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Aug/Fall 2012

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester III


MI0034 Database Management System - 4 Credits
Assignment - Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Answer all the questions
Q1. Differentiate between Traditional File System & Modern Database
System? Describe the properties of Database & the Advantage of
Database?
Answer :
Differentiate between Traditional File System & Modern
Database System:
Traditional File System

Modern Database Systems

Traditional File system is the system that


was followed before the advent of DBMS
i.e., it is the older way.

This is the Modern way which has replaced


the older concept of File system.

In Traditional file processing, data


definition is part of the application program
and works with only specific application.

Data definition is part of the DBMS

Application is independent and can be used


with any application.
File systems are Design Driven; they
require design/coding change when new
kind of data occurs.
E.g.:: In a traditional employee the master
file has Emp_name, Emp_id, Emp_addr,
Emp_design, Emp_dept, Emp_sal, if we
want
to
insert
one
more
column Emp_Mob numberthen it requires
a complete restructuring of the file or
redesign of the application code, even
though
basically all the data except that in one
column is the same.
Traditional File system keeps redundant
[duplicate] information in many locations.
This might result in the loss of Data
Consistency.
For e.g.: Employee names might exist in
separate files like Payroll Master File and
also in Employee Benefit Master File etc.
Now if an
employee changes his or her last name,

One extra column (Attribute) can be


added without any difficulty

Minor coding changes in the


Application Program may be required.

Redundancy is eliminated to the maximum


extent in DBMS if properly defined.

the name might be changed in the pay roll


master file but not be changed in
Employee Benefit
Master File etc. This might result in the
loss of Data Consistency.
In a File system data is scattered in
various files, and each of these files may
be in different formats, making it difficult to
write new application programs to retrieve
the appropriate
data.
Security features are to be coded in the
Application Program itself.

This problem is completely solved here.

Coding for security requirements is not


required as most of them have been taken
care by the DBMS.

Properties of Database:
The following are the important properties of Database:
1. A database is a logical collection of data having some implicit meaning. If the
data are not related then it is not called as proper database.
E.g. Student studying in class II got 5th rank.

2. A database consists of both data as well as the description of the database


structure and constraints.
3. A database can have any size and of various complexity. If we consider the
above example of employee database the name and address of the employee
may consists of very few records each with simple structure.
Like this there may be n number of records.
4. The DBMS is considered as general-purpose software system that facilitates
the process of defining, constructing and manipulating databases for various
applications.
5. A database provides insulation between programs, data and data abstraction.
Data abstraction is a feature that provides the integration of the data source of
interest and helps to leverage the physical data however the structure is.
6. The data in the database is used by variety of users for variety of purposes.
For E.g. when you consider a hospital database management system the view of
usage of patient database is different from the same used by the doctor. In this
case the data are stored separately for the different users. In fact it is stored in a
single database. This property is nothing but multiple views of the database.

7. Multiple user DBMS must allow the data to be shared by multiple users
simultaneously. For this purpose the DBMS includes concurrency control software
to ensure that the updation done to the database by variety of users at single
time must get updated correctly. This property explains the multiuser transaction
processing.

Advantage of Database:
1. Redundancy is reduced
2. Data located on a server can be shared by clients
3. Integrity (accuracy) can be maintained
4. Security features protect the Data from unauthorized access
5. Modern DBMS support internet based application.
6. In DBMS the application program and structure of data are independent.
7. Consistency of Data is maintained
8. DBMS supports multiple views. As DBMS has many users, and each one of
them might use it for different purposes, and may require to view and
manipulate only on a portion of the database, depending on requirement.

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Q2. What is the disadvantage of sequential file organization? How do


you overcome it? What are the advantages & disadvantages of Dynamic
Hashing?

Q3. What is relationship type? Explain the difference among a relationship instance,
relationship type

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& a relation set?

Q4. What is SQL? Discuss.

Q5. What is Normalization? Discuss various types of Normal Forms?


Q6. What do you mean by Shared Lock & Exclusive lock? Describe
briefly two phase locking protocol?

Aug/Fall 2012
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester III
MI0034 Database Management System - 4 Credits
Assignment - Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Answer all the Questions
Q1. Define Data Model & discuss the categories of Data Models? What is
the difference between logical data Independence & Physical Data
Independence?

Answer : A database model is a theory or specification describing how a


database is structured and used. Several such models like Hierarchical model,
Network model, Relational model etc., have been suggested.
Data Model, Schemas and Instances:
Data Model :
It is a set of Concepts for viewing a set of data in a structured way. This can be
easily understood by professionals and non-technical users. It can explain the
way in which the organization uses and manages the information.
Concepts used in data Model
Entity An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it
need not beef a material existence.E.g. - Employee.
Attribute
It is the property that describes an entity
It is a characteristic or property of an object, such as weight, size, or colour
Relationship
Describes the relationship between two or more entities

Schemas
The description of the data base means defining the names, data type, size of
column in a table and database [actual data in the table] itself.
The description of a database is called the database schema [or the Meta data].
Description of a database is specified during database design and is not
frequently changed.
Roll No.
Name Semester
Branch

Instances
The collection of data stored in the database at a particular moment is a
database instance or database state or snapshot.
These changes very frequently due to addition, deletion and modification.
Roll No.

Name Semester
Branch
1
Rajesh Parch
Ii
E&C
Data independence is defined as the ability to modify a schema definition in one
level without affecting schema definition in a higher level.

Physical data independence


This is the ability to modify the physical scheme without causing application
programs to be rewritten. Modifications at this level are usually to improve
performance.

Logical data independence


This is the ability to modify the conceptual scheme without causing application
programs to be rewritten. This is usually done when theological structure of
database is altered. Logical data independence is harder to achieve, as the
application programs are usually heavily dependent on the logical structure of
the data. An analogy is made to abstract data types in programming languages.

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Q2. What is a Biters? Describe the structure of both internal and leaf
nodes of a Biter?

Q3. Describe Projection operation, Set theoretic operation & join


operation?
Q4. Discuss Multi Table Queries?

Q5. Discuss Transaction Processing Concept? 10.2 Describe properties


of Transactions?

Q6. Describe the advantage of Distributed database? What is


Client/server Model? Discuss briefly the security and Internet violation?
irect access to the data.