117 , 126
Kapaluk ,87
Kapetanovica Kula , 137
Kapetanovina, 37
Kapetanovina house , 197
Kapidz ik, 130
Kapija , 104, 105, 107, 129, 130
Karabegova, 197
Karabegova House , 106 , 169
Karadjosbeg, 67
Karadjozbeg , 41, 67
Karadjozbegov han , 95
Karadjozbegova, 34, 48, 49, 52 , 57 , 66 ,
67 ,68,69,76,77,153
Karadjozbegova Medresa, 77
Karadjozbegova Mosque, 34 , 52 , 57 ,
66 ,67,68,69,87,152,153,
176 ,205
Karic, Kiko , 203
Karlov ci,37
Kasim (artist) , 165
Kastel,200
Kevce, 121
King of the Serbs and Bosnia and the
Coast land ,6
Kingdom of Serbs , 10
Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 10, 11
Kiosk ,182
Kitchen, 27,68, 78 ,103,104,105,117,
128 ,133,134,192
Kjose Jahija Hodzina, 48
Klis,24
Kljuc, 188
Kojic, B., 114 , 115
Kolakovica family, 130
Kolakovica fam ily House, 195
Kolakovica house, 117 , 118, 143, 170 ,
171 , 192 , 197
Koloba ra han , 27, 94, 201
Konak, 17, 18,32,38, 136, 137 , 182
Konak at Bistrik, 32
Korvin , Matija, 153
Kosaca, 7

J
Jadric, Radivoj, 203
Jahija Esfelova, 48
Jah ija Mosque , 63
Jahja Pasina Mosque, 62
Jajce, 25 , 26 , 32 , 90 ,170,196, 197 ,
200 ,203,206
Jambezi, 123

252

Kosevo stream , 28
Koski Mehmed Pasa Cara vanserai, 192
Kosk i Mehmed Pasina, 77
Koski Mehmed Pasina Han , 95
Kosk i Mehmed Pasina Medresa, 77
Koski Mehmed Pasina Mosque, 41, 48
Kosovo , 56 , 57 , 114 , 181
Kotez i, 191
Kotlev ina , 48
Kotlina,48
Kraljev a Sutjeska, 20 , 196 ,200
Kresevo, 20, 21 ,154,172
Kreso, 138
Krslak house , 196
Krslakova house, 170
Krusevice , 153
Kubandoga, 45
Kubura, 173
Kufa, 4
Kujundziluk, 95
Kukav ica han , 200
Kukavici n han , 93
Kula, 137, 138 , 139
Kuleno vica Kula , 138
Kurto , Nedzad , 203
Kucukerrnan, 0 , 109

Master, 41,131 ,153,198
Masters, 71 , 85 , 143 , 153 , 154, 166 ,
172, 193,198
Matra kci Nasuh , 165
Mausoleums, 26 , 67, 72
Mazici,58
Mazoljice, 33
Mecca , 56, 66 , 158
Medieval Bosnia, 6, 7, 9, 24 , 137 , 187 ,
188,189,190
Medieval Bosnian, 6, 7, 22
Medina, 56 , 66
Mediterranean, 110
Mediterranean and Central European
world ,9
Mediterranean and eastern countries,
132
Mediterranean climate , 33
Mediterranean countries, 94
Mediterra nean forms , 193
Mediterranean influence, 181
Mediterranean influences, 132 , 153
Mediterranean region , 197
Mediterra nean Romanesque , 7
Medresa , 13, 18,26,28,56,68 ,75 ,76 ,
77,152
Medresas , 25, 35, 41, 44, 5 1, 75, 77
Medzhana, 137
Mehmed II, 9 , 161
Mehmed Beg, 28 , 97
Mehmed Beg Minatovic, 28
Mehmed Begova, 46
Mehmed Cehajina, 48
Mehmed Pasa Kukavicina Mosque, 76
Mehmed Pasa Sokolovic, 16, 82
Mehmed Pasa Sokolovica Bridge , 83
Mehmed Pasa (Sofu) , 26
Mehmet (artist), 165

L
Latin alphabet, 187
Latinluk quarter, 27 , 28 , 32
Latinska cuprija, 32, 200
Ledjen , 128
Lelekov han , 95
Levha , 169
Lexical influence of Islam , 181
Livno , 24, 45,66,90, 138 , 168 , 172 , 192
Ljubinje, 191
Ljubus ki, 14, 154
Londza hill, 26
Luka , 8,15,17,20,26,45,50,62 ,72 ,
89 ,96, 117 ,172

M~danr44 146 ,80 ,87

..~ ~

Mejli,162
.'
Mekteb , 13, 18,26,51 ,68, 74; 75 ,I:, ,'
Mektebs , 25 , 29 , 35 , 41 ,74
:', .
Memi Havadzina, 48
'..
Memi Kalif, 167
Metal work , 171
Mezzenigo, 37
Middle Eastern cha racter , 15
Middle Eastern influence, 181
Middle Eastern technique, 172
Mihrab, 56,58,62,66,67,69,174
Milicevic, Paskoje, 153
Miljacka,28
Miljacka river, 27, 28, 32
Miljacka river valley, 27
Miljacka valley, 28
Mills, 27, 28, 41, 44,101
Mimar , 152
Mimar Aga , 37
Mimar Hajrudin, 38
Mimar Sinan , 53 , 54 , 62 , 67 , 82 , 84 ,
151, 152
Minaret, 18, 55, 56 , 58 , 68 , 76, 132
Minarets , 29 , 64 , 65 , 141 , 191
Minber, 56 , 67 , 69, 170
Minder , 123
Miniature painting , 165

M
Macedonia, 11,56,57,58,62 ,86,108 ,
114,115,141 ,181 ,184
Magaza, 42, 98
Maglaj, 16, 19, 90 , 200
Magreb, 13
Magribija Mosque , 63
Mahala, 18, 23 , 33, 45, 46, 47 , 48 , 49,
50 ,51,74,81 ,182,183
Mahalas , 24, 28, 41 , 43 , 45, 4 6, 48 , 49 ,
50 ,51 ,81,85,86 ,102,181
Mahfil, 56 ,69, 170
Majdan , 137
Makarska, 152
Mala Tepa, 41
Malaysia, 13
Mali mudzeliti , 167
Manuscripts, 7,158,159,165,166,167,
185
Marke tplace , 27, 134

253

Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim
Muslim

districts, 109
families, 131
folk songs, 182
graveyards, 70
households, 24
houses, 196
lords, 9
mahalas, 24
populated Mostar, 205
population, 16, 17, 35, 155, 183,
187,205
Muslim tombstone, 70
Muslim Turkish culture, 160
Muslim women, 131
Muslims, 8, 9,11,21,35,43,47,49,
131 , 158, 159, 162, 165, 181 ,
198 ,205
Mustafa (book binder), 167
Mustafa Pasa, 46
Mustafa Pasa Mosque, 56
Mustafa Hakim , 161
Mustaj Beg , 28
Mutlak, 103, 127 , 139

Miniature paintings, 158
Mirza Ali, 161
Mizan Sharani, 165
Mokrina, 153
Moldavia, 161
Monasteries, 21, 199, 200
Monotheistic belief, 158
Montenegro, 11, 86, 154 , 205
Monuments, 16,34,58,62,65,70,152,
165,179,199,200
Morava, 194
Morica han, 94, 95, 201
Mortar mills, 101
Moscanica Monastery, 185
Mosque at Pocitelj, 170
Mosque complex, 40 , 50, 51, 54, 74
Mosque Facades, 141
Mosque in Pocitelj, 163
Mosque in Zagreb, 204
Mosque of Nesuh Aga Vucijakovic, 192
Mosques, 13 ,25,28,29,34,35,41,42,
44,45,46,48,51,53,54,55,
56,57,58,62,63,64,65,66,
67,70,72,74,86,141,170,
174,179,181,190,191 ,193,
199,200,203
Mostar, 18, 19,20,33,34,35,36,37,
38,39,41,42,43,46,47,48,
49,52,57 ,63,64,66,67,71 ,
72,73,75,76,77,81,82,84,
85,86 ,87,89,90,92,95,99,
100, 101, 105 , 106, 108, 116,
117,118,119,120,124,126,
133 ,134,135,137,138,143,
146,147,152,153,154,155,
169,170,172,176,185,186,
190 , 191, 192, 193, 195 , 197,
200,202,203,205,206
Mostar Bridge, 153
Mrkonj ic grad, 138
Muallecate, 157
Mudzeliti, 167
Muftija,35
Muhammad el Hjurani , 162
Muhendis , 152
Multicultural heritage, 206
Mumin Begova, 46
Murat Beg, 73
Murat II, 56, 165
Musafirhana, 13, 27, 28, 78, 195 , 197
Musafirhanas, 78
Musala,90
Musandera, 111, 121, 122, 170
Musebak, 126, 148 , 170
Musebaks, 148
Musellim,37
Music, 157, 182
Music of Muslim folk songs, 182
Muslibeqovic fam ily household, 44
Muslibegovica, 197
Muslibegovica House, 135
Muslihudin Cekrekcija, 28
Musl im an icon ism, 158
Muslim artists , 158
Muslim builders, 153
Muslim community, 184

N
Na surmu , 148
Nacertanije, 10
Naples, 7
Nargila , 179
Nasuh Aga Vucijakovic, 41
Nasuh Aga Vuciakovic Mosque, 48
National Museum, 138
Nazi rule , 11
Near East of Europe, 109
Near East region, 197
Neretva river, 7, 33, 34, 37, 41, 43, 44,
47,49,50,84,86,108,118,
138 ,153,154,155
Nevesinje, 64, 90, 191, 192
New Brldge,27,38,206
Nezir Agina, 48
Nis, 19, 57, 58
Nisans,70
Nomadic art, 167
Nomads, 56, 109
Non Muslim subjects, 182
Northern Bosnia, 64, 141
Novi Pazar, 58

o
Odzak, 121, 137, 138, 139
Ohrid,115
Old Bridge, 19, 34, 38, 41 , 44, 46, 67 ,
82,84,85,86,137,152,153,
200,206
Old Orthodox church , 32
Old Town, 13,33,50, 117, 200, 202
Omer Pasa Latas, 38
Oplicici, 191
Ornamentation, 158, 159, 163, 164, 166,
167,168,190

254

Ottoman Islamic and indigenous
aspects , 132
Ottoman Islamic and Oriental Elements,
194
Ottoman Islamic Architecture, 53, 57
Ottoman Islamic culture, 151
Ottoman Islamic milieu, 198
Ottoman Islamic settlement, 17
Ottoman Lands, 151
Ottoman Masters, 153, 168
Ottoman Miniature Painting, 165
Ottoman Miniaturist, 165
Ottoman Monumental art, 151
Ottoman Monumental public
architecture, 95
Ottoman Multipurpose Room, 124
Ottoman Ornamentation, 163
Ottoman Period, 9, 10, 13, 20, 23,24,
35,37,53,90,152,153,155 ,
170,187,188,190,196,198,
199 ,200
Ottoman Presence, 198
Ottoman Provincial officials , 62
Ottoman Reign, 179
Ottoman Rule, 9, 10, 21, 84, 131, 153,
190,199
Ottoman Rulers , 24
Ottoman Silk Brocade, 167
Ottoman Social Order, 8
Ottoman Sources, 24
Ottoman Spahi timar feudal system, 8
Ottoman Standards of housing, 182
Ottoman State, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20,21,
34,38,45,53,57,87,108,109,
112,131,133,136,141,151,
160, 164, 181, 184, 198
Ottoman Style, 108, 109
Ottoman Style housing elements, 137
Ottoman Sultan, 7
Ottoman Sultans, 161
Ottoman Textile industry, 167
Ottoman Time , 53, 128
Ottoman Times, 32, 45, 130, 151 , 166
Ottoman Town, 22, 41
Ottoman Towns, 15,50
Ottoman Tradition of calligraphy, 161
Ottoman Turkey, 151
Ottoman Turkish settlements, 108
Ottoman Turkish sound, 182
Ottoman Turks , 162, 182
Ottoman Type of House, 108
Ottoman Type settlements, 21
Ottoman Water supply line, 86
Ottomans, 7,8,9,13,14,15,21,22,23,
25,26,28,34,38,54,56,86,
87,94,109,111,131,162,168,
170,171 ,172,181,184,187,

Ornaments, 65, 66, 70, 131, 151, 164,
166,172,179,185,195
Ortakolo mahala, 23
Orthodox, 7, 9, 22 ,27, 29, 32, 35 ,43,
47,184,185,187,200
Orthodox church, 22, 27, 29, 32, 35 ,
185,186
Orthodox churches, 185, 186, 194
Orthodox land owners, 9
Orthodox monument, 185
Orthodox parish, 95
Orthodox population, 32
Orthodox Serb, 9
Osman (artists) , 161
Osman Nakas, 165
Osman Sahdi efendi library, 76
Osman Seih, 45
Ottoman Administration, 182, 199
Ottoman Anatolian House, 108
Ottoman And Islamic influences, 189
Ottoman Architect, 152, 82
Ottoman Architects, 54
Ottoman Architecture , 34 , 53, 62, 70,
141 ,152,153,182 ,190,195
Ottoman Armies , 8
Ottoman Army, 53
Ottoman Arrival, 199
Ottoman Art, 65, 161
Ottoman Balkan settlement, 183
Ottoman Balkan tombstones, 51
Ottoman Balkan town, 50
Ottoman Balkan urban pattern, 15
Ottoman Bazaar, 200
Ottoman Bosn ia, 134 , 167 , 171
Ottoman Bosnian clock towers, 192
Ottoman Bosnian dwelling, 121
Ottoman Bosnian House, 118
Ottoman Calligraphy, 161
Ottoman Character, 200
Ottoman Characteristics, 24 , 201
Ottoman City, 80, 81
Ottoman Conquerors, 7
Ottoman Conquest, 9
Ottoman Cultural centers, 57
Ottoman Culture, 108
Ottoman Days, 92
Ottoman Decorative art, 163
Ottoman Domination, 179
Ottoman Domination in the Balkans, 182
Ottoman Educational system, 161
Ottoman Era, 62
Ottoman Fabrics, 168
Ottoman Fortified Settlements, 200
Ottoman Governor (sandzak beg) of
Bosnia, 27
Ottoman House, 56 , 108, 111, 121, 152,
194,195,198
Ottoman Houses, 109 , 133, 134, 153,
184
Ottoman Housing Complexes, 134
Ottoman Housing Culture, 127
Ottoman Illuminated Manuscript
"Hunernarne", 161
Ottoman Influence, 181, 182
Ottoman Influences, 64

190

Ozren Church , 186

p
Pan Serbian hegemony, 10
Papraca Church, 185

255

R

Pasaluk, 137
Patriarchate of Pec, 184
Pavlovic, 7
Pazariste, 22, 23
Pec , 182
Pec Patriarchate, 9, 32
Pejan, Zimja, 171
Persia , 131, 161 , 165, 168
Persian, 51
Persian area, 94
Persian elements, 165
Persian heritage, 162
Persian ornamentation, 163
Persian type of House, 108
Pervane (artist), 165
Plana, 191
Plevlja, 152
Pliva river, 188
Plovdiv, 114
Pocitel], 18, 19, 20 , 76, 86, 87, 90 , 92 ,
93 ,153,170,171,175,192,
197 ,200
Podhum, 35, 44, 50
Popovo, 153
Popovo Polje , 153
Pospisil, Jos ip, 200
Pospisil's proposal , 200
Poulet, A., 85
Pozderac house, 196
Pre Islamic influences, 190
Pre Islamic period, 54
Pre Ottoman aspects , 15
Pre Ottoman Bosnia, 188
Pre Ottoman features, 181
Pre Ottoman influence, 181
Pre Ottoman period, 130, 188, 198
Pre Ottoman times , 11 , 32
Pre Ottomans gravestone, 71
Pre Romanesque, 187
Pre Romanesque blind arches, 194
Pre Turkish building tradition, 190
Predojevica, 191
Prijecka, 41
Prijecka Carsija, 22, 99
Prijeka Carsija, 22
Pristina, 19 , 56
Prizren , 62, 172
Prophet, 56 , 157, 158
Prophet's mission, 157
Prozor, 90, 192
Prusac , 90, 171

Radobolja, 33, 41, 43,44,49,101,108,
133
Radobolja rivers, 130
Raf, 122, 123, 127
Raja, 182
Raljevina, 48
Ramadan Aga , 152
Raska, 194
Rataji, 138
Ravno, 153
Reconstruction and preservation, 206
Reconstruction and preservation of
cultural heritage, 206
Renaissance, 161 , 162, 165, 172, 190 ,
193,199
Renaissance influence, 162
Restoration project, 206
Resulbegovica house, 170, 197, 200
Rialto, 85
Ricina,48
Rijeka Dubrovacka, 135
Rizvanbegovica houses, 170
Rococo, 195
Rogovo,57,62
Roman colonia, 27
Roman days, 33
Roman settlement, 33
Roman termae, 87
Romanesque, 7,64,153,162,172,187,
188,189,190,191,192,194
Romanesque and Gothic styles, 189
Romanesque bell towers, 192
Romanesque Ghotic elements, 153
Romanesque influence, 162
Rome, 87
Roof,41,42,56,62,63,68, 73, 77,95,
98 , 101, 110, 112, 133, 135,
141,149,150,151,192,196,
197
Roofu,29,42,64, 76,133,141,170,
188 ,196
Room , 41,42 ,56,74,87,92,93,94,
100 , 102, 103, 105, 109, 11 0,
111,117,118,121,122,123,
124,127,128,134,143,182,
199
Rooms , 18,74,76,77,78,87,93,94,
95, 103 , 109, 110, 111 , 112 ,
113 , 117 , 118, 124, 127, 130,
131,133,134,139,143,149,
195
Row Houses, 135
Roznamedzijina, 48, 49, 77
Roznamedzijina Mosque, 63
Rumi and Hatay ornaments, 66
Rumi style, 163 , 164
Rustem Pasa, 96
Rustem Pasa Hrvat, 16, 82
Rustem Pasa Vizier, 67

Q
Our 'an , 43 , 56, 66 , 122 , 157 , 158, 159 ,
165 , 181, 182
Our'anic language, 158
Our 'anic verses, 169
Our 'anic word, 158

256

s

Sijavus Pasa , 32
Silte, 123, 127
Sinan Pasa Mosque, 191
Sinan Pasina, 48, 49
Sinan Pasina mahala, 33
Sinan Pasina Mosque, 41, 44
Sinan's monumental structures, 65
Sinan 's tekija, 73
Sinanova Tekija, 78, 159 , 160, 161
Sinija, 127
Sisman Agina Medresa, 76
Sisman Agina Mosque, 175
Skender, 34
Skender Pasa, 28
Skender Pasa Mihajlovic, 28
Skenderija, 28
Skenderija Bridge, 32
Skopje, 19, 56, 58 , 62 , 63, 86, 89 , 172
Slav state, 6
Slavic origin, 9
Slavic people, 183
Slavic world , 6
Slavs , 10, 133
Slovenes, 10
Slovenia, 11, 205
Soba, 182
Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, 11
Sofa, 84, 121, 123, 182
Sofas, 110, 112
Sofia, 151
Sofra, 127
Sofu Mehmed Pasa, 45
Sokol , 14, 153, 188, 200
Sokolovica bridge, 200
Sopocani Church, 185
South east of Europe, 109
South Slavic regions, 179
South Slavs , 10
Southeastern Bosnia, 23
Southern Europe, 151
Soviet Union , 203
Spain , 9, 32
Spread of Islam, 54
Squares, 80 , 86
St. Nicholas, 194
St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and
Science, 6
Staircase, 56, 69, 89, 112, 113, 126 ,
137 ,144,170
Staircases, 18, 111 , 113 , 145
Stara Varos, 27
Stara Varos quarter, 28
Stari Grad Institute, 202
Stari Most, 19,34,41,42,43,84,85,
153,200
Stari Trg, 58
State Museum (Zemaljski muzej) , 199
State of Croatia, 11
Stecak, 7,51 , 71,187,188
Stecaks, 188, 189
S~epan, Herceg, 33, 153
Stjepan Vukcic, Herceg, 33
Stolac, 14, 16, 18,33,49,64,82 ,87,
88,90,134,168,170,171,190,
192,197

Sac , 128
Sadrvan, 43,44, 76, 87
Sadzak,128
Safranbolu, 113
Sahan , 128
San Marco , 134
Sandzak,56,64
Sandzak beg , 27, 28 , 36
Saraj, 136 , 137
Sar~evo,8 ,9 , 17, 19,20,26,27,28,
29 ,31 ,32,40,45,51 ,55,57,
61 ,62,63,66,73,74,75 ,76,
78,80,87,88,90,91 ,94,95,
96 ,97,98,101 ,102,113,132 ,
136 ,138,149,152,153,159,
160, 161 , 165, 166 , 167, 168 ,
170 ,172,182,185,186,192,
196 ,199,200,201
Saray, 27, 28 ,136,165
Sa ray ovasi , 28
Sarica, 48, 63
Sa rica Mosque, 64
Savoy, Eugene of , 32 , 199
Secija, 121 , 123, 127
Sections, 23 , 41, 66 , 84 , 87, 96 , 99 , 118,
163
Sedrenik hill , 28
Sefardic Jews, 32
Seher Cehajina, 200
Seher Cehajina cuprija, 32
Sehitluk, 45
Seih Pirijina Tabaci, 46
Sejfudin Mosque, 203
Sejh , 63 , 71 , 72, 73 , 78, 161
Sejh Bagdadijin mesdzid, 63
Sejh Jujino turbe, 71 , 73
Selamluk, 111
Se lim 11 ,48 ,54
Se ljuk origin, 163
Seljuk period, 56
Seljuk type of mosque, 54
Seljuk Ulu Mosque, 54
Seljuks, 87, 94
Serbia , 9, 10, 11, 56 , 57 , 58, 62, 108,
115 , 141, 179 , 184, 185, 205
Serbian , 11
Serbian actions , 11
Serbian aggression, 11
Serbian army, 205
Serb ian Emp ire , 6
Serbian forces, 205
Serbian king , 33
Serbian nationalists, 11, 205
Serbs , 6, 10, 11
Serdar,36
Sevin han, 95
Sevri Had zi Hasanova, 48
Shopping center, 203
Shops, 13, 17,22,26,27,28,32,38,
40,41 ,42,45,51 ,80,96,97,
.
98,99,100,167,170,181,201
Sibovo ,26
Siege of Vienna, 9

257

Trieste, 134
Tugra, 161
Turbe, 26, 70, 71, 72, 73
Turbes, 72, 73
Turkey, 62 , 113, 151, 168, 182
Turkish , 51 , 182
Turkish culture, 151, 182
Turkish House, 109 , 110
Turkish influence, 108
Turkish influences, 179
Turkish Islamic ideology, 151
Turkish origin, 182
Turkish style window shapes, 64
Turkish word, 27
Turkish words, 182
Turks, 7,15,153,162 ,182,183
Tuzla, 154
Tvrtko I Kotromanic, 6

Stone decoration, 174
Storehouses, 42 ,96,97, 98 ,99, 178
Storeroom, 105
Smrey, 74,93,94,95,134,137,143 ,
200
Storeys , 143
Studenica Monastery, 185
Suburina House, 196
Suburina house, 170
Sufi philosophy, 28
Suhi 00 ,138
Suhodolina, 38
Sulejman Begova, 46
Suleyman-name, 165
Suleyman the Magnificent, 16, 34 , 82
Sulejmanija, 55 , 62
Sulejmanija Mosque, 55 , 63 , 97
Sulejmapasica Kula, 138
Suturlija stream , 26
Svrzina House, 170, 196
Synagogues , 200
Syria, 108

u
Ugljen , Ziatko, 204
Ulu Mosque, 96
Ulu mosque style, 57
Una river valley, 64
University of Sarajevo , 75
Urban settlement, 13, 16, 102 , 103
Ustikolina, 138

T
Tabaci ,45
Tabacica Mosque , 41, 48
Tabak,128
Tabhana,41
Tabija,38
Tahtapes, 144
Tara , 38
Tasli han , 94
Taslihan ,97,153
Tawhid, 158
Tekija, 18,27, 28 , 73 , 78, 79 , 171 , 195 ,
197
Tekijas , 28, 29, 66, 78
Tekke, 78
Temisoara, 151
Tent,54,56, 72 ,109
Tepsija, 128
Tere Jahijina, 48
Tesanj, 90 ,196
Testija, 128
Tetovo , 114
Textiles, 53 , 67 ,96,167
Thessaloniki, 151
Tito 's death in 1980, 11
Tito's Partisans , 11
Tombstone, 51,70, 188
Tombstones, 7 , 51, 70 , 71,174,177
Tower,26,41 ,86,90, 137, 138, 190,
191
Towers , 19 ,38,64,84,89,90,137,138,
141, 190
Town Hall , 199
Travnik, 8 , 15 , 17 , 18,20, 25 ,32, 55 , 62,
63 ,73,90,96,97,136,172,
192,200
Trebinje, 15, 19,82,90,92, 134, 170,
191 ,193,197,200
Treb isnjica river , 83
Trgovke , 201

w

Windows, 18, 42, 64, 65 , 66 , 69, 98,'
111 ,118,121,127,131 ,137,
143,146,148,152,163,173,
174,178,190,192,193,194
Wood carving , 128, 170 , 171
World War 1,10,200
World War 11 ,11 ,200,201,203
World Wars , 10,201

Wall, 13, 19,56,58,66,69,70,73,80,
81,84,100,104,111,121,123,
126 ,127,129,131,133,137,
143,144,146,148,151,158,
164 ,170,179,188
Walls, 13 , 14, 19,38,41 ,42,46,66,67,
68,69 ,73,80,93,98 ,111 ,121,
122 ,123,131,134,143,146,
148,149,157,158,169,179,
190,195
Water, 14, 17, 18 ,23,25,26,27,28,41,
43,44,49,51,53,76,84,86,
87,94, 101 , 103, 105 , 108 , 111,
121 ,122,128,133,134,139,
166
Water cistern , 139
Water mills, 27 , 28, 41, 44 , 101
Westbank,33, 37,41, 44,108
West European building concepts, 199
West European influences, 32
West European provenance, 203
Western and Eastern cultural
influences, 189
Western European culture, 190
Western influences, 194
Window, 64,143,148,149,170,174,
179,186,190,192,194

y
Yazluk,126
Yugoslav composers, 182
Yugoslavia, 10, 11, 203 , 205
Yurt, 56

z
Zadruga,8
Zagreb , 203, 204
Zahum, 50
Zepa,82
Zimonjica palace, 135
Zirajina, 48
Zmiro, 197
Zvornik, 154

v
Vakuf, 13, 15, 17,32, 53
Valagica house, 197
Varas, 46
Velagica House, 44 , 127 , 133
Velez mountain , 33
Velika Tepa, 41
Veliki mudzeliti, 167
Venetians, 7
Venice, 37, 85, 134 , 168
Veranda, 117
Village, 22, 27,32,44, 62, 153
Vineyard ,33
Visegrad, 16,82,83,152,168,188,200
Visoko, 203,204
Vitina, 137
Vlachs, 9, 24
Vlachs groups, 9
Vladislav, 7,153
Vranduk,11
Vrapcici , 138
Vratnik, 17, 19
Vrbas river, 26
Vucijakovic, 37
Vucijakovica Mosque, 34, 193
Vukcic, Stefan, 6
VUkodol,35

258

259