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# CPE 633 PROCESS ENGINEERING II

ENERGY RELAXATION
NETWORKS
By Siti Shawalliah Idris

Energy Relaxation

## Energy relaxation is a name coined for the

procedure of allowing the energy usage to
increase in exchange for at least one of the
following effects :
a reduction in area
A reduction in the heat exchangers
A reduction in complexity (typically less splitting)

Energy Relaxation

## This procedure has as goal to increase heating utility and in

exchange reduce the number of units.

Energy Relaxation
LOOP: A loop is a circuit through the network that
starts at one exchanger and ends in the same
exchanger
PATH: A path is a circuit through the
network that starts at a heater and ends at a cooler

Energy Relaxation

Illustration of a loop
CP=0.010

H1

175 0C

125 0C
C
280

CP=0.040

CP=0.020

H2
65 0C

155 0C

20 0C

36
0
CP=0.015

H
184
0

50
0
112
0C

## (*) Heat exchanger loads are

in kW

400 C
56
0

52
0

C2

Energy Relaxation

Illustration of a path
FCp=0.010

125 0C

H1 175 0C

C
280

FCp=0.040

H2
65 0C

FCp=0.020
FCp=0.015

155 0C

200 C
H
36
0

1840

50
0

400 C
112 0C

## (*) Heat exchanger loads are

in kW

560 520

C2

Energy Relaxation

Procedure: Find a loop and move around the heat from heat
exchanger to exchanger until one exchanger is eliminated
125 0C
H1

175

0C

C
280

H2

65 0C
155 0C

20 0C

C1

400
C

C2

H
360

184 +X
0

500 -X
112

0C

560

-X

520 +X

## If one wants to eliminate one exchanger: X=500. Note that X

could have beennegative, but we chose the smallest possible in
absolute value.

Energy Relaxation

## Result: Notice that there is an infeasible match!

H1

175 0C

C
65 0C

450 C

280
650 C

H2
65 0C

155 0C

20 0C C1

H
360

1120

2340
C

400 C C2
60

1020
108 0C

This exchanger
is in
violation of the
minimum
approach

ENERGY RELAXATION

H1

1750 C

45 C

280 +X

65 0C

650 C

H2
65 0C
+X
155
0C

200 C

H
36
0

2340 -X
1120C

400 C C2

60 +X 1020 -X
108
0C

The
value

C1

is X=795

Final Network

H1

1750 C

65 0C

450 C
1075
650 C

H2
65 0C

155 0C

200 C

H
1155
1120

1545
C

C1

400 C C2
855

225

55 0C

## Thank you for your attention

Working Example
Energy Relaxation Technique

## Energy relaxation technique

Remove the smallest heat recovery unit from the network by exploiting the degree of
freedom in a loop.
Recalculate the network temperatures and identify any violationsof the Tmin = 10oC
constraint.
Restore the original Tmin = 10oC throughout the network by exploiting a utility path.

## Maximum Energy Recovery Design

Identify the degrees of freedom for network optimisation
HP
100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140 oC

80 oC

H
150

oC

705
0

210
0

450
0

80 oC 6

B
160
00

Tmin =
o

192
5

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5

100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140

oC

80 oC

150 oC

705
0

210
0

450
0

80 oC 6

B
160
00

192
5

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5

Solution
Loop
HP
100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140 oC

150

80 oC

oC

705
0

210
0

450
0

80 oC 6

B
160
00

192
5

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5

Loop

100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140 oC

150

80 oC

oC

705
0

210
0

450
0

80 oC 6

B
160
00

192
5

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5

Utility path 1

100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140 oC
Utility path 2

150

80 oC

oC

705
0

210
0

450
0

80 oC 6

B
160
00

192
5

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5

Loop
HP
100 oC

1
160 oC

100 oC

242
5

B
75 oC

3
140 oC

150

80 oC

oC

7050
-X

2100
+X

4500
+X

80 oC 6

B
160
00

1925 X

90 oC

C
433
0

C
79 oC

42
oC

D
166
70

40 oC
25 oC
25 oC

4
5