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Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail
with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows, data stores, data processes, and
data sources/destination.
The data flow diagram is analogous to a road map. It is a network model of all
possibilities with different detail shown on different hierarchical levels. This processes of
representing different details level is called leveling or partitioning by some data
flow diagram advocates. Like a road map, there is no starting point or stop point, no time
or timing, or steps to get somewhere. We just know that the data path must exist because
at some point it will be needed. A road map shows all existing or planned roads because
the road is needed.

Details that is not shown on the different levels of the data flow diagram such as
volumes, timing, frequency, etc. is shown on supplementary diagrams or in the data
dictionary. For example, data store contents may be shown in the data dictionary.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses a number of symbols to represent the systems.
Data Flow Diagram also known as Bubble Chart is used to clarify system requirements
and identifying the major transformations that will become programs in system design.
So it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the
requirements specifications down to the level of details.

Terms used in DFD


A process transforms data values. The lowest level processes are pure functions
without side effects. An entire data flow graphics high level process.
Graphical representation:

Graphical Representation:

Data flows
A data flow connects the output of an object or process to input of another object

or process. It represents the intermediate data value within a computation. It is

represented by an arrow and labeled with a description of data, usually its name or type.
Graphical Representation:

An actor is active object that drives the data flow graph by producing or

consuming values.

Data store
A data store is a passive object with in a data flow diagram that stores data for

later access.
Graphical Representation:

External Entity
A rectangle represents an external entity such as a librarian ,a library member.
Graphical Representation:

OutPut Symbol
This box represented data production during human computer interaction

Graphical Representation:

This software based on concept of the Model View Controller (MVC)
design pattern.
MVC gives you a nice separation between your data (model), logic/business layer
(controller) and display (view). In theory, this allows you to change individual layers
without affecting the other layers. You could have a configurable data source (MYSQL
Server, XML, etc.) or have various controllers depending on the user (admin, anon, etc.)
or have various views (console, webform, winform). MVC makes it really easy to
implement change which is what programming in the real world is all about. These
three objects are known as Model, View and Controller.

View is the graphical data presentation (outputting) irrespective of
the real data processing. View is the responsible for look and feel, some custom
formatting, sorting etc. View is completely isolated from actual complex data operations.
It simply gets final row-data from the model and puts some cosmetics and formatting
before displaying it in browser. View provides interface to interact with the system. The
beauty of MVC approach is that it supports any kind of view, which is challenging in
todays distributed and multi-platform environment.
A MVC model can have multiple views, which are controlled by controller. View
interface can be of WEB-FORMS, HTML, XML/XSLT, XTML, and WML or can be
Windows forms etc.

It is the domain-specific representation of the information on
which the application operates. Domain logic adds meaning to raw data.
Many applications use a persistent storage mechanism (such as a database) to store data.
MVC does not specifically mention the data access layer because it is understood to be
underneath or encapsulated by the Model.

SQL Server

Controller is responsible for Notice of action. Controller responds
to the mouse or keyboard input to command model and view to change. Controllers are
associated with views. User interaction triggers the events to change the model, which in

turn calls some methods of model to update its state to notify other registered views to
refresh their display.


Following are the few of the benefits of MVC design pattern.

Since MVC handles the multiple views using the same enterprise
model it is easier to maintain, test and upgrade the multiple system.

It will be easier to add new clients just by adding their views and

Since the Model is completely decoupled from view it allows lot of

flexibilities to design and implement the model considering
reusability and modularity. This model also can be extended for
further distributed application.

It is possible to have development process in parallel for model,

view and controller.

Our Project Follows the following Architecture:








I.) Software Requirements

II.)Hardware Requirements

Client Side
Server Side

Pentium II at 500
Pentium IV at 1
Pentium IV at 1

Organization profile

64 MB

Disk Space
1 GB



1. Click on login



2. Enter User Id
3. Enter Password
4. Validate

7. Wrong Password

5. Verify UID
6. Control goes to
respective pages

8. Forget Password
9. Control goes to
respective pages
10. Login Record



1. Click on Recruiters Login


The main objective of this project is building a website which will help Indian farmers to
make the effective cultivation by providing up-to-date information and make a path to
earn more money from Indian villages by sell their products to different cities online.
Here if suppose some village farmers want to use this facility and want to learn how is it
possible and how they can use e-farming to sell their products, If they have knowledge of
computer then they can directly register in the site and sell their product otherwise they
can contact company's computer professional who will schedule classes to teach them
basics of computers and internet like how they can open this site and register with it and
sell their products online etc.
On the other side, wholesaler from town can also register and buy products as per their
1. News
2. Weather
3. Classifieds
4. New products
5. Trails & Info
8. Market
It provides needed latest news for farmers. It contains 2 modules
E-farming news
Agricultural news
E-farming announcements
Rain Gauge
Weather & observations
Wind & marine forecasts
iv. General
New products:

This module contains the information about the new inventions for agriculture.
Trails & info:
This module gives the information about researches in agric and new useful inventions
for best and effective cultivation.
This module specially made for the articles based on agric information from the
important news points.
This is the place for selling goods online by former without any inter mediator.
Admin Module
Users Farmers, wholesaler
iv. cold storage
v. Product acceptance
Order form
Taking the consumer's credit card
Acknowledging receipt of the order

Data Flow Diagram

Level 0



Add News
Store Data
Add Weather


Level 1



Store Data



Gather about

Level 2



Store Data
Order details

Payment details

2.1 Project Planning and Scheduling


Project Development Approach

This project is given to me by company to fulfill the clients requirement. Now-a-

days E-Business and online Shopping is very growing industry. So everybody wants that
his business is becomes global and worldwide. Our client wants to develop the website
that can provide facility to their customer to buy the product online. For the website an
extra-ordinary and attractive look is very much necessary for attract the new customer
and second thing is very goof functionalities. The user can easily find the product through
the category and subcategory wise. The user can also show the full description about the
product and also it is place order, and pay the bill online. Like this various other features
can be executed with the minimum efforts and accordingly database design has been
setup for this website.

Software process model

To solve actual problems in industry setting, software engineer or a team of
engineers must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the process,
methods and tools layers and generic phases. This strategy is often referred to as
process model or a software engineering paradigm. A process model for software
engineering chosen based on the nature of the project and application, the method
and tools to be used, and the controls and deliverables are required.

Project Planning

Software Project scheduling is an activity that distributes estimated efforts across

the planned duration by allocating the efforts to specific software engineering tasks.
For this project, we have collected the project requirements from client. Also the
requirements are examined from different aspects of the developments requirements.
Then the whole project is divided in to modules and according to that modules the
development work has been done. The DDs are designed according to the requirements.
For each module, the designs have been developed and then it is implemented.

Schedule representation

2.2 Risk Management:

Risk management is the process of measuring, or assessing, risk and
developing strategies to manage it. Strategies include transferring the risk to

another party avoiding the risk, reducing the negative effect of the risk, and
accepting some or all of the consequences of a particular risk. Traditional risk
management focuses on risks stemming from physical or legal causes (e.g. natural
disaster or fires, accidents, death and lawsuits). Financial risk management, on the
other hand, focuses on risk that can be managed using traded financial
In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the
risks with lower probability of occurring are handled first, and risk with lower
probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled later.
Step in the risk management process establishing the context involves
Planning the remainder of the process.
Mapping out the following: the scope of the exercise, the identity and objectives
of stakeholders and the basis upon which risks will be evaluated.
Defining a framework for the process and an agenda for the Identification.
Developing an analysis of risk involved in the process.

2.2.1 Risk Identification:

After establishing the context, the next step in the process of managing
risk is to identify potential risks. Risks are about events that, when triggered,
cause problems. Hence, risk identification can start with the source of problems,
or with the problem itself.
In this project there can be following risks:
The order risk is associated with the software. If in the software the wrong
user is authorized by mistake then he may do changes that cause the system in
dangerous mode. There can be risk of natural threats.
2.2.2 Risk Analysis:

Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their
potential severity of loss and to the probability of occurrence. Regardless of the
prevention techniques employed, possible threats that could arise inside and
outside the organization need to be assessed. Regardless of the type of threat, the
goals of the business recovery planning are to ensure the safety of customers,
employees and other personal during the following a disaster.
The relative probability of a disaster occurring should be determined. Here
by the first risk can occur because of the less of communication with all branches
of Apollo for requirement fulfillment. For example, the company may not have
interacted with the branch of Apollo in U.S.A. and that branch needs some
additional functionality of the software.
If by mistake any person threat Administrator password then he can
change the data in software and can leak information. Same thing occurs if the
wrong user is authorized. The software may be in problem by natural threat e.g.
internal flooding,
External flooding, internal fire, external fire etc.
2.2.3 Disaster Prevention:
Because a goal of business recovery planning is to ensure the safety of
personnel and assets during the following a disaster, a critical aspect of the risk
analysis process is to identify the preparedness and preventive measures in place
at any point in time. Once the potential areas of high exposure to the organization

identify, additional




be considered


Disaster prevention and preparedness begins at the top of organization.
The attitude of senior management toward security and prevention should

permeate the entire organization. Therefore, managements support of disaster

planning can focus attention on good security and prevention techniques and
better prepare the organization for unwelcome and unwanted.
Disaster prevention techniques include two categories
Procedural prevention
Physical prevention
Procedural prevention relates to activities performed on a day-to-day, monthto-month, or annual basis, relating to security and recovery. Procedural prevention
begins with assigning responsibility for overall security of the organization to an
individual with adequate competence and authority to meet the challenges. The
objective of procedural prevention is to define activities necessary to prevent
various types of disasters and ensure that these activities are performed regularly.
Physical prevention and preparedness for disaster beings when a site is
constructed. It includes special requirement for building construction, as well as
fire protection for various equipment components. Special considerations include:
computer area, fire detection and extinguishing system, records protection, air
conditioning, heating, and ventilation, electrical supply and UPS system,
emergency procedures, vault storage area(s), archival systems.

2.2.4 Risk Planning:

Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage the
risk fall into one or more of these four major categories:
Tolerate (retention)
Treat (mitigation)
Terminate (elimination)
Transfer (buying insure)

Ideal use of these strategies may not be possible. Some of them may involve
tread-offs that are not acceptable to the organization or a person making the risk
management decisions.
2.2.5 Risk avoidance:
Includes not performing an activity that could carry risk. An example
would be not buying a property or business in order to not take on the liability that
comes with it. Another would be not flying in order to not to take the risk that the
airplanes was to be hijacked. Avoidance may seem the answer to all risk, but
avoiding risk also means losing out on the potential gain that accepting (retaining)
the risk may have allowed, not entering a business to avoid the risk of loss also
avoid the possibility of earning profits.
2.2.6 Risk reduction:
Involves methods that reduce the severity of the loss. Examples include
sprinklers designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of loss by fire. This method
may cause a greater loss by water damage and therefore may not be suitable. Hal
on fire suppression systems may mitigate that risk, but the cost may be prohibitive
as a strategy. Modern software development methodologies reduce risk by
developing and delivering software incrementally. Early methodologies suffered
from the fact that they only delivered software in the final phase of development;
any problems encountered in earlier phases meant costly rework and often
jeopardized the whole project. By developing in iteration, software project can
limit effort wasted to a single iteration. A current trend in software development,
spearheaded by the extreme programming community, is to reduce the size of

iteration to the smallest size possible, sometimes as little as one week is allocated
to an iteration.

1 . - System Analysis


A key objective of this system is that it consolidates the data in one central
location. This will enable easy management of all information and ensure data
integrity across the entire breadth of the system. The online order management
system will provide such a facility for ordering any product so that he can easily
get the product and also can inquiry online. And it is also very useful to
customers because it saves their time and money.

To shopping via Internet and online.

Customer can see all the items which available in the shop. And get the
full detail information about the particular product.

Customer has no need to gone for a shopping in outside the home.

It is save the time of the customer.

Customer can also pay for the purchased Product.

To provide facility for if product not found then give detail of this product to
admin. Admin best try for provide that product.
The main objective of the project is to create a system that allows users to
order the product based on name of that product. The selected products are
displayed in a tabular format and the user can order their products online through
credit card Payment.


Current Scenario
Currently the system is static so the customer can just see the product
online but they cant order it. Customer has to do it manually and payment is
also manually done. So we are trying to make it dynamic and we will replace
the current ordering system to the latest technology.
Drawback of current system
Since the ordering of the products is done offline currently it is time consuming.
Customer has to pay somewhat more also.


Proposed solution
The system will be made such that the customer can order the product
online and payment of that can also be done online through credit card, visa card
etc. So the new system will save time and money of the customer.


Preliminary Analysis

Due to Internet access customers uses Internet more and more for their
shopping needs. They also save time and money by doing so, and for
more of their work related activity.
This system should provide facility to register online for online ordering.
The system should provide the facility for inquiry if the customer has any
The system should provide facility for online payment.
This System should be able to generate customer related report.


Feasibility Study
A feasibility study is carried out to select the best system that meets
performance requirements. A feasibility study is designed to provide an over view
of the primary issues related to a business idea. The purpose is to identify any
make or break issues that would prevent your business from being successful in
the market place. In other words, a feasibility study determines whether the ideas
make sense.
Feasibility study provides a lot of information necessary for the business
plan. For example a good market is necessary in order to determine the projects

feasibility. This information provides the basis for the market section of the
business plan.

Technical Feasibility
The system will be hosted on the internet so company need internet
connection in that organization, as well as they need MS access to store the data
related to products and customers.
System can be accessed by any platform no concern with open source
community or Microsoft Technology, only thing needed is that .Net Framework
must be installed at application server. I am able to complete the project within
specified time.
This system can be easily supported by the hardware and software
requirements of any system. The system can also produce its required output.
The proposed system must provide adequate responses to inquires,
regardless of the number or locations of the users. There must be technical
guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access, and data security.
Economical Feasibility:
Economical feasibility addresses to the following issues:
software resource requirement of the proposed system is .NET Framework
2.0 and MS Access that are already owned by the organization and do not require
additional Investment.
For declaring that the system is economically feasible, the benefits obtain
from the system has to be related against the cost incurred to actually develop the

system because the software which are used here is already owned by the
company. It needs the server which can run this system which is already company
The hardware requirement of the system is at least a PC for an
administrator to handle the site from admin panel. The development cost of the
project is not much higher.
Behavioral Feasibility:
Proposed system will behave according to the requirement made or not.
Responses time of the system must be noticed because it is a web based system
whether it takes too much time to response or give quick response or response in
the specific period of time this consideration is most important. Time consuming
processes are possible to run on this environment or not it is also important.
Operational Feasibility:
The proposed system will meet the operational requirements like system
Performance, accessibility of information, client acceptance and efficient
solutions to the queries of the user.
If user has some basic knowledge of Internet, user can operate this application
easily. It provides easy user interface.
Operational feasibility has been considered from the users point of view.
This application once deployed, can run easily without any maintenance at this
point of time. After the inclusion of database in future, the database might need
some clean up after some period of time. If the database size becomes large, then

it might need some changes in handling of the application and might require some
optimization so that application runs faster and retrieves data faster.


System Requirements
Hardware Configuration:

Server Configuration:
Standard Pentium series processor.
Minimum 4 MB RAM.
HDD storage capacity of 360GB with 5400 rpm or more.

Client Configuration:
Any computer system with normal speed.
Internet Connectivity

Software Requirements:

Server Software:
Visual Studio .Net 2005 (Frame work 2.0)
Windows 2000 or higher OS.

Client Software:
VGA or higher resolution monitor,
IE 6.0+,Fire fox 2.0+, Flash.

System Requirement Study:

The requirements can be classified as below.
1) Functional requirements.
2) Non-functional requirements.
Functional Requirements:
1) Inserting the product and customer information.
2) Retrieval of the stored data according to the user needs.
3) Delete of stored information of outdated products which are out of market and
customer needs.
4) Updating the stored information according to the changes in products change
and customer information.
Main features of the system are as follows.
1) To provide the facility to register a new customer.
2) To provide the facility to customer to add product to cart, remove product
from cart, and also to provide the facility to calculate total price.
3) To provide the facility to conform order and shipping.
4) To provide facility to customer to see account, edit account; edit credit card
detail, change password.
5) To provide facility to administrator to add customer, add category, add
product, edit bill info, edit credit card info, View daily order, edit ship info.
6) To provide the facility to customer for the inquiry of product.
Non Functional Requirements:
The system must provide easy and fast access without consuming time and

User should never be surprised by the behavior of the system and it should
also provide meaningful feedback when occur and provide context sensitive user
help facility so that user can recover from the errors. The system should be
available whenever user demanding for the service.
The system must be platform independent, network independent, and
hardware independent. For example for running the system not any extra
hardware is required.

Payment through e-check/DD needs gateway services as of high cost.
In credit card validation, all the visa card, master card and American express card
provided primary level validation but secondary level validation is of high cost.
The user has to agree with the policies of the retailer.
The Customer must have some ID like passport, Social security number, voting
card, PAN card etc.
There is wide use of images low range of RAM is little inconvenient to make it
faster. To get result very fast and appropriate it needs to have high speed of RAM.

2 .- Technology Used

Introduction to .NET

Visual Studio .NET is a complete set of development tools for

building ASP Web applications, XML Web services, desktop applications, and
mobile applications. Visual Basic .NET, Visual C++ .NET, and Visual C# .NET
all use the same integrated development environment (IDE), which allows
them to share tools and facilitates in the creation of mixed-language
solutions. In addition, these languages leverage the functionality of the .NET
Framework, which provides access to key technologies that simplify the
development of ASP Web applications and XML Web services.


Web Form


Web Service

.NET Framework

The Internal
Web Service

Web Services

Web Services

.NET Enterprise

The .NET Framework is an integral Windows component that supports

building and running the next generation of applications and XML Web
services. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives:

To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object

code is stored and executed locally, executed locally but Internet-distributed, or
executed remotely.

To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment

and versioning conflicts.

To provide a code-execution environment that promotes safe execution of code,

including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party.

To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance

problems of scripted or interpreted environments.

To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of

applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.

To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the
.NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
The .NET Framework has two main components: the common

language runtime and the .NET Framework class library. The common
language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. You can think of

the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time, providing core
services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting,
while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that
promote security and robustness. In fact, the concept of code management is
a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is
known as managed code, while code that does not target the runtime is
known as unmanaged code. The class library, the other main component of
the .NET Framework, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of
reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from
traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to
applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such as
Web Forms and XML Web services.
The .NET Framework can be hosted by unmanaged components that
load the common language runtime into their processes and initiate the
execution of managed code, thereby creating a software environment that
can exploit both managed and unmanaged features. The .NET Framework not
only provides several runtime hosts, but also supports the development of
third-party runtime hosts.
For example, ASP.NET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable, serverside environment for managed code. ASP.NET works directly with the runtime
to enable ASP.NET applications and XML Web services, both of which are
discussed later in this topic.

Internet Explorer is an example of an unmanaged application that

hosts the runtime (in the form of a MIME type extension). Using Internet
Explorer to host the runtime enables you to embed managed components or
Windows Forms controls in HTML documents. Hosting the runtime in this way
makes managed mobile code (similar to Microsoft ActiveX controls)
possible, but with significant improvements that only managed code can
offer, such as semi-trusted execution and isolated file storage.
The following illustration shows the relationship of the common
language runtime and the class library to your applications and to the overall
system. The illustration also shows how managed code operates within a
larger architecture.

.NET Framework in context

The following sections describe the main components and features of

the .NET Framework in greater detail.

Features of the Common Language Runtime (CLR)

The common language runtime manages memory, thread execution,

code execution, code safety verification, compilation, and other system
services. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the
common language runtime.

With regards to security, managed components are awarded varying

degrees of trust, depending on a number of factors that include their origin
(such as the Internet, enterprise network, or local computer). This means
that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file-access
operations, registry-access operations, or other sensitive functions, even if it
is being used in the same active application.
The runtime enforces code access security. For example, users can
trust that an executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on
screen or sing a song, but cannot access their personal data, file system, or
network. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate
Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally feature rich.
The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict
type-and-code-verification infrastructure called the common type system
(CTS). The CTS ensures that all managed code is self-describing. The various
Microsoft and third-party language compilers generate managed code that
conforms to the CTS. This means that managed code can consume other
managed types and instances, while strictly enforcing type fidelity and type
In addition, the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many
common software issues. For example, the runtime automatically handles
object layout and manages references to objects, releasing them when they
are no longer being used. This automatic memory management resolves the

two most common application errors, memory leaks and invalid memory
The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. For example,
programmers can write applications in their development language of choice,
yet take full advantage of the runtime, the class library, and components
written in other languages by other developers. Any compiler vendor who
chooses to target the runtime can do so. Language compilers that target
the .NET Framework make the features of the .NET Framework available to
existing code written in that language, greatly easing the migration process
for existing applications.
While the runtime is designed for the software of the future, it also
supports software of today and yesterday. Interoperability between managed
and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary COM
components and DLLs.
The runtime is designed to enhance performance. Although the
common language runtime provides many standard runtime services,
managed code is never interpreted. A feature called just-in-time (JIT)
compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of
the system on which it is executing. Meanwhile, the memory manager
removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory
locality-of-reference to further increase performance.

Finally, the runtime can be hosted by high-performance, server-side

applications, such as Microsoft SQL Server and Internet Information
Services (IIS). This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to write
your business logic, while still enjoying the superior performance of the
industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting.

Compilation Process of .Net Technology

Source Code in
VB 2005

VB 2005 Compiler

Source Code in

Source Code in Another


C# Compiler


DLL or EXE file in IL

language code)

JIT (just-in-time

Native Machine

Figure 2 Language Compilation in .NET

.NET Framework Class Library

The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that
tightly integrate with the common language runtime. The class library is
object oriented, providing types from which your own managed code can
derive functionality. This not only makes the .NET Framework types easy to
use, but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of
the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate
seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework.
For example, the .NET Framework collection classes implement a set of
interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes. Your
collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the .NET
As you would expect from an object-oriented class library, the .NET
Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming
tasks, including tasks such as string management, data collection, database
connectivity, and file access. In addition to these common tasks, the class

library includes types that support a variety of specialized development

scenarios. For example, you can use the .NET Framework to develop the
following types of applications and services:

Console applications.

Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms).

ASP.NET applications.

XML Web services.

Windows services.
For example, the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of

reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development. If you write
an ASP.NET Web Form application, you can use the Web Forms classes.

Accessing data with ADO.NET

ADO.NET provides consistent access to data sources such as Microsoft
SQL Server, as well as data sources exposed through OLE DB and XML. Datasharing consumer applications can use ADO.NET to connect to these data
sources and retrieve, manipulate, and update data.
ADO.NET cleanly factors data access from data manipulation into
discrete components that can be used separately or in tandem. ADO.NET
includes .NET Framework data providers for connecting to a database,
executing commands, and retrieving results. Those results are either
processed directly, or placed in an ADO.NET Dataset object in order to be

exposed to the user in an ad-hoc manner, combined with data from multiple
sources, or remote between tiers. The ADO.NET Dataset object can also be
used independently of a .NET Framework data provider to manage data local
to the application or sourced from XML.
The ADO.NET classes are found in System.Data.dll, and are integrated
with the XML classes found in System.Xml.dll. When compiling code that uses







ADO.NET provides functionality to developers writing managed code
similar to the functionality provided to native COM developers by ADO.

ADO.NET Components
The ADO.NET components have been designed to factor data access
from data manipulation. There are two central components of ADO.NET that
accomplish this: the Dataset, and the .NET Framework data provider, which
is a set of components including the Connection, Command, DataReader,
and DataAdapter objects.
The ADO.NET Dataset is the core component of the disconnected
architecture of ADO.NET. The Dataset is explicitly designed for data access
independent of any data source. As a result it can be used with multiple and
differing data sources, used with XML data, or used to manage data local to
the application. The Dataset contains a collection of one or more DataTable

objects made up of rows and columns of data, as well as primary key, foreign
key, constraint, and relation information about the data in the DataTable
The other core element of the ADO.NET architecture is the .NET
Framework data provider, whose components is explicitly designed for data









Connection object provides connectivity to a data source. The Command

object enables access to database commands to return data, modify data,
run stored procedures, and send or retrieve parameter information. The
DataReader provides a high-performance stream of data from the data
source. Finally, the DataAdapter provides the bridge between the DataSet
object and the data source. The DataAdapter uses Command objects to
execute SQL commands at the data source to both load the DataSet with
data, and reconcile changes made to the data in the DataSet back to the
data source.
You can write .NET Framework data providers for any data source. The
.NET Framework ships with two .NET Framework data providers: the .NET
Framework Data Provider for SQL Server and the .NET Framework Data
Provider for OLE DB.




architecture.ADO.NET architecture





Platform Invoke (Windows API)

Platform invoke relies on metadata to locate exported functions and
marshal their arguments at run time. The following illustration shows this

A platform invoke call to an unmanaged DLL function

When platform invoke calls an unmanaged function, it performs the

following sequence of actions:

1. Locates the DLL containing the function.

2. Loads the DLL into memory.
3. Locates the address of the function in memory and pushes its arguments onto the
stack, marshaling data as required.

Why we Use C#.Net:

It supports Client/Server Architecture. C#.Net also provides Database Objects
like ADO.Net which is very useful for making Client/server application. It
gives more facility like disconnected database structure with classes like Data
Adapter, Data connection.

C#.Net is object oriented language which is providing facility of Inheritance,

constructors, destructors, multithreading etc. C#.Net provides many data types
which are giving flexibility in programming. It also provides the Crystal
Report support to make report this is the advantage of C#.Net. In our
application reports are very important part with graphical representation.

The most important feature of C#.Net is disconnected database structure. That

features is very much useful in our application and it also give speed and
accuracy to the client/server model.

Features of C#.Net:

Inheritance: C Sharp .Net supports inheritance by allowing you to define

classes that serve as the basis for derived classes. Derived classes inherit and
can extend the properties and methods of the base class. They can also
override inherited methods with new implementations. All classes created
with Visual Basic .Net are inheritable by default. Because the forms you
design are really classes, you can use inheritance to define new forms based
on existing ones.

Exception Handling: C Sharp .Net supports structured exception handling,

using and enhanced version of the TryCatchFinally syntax supported by
other languages such as c++. Structured exception handling combines a
modern control structure with exceptions, protected blocks of code and filters.
Structured exception handling makes it easy to create and maintain programs
with robust comprehensive error handlers.

Overloading: Overloading is the ability to define properties,

methods, or procedures that have the same name but use different data types.

Overloaded procedures allow you to provide as many implementations as

necessary to handle different kinds of data, while giving the appearance of a
single, versatile procedure.

Overriding Properties and Methods: The overrides keyword allows derived

objects to override characteristics inherited from Parent objects. Overridden
members have the same arguments as

the members inherited form the base

class, but different Implementations. A members new implementation can call

the original implementation in the parent class by preceding the member name
with My Base.
Constructors and Destructors: Constructors are procedures that control
initialization of new instances of a class. Conversely, destructors are methods
that free system resources when a class leaves scope or is set to nothing. C
Sharp .Net supports constructors and destructors using the sub new and sub
finalize procedures.

Data Types: C Sharp .Net introduces three new data types. The char data type
is and unsigned 16-bit quantity used to store Unicode characters. It is
equivalent to the .Net Framework System. Char data type.

Interfaces: Interfaces describe the properties and methods of classes, but

unlike classes, do not provide implementations. The interface statement allows

you to declare interfaces, while the implements statement lets you write code
that puts the items described in the interface into practice.

Shared Members: Shared members are properties, procedures, and fields that
are shared by all instances of a class. Shared data members are useful when
multiple by objects need to use information that is common to all. Shared
class methods can be used without first creating and object form a class.

References: References allow you to use objects defined in other assemblies.

In C Sharp .Net, references point to assemblies instead of type libraries.

Namespaces: Namespaces prevent naming conflicts by organizing classes,

interfaces, and methods into hierarchies.

Assemblies: Assemblies replace and extend the capabilities of type libraries

by, describing all the required files for a particular component or application.
An assembly can contain one or more namespaces.

Attributes: Attributes enable you to provide additional information about

program elements. For example, you can use an attribute to specify which
methods in a class should be exposed when the class is used as a XML Web

Multithreading: C Sharp .Net allows you to write applications that can

perform multiple tasks independently. A task that has the potential of holding
up other tasks can execute on a separate thread, a process known as
multithreading. By causing complicated tasks to run on threads that are
separate from your user inter face, multithreading makes your applications
more responsive to user input.

Bit Shift Operators: C Sharp .Net now supports arithmetic left and right shift
operations on integral data types. Arithmetic shifts are not circulars, which
means the bits shifted off one end of the result are not reintroduced at the
other and. The corresponding assignment operators are provided as well.

MS SQL SERVER 2005 Express Edition










performance, reliability, quality, and ease-of-use of Microsoft SQL

Server version 7.0. Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition includes
several new features that make it an excellent database platform for

large-scale online transactional processing (OLTP), data warehousing,

and e-commerce applications. The OLAP Services feature available in
SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2005 Express Edition
Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the
term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data
mining component









components that work together to meet the data storage and analysis
needs of the largest Web sites and enterprise data processing systems.
The topics in SQL Server Architecture describe how the various
components work together to manage data effectively.

Internet Integration

The SQL Server 2005 Express Edition database engine includes integrated
XML support. It also has the scalability, availability, and security features
required to operate as the data storage component of the largest Web sites. The
SQL Server2005 Express Edition programming model is integrated with the
Windows DNA architecture for developing Web applications, and SQL Server
2005 Express Edition supports features such as English Query and the Microsoft
Search Service to incorporate user-friendly queries and powerful search
capabilities in Web applications.
Scalability and Availability

The same database engine can be used across platforms ranging from
laptop computers running Microsoft Windows 98 through large, multiprocessor
servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 Data Center Edition. SQL Server 2005
Express Edition supports features such as federated servers, indexed views, and
large memory support that allow it to scale to the performance levels required by
the largest Web sites.
Enterprise-Level Database Features

The SQL Server 2005 Express Edition relational database engine supports
the features required to support demanding data processing environments. The
database engine protects data integrity while minimizing the overhead of
managing thousands of users concurrently modifying the database.
SQL Server 2005 Express Edition includes a set of administrative and
development tools that improve upon the process of installing, deploying,
managing, and using SQL Server across several sites. SQL Server 2000 also
supports a standards-based programming model integrated with the Windows
DNA, making the use of SQL Server databases.
Data warehousing

SQL Server 2005 Express Edition includes tools for extracting and
analyzing summary data for online analytical processing. SQL Server also
includes tools for visually designing databases and analyzing data using Englishbased questions.

Database Architecture

Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition data is stored in

databases. The data in a database is organized into the logical
components visible to users. A database is also physically implemented
as two or more files on disk.
By using a database, it is possible to work primarily with the
logical components such as tables, views, procedures, and users. The
physical implementation of files is largely transparent. Typically, only









Each instance of SQL Server has four system databases (master,
model, tempdb, and msdb) and one or more user databases. Some
organizations have only one user database, containing all the data for
their organization. Some organizations have different databases for
each group in their organization, and sometimes a database used by a
single application.
It is not necessary to run multiple copies of the SQL Server
database engine to allow multiple users to access the databases on a
server. An instance of the SQL Server Standard or Enterprise Edition is
capable of handling thousands of users working in multiple databases
at the same time.

When connecting to an instance of SQL Server, the connection is

associated with a particular database on the server. This database is
called the current database. The user is usually connected to a
database defined as the default database by the system administrator,
although its uses connection options in the database APIs to specify
another database.
SQL Server 2005 Express Edition allows detaching databases
from an instance of SQL Server, then reattaching them to another
instance, or even attaching the database back to the same instance. If
there is SQL Server database file, it is possible to attach that database
file with a specific database name.

Relational Database components:

The database component of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express

Edition is a Structured Query Language (SQL)based, scalable,
relational database with integrated Extensible Markup Language (XML)
support for Internet applications. Each of the following terms describes
a fundamental part of the architecture of the SQL Server2005 Express
Edition database component:

A database is similar to a data file in that it is a storage place for data. Like
a data file, a database does not present information directly to a user; the user runs

an application that accesses data from the database and presents it to the user in an
understandable format. Database systems are more powerful than data files in that
data is more highly organized.
In a well-designed database, there are no duplicate pieces of data that the
user or application must update at the same time. Related pieces of data are
grouped together in a single structure or record, and relationships can be defined
between these structures and records.
Relational Database

Although there are different ways to organize data in a database, relational

databases are one of the most effective. Relational database systems are an
application of mathematical set theory to the problem of effectively organizing
data. In a relational database, data is collected into tables (called relations in
relational theory).


SQL Server 2005 Express Edition supports having a wide range of users
access it at the same time. An instance of SQL Server 2005 Express Edition
includes the files that make up a set of databases and a copy of the DBMS
software. Applications running on separate computers use a SQL Server 2005

Express Edition communications component to transmit commands over a

network to the SQL Server 2005 Express Edition instance. When an application
connects to an instance of SQL Server 2005 Express Edition, it can reference any
of the databases in that instance that the user is authorized to access. The
communication component also allows communication between an instance of
SQL Server 2005 Express Edition and an application running on the same
Structured Query Language

To work with data in a database, the user have to use a set of commands
and statements (language) defined by the DBMS software. Several different
languages can be used with relational databases; the most common is SQL. The
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards
Organization (ISO) define software standards.
Extensible Markup Language

XML is the emerging Internet standard for data. XML is a set of

tags that can be used to define the structure of a hypertext document.
XML documents can be easily processed by the Hypertext Markup
Language, which is the most important language for displaying Web

Database Design Considerations

Designing a database requires an understanding of both the

business functions you want to model and the database concepts and
features used to represent those business functions.
It is important to accurately design a database to model the
business because it can be time consuming to change the design of a
database significantly once implemented. A well-designed database
also performs better.

Database Architecture

Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition data is stored in

databases. The data in a database is organized into the logical components
visible to users. A database is also physically implemented as two or more
files on disk.









components such as tables, views, procedures, and users. The physical

implementation of files is largely transparent. Typically, only the database
administrator needs to work with the physical implementation.
Each instance of SQL Server has four system databases (master,
model, tempdb, and msdb) and one or more user databases. Some
organizations have only one user database, containing all the data for their
organization. Some organizations have different databases for each group in
their organization, and sometimes a database used by a single application.

For example, an organization could have one database for sales, one for
payroll, one for a document management application, and so on. Sometimes
an application uses only one database; other applications may access several
It is not necessary to run multiple copies of the SQL Server database
engine to allow multiple users to access the databases on a server. An
instance of the SQL Server Standard or Enterprise Edition is capable of
handling thousands of users working in multiple databases at the same time.
Each instance of SQL Server makes all databases in the instance available to
all users that connect to the instance, subject to the defined security
When connecting to an instance of SQL Server, your connection is
associated with a particular database on the server. This database is called
the current database. You are usually connected to a database defined as
your default database by the system administrator, although you can use
connection options in the database APIs to specify another database. You can
switch from one database to another using either the Transact-SQL USE
database_name statement, or an API function that changes your current
database context.
SQL Server 2000 allows you to detach databases from an instance of
SQL Server, then reattach them to another instance, or even attach the
database back to the same instance. If you have a SQL Server database file,

you can tell SQL Server when you connect to attach that database file with a
specific database name.

MS Visio 2003
Microsoft Visio is a Graphical tool used for the Flow chart, DFD and ER. It
contains all the shapes for the Flow chart, DFD, ER etc. that a user can drag and drop
onto the drawing page to create a drawing, without having to draw anything manually.
Shapes can have online Help to assist a user in using them correctly.
The following visual solutions are included:

Block Diagram Includes the Basic, Block, and Block with Perspective templates.
These are useful for showing all types of relationships and hierarchies and provide
the basic arsenal of information graphics tools.


Includes the new Brainstorming diagram that allows you to

capture, arrange, and expand ideas generated by a group or yourself. These

diagrams display hierarchical relationships and allow exportation to Word for a

more linear view, or to an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file for reuse

Business Process The new Business Process category provides a collection of

templates you can use for specific business process documentation efforts,
including Six Sigma, SAP, and International Organization for Standardization

Building Plan Provides a quick way to design accurate, to-scale office and
furniture layouts.

Charts and Graph Formerly Forms and Charts. Includes templates for designing
business forms; creating quick pie, line, and bar charts and graphs; and creating
marketing diagrams.

Flowchart Includes templates for creating audit diagrams, basic flowcharts, cause
and effect diagrams, cross-functional flowcharts, mind mapping diagrams, total
quality management (TQM) charts, and workflow diagrams.

Map Includes templates for creating simple street maps and attractive 3-D maps.

Network Includes shapes designed to resemble common network topology and

devices. Useful for planning and documenting small to medium-sized networks.

Organization Chart Includes intelligent shapes that know their position in an

organization, so that reporting structures stay in place. You can even use the

Organization Chart Wizard to automatically build a chart from a spreadsheet or

database without having to draw a thing.

Project Schedule Includes templates for creating PERT charts, Gantt charts,
timelines, and calendars, so you can keep your projects on track.

Building Plan Includes templates for creating plan-view drawings of corporate

offices and industrial manufacturing facilities. Designed for space planners and
building engineers, this solution lets you create floor plans, home plans, plant
layouts, reflected ceiling plans, site plans, and the building services schematics
that support them.

Database Includes templates for communicating database designs using multiple

notations intended for database professionals. With the Database Model Diagram
template, you can even reverse engineer and get support for leading client/server
and desktop databases.

Electrical Engineering Includes a variety of templates used by electrical

engineers for creating electrical and electronic schematics, wiring diagrams, and
logic diagrams.

Mechanical Engineering Includes templates for diagramming fluid power

control systems and hydraulic or pneumatic circuits as well as part and assembly

Network Includes further templates for creating high-level, logical diagrams and
for designing local area networks (LANs), wide area networks, wiring closets,
server rooms, and telecommunications structures. In addition, you can create
diagrams of Microsoft Active Directory, Novell Directory Services (NDS), and
other LDAP-based directory structures.

Process Engineering Includes templates for assembling detailed piping and

instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) and process flow diagrams (PFDs) used by
many chemical and industrial engineers.

Software Includes templates for major object-oriented software notations,

including the full Unified Modeling Language (UML) 1.2 notation. In addition,
you can diagram data flows, Windows user interfaces, COM and OLE objects,
and more.

Web Diagram Includes templates for automatically mapping Web sites and
conceptual shapes for planning new designs