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Dialog box - F1 help


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44 Adams/View
2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool

2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool


Build Joints Curve-Curve Constraint

Creates a curve-curve constraint that restricts a curve defined on the first part to remain in contact with
a second curve defined on a second part. The curve-curve constraint is useful for modeling cams where
the point of contact between two parts changes during the motion of the mechanism. The curve-curve
constraint removes three Degrees of freedom from your model.
Learn more about Curve-Curve Constraints.

For the option:


First and Second

Do the following:
For the first and second parts, select whether you are defining the curve-curve
constraint along a curve or an edge of a part:
Curves - Splines, chains, and data-element curves are all considered

curves.
Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid. For

example, you can use a Parasolid object representing a cam that you
imported into Adams/View.

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3D Plot Viewer

3D Plot Viewer
Build Data Elements Spline New Type 3D 3D Preview

Lets you view a plot of a three-dimensional spline.


Right-click on the background to use the Shortcut menus of view controls.
Right-click on the plot to display information about the plot, delete the plot, or rename it.

Learn about Viewing a Three-Dimensional Plot in the Spline Editor.

46 Adams/View
About Adams

About Adams
Help About

Displays the following information:


Software version number and the date it was built
Directory where Adams is installed
Copyright statement

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About the Adams/View Modeling Database

About the Adams/View Modeling Database


The Adams/View Modeling database is a hierarchical database. Each object in the database has an object
that owns it, called its parent, and many objects own other objects, called their children. The top level
objects in the database are models, views, plots, and libraries containing such things as dialog boxes.
The following shows the hierarchy of a database called Database_1 that contains one model and a plot
of the model.

Names of objects in the database use a hierarchical naming structure. For example, a block built on the
ground part is named .model_1.ground.block.

48 Adams/View
Activate/Deactivate

Activate/Deactivate
Right-click object (De)activate

Sets the Activation status of a selected object and whether or not the objects children inherit the
activation status of the parent.
Learn about About the Adams/View Modeling Database.

For the option:

Do the following:

Object

Enter the name of the object.

Object Active

Select if you want the object active during a Simulation.


Learn About Activation Status.

Object's Dependent's Active

Select if you want the object's children to also be active.


Learn About Inheriting Activation Status.

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Adams/Insight Display

Adams/Insight Display
Simulate Adams/Insight Display

Opens an existing experiment file from the current directory.


After you complete the dialog box and select OK, Adams/View closes and starts Adams/Insight,
displaying the specified experiment. After you've completed your work in Adams/Insight and exited,
Adams/View appears.
If you exit Adams/Insight by using the Run Simulations tool or the Data Simulation menu,
Adams/View will execute the experiment runs. If you exit Adams/Insight by using the File Close
Adams/Insight Window menu or the window manager, Adams/View will return, waiting for your next
interactive input.

For the option:


Experiment

Do the following:
Enter the name of the experiment to be opened. The file is saved with an .xml
extension in the current directory.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes

Note:

If you want to run all the investigation simulations in the current Adams/View session, you
can alter some of the Simulate settings to enable the entire series of simulations to run more
efficiently. Alternately, you can run all the simulations external to Adams/View with the
MDI INSIGHT BUILD command. This can be accomplished by saving the experiment
after the workspace has been defined, returning to Adams/View, and then issuing the MDI
INSIGHT BUILD command.
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate

multi_run set save_analysis=no


multi_run set chart_objectives=no
multi_run set chart_variables=no
multi_run set show_summary=no
single_run set save_analysis=no
single_run set update=none
single_run set monitor=none

50 Adams/View
Adams/Insight Export

Adams/Insight Export
Simulate Adams/Insight Export

Creates a new experiment file or overwrites an existing experiment file.


After you complete the dialog box and select OK, Adams/View populates the Adams/Insight experiment
file (in the current directory) with the factors and responses that have been defined in the specified model.
Factors consist of design variables, hardpoint x,y,z components, and UDE parameters. Responses consist
of design objectives.
Next, Adams/View closes and starts Adams/Insight.
If you reused an old experiment and Adams/Insight is able to use it to create a work space for the new
experiment, Adams/Insight immediately adds the work space to the new experiment file and returns to
Adams/View. Adams/View then appears and begins running the experiment.
Otherwise, Adams/Insight opens and displays the new experiment. After you've completed your work in
Adams/Insight and exited, Adams/View appears.
If you exit Adams/Insight by using the Run Simulations tool or the Data Simulation menu,
Adams/View will execute the experiment runs. If you exit Adams/Insight by using the File Close
Adams/Insight Window menu or the window manager, Adams/View will return, waiting for your next
interactive input.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Experiment

Enter the name of the experiment to be created. The file is saved with an .xml
extension in the current directory.

Model

Enter the name of the model to use for the investigation. The contents of the
specified model will be interrogated to build up the Candidate list of responses and
factors.

Simulation Script

Enter the simulation script you want to use during the experiment.

Reuse Experiment Optionally, enter the name of an existing experiment file. If you enter an
experiment to reuse, Adams/Insight will reuse as many components of the old
experiment as possible in the new experiment. For more information, see Reusing
Components.

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Adams/Insight Export

Note:

If you want to run all the investigation simulations in the current Adams/View session, you
can alter some of the Simulate settings to enable the entire series of simulations to run more
efficiently. Alternately, you can run all the simulations external to Adams/View with the
MDI INSIGHT BUILD command. This can be accomplished by saving the experiment
after the workspace has been defined, returning to Adams/View, and then issuing the MDI
INSIGHT BUILD command.
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate
simulate

multi_run set save_analysis=no


multi_run set chart_objectives=no
multi_run set chart_variables=no
multi_run set show_summary=no
single_run set save_analysis=no
single_run set update=none
single_run set monitor=none

52 Adams/View
Adams/View Keyboard Shortcuts

Adams/View Keyboard Shortcuts


The entries in this section show the keyboard shortcuts for Adams/View organized by operation.
Keyboard shortcuts are key combinations that access commands quickly. When you enter a keyboard
shortcut, the focus must be in the main window except when entering a keyboard shortcut that works in
dialog boxes.
The shortcuts are organized into the following operations:
File Operations
Edit Operations
Display Operations
Viewing Operations
Drawing Operations

File Operations
To:

Select:

Create a new modeling database

Ctrl + n

Open an existing modeling database

Ctrl + o

Save the current modeling database

Ctrl + s

Print

Ctrl + p

Read command file

F2

Exit

Ctrl + q

Edit Operations
To:

Select:

Undo the last operation

Ctrl + z

Redo the last undone operation

Ctrl- Shift + z

Copy objects

Ctrl + c

Paste text in text boxes in dialog boxes and as comments

Ctrl + v

Cut text from text boxes in dialog boxes

Ctrl + x

Quickly clear text from text boxes

Left-click at the start of the text box, and


then press Ctrl-k or Ctrl-K

Delete selected object

Del

Modify object

Ctrl + e

Escape operation

Esc

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Adams/View Keyboard Shortcuts

Display Operations
To display:

Select:

Command window

F3

Coordinate window

F4

Menu Builder

F5

Dialog Box Builder

F6

Working grid

Plotting window (Adams/PostProcessor)

F8

Help window

F1

Viewing Operations
To:

Select:

Rotate view in the XY directions

Rotate view in the Z direction (s pin)

s (lowercase)

Translate view

Change perspective depth

Dynamically zoom view

Use dynamic increment

Shift

Define a zoom area

Center view

Orient view to object (e lement)

Fit view

Fit view - no ground

Ctrl + F

Orient view to front

Orient view to right

Orient view to top

Orient view to isometric

Toggle render mode between wireframe and shaded

S (Uppercase)

Toggle screen icons on and off

54 Adams/View
Adams/View Keyboard Shortcuts

Drawing Operations
To:

Select and hold:

Turn off snapping to geometry

Ctrl

Turn off highlighting of geometry during selection

Ctrl

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Adams2Nastran

Adams2Nastran
Simulate Adams2Nastran

Export a linearized NASTRAN model from Adams at the current-time/dynamic/kinematic/static/quasistatic equilibrium operating point.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model Name

Select the model which you want to export

Type

Choose the type of export, that is low fidelity (white box) or high fidelity
(black box)

Nastran Output File Prefix Choose the file prefix to be used for the exported Nastran file(s).
Operating Point

Choose the operating point at which the model will be exported (options
are current-time, dynamic, kinematic, static and quasi-static)

If you chose current-time then Adams exports a NASTRAN model immediately with no further analysis
specification, in other words model is exported at any current and valid operating point (i.e. static,
quasi-static, dynamic, and kinematic)
If you chose a dynamic/kinematic/quasi-static operating point following four options will be available
End Time

Specify the simulation end time as an alternative to the duration of


simulation

Duration

Specify the duration of simulation as an alternative to the simulation end


time

Number Of Steps

Specify the number of steps, as an alternative to the step size

Step Size

Specify the step size as an alternative to the number of steps parameter

Configuration File Name

Specify a configuration file to be used to control the exporting of the


model. See Nastran bulk data deck export for more information.

Reset After Export

Select if the simulation has to be reset automatically after the export


operation

Export all graphics

Select if all the graphics are to be exported

Write To Terminal

Select if the output file is to be displayed in the info window after the
export operation

56 Adams/View
Add/Replace Simulations

Add/Replace Simulations
File Replace Simulations

Updates the data in the plots with that stored in simulation result files, without recreating the plots. Also
lets you add data from other Simulations to your existing plots.
When you update your plots, Adams/PostProcessor looks for simulation results in the original simulation
Results file (for example, a Request file) from which you imported the current data. If the time and date

stamp on the original file is more recent than the time and date stamp on the plot, Adams/PostProcessor
reloads the plot with the updated data.
If you use the Add Simulation option, a new legend, called the simulation legend, appears on the left side
of the plot. The simulation legend identifies the source of the data grouped by color or line style. The
original legend, called the curve legend, continues to show information about the original curves.

For the option:


Add Simulation

Do the following:
Select to add new curves.

Replace Simulation Select to update the curves already on the plot.


New Runs/
Last Runs

Enter the name of the simulation containing the simulation results to be replaced.
By default, the results of the last simulation (Last_run) replaces any simulation
results that the curves use.

If you selected Add Simulations, the following options are available:


Auto Color/
Auto Style/

You can:
Select Auto to allow Adams/PostProcessor to automatically assign

colors, styles, or weights to the curves.


Auto Weight

Clear the selection of Auto to use the pull-down menu to set the colors,

styles, or weights. If you select No Change, Adams/PostProcessor uses


the current color of the curve representing the data to be added.
Update Pages

Select the pages containing the plots that you want to update. Enter a range of
pages in the Start Page and End Page text boxes.

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Aggregate Mass

Aggregate Mass
Tools Aggregate Mass

Shared Dialog Box

Calculates the total mass of a part or parts in your model. Adams/View returns the information in the
Information window or in a specified file. It ignores the ground part or any part that has no mass.
By default, Adams/View calculates all location coordinates and orientation angles in the current global
coordinate system. You can select a different coordinate system or reference frame relative to which you
would like the coordinates and angles returned. When you express the aggregate mass in the global
coordinate system, Adams/View essentially places a temporary marker at the center of mass location and
then it provides the inertia properties about the CM location with respect to the global coordinate system
orientation.
The orientation shown is the orientation of the principal moments of inertia.
Learn about Calculating Aggregate Mass of Parts.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model

Enter the name of the model whose parts you want to calculate total mass for.

Bodies

Choose one of the following:


All - Calculates the aggregate mass of all bodies in your model.
Selected - Calculates the mass of only certain parts.

Select

Select if you chose to calculate the mass of certain parts.


Select the desired parts from the list of parts in your model.
Tips To select objects:

Relative To

Optional. Enter another coordinate system with respect to which you'd like
calculations to be relative. Default calculations are relative to the global coordinate
system.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Info Window

If aggregate mass is written to Information Window, replace or append existing


information. Choose one of the following:
Replace
Append
None

File

Select if you want the output displayed to a file.


Enter the name of the file in which you want to save the information in the text box.

Brief Output

Select to show only a brief summary of aggregate mass information.

58 Adams/View
Angle Measure

Angle Measure
Build Measure Angle New/Modify

Creates an angle measure.


Learn more about:
Angle Measures
About Simulation Output

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Change the name for the measure.

First Marker

Enter the marker that defines the tip of the first vector.

Middle Marker

Enter the second marker that defines the vertex.

Last Marker

Enter the marker that defines the tip of the second vector.

Create Strip Chart Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.


Set the attributes of the measure. Only available when you are modifying a
measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help.

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Animation Controls

Animation Controls
Review Animation Controls
Main toolbox

Allows you to work with Animations and control the frames from your simulation. Animations provide
instant feedback to you as your simulation runs.
By default, each time you run a simulation, Adams/Solver replaces the previous animation frames. To
replay earlier animations, you must save them in your modeling database.

60 Adams/View
Animation Controls

During animations, Adams/View displays frames as quickly as it can based on the graphics capabilities
of your computer hardware.

Animation Controls Container on Main


Toolbox

Animation Controls Dialog Box

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Animation Controls

Option/Icon

Description
Plays the animation backward.
Stops the animation.
Plays the animation forward.
Rewinds the animation.
Advances one frame.
Rewinds one frame.
Plays the animation in fast-backward mode.
Plays the animation in fast-forward mode.

Slider

Click and drag until you reach the number of the frame you want to display.

Base Part/
Fixed Base/
Std Camera

Lets you set the view perspective or camera angle for an Animation. Setting
different animation view perspectives can be especially useful when parts
undergo large motions and move off your screen during an animation, such
as with vehicle simulations.
Learn about Specifying the View Perspective of Animations.

Contour plots

Toggles the display of Contour plots of flexible bodies. The default is set to
off to improve the speed of the animation, and to remove any caching of the
animation before playing it.
To learn about setting defaults for caching animations see PPT Preferences
- Animation.

To learn about displaying contour plots on flexible bodies see Animating


Deformations, Modal Forces, and Stress/Strain.

62 Adams/View
Animation Controls

Option/Icon
Cycles/Loop

Description
Sets how many times to replay the animation. The default is to play the
specified sequence of frames once.
In the Cycles box, enter a whole number representing the number of times
you want Adams/View to play the animation. It automatically rewinds the
animation before each replay.
Displays the full Animation Controls dialog box.

Render

See Rendering mode.

Icons

Toggles the Screen icons during animations.


Shortcut: Type a lowercase v.

Analysis

Do one of the following:


Enter the name of a saved Simulation.
To animate multiple simulations simultaneously, enter the names of the

simulations you want to animate. Separate each simulation name with a


comma.
Note:

View

When animating multiple simulations simultaneously, each


simulation must have the same number of output steps or frames
associated with it, as well as the same output time step size.

Do one of the following:


Play animations in a different view window, by entering the name of

any view window that is currently visible on your screen. The default
name is the currently active view.
Play animation in multiple view windows at the same time by entering

multiple view names, separating each name with a comma.


Note:

No Trace/Trace

If you choose to animate in more than one view simultaneously,


every view you specify must animate the same simulation results.
You cannot display one simulation in one view and another
simulation in another view.

You can trace the paths of points during animation. See Tracing Paths of
Points During Animations.

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Animation Controls

Option/Icon
Time Range

Description
Defines a subset of the complete sequence of frames in an animation to
play. By default, Adams/View plays the complete sequence of frames. You
can set the interval to view based on time or frame number.
Choose from:
Time Range - Enter a start time and stop time in the text box.

Adams/View replays those frames whose time is within the specified


range.
Time - Enter an interval and select Apply.
Frame Range - Enter a start frame and an end frame.
Frame - Enter a frame number and select Apply.

Frame
Increment

Enter a number of frames to skip. For example, enter 5 to have


Adams/View display only every fifth frame.

Superimpose

Toggles the overlay of frames on top of one another. By default, during an


animation, Adams/View erases the previous frame before drawing the next
frame.
We recommend that you use the frame or time range features, as well as the
frame increment so that only certain frames are superimposed on top of one
another.

Learn about:
Using Animations
Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes

64 Adams/View
Append Run Commands

Append Run Commands


Instead of having to know command names and syntax for many commands for running Simulations and
for saving and resetting simulation, you can enter values for the operations and then append the
appropriate commands to the current selected Script. Assistance on modeling commands is not available.
For additional assistance, you can also:
Use the Command Navigator to see the available Adams/View commands, their keywords, and

parameters.
Look at your aview.Log file to see the commands that have been executed and their syntax.

For the option:


Run command to
be appended to
script

Do the following:
Select the simulation operation that youd like to add to your script. For example,
select Transient - Dynamic to enter a command for performing a dynamic
simulation.
Options for the operation you selected appear in the dialog box. For example, text
boxes and option button appear for setting the duration of a simulation.

If you select Transient - Dynamic or Transient - Kinematic, the following options appear:
Start at
equilibrium

For a Transient Dynamic or Kinematic, select to have Adams/View perform a


static simulation before performing a Dynamic simulation.

End
Time/Duration

Enter the time interval over which the simulation takes place and set how you want
it defined. You can select:
End Time - Specify the absolute point in time at which you want the

simulation to stop.
Duration - Specify the amount of time over which you want the simulation to

run.
Steps/Step Size

Set the frequency with which Adams/View outputs data during your simulation.
You can specify:
Steps - Represents the total number of times you want Adams/View to provide

output information over your entire simulation. For example, specify 50 steps
over a 1-second simulation interval to define an output period of 0.02 seconds
per step, which yields an output frequency of 50 steps/second.
Step Size - Represents the amount of time, in current model units, between

output steps. The output frequency remains constant even if you change your
simulation end time or duration. For example, enter a step size of 0.01 seconds
to specify an output period of 0.01 seconds per step, which yields an output
frequency of 100 steps/second.
If you select Transient - Static Steps/Step Size and End Time/Durations options appear
If you select Equilibrium no other options will appear

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Append Run Commands

For the option:

Do the following:

If you select Eigensolution following options appear:


Employ Damping

Select if you would like apply damping during simulation

Generate
Eigenvectors

Select if you would like to generate eigen vectors

If you select Nastran Export - Static following options appear:


Write To Terminal

Select if the output file is to be displayed in the info window after the export
operation

Type

Choose the type of export, that is low fidelity (white box) or high fidelity (black
box)

Nastran Output
File Prefix

Choose the file prefix to be used for the exported Nastran file(s).

Configuration File
Name

Specify a configuration file to be used to control the exporting of the model

If you select Nastran Export - Quasi Static along with the options for Nastran Export - Static, Steps/Step
Size and End Time/Duration options appear:
If you select Sate Matrix following options appear:
Plant Input

Select an existing Plant Input

Plant Output

Select an existing Plant Output

Matrix Format

Select suitable controls design and analysis package format

Matrix File Name

Specify a file name to which Adams/Solver (C++) writes the state matrices. If the
output is in the MATRIXX format, all matrices are written to this file. For the
MATLAB format, the file name is used as a base name. Each matrix is written to
a separate file, whose name Adams/Solver (C++) automatically constructs by
appending the matrix name to the user-specified base name.

If you select Assemble no options will appear


If you select Scripted following options will appear
Simulation Script

Specify an existing script

Do a simulation
single_run reset
first

Select if you would like to reset the simulation controls to their initial configuration

OK

Will insert the appropriate Adams/View commands based on the options and
entries you selected/specified

Cancel

Cancels the insertion of Adams/View commands


Enter any comments to help you manage and identify the script. Learn about
Comments.

66 Adams/View
Arc Tool

Arc Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Arc Tool

Creates arcs and circles centered about a location. You begin drawing an arc by specifying its starting and
ending angles. You then indicate its center location and set its radius and the orientation of its x-axis. You
can also specify the arcs radius before you draw it. The Arc tool draws the angle starting from the x-axis
that you specify and moving counterclockwise (right-hand rule).
See Elements of an arc.
Before you create arc geometry, you can select to create a new part consisting of the arc geometry or add
the arc geometry to an existing part or ground. If you create a new part, it has no mass since it is composed
of only wire geometry. You can extrude a circle into solid geometry that has mass. Learn about Extruding
Construction Geometry Along a Path.
Learn about Creating Arcs and Circles.

For the option:


New Part/
Add to Part/
On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the arc to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the arc to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or influence


the simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a
car driving around a race track, the geometry that defines the race
track can be added to ground.

Radius

Enter the radius of the arc

Start Angle

Enter the angle at which to start the arc. The default is to create a 90-degree arc
from a starting angle of 0 degrees.

End Angle

Enter the angle at which to end the arc.

Circle

Select to create a circle.

A - D 67
Assembly Measure

Assembly Measure
Creates a measure on an assembly.
See Measures and Assemblies.

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Change the name for the measure.

Object

Select the object to be measured.


Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Characteristic

Select the object characteristic to measure.

Create Strip Chart Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.


Select to display the attributes of the measure. Not available for all types of
assembly measures, such as a spring-dampers, and only available when you are
modifying a measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help for more
information.

68 Adams/View
Associativity

Associativity
Database Navigator Associativity

Allows you to display the objects that a selected object uses. For example, you can select a joint in the
tree list to show the I and J markers that the joint uses. You can also select to view the objects that use
the selected object.
Learn about Viewing the Associativity of Objects.

For the option:

Do the following:

Uses

Select if you want to show the objects that the selected object uses.

Is Used By

Select if you want to show the objects that use the selected object.

Auto Navigate

Select if you want to set up an automatic navigation of the objects.

Save to File

Select if you want to save the current associativity information to a file.

A - D 69
Auto Disable Modes by Strain Energy

Auto Disable Modes by Strain Energy


Flexible Body Modify dialog box auto

Lets you disable or enable modes based on their contribution of strain energy. Learn more about Enabling
and Disabling Modes Based on Strain Energy Contribution.

For the option:

Do the following:

Flexible Body Name Enter the name of the flexible body to modify.
Analysis Name

Enter the name of a pilot simulation.


Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Energy Tolerance

Enter a fractional value. Adams/Flex will disable all modes that contributed less
than the specified fraction to the total strain energy during the test simulation.
For example, to disable all modes that contributed less than 0.1% of the strain
energy, enter 0.001.

70 Adams/View
Background Color Tool Stack

Background Color Tool Stack


Main Toolbox Background Color Tool Stack

Contains four colors to which you can set the background of the View window.

To change the background color:


Select a color from the Background Color tool stack.
The background of all view windows changes to the selected color.
Learn about Setting View Background Colors.

A - D 71
Beam

Beam
Build Forces Beam Tool

Creates a massless beam with a uniform cross-section.


You enter values of the beams physical properties, and Adams/Solver calculates the matrix entries
defining the forces that the beam produces. The beam transmits forces and torques between the two parts
in accordance with Timoshenko beam theory.
Learn about:
Creating Beams
Modifying Beams

72 Adams/View
Bode Plots

Bode Plots
Plot Bode Plots

Creates a Bode plot in Adams/PostProcessor. Bode plots provide a way to study frequency response
functions (FRFs) for linear systems and linearized representations of nonlinear systems. The frequency
response function measures the response at the outputs due to unit harmonic excitation at the inputs at
various frequencies. A Bode plot in Adams/PostProcessor shows the amplitude gain and the phase shift
between input to output for all output/input combinations of the linear system.

For the option:


Input Format

Do the following:
Select the type of input format.
Learn about Ways to Construct Bode Plots.

The elements in the dialog box change depending on the input format you selected. You can select any
one of the following input formats:
Adams/Linear State Matrices
Adams Matrices
Linear State Equation
TFSISO
Transfer Function Coefficients
Time Domain Measures
Time Domain Results Set Components

Adams/Linear State
Matrices

Enter values for the following:


The frequency sweep by entering the starting and ending

frequencies for the bode plot in the From and To text boxes and
selecting the frequency step (either Linear Samples, Log Samples,
or Step Size).
In the State Matrices text box, the state matrices.
In the Inputs and Outputs text boxes, the input and output results

you would like to use for bode plot calculations. If you do not select
any inputs or outputs, Adams/PostProcessor computes all
combinations.

A - D 73
Bode Plots

For the option:


Adams Matrices

Do the following:
Enter values for the following:
The frequency sweep by entering the starting and ending

frequencies for the bode plot in the From and To text boxes and
selecting the frequency step (either Linear Samples, Log Samples,
or Step Size).
In the A through D Matrix text boxes, the A through D matrices

that define the state matrix.


In the Inputs and Outputs text boxes, the input and output results

you would like to use for bode plot calculations. If you do not select
any inputs or outputs, Adams/PostProcessor computes all
combinations.
Linear State Equation

Enter values for the following:


The frequency sweep by entering the starting and ending

frequencies for the bode plot in the From and To text boxes and
selecting the frequency step (either Linear Samples, Log Samples,
or Step Size).
In the Linear State Equation text box, the linear state equation to

be plotted.
In the Inputs and Outputs text boxes, the input and output results

you would like to use for bode plot calculations. If you do not select
any inputs or outputs, Adams/PostProcessor computes all
combinations.
TFSISO

Enter values for the following:


The frequency sweep by entering the starting and ending

frequencies for the bode plot in the From and To text boxes and
selecting the frequency step (either Linear Samples, Log Samples,
or Step Size).
In the TFSISO text box, the transfer function to be plotted.

Transfer Function
Coefficients

Enter values for the following:


The frequency sweep by entering the starting and ending

frequencies for the Bode plot in the From and To text boxes and
selecting the frequency step (either Linear Samples, Log Samples,
or Step Size).
In the Numerator Coefficients text box, the coefficients of the

transfer function numerator polynomial.


In the Denominator Coefficients text box, the coefficients of the

transfer function denominator polynomial.

74 Adams/View
Bode Plots

For the option:


Time Domain Measures

Do the following:
Enter values for the following:
In the Input Measure text box, the pre-defined or user-defined

measure of the system input.


In the Output Measure text box, the pre-defined or user-defined

measure of the system output.


Note that the data determines the frequency range, unlike the previous
options.
Time Domain Results
Set Components

Enter values for the following:


In the Input Component text box, the results set component

characterizing system input.


In the Output Component text box, the results set component

characterizing system output.


Note that the data determines the frequency range, unlike the previous
options.

A - D 75
Bodies

Bodies
Displays tools for creating rigid body geometry.

Icon

Link

Solids

Icon

Link

Construction
Box Tool

Point Tool

Cylinder Tool

Marker Tool

Sphere Tool

Polyline Tool

Frustum Tool

Arc Tool

Torus Tool

Spline Tool

Link Tool

Point Mass

Plate Tool

Booleans

Extrusion Tool

Unite Tool

Revolution Tool

Merge Tool

Plane Tool

Intersect Tool

76 Adams/View
Bodies

Icon

Link

Icon

Flexible Bodies

Link
Cut Tool

Adams/Flex

Split Tool

Flex to Flex

Chain Tool

Discrete Flexible Link

Features

Rigid to Flex

Fillet Tool

MNX Xform

Chamfer Tool

ViewFlex

Hole Tool

Boss Tool
Hollow Tool

Construction or
Settings
Container

Contains options for creating the selected object. The options change
depending on the type of object that you are creating. For example, when
you create a link, Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and height
before creating it. Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set
regardless of how you move the mouse. You can also define design variables
or expressions for many values.

A - D 77
Border and Separation

Border and Separation


Dialog- Box Builder Preferences Separation

Allows you to enter values to be used by the Dialog-Box Builder functions that change the geometry of
Interface objects such as align, move, and create predefined. See Aligning Interface Objects and Moving
Interface Objects for more information.

For the option:

Do the following:

Horizontal Border Width Enter a value to specify the horizontal distance from the object to the dialog
box border.
Vertical Border Width

Enter a value to specify the vertical distance from the object to the dialog
box border.

Horizontal Separation

Enter a value to specify the horizontal distance between dialog box objects.

Vertical Separation

Enter a value to specify the vertical distance between dialog box objects.

78 Adams/View
Boss Tool

Boss Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Boss Tool

Creates circular protrusions or bosses on the face of solid objects

As you create a boss, you can specify its radius and height.
Learn about Creating a Hole or Boss.

For the option:

Do the following:

Radius

Enter the radius of the boss.

Height

Enter the height of the boss.

A - D 79
Box Tool

Box Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Box Tool

Creates a three-dimensional solid block.


You draw the boxs length and width in the plane of the screen or the working grid, if it is turned on. The
Box tool creates a solid box with a depth that is twice that of the shortest dimension of the box (d = 2 *
min(l,h)). You can also specify the length, height, or depth of the box before you draw it.
The box dimensions are in screen coordinates with the height up, length to the left, and depth out of the
screen or grid:

Learn about Creating a Box.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the box to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the box to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or influence


the simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a
car driving around a race track, the geometry that defines the race
track can be added to ground.

Length

Enter the length of the box, if desired.

Height

Enter the height of the box, if desired.

Depth

Enter the depth of the box. If you do not specify a depth, Adams/View creates a
solid box with a depth that is twice that of the shortest dimension of the box (d = 2
* min(l,h)).

80 Adams/View
Box Tool

Note:

One hotpoint appears after you draw the box. It lets you modify the length, height, and
depth of the box. For more information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using
Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry

A - D 81
Bushing Tool

Bushing Tool
Build Forces Bushing Tool

A bushing is a linear force that represents the forces acting between two parts over a distance. The
bushing applies a force and a torque. You define the force and torque using six components (Fx, Fy, Fz,
Tx, Ty, Tz).
To define a bushing, you need to create two markers, one for each part. The marker on the first part that
you specify is called the I marker. The marker on the second part that you specify is called the J marker.
Learn about:
Bushings

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes
of the current Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y-, and z-

axes of the screen.


Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part. The direction vector
you select defines the z-axis for the force; Adams/View automatically
calculates the x- and y-axes.
Translational K

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter the damping coefficients.

Rotational K

Enter the rotational stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter the rotational damping coefficients.

82 Adams/View
CatiaV4, CatiaV5, STEP, IGES, Acis, VDA ('Adams CAD Translators' only)

CatiaV4, CatiaV5, STEP, IGES, Acis, VDA ('Adams CAD


Translators' only)
Exports CAD geometry using 'Adams CAD Translator'. It writes the geometric definition of an Adams
model or part from to the specified CAD file format. You can then read the CAD file into a CAD program.
You can export an entire model, an individual part of a model, or a model as it exists at a particular
simulation time, which is helpful for transferring position data of an Adams model to a drafting program
to prepare drawings of the mechanism at various states of operation.

A - D 83
CatiaV4, CatiaV5, STEP, IGES, Acis, VDA ('Adams CAD Translators' only)

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to type of geometry that you want to export (CatiaV4, CatiaV5, STEP,
IGES, Acis, VDA).

File Name

Enter the name of the file that you want to create. The file will contain the
exported CAD geometry. You do not need to enter a file extension. Adams
automatically generates the appropriate extension for the type of geometry
you are exporting. For example, if you are exporting IGES geometry, Adams
adds an .igs extension.

Part/Model/Analysis
Name

Select the geometry that you want to export, and then enter the name of the
geometry in the text box next to the pull-down menu. You can select:
Model Name - Lets you specify the Adams/View model to be written

to the CAD file. Adams places each rigid body in the model on a
separate level. All geometry written to the IGES file is defined with
respect to the global coordinate system of the Adams/View model.
Part Name - Lets you specify the Adams/View part to be written to

the CAD file. Adams writes all the geometry owned by the part to the
CAD file. It defines all geometry in the CAD file with respect to the
part coordinate system.
Analysis Name - Lets you export a model at a particular simulation

frame (time) of a particular analysis. This is helpful for transferring


position data of an Adams/View model to a drafting program to
prepare drawings of the mechanism at various states of operation.
Adams writes all parts and geometry to the CAD file in the same
relative position as they appear in a single frame display.
Display Summary

Select to write a verbose log file to the disk. A message will be displayed
indicating the log file to which the translation operation details have been
written.

Translation Options

Click on this button to invoke the Manage Geometry Translation Options


dialog box for the relevant geometry and translation operation (read or write).
The dialog box would be pre-filled with the option name, short description of
what the option is for and the default value.
Upon changing the desired option values, click on the 'Done' button. The
translation options so set will be used in the ensuing translation operation.

Note:

The translation via 'Adams CAD Translators' is applicable for STEP and IGES only if
MSC_GEOM_TRANSLATE_INTEROP is set to an integral value of 1.

84 Adams/View
Chain Tool

Chain Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Chain Tool

Links together wire Construction geometry to create a complex profile, which you can then extrude. The
geometry to be chained together must touch at one endpoint and cannot be closed geometry.
The Chain tool adds the final chained geometry to the part that owns the first geometry that you selected

Note:

If you want to use the chained geometry with a pin-in-slot or curve-to-curve constraint, you
must turn the geometry into a spline. See the Spline Tool.

Learn about Chaining Wire Geometry.

A - D 85
Chamfer Tool

Chamfer Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Chamfer Tool

Creates beveled (chamfered) edges and corners on a solid geometry:

Note:

You will get different results when you chamfer one edge at a time than when you chamfer
all edges at once. Also, you may not be able to chamfer an edge if an adjoining edge has
already been chamfered. It depends on the complexity of the chamfering.

For the option:


Width

Do the following:
Specify the width of the bevel.

Learn about:
Chamfering and Filleting Objects
Fillet Tool

86 Adams/View
Clearance Compute

Clearance Compute
Tools Clearance Compute

When you request to run a Clearance study, Adams/PostProcessor calculates the minimum and
maximum distances between a pair of objects using data from a selected Simulation. It adds the
information to the animation associated with the simulation, which you can subsequently run. You can
also generate a report of the data and plot it.

Note:

The number of frames in your animation can have a significant effect on the accuracy of
the distances reported. Therefore, for best results, we recommend that you perform at least
one clearance study with a large number of frames in the animation (time steps in the
simulation).

Learn about Defining a Clearance Study.

For the option:

Do the following:

Simulation

Select the simulation data against which you want to run the clearance study.

Treat Flexible
Bodies as Rigid

Select if you want to calculate the clearance study as if flexible bodies were
rigid. This reduces computations and allows the clearance study to run faster but
does not give you information about the effects of flexibility.

A - D 87
Clearance Export Results

Clearance Export Results


Tools Clearance Write

Export reports of clearance studies. See Clearance study.


Learn about Viewing Clearance Data as Reports.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Name

Enter the name of the file to which to export the clearance study.

Simulation

Enter the name of the Simulation result against which you created the clearance
study.

88 Adams/View
Color Picker

Color Picker
Settings Colors Color Picker

Lets you select a basic color or create a custom color to be used for displaying objects and the background
of the Main window and any View windows that you create.

For the option:


Basic Colors

Do the following:
Select a color from the 48 basic colors available.
Tip: You can define a custom color by clicking the closest basic color,
modifying it, and then selecting Add to Custom Colors.

Custom Colors

Select an empty box to create a custom color or select a custom color you've
already defined so you can modify it.

Color Matrix

Click anywhere to select a custom color. Use the pointer to change the hue
and Saturation. Change hue by moving the pointer horizontally; change
saturation by moving the pointer vertically.

Luminosity Slider

Drag the slider to change the luminosity or relative lightness or darkness of


a color. Changes the value in the Value text box.

Hue

Specify the hue of a color. The values range from 0 to 239.

Saturation

Specify the saturation of a color.

Value

Specify the luminosity of a color.

Red

Specify the amount of red in a color. You can use any combination of red,
green, or blue to define a color.

Green

Specify the amount of green in a color. You can use any combination of red,
green, or blue to define a color.

Blue

Specify the amount of blue in a color. You can use any combination of red,
green, or blue to define a color.

Add to Custom Colors

Select to add the color currently displayed in the color matrix to the palette
of custom colors.

A - D 89
Command File

Command File
Settings Command File

Allows you to specify whether Adams/View displays the command that it executes in the Command
window or displays the results of the commands on the screen. In addition, it lets you specify what
Adams/View should do when it encounters an error while reading an Adams/View command file.
Learn more with Import - Adams/View Command Files dialog box help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Echo Commands

Select if you want to see the commands that Adams/View executes as it


imports the file.

Update Screen

Select if you want to see the results of the commands in the main window. If
you do not select this, Adams/View displays the results when it finishes
reading the command file.

If Adams/View encounters an error, you can select to:


Continue the Command Select if you want Adams/View to continue processing the line as if it were
typed interactively. This can be dangerous if there is no correction later on in
the line because Adams/View keeps issuing error messages until the error is
corrected. The errors can continue beyond the end of the line, even to the end
of the file, if carriage returns are invalid.
Note:

Ignore Command

Select if you want Adams/View to ignore the line on which it found the error
and start processing the next line as a new command.
Note:

Abort Execution

Use this value only if the command file is a literal recording of


your key strokes, complete with back spaces or other corrections
of mistakes.

Adams/View can usually recover and execute subsequent


commands in the file. However, if subsequent commands depend
on the results of the invalid command, they may fail or give
unexpected results.

Select to instruct Adams/View to immediately close all the command files


and return control to interactive input. This is the most conservative setting
because it guarantees that subsequent commands will cause no further errors
or unexpected results.

90 Adams/View
Command Navigator

Command Navigator
Tools Command Navigator

Shared Dialog Box

Enables you to enter Adams/View commands without having to know the entire syntax of the commands.
The Command Navigator displays a list of all Adams/View command Keywords. A plus (+) in front of a
keyword indicates that the command has more keywords below it but they are hidden. A minus (-)
indicates that all keywords below the keyword are displayed. No indicator in front of a keyword indicates
that there are no more keywords below the object. When you select an object with no indicator, a dialog
box appears in which you enter parameters for executing the command.
Learn about:
Showing, Hiding, or Selecting Keywords
Getting help in the Command Navigator

A - D 91
Command Window

Command Window
View Command Window
F3

Provides a text-based way to enter Adams/View commands. Learn About Adams/View Commands. It
assumes that you understand the Adams/View command language underlying the Adams/View interface.
The command window contains both a command entry area for entering commands and a command
information area for displaying informational and error messages:

Learn about Using the Command Window.

92 Adams/View
Comments

Comments
Database Navigator Comments

Allows you to add comments to any object in the Modeling database.


Learn about Adding Comments Through the Database Navigator.

For the option:

Do the following:

Text Box

Enter or modify comments associated with the selected object.

Apply

Select to add the comment to the selected object.

Save to File

Select to save the comment to a file.

A - D 93
Compute Linear Modes dialog box

Compute Linear Modes dialog box


Simulate Interactive

Adams/Solver (C++only). Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box
help.
Lets you run a linear simulation using a plant state. Learn about Creating Plant States.

For the option:


Plant State

Do the following:
Specify the plant state to be used to define a set of states that are to be used in the
linearization scheme.

Reference Marker Specify the reference marker.

94 Adams/View
Compute and Export Linear States

Compute and Export Linear States


Simulate Interactive

Generates a state-space matrix representation of your mechanical system, for use with a control system
design application, such as MATLAB, MATRIXx, or EASY5.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the object.

Plant Input

Specify the plant input that Adams/Solver uses as plant inputs in the state matrices
computation. If you do not specify a plant input, Adams/Solver does not output the
B and D matrices. Learn about creating plant inputs with Data Element Create
Plant State dialog box help.

Plant Output

Specify the plant output that Adams/Solver uses as plant outputs in the state
matrices computation. If you do not specify a plant output, Adams/Solver does not
output the C and D matrices. Learn about creating Data Element Create Plant
Outputs.

Plant State

Specify a plant state to be used to define a set of states that are to be used in the
linearization scheme. Learn about Creating Plant States. Adams/Solver C++ only.
Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

Reference Marker Specify the reference marker.


File Format

Specify the name of the software in whose input format Adams/Solver is to output
the state matrices. Currently, two software formats are supported: MATRIXx
(FSAVE format) and MATLAB (ASCII flat file format).

A - D 95
Connectors

Connectors
Displays tools for creating joints. The tab contains the entire library of joints.

Icon

Link

Joints

Icon

Link

Primitives
Fixed Joint Tool

Parallel Axes Joint Tool

Revolute Joint Tool

Orientation Joint Tool

Translational Joint Tool

Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool

Cylindrical Joint Tool

Inplane Joint Tool

Spherical Joint Tool

Inline Joint Tool

Constant-Velocity Joint Tool

Couplers

Hooke/Universal Joint Tool

Gear Joint Tool

Screw Joint Tool

Coupler Joint Tool

Planar Joint Tool

Special

96 Adams/View
Connectors

Icon

Link

Icon

Link
Point-Curve Constraint Tool

Create/Modify General
Constraint
2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool

Construction
or Settings
Container

Contains options for creating the selected object. The options change depending
on the type of object that you are creating. For example, when you create a link,
Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and height before creating it.
Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set regardless of how you move
the mouse. You can also define design variables or expressions for many values.

A - D 97
Constant-Velocity Joint Tool

Constant-Velocity Joint Tool


Build Joints Constant-Velocity Joint Tool

Creates a constant-velocity joint that allows two rotations on one part with respect to another part, while
remaining coincident and maintaining a constant velocity through the spin axis.

98 Adams/View
Constant-Velocity Joint Tool

Learn about Creating Idealized Joints.

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want to connect the joint to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
Learn about Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry Feature

Set how you want to orient the joint:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

A - D 99
Constraint Create Complex Joint Gear

Constraint Create Complex Joint Gear


Right-click joint Modify

Creates a gear pair that relates the motion of three parts and two joints using a marker, called the common
velocity (CV) marker, to determine the point of contact. Learn more About Gears.

For the option:

Do the following:

Gear Name

Enter the name for the gear. If you are creating a gear, Adams/View assigns a
default name to the gear.

Adams Id

Enter a positive integer for the ID or enter 0 to let Adams/Solver set the ID for
you. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the gear to help you manage and identify the gear. See
Comments.

100 Adams/View
Constraint Create Complex Joint Gear

For the option:

Do the following:

Joint Name

Enter the two translational, revolute, or cylindrical joints to be geared together.


Adams/View automatically separates the joint names with a comma (,).

Common Velocity
Marker

Enter the marker defining the point of contact between the geared parts. You
need to make sure the z-axis of the CV marker points in the direction of motion
of the gear teeth that are in contact. The following figure shows how the z-axis
of the CV marker is tangent to the pitch circle of the spur gears.

To create a marker, right-click the Common Velocity Marker text box, and then
select Create.
Tip:

If you encounter a warning message that the gear has a suspicious


configuration, the z-axis of the CV marker is probably oriented
incorrectly.

A - D 101
Constraint Modify Complex Joint Gear

Constraint Modify Complex Joint Gear


Build Joints Gear Joint Tool

Modifies a gear pair that relates the motion of three parts and two joints using a marker, called the
common velocity (CV) marker, to determine the point of contact. Learn more About Gears.

For the option:

Do the following:

Gear Name

Displays the name of the gear.

Adams Id

Enter a positive integer for the ID or enter 0 to let Adams/Solver set the ID
for you. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the gear to help you manage and identify the gear.
See Comments.

102 Adams/View
Constraint Modify Complex Joint Gear

For the option:

Do the following:

Joint Name

Enter the two translational, revolute, or cylindrical joints to be geared


together. Adams/View automatically separates the joint names with a comma
(,).

Common Velocity
Marker

Enter the marker defining the point of contact between the geared parts. You
need to make sure the z-axis of the CV marker points in the direction of
motion of the gear teeth that are in contact. The following figure shows how
the z-axis of the CV marker is tangent to the pitch circle of the spur gears.

To create a marker, right-click the Common Velocity Marker text box, and
then select Create.
Tip:

If you encounter a warning message that the gear has a


suspicious configuration, the z-axis of the CV marker is
probably oriented incorrectly.

A - D 103
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Curve Curve

Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Curve Curve


Right-click 2D curve-curve constraint Modify

Changes the basic properties and sets initial conditions for a 2D curve-curve constraint. Learn more with
2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool.

Note:

You can also modify constraint properties using the Table Editor.

Learn about working with Curve-Curve Constraints.

For the option:

Do the following:

Point Curve Name

Enter the 2D curve-curve to modify.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the 2D curve-curve. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the 2D curve-curve to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

I Curve Name

Change the curve that defines the shape of the curve that moves along the
second curve (J curve). You can enter a curve on a part or a curve element.
Learn about working with Curves.

J Curve Name

Change the curve that defines the shape of the curve along which the first
curve (I curve) moves. You can enter a curve on a part or a curve element.
Learn about working with Curves.

I Ref Marker Name

Enter a marker that is fixed on the part containing the first curve (I curve).
Adams/View uses the reference marker to associate the shape defined by
the curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The curve
coordinates are, therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the
reference marker.

J Ref Marker Name

Enter a marker that is fixed on the part containing the second curve (J
curve). Adams/View uses the reference marker to associate the shape
defined by the curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The
curve coordinates are, therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the
reference marker.

I Floating Marker Name

Enter a floating marker. Adams/View positions the origin of the floating


marker at the instantaneous point of contact on the first curve, which is also
the global position of the J floating marker on the second curve.
Adams/View orients the marker so that its x-axis is along the tangent at the
instantaneous contact point, its y-axis is along the instantaneous normal,
and its z-axis is along the resultant binormal.

104 Adams/View
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Curve Curve

For the option:

Do the following:

J Floating Marker Name

Enter a floating marker. Adams/View positions the origin of the floating


marker at the instantaneous point of contact on the second curve, which is
also the position of the I floating marker on the first curve. Adams/View
orients the marker so that its x-axis is along the tangent at the instantaneous
contact point, its y-axis is along the instantaneous normal, and its z-axis is
along the resultant binormal.

Learn about Higher-Pair Constraints Initial Conditions.


I Displacement Ic/ No I
Displacement Ic

Select either:
I Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the first

curve (I curve). If the point you specify is not exactly on the curve,
Adams/View uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you
specify. By default, you specify the initial point of contact in the
coordinate system of the part containing the curve or specify it in
the coordinate system of the marker you specify for I Ic Ref Marker
Name.
No I Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.

J Displacement Ic/ No J
Displacement Ic

Select either:
J Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the

second curve (J curve). If the point you specify is not exactly on the
curve, Adams/View uses a point on the curve nearest to the point
you specify. By default, you specify the initial point of contact in
the coordinate system of the part containing the curve or specify it
in the coordinate system of the marker you specify for J Ic Ref
Marker Name.
No J Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.

I Velocity Ic/No I
Velocity Ic

Select either:
I Velocity - Enter the initial velocity of the contact point along the

first curve (I curve). This is the speed at which the contact point is
initially moving relative to the curve. The velocity is:
Negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the

curve.
Positive if it is moving towards the end of the curve.
Zero if it is stationary on the curve.
No I Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.

A - D 105
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Curve Curve

For the option:


J Velocity Ic or No J
Velocity Ic

Do the following:
Select either:
J Velocity- Enter the initial velocity of the contact point along the

second curve (J curve). This is the speed at which the contact point
is initially moving relative to the curve. The velocity is:
Negative if the contact point is moving towards the start of the

curve.
Positive if it is moving toward the end of the curve.
Zero if it is stationary on the curve.
No J Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.

I Ic Ref Marker Name

You can:
Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact

(displacement) on the first curve (I curve) is specified.


Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part

containing the curve.


J Ic Ref Marker Name

You can:
Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact

(displacement) on the second curve (J curve) is specified.


Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part

containing the curve

106 Adams/View
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Point Curve

Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Point Curve


Right-click point-curve constraint Modify

Changes the basic properties and sets initial conditions for a point-curve constraint. Learn more with
Point-Curve Constraint Tool.
Learn more about Working with Higher-Pair Constraints.

Note:

You can also modify constraint properties using the Table Editor.

For the option:

Do the following:

Point Curve Name

Enter the name of the constraint to modify.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the constraint. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the constraint to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

Curve Name

Change the curve that defines the shape on which the point can move. You
can enter a curve on a part or a curve element. Learn about working with
Curves.

I Marker Name

Point that moves along the curve.

A - D 107
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Point Curve

For the option:


J Floating Marker
Name

Do the following:
Enter a marker that is a floating marker. Adams/Solver positions the origin
of the floating marker at the instantaneous point of contact on the curve. It
orients the marker so that its x-axis is tangent to the curve at the contact
point, its y-axis points outward from the curves center of curvature at the
contact point, and its z-axis is along the binormal at the contact point.
.

Ref Marker Name

Enter marker that is fixed on the part containing the curve on which the point
must move. Adams/Solver uses the reference marker to associate the shape
defined by the curve to the part on which the reference marker lies. The curve
coordinates are, therefore, specified in the coordinate system of the reference
marker.

Displacement Ic/ No
Displacement Ic

Select either:
Displacement Ic - Enter the initial point of contact along the curve.

If the point you specify is not exactly on the curve, Adams/View


uses a point on the curve nearest to the point you specify. By default,
you specify the initial point of contact in the coordinate system of
the part containing the curve or specify it in the coordinate system of
the marker you specify for Ic Ref Marker Name.
No Displacement Ic - Leaves the initial displacement unset.

Learn about Higher-Pair Constraints Initial Conditions.

108 Adams/View
Constraint Modify Higher Pair Contact Point Curve

For the option:


Velocity Ic/No Velocity
Ic

Do the following:
Select either:
Velocity Ic - Velocity with which the point (I marker) moves along

the curve. You specify the velocity in the coordinate system of the
part containing the curve.
No I Velocity Ic - Leaves the initial velocity unset.

Ic Ref Marker Name

You can:
Enter the marker with which the initial point of contact on the curve

is specified.
Leave blank. Adams/View uses the coordinate system of the part

containing the curve.

A - D 109
Controls_measure_panel

Controls_measure_panel
Modify Controls Block dialog box Output Measure button

Creates an output measure for a control block.


Learn about adding controls Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the measure.

Controls Block

Enter the control block to be measured.


Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Create Strip Chart Select to create a Strip chart of the measure.

110 Adams/View
Coordinate System

Coordinate System
Settings Coordinate System
Main toolbox Move toolstack Coordinate System Tool

Lets you set the default coordinate system for a Modeling database.
Learn about Coordinate Systems in Adams/View.

For the option:


Location Coordinate

Do the following:
Select the type of location coordinate systems:
Cartesian.
Cylindrical.
Spherical.

Rotation Sequence

Select the type of rotation sequence. See Rotation Sequences.

Body Fixed/Space Fixed Select either:


Space fixed - Adams/View applies the rotations about axes that

remain in their original orientation.


Body fixed - Adams/View applies the rotations about axes that

move with the body as it rotates.


As Adams/View applies each rotation to an axis, it produces a new set of
axes.

A - D 111
Coupler Joint Tool

Coupler Joint Tool


Build Joints Coupler Tool

Creates a coupler between two or three Joints.

It relates the translational and/or rotational motion of the joints through a linear scaling of the relative
motions or through nonlinear relationships that you define by entering parameters to be passed to a userwritten subroutine that is linked into Adams/View. Couplers are useful if your model uses belts and
pulleys or chains and sprockets to transfer motion and energy. Although you can couple only two or three
joints, more than one coupler can come from the same joint, as shown in the figure above.
When you create a coupler, you can only create a two-joint coupler. You select the driver joint, the joint
to which the second joint is coupled, and the coupled joint, the joint that follows the driver joint. To
specify the relationship between the driver and the coupled joint or to create a three-joint coupler, you
modify the coupler.
Learn about Creating Couplers.

112 Adams/View
Create Butterworth Filter

Create Butterworth Filter


(Adams/PostProcessor)
Curve Edit toolbar Filter Curve Tool Right-click Filter Name text box filter_function Create Create from
Butterworth Filter

Creates a Butterworth filter to define the coefficients of a transfer function when creating a curve filter
function. The first four options in the dialog box are the same as when you are creating a Butterworth
filter directly. See Create/Modify Filter Function dialog box help. To generate these options based on
Passband and Stopband options, select the Generate Filter Order _ Frequency checkbox.
Learn about Filtering Curve Data.

For the option:

Do the following:

Digital/Analog

Select analog or digital filtering.

Filter Type

Select the type of filter:


Low Pass - Removes frequencies above the cutoff frequency.
High Pass - Removes frequencies below the cutoff frequency.
Band Pass - Removes frequencies outside the two cutoff

frequencies.
Band Stop - Removes frequencies between the two cutoff

frequencies.
Order

Set how much the filter will have damped the signal at the cutoff frequency,
often referred to as how sharp the filter is.
First-order filter damps 3dB at the cutoff frequency.
Second-order filter damps 6dB.
Third-order filter damps 9dB.

Scaled Cutoff
Frequency

Set the frequency of cutoff.


For a digital filter - Determines the cutoff frequency as a ratio of

the Nyquist frequency (half the sample frequency). Therefore, for a


signal sampled (simulated) with 100 Hz, the Nyquist frequency is
100/2=50Hz. A scaled cutoff frequency=0.3 then has a cutoff
frequency=0.3*50=15 Hz.
Note that if the same filter is applied to a signal sampled at 200 Hz,
the filter cutoff is at 30 Hz. If you selected Band Pass or Band Stop
for Filter Type, you must provide two cutoff frequencies.
For an analog filter - Enter the cutoff frequency in the current units

(rad/s or Hz). If you selected Band Pass or Band Stop for Filter
Type, you must provide two cutoff frequencies.

A - D 113
Create Butterworth Filter

For the option:

Do the following:

Generate Filter Order _


Frequency

Select to enable more options to define the Butterworth filter, and use those
options to define the order and cutoff frequency above.

If you selected Generate Filter Order _ Frequency, the options listed below appear.
Using the notation Passband Corner Frequency=fp and Corner Frequency=fs, the following rules apply
for the options below:
To create a low-pass filter, give one value each for fp and fs, and fp < fs.
To create a high-pass filter, give one value each for fp and fs, and fp > fs.
To create a bandpass filter, specify two values each for fp and fs, such that fs1< fp1< fp2 < fs2.

You cannot create a bandstop filter using the options below.


See an Example of Defining a Transfer Function from a Butterworth Filter.
Passband Corner
Frequency (Wp) (Hz for analog)
Stopband Corner
Frequency (Ws) (Hz for analog)

Enter the frequency where the damping is at least Passband Ripple dB.

Enter the frequency outside of which the damping is at least Stopband


Attenuation dB.

Passband Ripple (Rp)


(Hz - for analog)

Enter the passband ripple.

Stopband Attenuation
(Rs) (Hz - for analog)

Enter the stopband attenuation.

Generate Order _
Frequency

Calculates the appropriate order and cutoff frequency (frequencies) based on


the values in the lower portion of the dialog box and loads them in the upper
portion. It does not transfer them to the Create Filter Function dialog box
until you select OK or Apply.

114 Adams/View
Create Clearance

Create Clearance
Tools Clearance Create

Defines a Clearance study.


Learn more about Defining a Clearance Study.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model

Select the model to be used for the study.

I Body

Select the first object in the pair.


You can also select Pick to select the object from the screen. (You can select
more than one object at a time.)

J Body

Select the second object in the pair.


You can also select Pick to select the object from the screen. (You can select
more than one object at a time.)

Name

Enter a name for the study. If you are creating several studies (by selecting more
than one I and J body), you can enter a base name for the studies, and
Adams/PostProcessor will add a suffix to the name (base_1, base_2, and so on).

Maximum

Set the maximum distance for the clearance beyond which clearances will not
be computed at any given frame. Leave the text box empty if you always want
to calculate the minimum distance.

Method

Select the method for calculating the minimum distances.


Polygon
Vertex

A - D 115
Create Design Constraint

Create Design Constraint


Simulate Design Constraint New

For Optimization only.


Allows you to create constraint objects to limit the changes that the optimizer can make. Often an
optimization finds a configuration that optimizes the objective you provided, but is unrealistic because it
violates overall design constraints such as weight, size, speed, or force limits.
To avoid results that violate the design constraints, you can create constraints for the optimization. The
optimization analysis improves the objective as much as possible without violating the constraints.
Each constraint object creates an inequality constraint. The optimization keeps the value of the constraint
less than or equal to zero. You can create an equality constraint, in effect, by creating a pair of constraint
objects, each the negative of the other.

Note:

You do not need to create an explicit constraint to limit the value of a design variable. You
can do this directly by setting properties for the variable.

Constraints can involve the simulation results, but are not required to do so. You can constrain overall
size, weight, or other factors that depend only on model data. In these cases, use the function or
macro/variable option for the constraint, and ignore the analysis data that Adams/View supplies. Instead,
compute the constraint directly from the appropriate model data.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Displays the name of the constraint.

Definition by

Select the type of function you want to use from the pull-down
menu.
Enter the name of the measure, result set component, function, or
macro and variable. If you are entering a Result set component,
enter the name of the result set and component, for example req1.x.

Design Constraint's value is the

Select a value.
Select to add comments to help you manage and identify the
constraint object. See Comments.

116 Adams/View
Create Design Objective

Create Design Objective


Simulate Design Objective New

Allows you to create an objective object if a measure is not flexible enough. Objective objects have
options for processing simulation results and are valuable when you want to do complex or multi-step
computations on model outputs.
Learn more about Creating an Objective Object.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the design objective.

Definition by

Select the type of object function you want:


Measure - Use a measure. Learn about Using Measures for Objectives.
Result set component - Select to use a new Result set component
produced by a subsequent simulation.Learn about using a result set
component.
Existing result set component - Select to use an existing results set.
/View function - Select to use an Adams/View function. Learn about
using functions.
/View Variable and Macro - Select to use a variable and macro. Learn
about using variable and macro.

Note:

Tip:

Measure/Result Set
Comp./Function/Va
riable and Macro

Objectives usually involve simulation results, but they are not required
to do so. You can create an objective that depends only on the model
data, such as overall weight or size. You can then use Adams/View to
vary, or even optimize, the design variables and immediately see the
results on the model.
In this case, use the function or variable/macro option for the
objective, and ignore the analysis argument or parameter that
Adams/View supplies. Because you do not need simulation results,
you should also create a dummy simulation script that does
nothing. Then, Adams/View repeatedly sets the variables and
evaluates the objective, but does not run any simulations.

Enter the name of the measure, result set component, function, or macro and
variable. If you are entering a result set component, enter the name of the result
set and component, for example req1.x.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

A - D 117
Create Design Objective

For the option:


Design objective's
value is

Do the following:
If you are using a measure or result set component, set the design objectives
value. For a measure, enter minimum, maximum, average, last value, absolute
minimum, and absolute maximum of the measure. For a results set component,
enter minimum, maximum, average, or last value of the result set component.
Select to add any comments for the objective to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

118 Adams/View
Create FEMDATA

Create FEMDATA
Build Data Elements FEMdata New/Modify

Produces data files of component loads, deformations, stresses, or strains for input to subsequent finite
element or fatigue life analysis for use in third-party products. You use the Settings Solver Output
More Durability Files to specify the type of file to produce (for more information, see Solver
Settings - Output dialog box help and the Adams/Durability online help). Adams/View will not output to
any files unless you specify the format. For more information, see About Setting Simulation Controls.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name of the FEMDATA element in the Modeling database to create or
modify.

Type

Select the information that you want output:


Loads on Rigid Body/Flex Body - Outputs all external forces (reaction

and applied forces except gravity) acting on the specified body and,
optionally, inertial forces of the specified body (angular velocity and
acceleration, including effects of gravity) as a function of time. Load
data will be output in the simulation set of units.
Modal Deformation - Outputs modal deformations as a function of

time of the specified flexible body. Adams/View will only export


coordinates of the active modes in the simulation.
Nodal Deformation - Outputs nodal deformations as a function of time

of the specified flexible. Adams/View writes the deformations in the


simulation set of units.
Strain - Outputs strain information if strain modes are available in the
Modal Neutral File (MNF) of the specified flexible body and an

Adams/Durability license is available. Adams/Durability outputs all six


components of strain (normal-X, normal-Y, normal-Z, shear-XY, shearYZ, shear-ZX). It outputs strains in the basic FEA coordinate system of
the flexible body except where specified below.
Stress - Outputs stress information if modal stresses are available in the

MNF of the flexible body and an Adams/Durability license is available.


Adams/Durability outputs all six components of stress (normal-X,
normal-Y, normal-Z, shear-XY, shear-YZ, shear-ZX). It outputs stresses
in the simulation set of units in the basic FEA coordinate system of the
flexible body except where specified below.

A - D 119
Create FEMDATA

For the option:


Inertia

Do the following:
Check Inertia if you want Adams/View to include inertial loads (linear
acceleration, angular acceleration, and velocity) when outputting the loads
acting on the body. Otherwise, Adams/View outputs no inertial loads and you
will need to rely on an inertia relief capability in the finite element program to
balance the external loads with the internal loads.

If you selected Loads on Rigid Body, the following options appear:


R Marker

Enter the rigid body marker to be the reference coordinate system to output
loads. Because Adams/Solver resolves all loads acting on the rigid body in the
coordinate system of the specified marker, the marker should represent the FEA
basic coordinate system of the part's finite element (FE) model.

Peak Slice

Select that FE model load data are to be output only at those time steps where
the specified peak load occurred in the simulation. When you set the Time
options, Adams/View only checks the time steps within those specifications for
the peak load. You can specify one or more of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, GMAG, TX,
TY, TZ, and TMAG.

If you selected Loads on Flexible Body, the following options appear:


Inertia

Check Inertia if you want Adams/View to include inertial loads (linear


acceleration, angular acceleration, and velocity) when outputting the loads
acting on the body. Otherwise, Adams/View outputs no inertial loads and you
will need to rely on an inertia relief capability in the finite element program to
balance the external loads with the internal loads.

Flex Body

Enter the flexible body whose data Adams/View outputs. Adams/View outputs
the data in the FE model basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

Peak Slice

Select that FE model load data are to be output only at those time steps where
the specified peak load occurred in the simulation. When you set the Time
options, Adams/View only checks the time steps within those specifications for
the peak load. You can specify one or more of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, GMAG, TX,
TY, TZ, and TMAG.

If you selected Modal Deformation, the following option appears:


Flex Body

Enter the flexible body whose data Adams/View outputs. Adams/View outputs
the data in the FE model basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

If you selected Nodal Deformation, the following option appears:


Flex Body

Enter the flexible body whose data Adams/View outputs. Adams/View outputs
the data in the FE model basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

120 Adams/View
Create FEMDATA

For the option:

Do the following:

Nodes

Enter the node numbers of a flexible body whose data is to be output. If you do
not specify a node list, Adams/View exports nodal data at each attachment point
of the flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node ID is specified that
does not belong to the flexible body.

Datum

Enter a node ID of the flexible body to be the datum of the nodal displacements.
Adams/Solver computes all nodal displacements relative to this node ID. If you
do not specify a datum node, Adams/Solver generates an arbitrary relative set of
nodal displacements. It displays a warning message if the specified node does
not belong to the flexible body.

If you selected Stress or Strain, the following options appear:


Flex Body

Enter the flexible body whose data Adams/View outputs. Adams/Durability


outputs the data in the FE model basic coordinate system that is inherent to the
flexible body.

On Nodes/Hot Spots Lets you select either output on nodes or Hotspots. The options in the dialog box
change depending on the selection, as explained in the next rows of the table.
For an example of defining hot spots, see the FEMDATA statement and near the
end of it, the Definition of Hotspots.
If you selected On Nodes, the following options appear:
Nodes

Enter the node numbers of a flexible body whose data is to be output. If you do
not specify a node list, Adams/View exports nodal data at each attachment point
of the flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node id is specified that
does not belong to the flexible body.

R Marker

Enter a coordinate reference marker in the model that will be used to transform
the stress or strain data. If not specified, the stress or strain will be output in the
basic FEA coordinate system of the flexible body (LPRF). This option can be
useful when correlating strain gauge data from a physical test. If the orientation
of the strain gauge does not match the FEA coordinate system, you can
reference a marker whose orientation does match.

If you selected Hot Spots, the following options appear:


Hotspots

Enter the number of hot spots to locate and output. With this option, a text file
containing a tab-delimited table of hot spot information, such as node ID,
maximum value, time when the maximum value occurred, and location, is
generated.
Note:

When you set the Time options, Adams/Durability only checks the
time steps within those specifications for the hot spots.

A - D 121
Create FEMDATA

For the option:

Do the following:

Von Mises/Max
Prin/Min Prin.,/Max
Shear/NormalX/NormalY/Normal-Z/ShearXY/ShearYZ/Shear-ZX

Specify the value of stress/strain in determining hotspots from one of Von


Mises, Max Prin., Min Prin., Max Shear, Normal-X, Normal-Y, Normal-Z,
Shear-XY, Shear-YZ, or Shear-ZX. For more information, see the FEMDATA
statement.

Radius

Enter a radius that defines the spherical extent of each hotspot. A default value
of 0.0 (zero) means that all nodes in the flexible body will be hotspot candidates.

R Marker

Enter a coordinate reference marker in the model that will be used to transform
the stress or strain data. If not specified, the stress or strain will be output in the
basic FEA coordinate system of the flexible body (LPRF). This option can be
useful when correlating strain gauge data from a physical test. If the orientation
of the strain gauge does not match the FEA coordinate system, one can reference
a marker whose orientation does match.

The following options appear for all types of FE model data:


File

Enter the output file name for the FE model data. You can specify an existing
directory, root name, and/or extension. By default, the file name will be
composed of the Adams run and body IDs according to the type of data and file
format that you specified in Solver Settings Output More Durability
Files (for more information, see the Adams/Durability online help).

Time

Specify the start and end times for outputting the data:
From - Enter the time at which to start outputting the data. The default

is the start of the simulation.


To - Enter the time at which to end the output of the data or the search

of a peak load. The default is to output to the end of the simulation.

122 Adams/View
Create Forces Palette and Tool Stack

Create Forces Palette and Tool Stack


Build Forces
Main toolbox Right-click Create Forces tool stack

Displays tools for creating forces. The Create Forces palette and tool stack are shown below. Learn about
Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes. Learn more about Forces.

Forces Tool Stack

Create Forces Palette (from Build Menu)

A - D 123
Create Forces Palette and Tool Stack

Icon

Link
Translational Spring Damper Tool
Single-Component Force tool
Create/Modify Contact

Torsion SpringTool
Single-Component Torque tool

Create/Modify Wheel and Tire

Bushing Tool
Six-Component General Force tool
Create/Modify Modal Force
Field Element Tool
Three-Component Force tool
Gravity

Beam

Three-Component Torque tool

124 Adams/View
Create New Color

Create New Color


Settings Colors New Color

Defines a new color name in the Modeling database. After creating the new color, return to Edit Color
dialog box to define its red, green, and blue values.

For the option:


Color Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the new color.

A - D 125
Create Run-Time Clearance

Create Run-Time Clearance


Simulate Run-Time Clearance New

Run-Time Clearances can be used to monitor the clearance distance between two selected
geometries/flexible bodies. This clearance distance is based upon tesselation of geometry or analytical
representation of known geometry. For flexible parts, clearance is based upon the external face geometry
in the MNF. After a simulation is complete, the minimum clearance location between the two
geometries/flexible bodies may be animated. This is represented as a line between the objects involved.
You can also plot the clearance result sets and export the clearance data in the results file.

For the option:

Do the following:

Clearance Name

Enter the name for the Clearance analysis.

Clearance Type

Set to the type according to the participating bodies in the clearance


analysis. Clearances can be created between geometries, flexible parts or
between flexible parts and geometries.The text boxes change depending on
the clearance type you selected.

Threshold

Optional field to allow the user to specify a maximum distance for which
the clearance calculations will not be computed. Set to 0.0 by default.

If you selected Geometry to Geometry, Adams/View displays the following two options:
I Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

J Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

If you selected Geometry to Flexible Body, Adams/View displays the following four options:
I Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

J Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.

J Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. J
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node"
option.Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the
nodes with the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse
button to finish.

Exclusion Radius

Specifies the radius for excluding connection between the two parts
selected for clearance analysis. The nodes that lie in the specified radius of
any joints connecting the specified J flexible body and the I Geometry will
be excluded from the clearance computation.

If you selected Flexible Body to Geometry Adams/View displays the following four options:

126 Adams/View
Create Run-Time Clearance

For the option:

Do the following:

I Flex Body

Select a Flexible Body

I Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. I
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node" option.
Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the nodes with
the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse button to finish.

J Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

Exclusion Radius

Specifies the radius for excluding connection between the two parts
selected for clearance analysis. The nodes that lie in the specified radius of
any joints connecting the specified I flexible body and the J Geometry will
be excluded from the clearance computation.

If you selected Flexible Body to Flexible Body Adams/View displays the following five options:
I Flex Body

Select a Flexible Body

I Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. I
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node" option.
Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the nodes with
the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse button to finish.
Note:

J Flex Body

By default nodes can be selected from the last created/selected


flexible body. In case a new flexible body has been created or
selected after the I Flex Body or the J Flex Body fields have been
entered, the original flexible body needs to be made the default
flexible body by the command "defaults model
flexible_body_name= name"

Select a Flexible Body.

A - D 127
Create Run-Time Clearance

For the option:


J Region

Do the following:
This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. J
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node"
option.Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the
nodes with the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse
button to finish.
Note:

Exclusion Radius

By default nodes can be selected from the last created/selected


flexible body. In case a new flexible body has been created or
selected after the I Flex Body or the J Flex Body fields have been
entered, the original flexible body needs to be made the default
flexible body by the command "defaults model
flexible_body_name= name"

Specifies the radius for excluding connection between the two parts
selected for clearance analysis. The nodes that lie in the specified radius of
any joints connecting the specified I flexible body and the J flexible body
will be excluded from the clearance computation.

128 Adams/View
Create Spec Line

Create Spec Line


Adams/PostProcessor Plot Create Spec Line

Adds Spec lines to your plots to help you compare curves to a constant baseline value. A spec line can
be a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line that indicates a value of significance on the vertical axis. You
can start the spec line at any X or Y position.
For example, if you are plotting acceleration and you want to keep the acceleration below a certain value,
you can add a spec line marking that value on the plot. You can then compare any curves that you add to
that plot to see if the curves fall beneath the spec line. There are no limits to the number of spec lines you
can add to a plot.

For the option:

Do the following:

Spec Line Name

Enter the name you want to assign to the spec line. The box shows the complete
name of the spec line, including its parents
in the database.

Y Value

Enter a Y value if you want a horizontal spec line.

X Value

Enter an X value if you want a vertical spec line.

Note:

To create a diagonal spec line, enter a value for both X and Y.

Color

Select a color for the spec line.

Line Style

Select a line style.

Thickness

Select the thickness for the spec line.

A - D 129
Create State Variable for Plant State

Create State Variable for Plant State


Data Element Create Plant State dialog box Create State Variable for Plant State

Creates state variables for use in a plant state object. The variables that a plant state object can only
contain functions of displacement:
Learn more about plant state objects in the LINERAR command
Learn about plant states with Data Element Create Plant State dialog box help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


State Variable Name Enter the name that you want assigned to the state variable.
To Marker

Enter the marker to which to measure.

From Marker

Enter the marker or point from which to measure.

Along Marker

Enter the reference marker along which the measure is to be taken.

From Component

Select the component in which you are interested. The components available
depend on the coordinate system.

130 Adams/View
Create a Flexible Body

Create a Flexible Body


Build Flexible Bodies Adams/Flex

Imports a flexible body into Adams/Flex. You specify a Modal Neutral File (MNF) or an MD DB file
(.master) and Adams/View creates the necessary Adams/View geometry for displaying the flexible body.
It also creates a mesh on the flexible body representing the flexible body nodes.
By default, Adams/Flex places the flexible body so the flexible bodys local body reference frame
(LBRF) is at the origin of the global coordinate system. The LBRF corresponds to the origin of the finite
element (FE) environment in which the body was originally modeled. You can also set the location and
orientation as you import the body or after it is imported as you do any element in Adams/View.

For the option:

Do the following:

Flexible Body Name

Enter the name you want assigned to the flexible body.

Modal Neutral File Name

Select the appropriate option and enter the name of the MNF or the MD
DB file.

or
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.
MD DB File Name

Index

Note:

The parameter applies only, when the user is creating a flexible body out
of the MD DB. The parameter specifies the index of the flexible body in
the specified MD DB. The parameter is optional. If not specified, it is
assumed to have the value 1.
Note:

Import All

When you use the Browse command to search for a file, it


places the absolute path to the file in the text box. When you
save the database or a command file, Adams/View uses the
absolute path in the saved file. If you are sharing the database or
command file with other users, you may want to edit the path
that the Browse command places in the text box so it is a
relative path or remove it altogether if the MNF/MD DB file is
in the current working directory.

The user can wish to view all the flexible bodies in the MD DB,
using the button provided beside the index. The desired
flexible body can be selected by double-clicking on the
displayed list.

This option can be used as an alternative to specifying an index. Using this


option will import all flexible bodies in the specified MD DB at once. All
the created bodies will have a default location and orientation as (0,0,0).

A - D 131
Create a Flexible Body

For the option:


Damping Ratio

Do the following:
Do one of the following:
Leave use default selected to accept the default nonzero damping

as follows:
1% damping for all modes with frequency lower than 100.
10% damping for modes with frequency in the 100-1000 range.
100% critical damping for modes with frequency above 1000.
Clear the selection of use default, and then enter:
Scalar damping ratio that you want applied to all modes.
Adams run-time function expressions to create complex

damping phenomena in your flexible body. In addition,


function expressions, such as FXFREQ and FXMODE, allow
you to apply different levels of damping to individual modes.
To get help entering a function expression, right-click the
Damping text box, and then select Expression Builder to
display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on
using the Function Builder, see Adams/View Function Builder
online help.
Shortcut to Function Builder: Click the More button

Learn more about Specifying Damping.


Generalized Damping

Select one:
Off - Disables the generalized damping.
Full - Enables the complete generalized damping matrix,

including the effects of a resultant damping force.


Internal Only - Only enables the portion of the generalized

damping matrix corresponding to the modal coordinates (that is,


ignore the resultant damping force).
Location

Enter x, y, z coordinate defining the flexible body's location in the default


coordinate system.

Orientation

Specify either of these three orientation methods:


Orientation
Along Axis Orientation
In Plane Oriention

132 Adams/View
Create a Flexible Body

For the option:


Relative to

Do the following:
You can:
Specify the orientation coordinates.
Leave blank to use the default coordinate system.

FEM Translate

Select to display the FEM Translate dialog box to translate either:


MSC.Nastran output data into a MNF. You generate the output

data by first running MSC.Nastran with the AdamsMNF Case


Control command or a special DMAP alter.
Universal file into a MNF that you can use to create a flexible

body with a constant coupling inertia invariant formulation.


MNF XForm

Select to display the MNF XForm dialog box to transform the flexible
body.

If you check the More option following parameters will appear


Dynamic Limit

Specify the threshold frequency for quasi-static modes. Any mode with
frequency higher than this value will be treated as quasi-static.

Stability Factor

Specify the amount of damping needed to add to the quasi-static modes.


This is required to stabilize the simulation.

A - D 133
Create a Request

Create a Request
Build Measure REQUEST New

Creates a request. Note that the options for providing result and component names are only available if
the output of the results set is XML format. See Results (.res) Options dialog box help.
Learn more about Requests.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Request Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the request in the Modeling
database.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the request. See Adams/Solver ID.

Component Names

Available for XML result files only.


Enter one or more strings that identify the names of the result set
components the request produces. Learn more about About Naming
Results and Components in Requests.

Component
Labels/Component Units

Available for XML result files only.


Select either of the following to further identify the components of the
results set:
Component Units - Enter one or more strings that identify

the unit dimension of the result set components in XML result


files. If you do not specify units, then the units of the
components are predefined based upon standard request type
(for example, displacement, velocity, and acceleration). See
standard units.
Component Labels - Enter one or more strings that identify

the labels to be used when plotting the result set components.


Labels can be strings that include white space. Quotes must be
used to define the string if you se special characters or white
space.

134 Adams/View
Create a Request

For the option:


Results Name

Do the following:
Specifies the name of the result set in which all result set components
produced by this request are placed when the result file is written in
XML. If there is an existing result set with this name, then the result
set components are placed in that result set. If there isn't an existing
result set, then a new one is created and all the result set components
are placed there.
This is helpful if you want to group the output from multiple requests
into a single result set. For example, you might have several different
requests measuring driver input for a vehicle, and you might want to
place them all within a result set named Driver_Inputs for easier
viewing in Adams/PostProcessor.

Comments

Add any comments about the request to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.

Define Using Type &


Markers/

Set to:
Define Using Type & Markers

Define Using Function


Expressions/

Define Using Function Expressions

Define Using
Subroutines/Define Using
Variables

Define Using Variables

Define Using Subroutines

If you selected Define Using Type & Markers, the following options appear:
Output Type

Select the type of output (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, or


Force).

I Marker, J Marker, R Marker

Specify the Markers with respect to which the output will be


calculated.

If you selected Define Using Subroutines, the following options appear:


User Function

Enter parameters to the user-written subroutine REQSUB. Enter the


user function using the following format where r1 through r30 are
constants passed to the subroutine:
r1, ..., r30
Learn About Specifying a Subroutine.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine


REQSUB. Learn about ROUTINE Argument.

A - D 135
Create a Request

For the option:


Title

Do the following:
If you specified to write an output file (.out), enter up to eight headings
for columns of request output. Separate each heading with a comma
(,).
Each heading can have as many as eight alphanumeric characters,
including underscores (_). The first character in each heading must be
alphabetic. You cannot use a comma (,), a semicolon (;), an ampersand
(&), or an exclamation point (!).
If you do not want to specify a title for a particular column, use two
quotation marks (" ") with no characters between them.

If you selected Define Using Function Expressions, the following options appear:
f2 , f3 , f4 , f6 , f7 , and f8

Enter function expressions in the boxes f2 , f3 , f4 , f6 , f7 , and f8 .


Do not use f1 and f5 . Adams/Solver uses them to hold magnitudes for
the three functions that follow. You do not need to enter a function in
every text box. Learn About Specifying Function Expressions.

Title

Enter a title for the top of each set of information output. The entire
comment must be on one line. The title can be only eighty characters
long. You can use blank spaces and all alphanumeric characters.
However, you cannot use the comma (,), the semicolon (;), the
ampersand (&), and the exclamation point (!).

If you selected Define Using Variables, the following options appear:


Variables

Enter the variables in the text box. Learn about Creating and Modifying
State Variables.

136 Adams/View
Create/Modify Contact

Create/Modify Contact
Build Forces Contact Force Tool

Creates or modifies a contact force between two geometries. Learn About Contact Forces. For solids and
curves, you can select more than one geometry as long as the geometry belongs to the same part. The first
geometry is called the I geometry and the second geometry is called the J geometry. For sphere-to-sphere
contacts, you can specify that the contact be inside or outside the sphere.
Learn more about Contacts.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


If you type a geometry object name directly in the text box, you must press Enter to register the value.
Contact Name

Enter the name of the contact to create or modify.

Contact Type

Set to the type of geometry to come into contact. The text boxes change
depending on the type of contact force you selected.

If you selected Solid to Solid, Adams/View displays the following two options:
I Solid

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same part.

J Solid

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same part.

If you selected Curve to Curve, Adams/View displays the following four options:
I Curve

Enter one or more geometry curves. The curves must all belong to the same
part.

I Direction(s)

Select the geometry on which you want to change the direction of the force, and
then select the Change Direction tool
.

J Curve

Enter one or more geometry curves. The curves must all belong to the same
part.

J Direction(s)

Select the geometry on which you want to change the direction of the force, and
then select the Change Direction tool
.

If you selected Point to Curve, Adams/View displays the following two options:
Marker

Enter a marker.

Curve

Enter one or more curves.

Direction(s)

Select the geometry on which you want to change the direction of the force, and
then select the Change Direction tool
.

If you selected Point to Plane, Adams/View displays the following two options:
Marker

Enter a marker.

Plane

Enter a plane.

A - D 137
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:

Do the following:

If you selected Curve to Plane, Adams/View displays the following two options:
Curve

Enter one or more curves.

Direction(s)

Select the geometry on which you want to change the direction of the force, and
then select the Change Direction tool
.

Plane

Enter a plane.

If you selected Sphere to Plane, Adams/View displays the following two options:
Sphere

Enter a sphere. To change the direction of the force, select the Change
Direction tool
.

Direction(s)

Select the geometry on which you want to change the direction of the force, and
then select the Change Direction tool
.

Plane

Enter a plane.

If you selected Sphere to Sphere, Adams/View displays the following two options:
Sphere

Enter a sphere. To change the direction of the force, select the Change
Direction tool
.

Sphere

Enter a sphere. To change the direction of the force, select the Change
Direction tool
.

If you selected Flex Body to Solid, Adams/View displays the following two options:
I Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.

J Solid

Select a Geometry Solid.

If you selected Flex Body to Flex Body, Adams/View displays the following two options:
I Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.

J Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.

If you selected Flex Edge to Curve, Adams/View displays the following three options:
I Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.


To reset the Edge, select the Reset The Edge tool

I Flex Edge

Select a Flex Edge on I Flexible Body.


To change the direction of the force, select the Change Direction tool

J Curve

Select a Curve. Multiple curves are not allowed.

If you selected Flex Edge to Flex Edge, Adams/View displays the following four options:
I Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.


To reset the Edge, select the Reset The Edge tool

138 Adams/View
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:


I Flex Edge

Do the following:
Select a Flex Edge on I Flexible Body.
To change the direction of the force, select the Change Direction tool

J Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.


To reset the Edge, select the Reset The Edge tool

J Flex Edge

Select a Flex Edge on J Flexible Body .


To change the direction of the force, select the Change Direction tool

If you selected Flex Edge to Plane, Adams/View displays the following three options:
I Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.


To reset the Edge, select the Reset The Edge tool

I Flex Edge

Select a Flex Edge on I Flexible Body.


To change the direction of the force, select the Change Direction tool

Plane

Select a Plane. Multiple Planes are not allowed.

The following options apply to all types of geometry:


Force Display/Color

Select to turn on the force display of both normal and friction forces, and select
a color for the force display.
Note:

Normal Force

If you are using an External Adams/Solver, you must set the output
files to XML to view the force display. See Solver Settings - Output
dialog box help.

Select either:
Restitution - To define the normal force as restitution-based. This

option is not available with Flex Body to Solid and Flex Body to Flex
Body type of contacts.
Impact - To define the normal force based on an impact using the
IMPACT function.
User Defined - To define the force based on a User-written subroutine.

Learn about the types of Contact Force Algorithms and also see Learning More
about the Contact Detection Algorithm.
If you selected Restitution for Normal Force, define the following two options:

A - D 139
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:


Penalty

Do the following:
Enter a penalty value to define the local stiffness properties between the
contacting material.
A large penalty value ensures that the penetration of one geometry into another
will be small. Large values, however, will cause numerical integration
difficulties. A value of 1E6 is appropriate for systems modeled in Kg-mm-sec.
For more information on how to specify this value, see the Extended Definition
for the CONTACT statement in the Adams/Solver online help.
Notes:

The penalty value of 1.0E+06 is recommended value for users


who have no prior experience with restitution based contacts.
Experienced users will find values that are both smaller and larger
that are applicable to their models.
The value of 1.0E+06 was determined heuristically by simulating
real world models (for example, billiard ball collisions). It is
appropriate for bodies with masses in the range of 0.1 to 1.0e+03
Kilograms and velocities in the range of 0.01 to 1.0e+03
meters/second. For collisions involving asteroids, a larger value
may be needed.
Many contact parameters (for example, stiffness, damping,
exponent) have default values that are not suitable for all models.
They are intended to help users who has very little modeling
background. The reason that contact parameters exist is to give
users as much flexibility as possible in building and simulating
their models.

Restitution
Coefficient

Enter the coefficient of restitution, which models the energy loss during
contact.
A value of zero specifies a perfectly plastic contact between the two

colliding bodies.
A value of one specifies a perfectly elastic contact. There is no energy

loss.
The coefficient of restitution is a function of the two materials that are coming
into contact. For information on material types versus commonly used values
of the coefficient of restitution, see the table for the CONTACT statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.
If you selected Impact for Normal Force, define the following four options:

140 Adams/View
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:


Stiffness

Do the following:
Enter a material stiffness that is to be used to calculate the normal force for the
impact model. In general, the higher the stiffness, the more rigid or hard the
bodies in contact are.
Note:

Force Exponent

When changing the length units in Adams/View, stiffnesses in


contacts are scaled by (length conversion factor**exponent). When
changing the force unit, stiffness is only scaled by the force
conversion factor.

Adams/Solver models normal force as a nonlinear springdamper. If the


damping penetration, below, is the instantaneous penetration between the
contacting geometry, Adams/Solver calculates the contribution of the material
stiffness to the instantaneous normal forces as:
STIFFNESS * (PENALTY)**EXPONENT
For more information, see the IMPACT function in the Adams/Solver online
help.

Damping

Enter a value to define the damping properties of the contacting material.


Consider a damping coefficient that is about one percent of the stiffness
coefficient.

Penetration Depth

Enter a value to define the penetration at which Adams/Solver turns on full


damping. Adams/Solver uses a cubic STEP function to increase the damping
coefficient from zero, at zero penetration, to full damping when the penetration
reaches the damping penetration. A reasonable value for this parameter is 0.01
mm. For more information, see the IMPACT function in the Adams/Solver
online help.

If you selected User Defined for Normal Force, define the following two options:
User function
Routine

Specify the user parameters to be passed to a User-written subroutine CNFSUB.


For more on user-written subroutines, see the Adams/Solver online help.
Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn about
ROUTINE Argument.

The following option is available for all choices:


Augmented
Lagrangian

Select to refine the normal force between two sets of rigid geometries that are
in contact. When you select Augmented Lagrangian, Adams/View uses
iterative refinement to ensure that penetration between the geometries is
minimal. It also ensures that the normal force magnitude is relatively
insensitive to the penalty or stiffness used to model the local material
compliance effects.
Note:

Augmented Lagrangian is only available when defining a Restitutionbased contact.

A - D 141
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:


Friction Force

Do the following:
Select to model the friction effects at the contact locations using the Coulomb
friction model, no friction, or as user-defined subroutine. The Coulomb friction
model models dynamic friction but not stiction in contacts.
For more on friction in contacts, see Contact Friction Force Calculation. In
addition, read the information for the CONTACT statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.

If you selected Coulomb for Friction Force, define the following four options:
Coulomb Friction

Specify whether the friction effects are to be included at run time:


On
Off
Dynamics Only

Static Coefficient

Specify the coefficient of friction at a contact point when the slip velocity is
smaller than the value for Static Transition Vel. For information on material
types versus commonly used values of the coefficient of static friction, see
Material Contact Properties Table.
Excessively large values of Static Coefficient can cause integration difficulties.
Range: Static Coefficient

Dynamic Coefficient Specify the coefficient of friction at a contact point when the slip velocity is
larger than the value for Friction Transition Vel.
For information on material types versus commonly used values of the
coefficientof the dynamic coefficient of friction, see Material Contact
Properties Table.
Excessively large values of Dynamic Coefficient can cause integration
difficulties.
Range: 0

Dynamic Coefficient

Static Coefficient

142 Adams/View
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:

Do the following:

Static Transition Vel. Enter the static transition velocity.


The figure below shows how the coefficient of friction varies with slip velocity
at a typical contact point.

In this simple model:

( Vs ) = s

( Vs ) = s
(0) = 0
( Vd ) = d
( Vd ) = d
( V ) = sign ( V ) d

for ( V > V d )

( V ) = step ( V , V d, d, V s, s ) sign ( V )

( V ) = step ( V, V s, s, V s, s )

for ( V s < V > V d )

for ( V s < V > V s )

A - D 143
Create/Modify Contact

For the option:

Do the following:

Static Transition Vel. In the figure:


(cont.)
Vs, the slip velocity at which the coefficient friction achieves a
maximum value of s , is denoted as
STICTION_TRANSITION_VELOCITY.
s is the coefficient of static friction.
d is the coefficient of dynamic friction.

For more on friction in contacts, see Contact Friction Force Calculation. In


addition, read the information for the CONTACT statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.
Range: 0 < Static Transition Vel.
Friction Transition
Vel.

Friction Transition Vel.

Enter the friction transition velocity.


Adams/Solver gradually transitions the coefficient of friction from the value for
Static Coefficent to the value for Dynamic Coefficient as the slip velocity at the
contact point increases. When the slip velocity is equal to the value specified
for Friction Transition Vel., the effective coefficient of friction is set to
Dynamic Coefficient. For more on friction in contacts, see Contact Friction
Force Calculation. In addition, read the information for the CONTACT
statement in the Adams/Solver online help.
Note:

Small values for this option cause the integrator difficulties. You
should specify this value as:

Friction Transition Vel.


where:

5* ERROR

ERROR is the integration error used for the solution. Its


default value is 1E-3.

Range: Friction Transition Vel.

Static Transition Vel. > 0

If you selected User Defined for Friction Force, define the following two options:
User function

Specify the user parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine. For more


on user-written subroutines, see Adams/Solver online help.

Routine

Enter the name of the function to call. The default is CNFSUB.

144 Adams/View
Create/Modify Contact Arrays

Create/Modify Contact Arrays


Contact arrays define the characteristics of force-based contacts. You specify a contact array for each
force-based contact. You can, however, use the same contact array with multiple contact forces.
The options for defining the normal force magnitudes for contact arrays are identical to the parameters
in the IMPACT function. For information on the IMPACT function, see Adams/View Function Builder
online help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Contact Array Name

Enter the name of the contact array to modify.

Stiffness Force

Enter the force generated for each unit of penetration depth.

Force Exponent

Enter the exponent of the force deformation characteristic.

Damping Maximum

Enter the viscous damping coefficient.

Penetration Depth

Enter the penetration depth at which full damping is applied.

Static Friction Coefficient (s)

Enter the proportion of normal force applied in the opposite


direction of relative motion, from zero velocity to static threshold
velocity.

Static Friction Slip Velocity (Vs)

Enter the velocity at which full value of the static friction


coefficient is applied.

Dynamic Friction Coefficient (k) Enter the proportion of normal force applied in the opposite
direction of relative motion, from slip velocity to dynamic
transition velocity.
Dynamic Friction Transition
Velocity (Vk)

Enter the velocity at which the value of the dynamic friction


coefficient has fully transitioned from the static friction
coefficient.

A - D 145
Create/Modify Design Variable

Create/Modify Design Variable


Build Design Variable New/Modify

Creates or modifies a design variable.

146 Adams/View
Create/Modify Design Variable

Learn more about Using Design Variables.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the design variable.

Type

Select Real, Integer, String, or Object.

If you selected the type Real, you have the option:


Units

Optionally, select the type of units.

If you selected the type Real or Integer, the following four options appear:
Standard Value

Enter or change the default value for the design variable.

Value Range by

Set the one of the following and enter the limits in the Min/Max or +/- Delta
text boxes:
Absolute Min and Max Values - Specifies a value range (an

upper and lower limit)


+/- Delta Relative to Value - Specifies increments relative to the

standard value.
+/- Percent Relative to Value - Specifies percentage increments

relative to the standard value.


If only a certain range of values is possible, use absolute limits to keep the
variable within that fixed range. Otherwise, use relative or percent relative
limits to include a reasonable amount above and below your initial value.
Relative and percent-relative limits tie the range to the value of the
variable, so if you change the value of the variable, the limits automatically
change with it.To learn more about the choices, see Preparing for
Parametric Analyses.
- Delta/Min Value

Enter the lower limit for the range or the relative amount or percentage
below the standard value.

+ Delta/Max Value

Enter the upper limit for the range or the relative amount or percentage
above the standard value.

Allow Optimization to
ignore range

If you want to allow an optimization to use any value for the variable, select
Allow Optimization to ignore range.
Selecting Allow Optimization to ignore range does not disable the range for
a Design study or Design of experiments (DOE). The range is used for a
design study or DOE only if a list of values has not been specified or is to
be ignored.

A - D 147
Create/Modify Design Variable

For the option:


List of allowed value

Do the following:
If you want to specify a list of values, select List of allowed values and
enter the values in the text box that appears. This lets you to use unequally
spaced values or always use the same set of values. By default, the list of
values takes precedence over the range in a design study or DOE.
Note:

The Value Range setting also affects the allowed values you
enter. For example, if you have selected a Value Range of
percent relative, then Adams/View interprets your entered
allowed values as percentages relative to the standard value.

If you selected List of allowed values, the following two options appear:
Generate

Creates a list of values for you automatically.

Allow Design Study to


ignore list

To keep the list of values and still use the range for a design study and
DOE, select Allow Design Study to ignore list. By selecting Allow Design
Study to ignore list, you can switch back and forth between using the range
and the list of values without re-entering the list each time.

If you selected String, the following option appears:


String value

Enter the alphanumeric string for the design variable.

If you selected Object, the following option appears:


Object value

Enter the database object for the design variable (for example,
.model_1.part_1). For more on objects and their database name, see Getting
Object Names and Data Dictionary in the Adams/View Function Builder
online help.
Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Note:

Now that you have created a design variable, youll need to reference it in your model. You
can enter the design variable directly, using the Reference Design Variable command, or
you can type it into a text box. You can also use the Function Builder to create a more
complex expression using the design variable. When you reference your design variable,
Adams/View places parentheses () around the variable because you are creating a simple
expression that references the value of the design variable.

148 Adams/View
Create/Modify Differential Equation

Create/Modify Differential Equation


Build System Elements Differential Equation New/Modify

Creates or modifies a differential equation.


Learn about:
About Using Differential Equations.
Creating and Modifying Differential Equations.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name of the differential equation.

Type

Select either Explicit or Implicit to indicate that the function expression or


subroutine defines the explicit or implicit form of the equation.
Learn about Ways to Define Differential Equations.

Definition

Set to either:
Run-time Expression to enter a function expression that
Adams/Solver evaluates during a Simulation. In the function

expression, the system variable DIF(i) is the value of the dependent


variable that the differential equation defines, and DIF1(j) is the first
derivative of the dependent variable that the differential equation
defines.
User written subroutine to enter a subroutine that defines the

equation.
y' =

If you selected Run-time Expression, enter the function expression

that defines the differential equation. Select the More button


display the Function Builder and build an expression. See the
Adams/View Function Builder online help.
If you selected User written subroutine, enter constants to the
User-written subroutine DIFSUB to define a variable. see the
Adams/Solver Subroutines online help.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine DIFSUB.
Learn about ROUTINE Argument.

to

A - D 149
Create/Modify Differential Equation

For the option:


Initial Conditions

Do the following:
Specify:
The initial value of the differential equation at the start of the

simulation.
Optionally, if you are defining an implicit equation, an approximate

value of the initial time derivative of the differential equation at the


start of the simulation. (You do not need to supply a second value
when you enter a explicit equation because Adams/Solver can
compute the initial time derivative directly from the equation.)
Adams/Solver might adjust the value of the time derivative when it performs
an initial conditions simulation. Entering an initial value for the time
derivative helps Adams/Solver converge to a desired initial conditions
solution.
Keep value constant
during static analyses.

Select whether or not Adams/Solver should hold constant the value of the
differential equation during Static equilibrium and Quasi-static simulations.
Learn about Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using System Elements.

150 Adams/View
Create/modify an External System

Create/modify an External System


Build External Systems New

The dialog box operates in two modes,


Create mode: To create a new External system in the model. When the dialog is opened from

the menu (Build External Systems New) it opens in Create mode.


Modify mode: To modify an existing External System in the model. If an existing external

system in the model, is selected for modification (by right clicking the body and choosing the
'Modify' option) then the same dialog opens in 'Modify' mode. In the Modify mode, the fields on
the dialog will be pre-populated with the values of the external system being modified.
Note:

By default, the external system is placed so its local body reference frame (LBRF) is at the
origin of the global coordinate system. The LBRF corresponds to the origin of the finite
element (FE) environment in which the body was originally modeled. You can also set the
location and orientation as you import the body or after it is imported as you do any element
in Adams/View. This is applicable only for external systems that have a visual
representation.

For the option:

Do the following:

External System Name

Enter the name you want assigned to the external system.

type

The type of external system. Select one from the following options,
1. Nastran
2. User
The default option when the dialog is opened in the Create mode is
Nastran.

input_file_name

File containing the input source parameters for the external system. The
button provided on the side of the field
edit the specified file.

can be used to view and / or

modal_neutral_file_name An optional (rigid only) MNF, if a visual representation of the external


system is required.
md_db_file_name

An optional MD DB, if a visual representation of the external system is


required.

index_in_database

Index of the body in the specified MD DB. Valid only if the parameter
md_db_file_name is specified.

A - D 151
Create/modify an External System

For the option:


Note:

Do the following:

You may optionally specify a modal neutral file (MNF) or an MD DB file (.master) and
Adams/View creates the necessary Adams/View geometry for displaying the external
system. It also creates a mesh on the external system representing the external system nodes.
The external system will have a visual representation only if either of MNF/MD DB is
specified.

user_function

Specifies up to 30 values for Adams/Solver to pass to a user-written


subroutine. Valid only if the external system type is 'user'. Otherwise the
corresponding fields will be disabled for input.

interface_routines

Specifies an alternative library and subroutine names for the user


subroutines EXTSYS_DERIV, EXTSYS_UPDATE, EXTSYS_OUTPUT,
EXTSYS_SAMP, EXTSYS_SET_NS, EXTSYS_SET_ND,
EXTSYS_SENSUB, EXTSYS_SET_STATIC_HOLD,
EXTSYS_SET_SAMPLE_OFFSET, respectively. Valid only if the
external system type is 'user'. Otherwise the corresponding fields will be
disabled for input.

Location

Enter x, y, z coordinate defining the flexible body's location in the default


coordinate system.

Orientation

Specify either of these three orientation methods,


Orientation
Along Axis Orientation
In Plane Orientation

Relative to

You can:

Specify the orientation coordinates.

Leave blank to use the default coordinate system

152 Adams/View
Create/Modify Filter Function

Create/Modify Filter Function


(Adams/PostProcessor)
Plot Filter Create/Modify
Shortcut: Curve Edit toolbar Filter Curve Tool Right-click Filter Name text box filter_function Create

Creates or modifies a curve filter to eliminate noise on time signals or to emphasize a specific frequency
content of a time signal. Adams/PostProcessor supports two different types of filters:
Butterworth filter - butter() in MATLAB developed by The MathWorks, Inc.
Transfer function - A filter you define by directly specifying the coefficients of a transfer

function.
Once you create a filter, you can apply it to any curve.
Learn about Filtering Curve Data.

For the option:

Do the following:

Filter Name

If creating a filter function, enter a name for the filter.

Defined by

Select to create either a Butterworth filter or a transfer function.

If you selected Butterworth, Adams/PostProcessor displays the following options:


Analog/Digital

Select to create either an analog or digital Butterworth filter. Learn About


Filtering Methods.

Filter Type

Select the type of filter:


Low Pass - Removes frequencies above the cutoff frequency.
High Pass - Removes frequencies below the cutoff frequency.
Band Pass - Removes frequencies outside the two cutoff frequencies.
Band Stop - Removes frequencies between the two cutoff

frequencies.
Order

Set how much the filter will have damped the signal at the cutoff frequency,
often referred to as how sharp the filter is.
First-order filter damps 3dB at the cutoff frequency.
Second-order damps 6dB.
Third-order damps 9dB.

A - D 153
Create/Modify Filter Function

For the option:


Cutoff Frequency
(Scaled) - Digital
filters
Cutoff Frequency (Hz)
- Analog filters

Do the following:
Set the frequency of cutoff.
For a digital filter - Determines the cutoff frequency as a ratio of the

Nyquist frequency (half the sample frequency). Therefore, for a


signal sampled (simulated) with 100 Hz, the Nyquist frequency is
100/2=50Hz. A scaled cutoff frequency=0.3 then has a cutoff
frequency=0.3*50=15 Hz.
Note that if the same filter is applied to a signal sampled at 200 Hz,
the filter cutoff is at 30 Hz. If you selected Band Pass or Band Stop
for Filter Type, you must provide two cutoff frequencies.
For an analog filter - Enter the cutoff frequency in the current units

(rad/s or Hz). If you selected Band Pass or Band Stop for Filter Type,
you must provide two cutoff frequencies.
If you selected Transfer Function, Adams/PostProcessor displays the following options:
Analog/Digital

Select to create either an analog or digital Butterworth filter.

Create from
Butterworth Filter

Select to display the Create Butterworth Filter dialog box to define the transfer
function coefficients based on a Butterworth filter.

154 Adams/View
Create/Modify Filter Function

For the option:

Do the following:

Numerator/Denominat Specify the coefficients for the transfer function that define the filter.
or Coefficients
For an analog filter, the transfer function is defined by the continuous
Laplace s polynomial.
For a digital filter, the transfer function is defined in the z-plane.

The coefficients should be given according to MATLAB convention, which is


descending powers of s (or z):

This differs from how a transfer function is defined for Adams/Solver, where
the coefficients are given in increasing order:

Check Format and


Display Plot

Select to display a plot of the transfer function's gain (magnitude) or phase.


Always check the filter before using it.
Note:
If you have not defined the filter correctly, an error message appears.
If youve defined the filter correctly, a plot appears in which you can

switch between the filters gain and phase plots and change scales.

A - D 155
Create/Modify Friction

Create/Modify Friction
Right-click joint Modify Friction tool

Models both static (Coulomb) and dynamic (viscous) friction in revolute, translational, cylindrical,
hooke/universal, and spherical joints. You cannot apply friction to joints connected to Flexible bodies or
Point masses.
For more information on the values to be entered in the dialog box, select a type of joint below:
Revolute Joint Options
Cylindrical Joint Options
Translational Joint Options
Spherical Joint Options
Universal/Hooke Joint Options

Learn about:
Friction Regime Determination (FRD)

156 Adams/View
Create/Modify General Constraint

Create/Modify General Constraint


Build Joints General Constraint Tool
Edit Modify select general constraint

Available with Adams/Solver (C++) only


Creates or modifies a general constraint that lets you define an arbitrary constraint specific to a particular
model. As its name implies, it is more general than the idealized joints, which describe physically
recognizable combination of constraints that are used to connect bodies together. You can also use the
general constraint to equivalently define an existing idealized joint. Read more about the GCON
statement in Adams/Solver (C++).
We advise that you use the general constraint with caution. Be sure to read the Known Limitations in the
GCON statement.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name for the general constraint. If you are creating a
general constraint, Adams/View assigns a default name to it.

f(q)=

Enter a runtime expression that Adams/Solver (C++) forces to zero


during the simulation. To enter a function expression, next to the f
(q)= text
box, select the More tool
to display the Adams/View Function
Builder. For information on using the Function Builder, see the
Function Builder online help. Learn more about defining a runtime
expression for a general constraint with Extended Definition of
GCON statement.

Report action forces on marker

Enter a marker to have the reaction force on this marker measured


and reported as part of standard results. The reaction force reported
is the force that is exerted on the marker to satisfy the constraint
equation. Note that if you specify a marker and the runtine
expression has no dependency on it, the general constraint reports a
zero force.
Default value is the ground coordinate system (GCS).
Note:

You cannot enter the Adams ID for the marker; you must
enter the name of the marker. Learn about Adams/Solver
IDs.

Add any comments about the general constraint that you want to
enter to help you manage and identify it. See Comments.

A - D 157
Create/Modify General State Equation

Create/Modify General State Equation


Build System Elements General State Equation New/Modify

Lets you represent a subsystem that has well defined inputs (u), internal states (x), and a set of well
defined outputs (y).
Learn about:
Creating and Modifying General State Equations
System Elements

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


General State Equation

Enter the name of the GSE.

Solver ID

Assign a unique ID number to the GSE. See Adams/Solver ID.

U Array (Inputs)

Specify the array element that defines the input variables for the GSE.
The U array is optional. When not specified, there are no system
inputs. The number of inputs to the GSE is inferred from the number
of variables in the U array.

Y Array (Outputs)

Specify the array element that defines the output variables for the
GSE.

User Function Parameters

Specifies the parameters that are to be passed to the User-written


subroutines that define the constitutive equations of a GSE, viz.,
Equations (1), (2), and (3).
Three user subroutines are associated with a GSE:
GSE_DERIV is called to evaluate fc() in Equations 1.
GSE_UPDATE is called to evaluate fd() in Equations 2.
GSE_OUTPUT is called to evaluate g() in Equations 3.

See the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help.


Interface Function Names

If you specify a user function, enter function names to use other than
the standard names GSE_DERIV, GSE_UPDATE, and
GSE_OUTPUT.

States

Set to:
Continuous
Discrete
Sampled
None (No options appear)

If you selected Continuous or Sampled, the following options appear:

158 Adams/View
Create/Modify General State Equation

For the option:

Do the following:

X Array (Continous)

Enter the array element that defines the continuous states for the GSE.
The array element must be of the X type, and it cannot be used in any
other linear state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.

IC Array (Continous)

Enter the array element that specifies the initial conditions for the
continuous states in the system.
When you do not specify an IC array for a GSE, all the continuous
states are initialized to zero.

Static Hold

Indicate whether or not the continuous GSE states are permitted to


change during static and Quasi-static simulations.

If you selected Discrete or Sampled, the following options appear:


X Array (Discrete)

Enter the array element that is used to access the discrete states for the
GSE. It must be of the X type, and it cannot be used in any other linear
state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.

IC Array (Discrete)

Enter the array element that specifies the initial conditions for the
discrete states in the system. The array is optional. The array element
must be of the IC type.
When you do not specify an IC array for a GSE, all the discrete states
are initialized to zero.

First Sample Time

Specify the Simulation time at which the sampling of the discrete states
is to start. All discrete states before the first sample time are defined to
be at the initial condition specified. The default is zero.

Sample Function/Sample
User Parameters

Specify the sampling period associated with the discrete states of a


GSE. This tells Adams/Solver to control its step size so that the
discrete states of the GSE are updated at:
last_sample_time + sample_period
In cases where an expression for the sampling period is difficult to
write, you can specify it in a user-written subroutine GSE_SAMP.
Adams/Solver will call this function at each sample time to find out
the next sample period.
Select the More button
to display the Function Builder and build
an expression. See Function Builder and the Adams/View Function
Builder online help.
Add any comments about the GSE to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

A - D 159
Create/Modify Material

Create/Modify Material
Build Materials

Creates or modifies a material, which you can then assign to parts.


You define a material by its composition, such as restitution coefficient, Young's modulus, Poissons
ratio, and mass density. Part material properties are important in determining the mass moments of inertia
of a part.
Learn about the Standard Material Properties.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

If desired, change the default name assigned to the new material type.

Youngs Modulus

Enter the values for Youngs Modulus.

Poissons Ratio

Enter Poissons Ratio.

Density

Enter mass density.


Select to enter any comments you want associated with the material type.
See Comments.

160 Adams/View
Create/Modify Matrix

Create/Modify Matrix
Build Data Elements Matrix New/Modify

Creates or modifies a Data element matrix.


Learn about creating and modifying Matrices.

Note:

You must create additional matrix elements in your Adams/View model if multiple
matrices are to be read from the same file.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Matrix Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the matrix.

Units

Select the units that you want assigned for values in your matrix. Select
no_units if you do not want units associated with the values. If you set the
units for your matrix values, Adams/View automatically performs any
necessary unit conversions if you ever change your default modeling units.

Comments

Add any comments about the array to help you manage and identify the
array. See Comments.

Full Matrix/

Set to:

Sparse Matrix/
From a File

Full Matrix
Sparse Matrix
From a File

Learn more about Matrix Format Types.


If you selected Full Matrix, the following options appear:
Enter Input Ordered by
Columns/

Set to either:
Enter Input Ordered by Columns - Specify that matrix values are

Enter Input Ordered by


Rows

arranged in order by column.


Enter Input Ordered by Rows - Specify that matrix values are

arranged in order by row.


User Entered Numbers/ Select either:
Result Set Component
Names

User Entered Numbers to enter the values yourself.


Result Set Component Names to obtain the values from the results
of a Simulation from a Result set component.

See an Example of Entering Matrix in Full Format.

A - D 161
Create/Modify Matrix

For the option:

Do the following:

Row Count

For user-entered numbers only, enter the number of rows in the matrix.

Column Count

For user-entered numbers only, enter the number of columns in the matrix.

Values

Enter the values in the matrix in either row or column order depending on
the order you selected above. You can separate the values using a comma or
by pressing Enter after each value.

Result Set Component


Names

For result set components only, enter the names of the components.

If you selected Sparse Matrix, the following option appears:


Row Index

Enter the row numbers, separated by commas, in your matrix containing


nonzero values. Enter the row number each time there is a value in the row.

Column Index

Enter the column numbers, separated by commas, containing nonzero


values. Enter the column number each time there is a value in the column.

Values

Enter the nonzero values in your matrix starting with the first column.
Separate each value with a comma.

If you selected From a File, the following option appears:


File

Enter the name of the file containing the matrix values and the name of the
matrix in the file. The name of the matrix is necessary even if the file
contains only one matrix. You will need to create additional matrices to read
other matrices from the same file.
Learn About the Format for Matrix Data Files.

162 Adams/View
Create/Modify Modal Force

Create/Modify Modal Force


Build Forces Modal Force Tool

Creates or modifies a modal force (MFORCE).


For more information, see:
Modal Forces
Modeling Distributed Loads and Predeformed Flexible Bodies

For the option:

Do the following:

Force Name

Enter the default MFORCE name to create or modify. When creating a


MFORCE, Adams/View automatically assigns a default name of MFORCE
followed by an underscore and a number to make the name unique (for example,
MFORCE_1).

Flexible Body

Specify the flexible body to which the MFORCE is applied.

Reaction Part

If desired, in the text box, enter the name of an existing part to which to apply the
reaction of the modal force resultant. If you enter a part name, Adams/View
automatically creates a Floating marker associated with this part when it creates
the MFORCE. Adams/View keeps the marker coincident with the flexible body
analysis coordinate system during the simulation. Therefore, the need for the
point of reaction to be a floating marker.
In addition, because floating markers cannot be defined on flexible bodies, the
reaction part is restricted to rigid bodies only. You can use the Info command to
see the floating marker that Adams/View creates when you reference a reaction
part.

A - D 163
Create/Modify Modal Force

For the option:


Define Using

Do the following:
Select how you want to define the modal force:
Function - Lets you select the modal loadcase and scale function of the

MFORCE. Note that you cannot select Function when defining an


MFORCE on a flexible body that does not contain any modal load case
information in its corresponding MNF.
Subroutine - Lets you specify up to thirty user-defined constants to be
passed to the user-defined subroutine, MFOSUB to directly compute the

modal load case and scale function whose product is the modal force
applied to the flexible body. The scale function can depend on time or the
state of the system. The load case can only be a function of time.
Force - Lets you specify up to thirty user-defined constants to be passed
to the user-defined subroutine, MFOSUB to directly compute the modal

force on the flexible body. Each component of the modal force can
depend on time or the state of the system. (Adams/Solver (C++) only.
Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog
box help.)
To use a subroutine, you need to build a version of the Adams/Solver that
contains your version of the MFOSUB routine that quantifies the modal force.
For more information, see the Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online
help. You can also specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine
in the Routine text box. Learn about specifying your own routine with ROUTINE
Argument.
If you selected to specify a flexible body with modal load case information, you also specify the
following two options:
Load Case

Select a modal load case label from a list. The list of modal loadcase labels is
generated from the MNF. Learn about Creating Loadcase Files.

Scale Function

Specify an expression for the scale factor to be applied to the modal load case.

164 Adams/View
Create/Modify Point Mass

Create/Modify Point Mass


Build Point Mass New/Modify

Point masses are points that have mass but no inertia properties or angular velocities. They are
computationally more efficient when rotational effects are not important.
For example, you could use point masses to represent the concentrated masses in a net. You could then
represent the ropes between the masses as forces or springs.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

If you are creating a point mass, enter a name for the point mass.

Mass

Set the mass of the point mass.


Note:

Location

By default, Adams/View creates a point mass with a mass of 1 in


current units.

Set or adjust its location as desired.


Note:

By default, Adams/View places the point mass in the center of the


main window.

Select to enter comments to help you manage and identify the point mass. See
Comments.
If you are modifying a point mass, the following also appear:
Displays the Precision Move dialog box to let you change the position of the
point mass.
Displays the Point Mass Measure dialog box to let you create a measure for the
point mass. Learn about creating Object Measures.
Position ICs/
Velocity ICs

Displays the Modify Body dialog box set to let you change the initial position or
velocity of the point mass.

A - D 165
Create/Modify Road

Create/Modify Road
Adds a road assembly to your model. If your model includes tires, you must specify a road because each
tire must reference a road. The road determines the surface friction, bumps, and other inputs to tires.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the road to create or modify.

Part

Enter a part, typically the ground part, to which the road belongs. Generally the
road is fixed in ground but in some cases, the road may move (for example, a
military vehicle driving on the deck of a warship).

Property File

Enter the name of a road property file. The road property file determines the kind
or road (smooth or rough, wet or dry). You can view the contents of the road
property file using the View File button
.

Graphics

Select On to display road graphics or select Off to hide any road graphics. You may
want to hide the road graphics when you work on your model. Roads graphics are
typically large and can affect operations such as fitting to view.

Location and Orientation


Location

Enter a location for the road. The location determines the origin of the road and,
along with the road property file, determines whether any tires referencing this
road are initially contacting the road.

Orient Using

Select a method to orient the road, either Euler Angles or Direction Vectors. The
z direction of the road orientation is always vertical direction. Therefore, you
should orient this axis of the road so it matches the vertical direction in your model.

If you selected Euler Angles, the following option is available:


Euler Angles

Enter the euler angles (body 3,1,3) to orient the road.

If you selected Direction Vectors, the following two options become available:
X Vector/
Z Vector

Enter the x- and z-direction vectors to orient the road. The x-, y-, and z-axes of the
road are determine from the direction vectors as follows:
Z = z-vector / | z-vector |
Y = z-vector x x-vector / | z vector x x-vector |
X = Y x Z / | Y x Z |

For more information on XP-ZP method in Adams/Solver, see argument XP in the


MARKER statement.

166 Adams/View
Create/Modify Road

For the option:

Do the following:
Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.
Select to display the contents of the road property file in the Information window.
This helps you determine what kind of road the file models.

A - D 167
Create/Modify Sensor

Create/Modify Sensor
Simulate Sensor New
Right-click sensor Modify

Allows you to add a sensor to your model or modify an existing one. A sensor monitors a Simulation for
a specified event and changes a set of simulation controls when the event occurs.
Learn about:
Adding Sensors to Your Model
SENSOR statement in the Adams/Solver online help

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter a name for the sensor.

Event Definition

Choose either:
Run-Time Expression - Defines the triggering event using a run-time
function expression.
User-Written Subroutine - Defines the triggering event using a
subroutine.

If you selected Run-Time Expression, the following two options are available:
Expression

Enter a function expression.


Select to display the Adams/View Function Builder.

If you selected User-Written Subroutine, the following option is available:


Parameter List

Enter the parameters to be passed to the user-written subroutine SENSUB.


Enter up to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View is to pass to SENSUB.
For more information on user-written subroutines, see the Subroutines section
of the Adams/Solver online help.

The following option is available for all choices:

168 Adams/View
Create/Modify Sensor

For the option:


Event Evaluation

Do the following:
Choose either:
Run-Time Expression - Specifies an expression that is evaluated

when the event Adams/View is monitoring becomes true. You can


obtain the scalar value of the expression using the SENVAL function
expression.
User-Written Subroutine - Defines and passes constants to a user-

written subroutine that is evaluated when the event Adams/View is


monitoring becomes true. You can obtain the return value of the userwritten subroutine using the SENVAL function.
Example:
If you set the following values, you can retrieve the distance between two
markers. You use the SENVAL function to retrieve the distance.
Event Definition: Run-time Expression
Expression: MOD (time, .5)
Event Evaluation: Run-Time Expression
Expression: DY(3,2)
Target: 0

If you selected Run-Time Expression, the following two options are available:
Expression

Enter a function expression.


Select to display the Adams/View Function Builder.

If you selected User-Written Subroutine, the following option is available:


Parameter List

Enter the parameters to be passed to the user-written subroutine SEVSUB.


Enter up to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View is to pass to SEVSUB.
For more information on user-written subroutines, the Subroutines section of
the Adams/Solver online help.

The following options are available for all choices:


Non-Angular Values

Select to indicate that the expression measures non-angular values.

Angular Values

Select to indicate that the expression measures angular values.

A - D 169
Create/Modify Sensor

For the option:


Pull-Down Menu

Do the following:
Select one of the following:
Equal - From (Target - Error) to (Target + Error).
Greater than or equal - Greater than or equal to (Target - Error).
Less than or equal - Less than or equal to (Target + Error).

See example of the choices


.

In the figure, the sensor triggers whenever the value of the function being
monitored is in the shaded areas. Be careful that your function does not
evaluate in the shaded area at the start of your simulation unless you want your
sensor to trigger immediately. It is a good idea to define a function measure
using the same expression used for your sensor so you can check it by plotting
it.
Value

Enter the target value that triggers an action.

End Tolerance

Enter the absolute value of allowable error between the targeted value and the
actual sensed value.

Generate additional
Output Step at event

Select to create an extra Output step when Adams/Solver triggers the sensor so
you can capture the action.

Set Output Stepsize

Select to redefine the time between consecutive output steps. Adams/Solver


uses this value until it is changed. The default is the current time between
output steps for the simulation.

170 Adams/View
Create/Modify Sensor

For the option:

Do the following:

Terminate current
simulation
and...[stop, or
continue with a
simulation script]

Select to:

Set Integration
Stepsize

Select to redefine the next integration step size. This change is temporary and
lasts only for the next solution step.

Stop the simulation


Stop the current command in the simulation Script and continue with

the next command.

The default is an integrator-determined value except when youve included


restarting the integrator as part of the sensor action as explained next. In this
case, the step size defaults to the integrator step size.
Restart Integrator

Select to restart integration and reduce the integration order to one. If you also
set integration step size as explained above, Adams/Solver reinitializes the
integration step size to the specified value. If you do not specify the step size,
Adams/Solver reinitializes the integration step size to the integrator's default
step size.
To define integration order, see Solver Settings - Dynamic.

Refactorize Jacobian

Select to cause Adams/Solver to generate a new pivot sequence for matrix


factorization. This can help the integrator produce more accurate data or
proceed more robustly through the simulation. Adams/Solver generates a pivot
sequence for matrix factorization before starting the simulation. Adams/Solver
does not generate a new pivot sequence unless you specify to refactorize the
Jacobian or it is necessary to refactorize to reach convergence.

Dump State Variable


Factor

Select to write the entire array of state variable values to a text file in your
current working directory.
Select to add any comments about the sensor to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.
Only available for Run-Time Expression.
Create two measures to monitor the expression and state of a sensor during
simulation. Learn about Object Measures.

A - D 171
Create/Modify Simulation Script

Create/Modify Simulation Script


Simulate Simulation Script New/Modify

Creates or modifies a simulation Script.


Learn about Performing a Scripted Simulation.

For the option:

Do the following:

Script

Enter the name of the script to create or modify.

Script Type

Select either:
Simple Run
Adams/View Commands
Adams/Solver Commands

Learn more about the Types of Simulation Scripts.


If you select Simple Run:
End Time/Duration

Enter the time interval over which the Simulation takes place and set how
you want it defined. You can select:
End Time - Specify the absolute point in time at which you want

the simulation to stop.


Duration - Specify the amount of time over which you want the

simulation to run.
Steps/Step Size

Set the frequency with which Adams/View outputs data during your
simulation. You can specify:
Steps - Represents the total number of times you want

Adams/View to provide output information over your entire


simulation. For example, specify 50 steps over a 1-second
simulation interval to define an output period of 0.02 seconds per
step, which yields an output frequency of 50 steps/second.
Step Size - Represents the amount of time, in current model units,

between output steps. The output frequency remains constant even


if you change your simulation end time or duration. For example,
enter a step size of 0.01 seconds to specify an output period of 0.01
seconds per step, which yields an output frequency of 100
steps/second.

172 Adams/View
Create/Modify Simulation Script

For the option:


Simulation Type

Do the following:
Select a type of simulation to run:
Transient - Default
Transient - Dynamic
Transient - Kinematic
Transient - Static

Learn more about Types of Simulations.


Start at equilibrium

Select to have Adams/View perform a static simulation before performing


a dynamic simulation.

If you select Adams/View Commands:


Adams/View Commands Enter commands below the comment line
!Insert /View commands here:.
Append Run Commands

Select to get assistance with Adams/View simulation commands. See


Getting Assistance with Adams/View Commands.
Select and enter any comments you want associated with the script. See
Comments.

If you select Adams/Solver Commands:


Adams/Solver
Commands

Enter commands below the comment line


!Insert ACF commands here:.

Append ACF Command

Select to get assistance with Adams/Solver commands. See Getting


Assistance with Adams/Solver Commands.
Select and enter any comments you want associated with the script. See
Comments.

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Create/Modify Solver Array

Create/Modify Solver Array


Build Data Elements Array New/Modify

Creates or modifies a data element Array.


Learn more about data element Arrays.

For the option:


Array Name

Do the following:
Enter the name that you want assigned to the array.
Tips: You might find it easier to track which array element goes with
which system element if you name the array elements and the
corresponding system elements with like names. For example, the
states (X) array that goes with general state equation GSE_100 would
be ARRAY_100 ; the inputs (U) array would be ARRAY_101 ; and
the outputs (Y) array would be ARRAY_102 .

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the array to help you manage and identify
the array. See Comments.

General/Initial Conditions
(ICs)/

Set to:
General

X (States)/

Initial Conditions (ICs)

Y (Outputs)/

X (States)

U (Inputs)

Y (Outputs)
U (Inputs)

Learn more about Types of Arrays.


If you selected Define General or Initial Conditions, Adams/View displays the following option:
Numbers

Enter the values to be stored in the array.

If you selected X (States) or Y (Outputs), Adams/View displays the following option:


Size

Enter the size of the array.

If you selected U (Inputs), Adams/View displays the following option:


Variables

Enter the variables to be stored. If the array is used as input to a


transfer function, then you can only enter one variable.

174 Adams/View
Create/Modify Spline

Create/Modify Spline
Build Data Element Spline New/Modify

The Spline Editor provides a tabular or plot view of your spline data for editing and plotting. You can
drag points on your spline plots and see the effect of different curve-fitting techniques on your spline.
You can also select linear extrapolation and view its effect.
Using the Spline Editor, you can create a two- or three-dimensional splines. Note, however, that the
Spline Editor does not display a three-dimensional spline in plot view.
Learn about Creating Splines Using the Spline Editor.
To set the view of the Spline Editor:
Set View As to either Tabular Data or Plot.

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Create/Modify Standard Controls Block

Create/Modify Standard Controls Block


Build Controls Toolkit

Displays the Adams/View Controls toolkit, which provides basic control elements such as filters, gains,
and PIDs.
Adams/View implements these controllers within the model as differential equations (that is, linear
continuous control). You can modify the user-defined control inputs and outputs for later use with
Adams/Linear and Adams/Controls.
Learn more about Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit.

176 Adams/View
Create/Modify Standard Controls Block

Icon

Link
Input-Signal Function Block

Summing Junction Block

Gain Block

Integrator Block

Low-Pass Filter Block

Lead-Lag Filter Block

User-Defined Transfer Function Block

Second-Order Filter Block

PID Controller

Switch Block

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Create/Modify State Variable

Create/Modify State Variable


Build System Elements State Variable New/Modify

Creates or modifies a state variable.


Learn about:
Creating and Modifying State Variables
System Elements

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the state variable.

Definition

Set to either:
Run-time Expression
User written subroutine

Learn more about Ways to Define State Variables.


F(time...,) =

If you selected Run-time Expression, enter the function expression

that defines the variable. Select the More button


to display the
Function Builder and build an expression. See the Adams/View
Function Builder online help.
If you selected User written subroutine, enter constants to the userwritten subroutine VARSUB to define a variable. See the Subroutines
section of the Adams/Solver online help.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine VARSUB.
Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

Guess for F(1, 0..) and Select and then specify an approximate initial value for the variable, if
desired. Adams/Solver may adjust the value when it performs an Initial
conditions simulation. Entering an accurate value for initial conditions can
help Adams/Solver converge to the initial conditions solution.

178 Adams/View
Create/Modify String

Create/Modify String
Build Data Elements String New/Modify

Creates or modifies a string element that defines a character string that you can refer to later in the
execution of Adams/View or Adams/Solver. The character string cannot be broken and continued on the
next line. It can, however, be longer than a single line. You can use the GTSTRG subroutine to retrieve
the character string in a User-written subroutine. For example, you could use a string element to pass a
file name to a user-written subroutine. For more information, see Subroutines section of the
Adams/Solver online help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the string.

String

Enter the string values.

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Create/Modify Transfer Function

Create/Modify Transfer Function


Build System Elements Transfer Function New/Modify

Creates or modifies a transfer function.


Learn about:
Creating and Modifying Transfer Functions
TFSISO statement.
System Elements

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the transfer function.

Input Array Name (U)

Enter the array that defines the input (or control) for the transfer function. The
array must be an inputs (U) array. If you specified the size of the array when
you created it, it must be one.

State Array Name (X)

Enter the array that defines the state variable array for the transfer function.
The array must be a states (X) array, and it cannot be used in any other linear
state equation, general state equation, or transfer function. If you specified the
size of the array when you created it, it must be one less than the number of
coefficients in the denominator.

Output Array (Y)

Enter the array that defines the output for the transfer function. The array must
be an outputs (Y) array, and it cannot be used in any other linear state
equation, general state equation, or transfer function. If you specify the size
of the array when you created it, its size must be one.

IC Array Name (IC)

Enter the array that defines the initial conditions array for the transfer
function. The array must be an IC array, and it cannot be used in any other
linear state equation, general state equation, or transfer function. If you
specified the size of the array when you created it, it must be equal to the size
of the state array.

Numerator Coefficients
and Denominator
Coefficients

Specify the coefficients of the polynomial in the numerator and denominator


of the transfer function. List the coefficients in order of ascending power of s,
starting with s to the zero power, including any intermediate zero coefficients.
The number of coefficients for the denominator must be greater than or equal
to the number of coefficients for the numerator.

Check Format and


Display Plot

Display a plot of the transfer function.

180 Adams/View
Create/Modify Transfer Function

For the option:


Keep value constant
during static analyses.

Do the following:
Select whether or not Adams/Solver should hold constant the value of the
transfer equation during static and Quasi-static simulations. Learn about
Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using System Elements.
Select to enter comments about the transfer function to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

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Create/Modify Wheel and Tire

Create/Modify Wheel and Tire


Adds a wheel and tire assembly to your model. Learn about Defining Tires in Adams/View.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the wheel-tire assembly to create or modify.

Side (left,right)

Select the side of the vehicle on which this wheel-tire assembly will
be located. Some road use this information to apply different inputs
to left and right tires (for example, the 2D stochastic (random) road).
If you are modeling a motorcycle, we recommend selecting left for
both the front and rear wheel tires.

CM Offset

Optionally, enter the wheel center of mass offset. This is the distance
the wheel center of mass is offset along the wheel-spin (z) axis from
the wheel center.

Mass

Enter the mass of wheel. Typically, the mass of the wheel and tire are
lumped together. If you select a property file for the SWIFT or FTIRE
models, however, enter only the mass of the wheel itself as these
models include the mass affects of the tire.

Ixx Iyy

Enter the moment of inertia about the x- and y-axes (camber and steer
axes). Enter one value because Ixx is assumed to equal Iyy for wheeltire.

Izz

Enter the moment of inertia about the wheel-tire's z- (Spin) axis.

Wheel Center offset (0ptional)

Enter the offset of the wheel center geometry along the z-axis of the
wheel part.

Tire Property File

Specify the property file containing the data for the tire. When the
dialog box is first displayed, the default filename mdi_0001.tir
appears in the text box. Use the View File button
to view the
contents of the tire property file.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Longitudinal Velocity

(Optional)
Enter the initial longitudinal velocity of the wheel-tire. The
longitudinal velocity is velocity along the X axis of the wheel-tire.

182 Adams/View
Create/Modify Wheel and Tire

For the option:


Spin Velocity

Do the following:
(Optional)
Enter the initial spin velocity of the wheel-tire. The spin velocity is
the rotational velocity of the wheel-tire about its z-axis in negative
direction. A good approximation of the initial spin velocity is the
longitudinal velocity divided by the unloaded radius of the tire:
Spin Velocity = Longitudinal Velocity / Unloaded Radius

Road

Enter the name of an existing road property file. To create a road,


right-click the text box, point to vpg_road, and then select Create.
The Create/Modify Road dialog box appears. The road determines the
input your tire seesrough or smooth, wet or dry, and so on.

Location and Orientation


Location

Enter the location of the wheel center.

Orient using

Select either Euler Angles or Direction Vectors.

Euler Angles

Enter the euler angles (body 3,1,3 angles) to orient the wheel-tire
assembly.

X Vector

Enter the x-direction vector. The x- and z- direction vectors determine


the x,y,z orientation of the wheel-tire in the following way:
Z = z-vector / | z-vector |
Y = z-vector x x-vector / | z vector x x-

vector |
X = Y x Z / | Y x Z |

For more information on XP-ZP method, see the argument XP in the


MARKER statement.
Z Vector

Enter the z-direction vector (see X Vector above).


Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage
and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the contents of the road or tire property file in the
Information window. This helps you determine what kind of road the
file models.

A - D 183
Create/Modify model

Create/Modify model
Build Model New/Modify

Creates or modifies a Model. You can store more than one model in a Modeling database. You may find
it helpful to store multiple models in the same database because it lets you:
Keep multiple versions of the same mechanical system in the same file.
Store models of subsystems in one file that you want to combine and simulate as a whole.
Compare results between models.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model Name

Enter a name for the model. You can enter up to 80 alphanumeric


characters. You cannot include special characters, such as spaces or
periods.

Copy gravity settings of


current model.

Only available if creating a model.


Select whether or not you want to use the same gravity settings as the
current model in your database. Learn about Specifying Gravitational Force.
Select to add any comments about the marker to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

184 Adams/View
Custom Inertial Modeling

Custom Inertial Modeling


Flexible Body Modify dialog box Custom

Use to select the inertia invariants to define the modal formulation of the flexible body. Use the Tool tips
to help you decide which invariants to select. Learn more about defining the modal formulation.

A - D 185
Cut Tool

Cut Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Cut Tool

Removes the volume where one solid intersects another solid to create a new solid. It subtracts the
geometry of the second part that you select from the geometry of the first part. The remaining geometry
belongs to the second part that you selected. The following is an example of cutting a solid:

You cannot cut the geometry so that the remaining geometry is split into two solids. For example, you
cannot cut a block from the center of a cylinder so that two cylinders remain after the cut. The following
is an example of cutting a solid into two solids:

186 Adams/View
Cut Tool

If a part completely envelopes another part, you cannot cut that part from the enveloped part because no
geometry would result. For example, if a box completely envelopes a sphere, you cannot cut the box from
the sphere and leave a zero mass part. The following is an example of cutting a solid into a zero-mass part

:Learn about Cutting a Solid.

A - D 187
Cylinder Tool

Cylinder Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Cylinder Tool

Creates a Solid geometry with a circular base. You draw the cylinders centerline and Adams/View
creates the cylinder with a radius 25% of the length of the centerline. Before you draw a cylinder, you
can also specify its length and radius:

The Cylinder tool draws the centerline of the cylinder in the plane of the screen or the Working grid, if
you have it turned on.
Learn about Creating a Cylinder.
For the option:
New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the cylinder to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the cylinder to ground.

Tip:

Add the geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you
are simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry
that defines the race track can be added to ground.

Length

Enter the length of a cylinder, if desired.

Radius

Enter a radius, if desired.


If you do not enter a radius, Adams/View creates the cylinder with a radius
25% of the length of the center line.

Note:

Two hotpoints appear after you draw a cylinder. One lets you modify the length of the
cylinder and one lets you set its radius. For more information on modifying geometry using
hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry.

188 Adams/View
Cylindrical Joint Tool

Cylindrical Joint Tool


Build Joints Cylindrical Joint Tool

Creates a cylindrical joint that allows both relative rotation as well as relative translation of one part with
respect to another part. A cylindrical joint can be located anywhere along the axis about which the parts
can rotate or slide with respect to each other.
The orientation of the cylindrical joint defines the direction of the axis about which the parts can rotate
or slide along with respect to each other. The rotational axis of the cylindrical joint is parallel to the
orientation vector and passes through the location.

Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

A - D 189
Cylindrical Joint Tool

Adding Friction to Idealized Joints

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
Learn about Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

190 Adams/View
Data Element Create Array U Input Array

Data Element Create Array U Input Array


Build Controls Toolkit U Input Array

Groups together a set of variables to define the inputs for a system element, either linear state equation,
general state equation, or transfer function.
Learn about Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit.

For the option:

Do the following:

Array Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the array.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the array to help you manage and identify it. See
Comments.

Size

Specify the size of the array.


If you enter a size, it should match the number of variables. Adams/View provides
the size parameter mainly for your convenience in model creation (it is not
required).

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

A - D 191
Data Element Create Array X State Array

Data Element Create Array X State Array


Build Controls Toolkit X State Array

Defines a list of state variables (X) associated with a system element, such as a linear state equation,
general state equation, or transfer function. To use this array, you must reference the array name as the
state variable array in the system element definition. You can use each X state array with only one system
element in your model.

For the option:

Do the following:

Array Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the array.

Adams ID

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the array to help you manage and identify it. See
Comments.

Size

Specify the size of the array. The corresponding system element automatically
determines the size of the array and checks it against the size you entered.
For linear state equation, the X state array size is the row dimension of the

A state matrix.
For transfer functions, the transformation from polynomial ratio type to

canonical state space type internally determines the X state array size.
For general state equations, the X state array size is the state equation

count as defined in the general state equation.

192 Adams/View
Data Element Create Array Y Output Array

Data Element Create Array Y Output Array


Build Controls Toolkit Y Output Array

Specifies the output array for a system element, either linear state equation, general state equation, or
transfer function. To use these arrays, you must reference the array name as the output array in the system
element definition. You can use each Y output array with only a single system element.
Learn about Using the Adams/View Controls Toolkit.
For the option:

Do the following:

Array Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the array.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the array to help you manage and identify the array. See
Comments.

Size

Specify the size of the array. The corresponding system's modeling element
automatically determines the size of the array and checks it against the size you
entered.
For linear state equations, the Y output array size is the row dimension of

the C output matrix or the D feedforward matrix.


For transfer functions, the Y output array size is always 1.
For general state equations, the Y output array size is the output equation

count, as defined in the general state equation.

A - D 193
Data Element Create Curve

Data Element Create Curve


Build Data Elements Curve New

Creates a data element curve.


Learn more about Curves.

For the option:

Do the following:

Curve Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the curve.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the curve. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the curve to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

Closed

Set to either no to create an open curve or yes to create a closed curve.

Define Using Matrix/

Set to either:

Define Using Subroutine

Define Using Matrix


Define Using Subroutine

Learn about Defining Data Element Curves.


If you selected Define Using Matrix, the following option appears:
Matrix Name

Enter the matrix name.

Interpolation Order

Specify the order of the b-spline interpolating the curve. The order is
1 plus the degree of the functions used to define the spline. The order
also affects the number of points used to determine each spline
segment. For example, splines of order 2 are basically polylines, while
the segments used to create an spline of order 4 are of the 3rd order. 4
is the default order of splines, which is a cubic b-sline.
Note:

B-splines of order K will have K - 2 continious derivatives.


The discontinuities appear where the polynomial segments
joint together. Increasing the order of the b-spline arbitrarily
may introduce unwanted oscillation into the curve.

If you selected Define Using Subroutine, the following options appear:


User Function

Enter parameters to the user-written subroutine CURSUB. Enter the


user function using the following format where r1 through r30 are
constants passed to the subroutine:
r1, ..., r30
Learn About Specifying a Subroutine.

Minimum Parameter

Enter the minimum value of the curve parameter for a user-written


curve.

194 Adams/View
Data Element Create Curve

For the option:

Do the following:

Maximum Parameter

Enter the maximum value of the curve parameter for a user-written


curve.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the subroutine. Learn about
specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

A - D 195
Data Element Create Plant Input

Data Element Create Plant Input


Build Controls Toolkit Plant Input
Build Data Elements Plant Plant Input New...
Interactive Simulation dialog box Linear States Tool Right-click Plant Input text box

Defines a set of inputs (state variables) to the mechanical system that Adams/Solver recognizes as system
input during an Adams/Linear simulation. When you run any other type of simulation, the plant input acts
only as a pointer to the list of the specified variables.
Both function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the plant input:
Function expressions access the values by using the Adams/Solver function PINVAL(i i), where i

specifies the PINPUT ID and i specifies the ith variable in the plant input list. Note that i is not
the ID of the variable.
User-written subroutines call the subroutine SYSFNC to access single elements of the plant input
list and call the subroutine SYSARY to access all values for a PINPUT (see the Subroutines
section of the Adams/Solver online help).

Learn more:
Plant Inputs and Outputs
Ways to Use Plant Input and Output

Note:

Variables can appear in more than one plant input. This allows you to output two or more
sets of state matrices at the same time.

For the option:

Do the following:

Plant Input Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the plant input.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plant input. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant input to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

196 Adams/View
Data Element Create Plant Output

Data Element Create Plant Output


Build Controls Toolkit Plant Output
Build Data Elements Plant Plant Output New ...
Interactive Simulation dialog box Linear States Tool Right-click Plant Output text box

Defines a set of output (state variables) that Adams/Solver recognizes as system output during an
Adams/Linear simulation. When you run any other type of simulation, the plant output acts only as a
pointer to the list of the specified variables.
Both function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the plant output:
Function expressions access the values by using the Adams/Solver function POUVAL(i1,i2),

where i1 specifies the plant output ID, and i2 specifies the i2th variable in the plant output list.
Note that i2 is not the ID of the variable.
User-written subroutines access single elements of the plant output list and call the subroutine
SYSFNC to access all values for a POUTPUT by calling the subroutine SYSARY (see the
Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help).

Note:

Variables can appear in more than one plant output. This allows you to output two or more
sets of state matrices at the same time.

Learn more:
Plant Inputs and Outputs
Ways to Use Plant Input and Output

For the option:

Do the following:

Plant Output Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the plant output.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plant output. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant output to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

A - D 197
Data Element Create Plant State

Data Element Create Plant State


Build Controls Toolkit Plant State
Build Data Elements Plant Plant State New ...
Interactive Simulation dialog box Linear States Tool Right-click Plant State text box

Adams/Solver (C++) only. Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box
help.
Adams/Linear requires a minimum representation of the system to generate the state matrix from which
eigenvalues can be computed. For non-stationary systems, the state matrix is a function of the states used
to linearize the system. This dialog box lets you to define a set of states that are to be used in the
linearization scheme. You can specify as many states as there are degrees-of-freedom. If a smaller set of
states are provided, then the system will "fill in" by choosing a set of internally available states for the
ones that were not explicitly specified. If too many states are specified, Adams/Solver identifies and
discards the redundant states.
Plant states are a list of variables. The variables contain expressions that specify the states that are to be
used in linearizing the system. Plant state objects are defined in the model. The LINEAR command can
instruct Adams/Solver to use a specific plant state object for generating the linear model. A model can
contain any number of plant state objects. You can use any one of them with the LINEAR command.
For more information, see the Adams/Solver (C++) LINEAR command.
For theoretical details, see the white paper in Simcompanion Knowledge Base Article
KB8016460.
For an example of using PSTATE, see Simcompanion Knowledge Base Article KB8016414.

For the option:


Plant State Name
Adams Id

Do the following:
Enter the name that you want assigned to the plant state.
Assign a unique ID number to the plant state. See Adams/Solver
ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant state to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

Create State Variable for Plant State Displays the Create State Variable for Plant State dialog box,
which allows you to create state variables for use in a plant state
object.

198 Adams/View
Data Element Create Spline

Data Element Create Spline


Build Data Elements Spline General

Creates data element splines using the general method.


Learn more about creating and modifying data element Splines.
For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Spline Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the spline.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the spline. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the spline to help you manage and identify it.
See Comments.

Linear Extrapolate

Set to yes to extrapolate a spline by applying a linear function over the


first or last two data points. By default, for user-defined files,
Adams/Solver extrapolates a spline that exceeds a defined range by
applying a parabolic function over the first or last three data points. For
RPC III or DAC files, the default method of extrapolation is zero-order
(constant).
Learn about Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View.

Units

Enter the units that you want assigned for values in your spline.

File/Result Set
Component/Numerical

Set to:
File
Result Set Component
Numerical

If you selected File, the following three options appear:


File Name

Enter the name of the file.

Block Name

If desired, enter the block within the file from which you want
Adams/View to take the data. The block must be specifically named in
the file.

Channel

Set the channel from which to take the data. This option is for use with
time response data in RPC III files only. For more information, see
Adams/Durability online help.

If you selected Numerical, the following options appear:

A - D 199
Data Element Create Spline

For the option:


X, Y, Z

Do the following:
Enter the x, y, and, optionally, z values in the text boxes.
Specify at least four x and y values. The maximum number of x

values, n, depends on whether you specify a single curve or a


family of curves.
Values must be constants; Adams/Solver does not allow

expressions.
Values must be in increasing order: x1 < x2 < x3 , and so on.

If you selected Result Set Components, the following options appear:


X, Y, Z Result Set
Component

Enter the Result set components to be used for the x, y, and z values in
the text boxes.

200 Adams/View
Data Element Modify Curve

Data Element Modify Curve


Build Data Elements Curve Modify

Modify a data element curve.


Learn more about working with data element Curves.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Curve Name

Enter the name of the curve being modified.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the curve. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the curve to help you manage and identify it. See
Comments.

Closed

Set to either no to create an open curve or yes to create a closed curve.


Learn About Specifying Open or Closed Curves.

Define Using Matrix/


Define Using
Subroutine

Set to either:
Define Using Matrix
Define Using Subroutine

Learn about Defining Data Element Curves.


If you selected Define Using Matrix, the following option appears:
Matrix Name

Enter the matrix name.

Interpolation Order

Specify the order of the b-spline interpolating the curve. The order is 1 plus the
degree of the functions used to define the spline. The order also affects the
number of points used to determine each spline segment. For example, splines
of order 2 are basically polylines, while the segments used to create an spline
of order 4 are of the 3rd order. 4 is the default order of splines, which is a cubic
b-sline.
Note:

B-splines of order K will have K - 2 continious derivatives. The


discontinuities appear where the polynomial segments joint together.
Increasing the order of the b-spline arbitrarily may introduce
unwanted oscillation into the curve.

If you selected Define Using Subroutine, the following options appear:


User Function

Specify up to 30 values to pass to the user-written subroutine.

Minimum Parameter

Enter the minimum value of the curve parameter for a user-written curve.

Maximum Parameter

Enter the maximum value of the curve parameter for a user-written curve.

Routine

Enter the function to be called. The default is CURSUB.

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Data Element Modify Plant Input

Data Element Modify Plant Input


Build Data Elements Plant Plant Input Modify...

Modifies a set of inputs (state variables) to the mechanical system that Adams/Solver recognizes as
system input during an Adams/Linear simulation. When you run any other type of simulation, the plant
input acts only as a pointer to the list of the specified variables.
Both function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the plant input:
Function expressions access the values by using the Adams/Solver function PINVAL(i i), where i

specifies the PINPUT ID and i specifies the ith variable in the plant input list. Note that i is not
the ID of the variable.
User-written subroutines call the subroutine SYSFNC to access single elements of the plant input
list and call the subroutine SYSARY to access all values for a PINPUT (see the Subroutines
section of the Adams/Solver online help).

Learn more:
Plant Inputs and Outputs
Ways to Use Plant Input and Output

Note:

Variables can appear in more than one plant input. This allows you to output two or more
sets of state matrices at the same time.

For the option:

Do the following:

Plant Input Name

Select an exisitng plant input.

New Plant Input Name

Enter the new name that you want assigned to the plant input.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plant input. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant input to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

202 Adams/View
Data Element Modify Plant Output

Data Element Modify Plant Output


Build Data Elements Plant Plant Output Modify ...

Modifies a set of output (state variables) that Adams/Solver recognizes as system output during an
Adams/Linear simulation. When you run any other type of simulation, the plant output acts only as a
pointer to the list of the specified variables.
Both function expressions and user-written subroutines can access the plant output:
Function expressions access the values by using the Adams/Solver function POUVAL(i1,i2),

where i1 specifies the plant output ID, and i2 specifies the i2th variable in the plant output list.
Note that i2 is not the ID of the variable.
User-written subroutines access single elements of the plant output list and call the subroutine
SYSFNC to access all values for a POUTPUT by calling the subroutine SYSARY (see the
Subroutines section of the Adams/Solver online help).

Note:

Variables can appear in more than one plant output. This allows you to output two or more
sets of state matrices at the same time.

Learn more:
Plant Inputs and Outputs
Ways to Use Plant Input and Output

For the option:


Plant Output Name

Do the following:
Select an exisitng plant output.

New Plant Output Name Enter the new name that you want assigned to the plant output.
Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plant output. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant output to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

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Data Element Modify Plant State

Data Element Modify Plant State


Build Controls Toolkit Plant State
Build Data Elements Plant Plant State Modify ...
Interactive Simulation dialog box Linear States Tool Right-click Plant State text box

Adams/Solver (C++) only. Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box
help.
Adams/Linear requires a minimum representation of the system to generate the state matrix from which
eigenvalues can be computed. For non-stationary systems, the state matrix is a function of the states used
to linearize the system. This dialog box lets you to define a set of states that are to be used in the
linearization scheme. You can specify as many states as there are degrees-of-freedom. If a smaller set of
states are provided, then the system will "fill in" by choosing a set of internally available states for the
ones that were not explicitly specified. If too many states are specified, Adams/Solver identifies and
discards the redundant states.
Plant states are a list of variables. The variables contain expressions that specify the states that are to be
used in linearizing the system. Plant state objects are defined in the model. The LINEAR command can
instruct Adams/Solver to use a specific plant state object for generating the linear model. A model can
contain any number of plant state objects. You can use any one of them with the LINEAR command.
For more information, see the Adams/Solver (C++) LINEAR command.
For theoretical details, see the white paper in Simcompanion Knowledge Base Article
KB8016460.
For an example of using PSTATE, see Simcompanion Knowledge Base Article KB8016414.

For the option:

Do the following:

Plant State Name

Enter the name of existing plant state.

New Plant State Name

Enter a new name of plant state.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plant state. See Adams/Solver


ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plant state to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Variable Name

Enter the list of variables.

Create State Variable for Plant State Displays the Create State Variable for Plant State dialog box,
which allows you to create state variables for use in a plant state
object.

204 Adams/View
Data Element Modify Spline

Data Element Modify Spline


Build Data Elements Spline Modify

Modifies a spline created using the general method and a file as input.
Learn more about creating and modifying data element Splines.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Spline Name

Enter the name of the spline to modify.

New Spline Name

Enter a new name for the spline, if desired.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the spline. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the spline to help you manage and identify it. See
Comments.

Linear Extrapolate

Set to yes to extrapolate a spline by applying a linear function over the first
or last two data points. By default, for user-defined files, Adams/Solver
extrapolates a spline that exceeds a defined range by applying a parabolic
function over the first or last three data points. For RPC III or DAC files,
the default method of extrapolation is zero-order (constant).
Learn about Curve-Fitting Techniques in Adams/View.

Units

Enter the units that you want assigned for values in your spline.

File/Result Set
Component/Numerical

Set to:
File
Result Set Component
Numerical

If you selected File, the following three options appear:


File Name

Enter the name of the file.

Block Name

If desired, enter the block within the file from which you want Adams/View
to take the data. The block must be specifically named in the file.

Channel

Set the channel from which to take the data. This option is for use with time
response data in RPC III files only. For more information, see
Adams/Durability online help.

If you selected Numerical, the following options appear:

A - D 205
Data Element Modify Spline

For the option:


X, Y, Z

Do the following:
Enter the x, y, and, optionally, z values in the text boxes.
Specify at least four x and y values. The maximum number of x

values, n , depends on whether you specify a single curve or a


family of curves.
Values must be constants; Adams/Solver does not allow

expressions.
Values must be in increasing order:

x1 < x2 < x3 , and so on.


If you selected Result Set Components, the following options appear:
X, Y, Z Result Set
Component

Enter the Result set components to be used for the x, y, and z values in the
text boxes.

206 Adams/View
Database Navigator

Database Navigator
Tools Database Navigator

Shared Dialog Box

Displays the types of objects appropriate for the command you are executing and shows objects in their
database hierarchy. You can browse for objects or set it to rename objects, view information about the
objects and view dependencies. You can also set a filter for the types of objects displayed in the Database
Navigator.
Learn more about Database Navigator.

For the option:

Do the following:

Pull-Down Menu Use the pull-down menu to choose a mode option. Select one:
Browse (the default; the options on this page describe Browse)
Display Attribute
Rename
Comments
Information
Topology By Parts
Topology By Connections
Graphical Topology
Associativity
Select List

Filter

Select if you want to filter the types and names that you want displayed in the
Database Navigator. Then, enter the name of the objects you want to display in the
text box and use the pull-down menu to the right to select the type of object(s) you
want to display. You can also use the pull-down menu below the Filter text box to
only display those objects that are active or inactive.

Sort by

Use the pull-down menu to choose how you want the objects sorted. You can also
select to not sort the objects so they appear in the order they are stored in the
modeling database.

Highlight

Off by default. Select if you want an object to appear selected in the main window
and the reverse.
Use the plus sign (+) or the minus (-) (--) signs to display or hide all of the children
hidden/shown in the tree view.

A - D 207
Database Storage

Database Storage
Settings Solver Output More Output Category Database Storage

Selecting Database Storage as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box, lets you set how
Adams/View handles the results for:
Single Simulations - As you perform a single Simulation, ADAM/View stores the results of the
simulation under the current model in your Modeling database. By default, when you perform

another simulation, Adams/View overwrites the results of the previous simulation. You can store
simulations results in your database after a simulation has finished so that Adams/View does not
overwrite them. For information on saving the results of individual simulation, see Saving
Simulation Results.
Multi-run Simulations - For a parametric analysis, Adams/View stores the parametric analysis

(multi-run) results in an analysis object called Last_Multi. This analysis is not a full analysisit
simply contains a summary of the design variable variations and Objective values for each
model that was analyzed in the parametric study. Unless you rename or copy Last_Multi before
running another parametric analysis, subsequent parametric study summaries will overwrite
Last_Multi.
Saving Multi-Run simulations does not save each individual trial resulit simply saves a summary
of the parametric study. To save each individual trial result, use Save Analysis for Individual
Simulations.
Parametric analyses can run many simulations. Use care in saving individual analyses and/or
mult-run analyses. It is possible to exhaust the memory or file space available on your computer.
Running out of memory or file space can lead to unpredictable system problems, and cause the
parametric analysis to fail.
You can use measures to compare specific data between runs without saving all the results.
Create and display a measure for the data of interest, then select Save Curves under the Display
settings of the Solver Settings dialog box. Adams/View charts the measure for each simulation
and saves all the curves. At the end, you have a strip chart showing the measure for all
simulations.
Stored simulation results remain in your modeling database when you save your modeling database. Be
careful not to save more simulation results than you need since they require quite a bit of storage space.
To delete simulation results from your modeling database, see Deleting Simulation Results.

For the option:

Do the following:

Single Simulations
Save Analysis

Set to Yes to automatically store simulation results in the modeling database.

Prefix

After selecting Save Analysis, enter the prefix you want Adams/View to use as the
name of each simulation. Adams/View appends a unique number to the prefix to
form the complete name of the new analysis object.

Multi-Run Simulations

208 Adams/View
Database Storage

For the option:

Do the following:

Save Analysis

Set to Yes to automatically a copies the parametric analysis results to a permanent


location when the analysis is complete.

Prefix

After selecting Save Analysis, enter the name you want to use for each analysis
object. Adams/View appends a unique number to the prefix to form the complete
name of the new analysis object. Adams/View creates the new analysis under the
model you analyzed.

Stop on error

Set to Yes a to stop the parametric analysis if Adams/Solver encounters an error


during a simulation. If you set it to No, Adams/Solver continues running
simulations even if a simulation fails or another error occurs. Use care if you turn
this option off. Optimizations probably do not recover well from an error. In some
cases, you may want to continue a Design study or Design of experiments (DOE)
even if a few of the simulations fail.

A - D 209
Defaults Names

Defaults Names
Settings Names

Allows you to determine whether Adams/View uses full object names, short object names, or
Adams/Solver IDs when displaying run-time functions or object names in the Information Window and
dialog boxes. This also determines the naming the Function Builder Assist box uses for object names or
Adams/Solver IDs to generate run-time functions.

For the option:


Display database
references using

Do the following:
Choose from the following:
Full Names - The object's full name. For example:

DX(Model_1.Part_2.Mar_15).
Short Names - Only the specific portion of the object's name required to

uniquely identify it. Example: DX(Mar_15).


Adams IDs - An integer used to identify the object in Adams/Solver dataset

(.adm) file. Example: DX(15). If you select Adams IDs, then Adams/View
displays short names for cases that do not involve functions (object names in
dialog box text boxes).

Note:

Regardless of the option you choose, you can enter the object's full or short name or its
Adams/Solver ID while writing functions.

210 Adams/View
Delete Group

Delete Group
Build Ungroup

Ungroups a Group of objects.


Learn about the procedures for Grouping and Ungrouping Objects.

For the option:


Group Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the group of objects you want to ungroup.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

A - D 211
Design Evaluation Results Table

Design Evaluation Results Table


Simulate Design Evaluation

Allows you to create a report of the results of the Parametric analyses in a table. Learn more about
Generating a Table.

For the option:

Do the following:

Result Set

Enter the parametric analysis result set you want to display.

Column Width

Enter values for the column.

Precision

Enter values for the precision.

Format

Select either Automatic, Exponential, or Fixed.

File Name

Enter the file name if you want to write the table to a file.

Display in
Information Window

Select if you want to display the table in the Information window.


Adams/View displays the Information window showing a tabular summary.

212 Adams/View
Design Evaluation Tools

Design Evaluation Tools


Simulate Design Evaluation

Allows you to begin a parametric analysis.


Note that some of the options change depending on what you are creating.
Learn more about parametric analyses with Parameterization Basics.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model

Enter the name of the model to simulate.

Simulation Script

Enter the name of the simulation Script to use.

Study a

Select either Measure or Objective to define the type of objective you are
using.
If you selected Measure, select Last, Minimum, Maximum, or

Average from the pull-down menu, and then enter the name of the
measure in the text box.
If you selected Objective, enter the name of the objective in the

Objective text box. Optimizations are limited to one objective. You


can monitor more than one objective in a Design study or Design of
experiments (DOE), however, by entering more than one name
separated by a comma.
Select Design Study, Design of Experiments, or Optimization.
Note that each type displays some different dialog box options. Learn about options available for all
types.

Design Study
Design Variable

Enter the name of the design variable that you want to vary.

Default Levels

Enter the number of levels (values) you want to use only if you specified a
range for the design variable.
If you specified a range for the design variable, Adams/View uses

equally spaced levels across the range. You specify the number of
levels in the Default Levels text box.
If you specified a list of values for the design variable,

Adams/View runs a simulation using each value, ignoring the


Default Levels text box.

A - D 213
Design Evaluation Tools

For the option:


Start

Do the following:
Begins the simulation.
After you select Start, Adams/View runs a simulation for each level of the
design variable. When the simulations are done, Adams/View returns the
variable to its original value.

Design of Experiments
Design Variables

Enter the name of the design variable that you want to vary.

Default Levels

Enter the number of levels (values) you want to use only if you specified a
range for the design variable.

Trials defined by

Select either Built-In DOE Technique, Direct Input, or File Input from
the pull-down menu.
If you selected built-in techniques, use the DOE Technique pull-

down menu (see below) to select the technique. If you want to


check that the variables have the same number of levels and display
the required number of runs, select Check Variables, Guess # of
Runs.
If you selected direct input, enter the number of trials (simulations)

and the trial matrix.


If you selected file input, enter the name of the file containing the

trial matrix.
DOE Technique

(Appears only if you selected Built-in DOE Technique above)


Select a DOE technique. The DOE technique or trial matrix controls the
number of simulations and the combination of variable values to use for
each simulation. For example, the Full Factorial technique simulates every
possible combination of levels. If you use two variables with three levels
each, Adams/View runs nine simulations.
The DOE technique or trial matrix selects values for a variable based on the
range or list of values you defined for the variable.
If you specified only a range for a design variable, Adams/View

selects from equally spaced values across the range. You enter the
number of values in the Default Levels text box.
If you specified a list of values for a design variable, Adams/View

selects directly from those values, ignoring the value in the Default
Levels text box.
Check Variables Guess #
of Runs.

(Appears only if you selected Full Factiorial as the DOE Technique above)
Select if you want to check that the variables have the same number of
levels and display the required number of runs.

214 Adams/View
Design Evaluation Tools

For the option:


Number of Trials

Do the following:
(Appears only if you selected Direct Input for Trials Defined by)
Enter the number of trials (simulations) and the trial matrix.

Trial Matrix File

(Appears only if you selected File Input for Trials Defined by)
Enter the name of the file containing the trial matrix.

Edit Trial Matrix File

(Appears only if you selected File Input for Trials Defined by)
Select to edit the trial matrix file.

Preview

Shows you each configuration of your model for every design variable.
Displays an alert box asking you if you want to pause after each
configuration. Select YES to pause.

Start

Begins the simulation. Adams/View runs a simulation for each trial that the
DOE technique or trial matrix defines. When the simulations are done,
Adams/View returns the variables to their original values.

Optimization
Design Variables

Enter the name of the design variables to vary.


If you specified value ranges on any of the design variables,

Adams/View increases or decreases the objective as much as


possible without exceeding the value limits.
If you specified constraints, Adams/View increases or decreases the

objective as much as possible without violating the constraints.


As Adams/View runs the optimization, it iteratively adjusts the design
variable values, attempting to improve the model performance with each
iteration. Adams/View may need to backtrack to avoid violating a
constraint or limit on a variable value. Therefore, the model performance
does not necessarily improve with each iteration. At each iteration,
Adams/View runs several simulations to approximate derivatives and
converge on the next iteration.
Auto. Save

Select if you want to automatically save the original values of the design
variables before starting the optimization analysis.

Goal

Select either Maximize or Minimize. If you select Maximize as the goal,


Adams/View adjusts the design variable values to increase the measure or
objective as much as possible. If you select Minimize, Adams/View reduces
the objective as much as possible.

Contraints

Select if you want to add contraints and then enter the names of the
constraints in the text box that appears.

A - D 215
Design Evaluation Tools

For the option:


Start

Do the following:
Begins the simulation.
The last iteration will be the best values that the optimization could find
without violating constraints or limits. Adams/View normally leaves the
design variables set to the optimized values. If you interrupt the analysis or
Adams/View encounters an error during the analysis, Adams/View resets
the variables to their original values.
If you do not want to keep the optimized values, and you selected the Auto.
Save check box or used the Save button to save the original values, you can
select the Restore button to return the variables to their original values.

The following buttons are available for all three types:


Display, Ouput, and
Optimizer

Displays the Solver Settings dialog box for either display, output, or
optimizer options.
Note that each button brings up a different option in the Solver Settings
Dialog Box.
You can:
Select to display the Save Design Evaluation Results dialog box to

save the simulation results. (Be sure to save your modeling


database after you save the parametric analysis results.)
Right-click to delete the simulation results.

Learn about parametric simulation results for:


Design studies
DOE
Optimizations

Displays the Plot Design Evaluation Results dialog box to display the
results as a plot.
Displays the Design Evaluation Results Table dialog box to display the
results as a table.
Displays the Update Design Variables dialog box to let you update the
design variables.

216 Adams/View
Dialog-Box Builder

Dialog-Box Builder
Tools Dialog Box Create

Allows you to create and modify Dialog boxes to better suit your needs and preferences.

For more information, see Customizing Adams/View.

A - D 217
Discrete Flexible Link

Discrete Flexible Link


Build Flexible Bodies Discrete Flexible Link

Creates a discrete flexible link consisting of two or more rigid bodies connected by beam force elements.

You indicate the following and Adams/View creates the appropriate parts, Geometry, Forces, and
Constraints at the endpoints:
Endpoints of the link
Number of parts and the material type
Properties of the beam
Types of endpoint attachments (flexible, rigid, or free)

Learn about working with Discrete Flexible Links.

Note:

For more information on beam force elements, see Beam. Also note the caution about the
asymmetry of beams.

218 Adams/View
Discrete Flexible Link

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter a text string of alphanumeric characters. Adams/View prepends the


text string you specify to the name of each object it creates. For example, if
you specify the string LINK, the first rigid body is LINK_1, the first marker
is LINK_MARKER_1, and so on.

Material

Enter the type of material to be used for the rigid bodies and beam
properties. Learn about Standard Material Properties.

Segments

Enter the number of rigid bodies that you want in the link.

Damping Ratio

Enter the ratio of viscous damping to stiffness for the beam forces.

Color

Enter the color to be used for the geometry in the flexible link.

Marker 1

Enter the marker that defines the start of the link. Learn about Positioning
Flexible Links.
Note:

Attachment

Marker 1 and Marker 2 are also used to calculate the orientation


of the link.

Select how to define the start of the link:


free - The end is unconnected.
rigid - A fixed joint is created between the parent of Marker 1 and

the first part of the discrete flexible link.


flexible - The link has discrete flexibility all the way to the

endpoint. To create this flexibility, Adams/View creates an


additional beam force between the first segment of the link and the
parent part of Marker 1. The length of the beam is one half of the
segment length.
Marker 2

Enter the marker that defines the end of the link.

Cross Section

Select one of the following to define the geometry of the link or specify the
area and area moments of inertia of the flexible link.
Solid Rectangle
Solid Circle
Hollow Rectangle
Hollow Circle
I-Beam
Properties

A - D 219
Display Attribute

Display Attribute
Database Navigator Display Attribute

Allows you to set how individual, types of objects, and children of objects appear in Adams/View.
Learn about Setting Appearance of Objects Through the Database Navigator.

For the option:

Do the following:

Visibility

Select the visibility of the object

Name Vis

Select the visibility of the name of the object.

Color

Select a color in which to display the object.

Transparency

The higher the value, the more transparent the object is, allowing other
objects to show through. The lower the value, the more opaque the object
is, covering other objects.
Tip:

Setting the transparency of objects can have a negative impact


on graphical performance if you are using a graphics card
without hardware acceleration for OpenGL. Instead of setting
an objects transparency, consider Setting Rendering Mode to
wireframe.

Line Style

Select the type of line style for the object border.

Line Width

Select the weight for the line style. The weight values range from 1 to 5
screen pixels

Icon Size

Enter the size you want for the icons. Note that these changes take
precedence over the size you specify globally for the modeling database as
explained Setting Screen Icon Display.

Active

Set the state of the object during a simulation: active or inactive

Apply

Select to apply the attributes to the objects

Object/Siblings/All

Object - Only apply to the selected object.


Siblings - Apply changes to all objects of the same type that are

children of the parent of the selected object.


All - Apply changes to objects matching the filter you set in the

Filter text box.


Filter

Use to set the types and names to which you want the display attributes
applied. In the text box, enter the name of the objects you want to display
in the text box, and then use the pull-down menu to the right to select the
type of object(s) you want to display.

220 Adams/View
Display Log File

Display Log File


Tools Log File

Shared Dialog Box

Shows you a log of the commands you executed and messages that you receive. The Log file marks
messages as comments so Adams/View does not try to execute them. It indicates a comment by placing
an exclamation mark (!) in front of the message.
Adams/View also displays as comments any commands that it executes when it starts up. To help you
distinguish the startup commands from messages, Adams/View follows the exclamation mark (!) with
the command prompt (>>).
Adams/View does not update the Display Log File dialog box each time you enter a command. You must
select Update to see the new command/message.
By default, Adams/View only shows warning, errors, and fatal messages that you have received. To
change the type of messages displayed and to display commands that Adams/View executed, use the
options below.
Learn about Using the Adams/View Log File.

For the option:


Show only lines of type

Do the following:
Select if you want to change the type of messages displayed.

You must have Show only lines of type selected to select one of the following:
Info

Select if you want to show information messages.

Warning

Select if you want to show warning messages.

Error

Select if you want to show error messages.

Fatal

Select if you want to show fatal error messages.

Show only lines containing Optional. Select if you want to apply a string filter so the log file only
displays lines that contain certain information, such as display only
commands that create links.
Enter the text that the line must contain in the text box. You can also enter
wildcards.
Suppress duplicate lines

Select if you want to remove any duplicate lines that occur if you
encounter the same error again.

Update

Select to redisplay the log file and apply filters.

A - D 221
Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack

Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack


Main Toolbox Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack

Contains tools for dynamically rotating the View in the View window.

Learn about Dynamically Rotating a View.

222 Adams/View
Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack

E-I

E - I 223
Edit Appearance Dialog Box

Edit Appearance Dialog Box


Edit Appearance

Sets how individual objects or types of objects appear in Adams/View. You can set the appearance of any
modeling object in your Modeling database or for a group of objects.
Learn about:
Setting object appearance
Using Wildcards
Icon Settings Dialog Box

For the option:


Entity

Do the following:
To explicitly specify an object, enter the name of the object whose appearance
you want to set.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Once the name of the object is in the text box, press Enter to update the dialog
box.

Types

To specify a group of similar objects, enter a filter or wildcard. For example,


enter Parts to set the appearance of all rigid bodies or Markers to set the
appearance of all markers.

Visibility

Select how you want to set the visibility of the selected object or objects. You
can select:
On - Turns on the display of the objects.
Off - Turns off the display of the objects.
Inherit - Lets the objects simply inherit the display settings from its

parent. For example, a coordinate system marker inherits settings


from its parent part.
Name Visibility

Select whether or not you want the name of the objects displayed in the View
window. Refer to the options above for Visibility for an explanation of the
choices.

224 Adams/View
Edit Appearance Dialog Box

For the option:

Do the following:

Color and Color Scope Enter the color you want used for the objects and set which elements of the
objects should be affected by the selected color. You can select:
Polygon Fill - Sets the color of those areas of a graphic that can be

shaded (they include sides of a cylinders, frustums, boxes, and so


on).
Edge - Sets the color of the lines making up the edges of the facets of

a graphic that can be shaded.


Outline - Sets the color of the lines that make up those graphics that

cannot be shaded or filled like the coil of a spring damper.


Text - Sets the color of the text.
All - Sets the selected color for all elements of an object.

To browse for a color in the Database Navigator or create a new color, rightclick the Color text box, and then select Browse or Create.
Render

Set the rendering for the geometry:


Filled - Adds shading to a solid fill to give a more realistic

appearance. It does not show edges. The light source is from the
upper left.
Wireframe - Shows only the edges of objects so that you can see

through the objects. Helps you select points and edges.


Transparency

Set how transparent the object or objects are. The higher the value, the more
transparent the object is, allowing other objects to show through. The lower
the value, the more opaque the object is, covering other objects.
Tip:

Icon Size/Icon Scale

Setting the transparency of objects can have a negative impact


on graphical performance if you are using a graphics card
without hardware acceleration for OpenGL. Instead of setting
an objects transparency, consider setting the objects render
mode to wireframe.

Enter the size you want for the icons or the amount by which you want to
scale the icons. The scale factor is relative to the current size set. A scale
factor of 1 keeps the icons the same size. A scale factor less than 1 reduces
the size of the icons and a scale factor greater than 1 increases the size of the
icons. Note that these changes take precedence over the size you specify
globally for the modeling database.

E - I 225
Edit Background Color

Edit Background Color


Settings View Background Color

Lets you create a background color for the View window by setting its red, green, and blue light
percentages and change the background of all view windows to this new color. You cannot add the color
to the preset palette of colors or change the colors in the preset palette but you can set the gradient effect.

Learn about Setting View Background Colors.

226 Adams/View
Edit Background Color

Note:

You can also change the background color using the Edit Color dialog box. Learn about
changing object colors, including the background.

For the option:

Do the following:
Displays current color and color as you edit.

Resets the color to the original color of the background.

Palette of preset
colors

Shows the preset colors that appear in the Main toolbox when you select a
background color from the Background color tool stack. You cannot change
these colors.

Red

Use the slider to change the red values, as desired. As you change the color
values, the New color box changes to reflect the new values.

Green

Use the slider to change the green values, as desired. As you change the color
values, the New color box changes to reflect the new values.

Blue

Use the slider to change the blue values, as desired. As you change the color
values, the New color box changes to reflect the new values.

Gradient

If Gradient is checked, then radio buttons became active and you have options
to select Gradient top-light or Gradient top-dark. If Gradient is unchecked, then
both are disabled and unselected.

E - I 227
Edit Color

Edit Color
Settings Colors

Allows you to modify the colors used for displaying objects or create a new color.

For the option:

Do the following:

Color

Select a predefined color.

New Color

Displays the Create New Color dialog box so you can define a new color name
in the Modeling database.
Displays the old or default color on the left side. Displays the new color on the
right side and changes shades as you move the sliders below.

Red

Use the slider to determine the amount of red to be used in the new color.

Green

Use the slider to determine the amount of green to be used in the new color.

Blue

Use the slider to determine the amount of blue to be used in the new color.

228 Adams/View
Enable or Disable a Range of Modes

Enable or Disable a Range of Modes


Flexible Body Modify dialog box range

Lets you disable or enable a group of modes based on either their mode number or frequency by entering
a range of values. Learn more about Enabling and Disabling Modes.

For the option:

Do the following:

Flexible Body Name

Enter the name of the flexible body to modify.

Disable/Enable

Select whether or not to disable or enable modes.

frequency/mode number

Select whether or not to disable or enable by frequency or mode


number.

between/above/below and
text boxes

Select whether the range of modes to enable or disable is between,


above, or below the specified values. Then, specify the values between,
above, or below which you want to disable or enable modes.

E - I 229
Entering File Names in Text Boxes

Entering File Names in Text Boxes


To enter file names in text boxes, you can do either of the following:
Enter the file name directly in the text box.
Clear the text box and then double-click to open a selection window.
Right-click to either:
Search a database
Browse a database

230 Adams/View
Entering Object Names in Text Boxes

Entering Object Names in Text Boxes


To enter object names in text boxes, you can do either of the following:
Enter the object name directly in the text box.
Clear the text box and then double-click to open the Database Navigator.
Right-click to either:
Pick an object shown on the screen.
Browse a complete list of available objects.
Choose from a product-generated list of guesses.

E - I 231
Example of Information Window

Example of Information Window

232 Adams/View
Execute System Command

Execute System Command


Tools System Command

Shared Dialog Box

You can execute an operating system command from within Adams/View so that you do not have to leave
the Adams/View window.
You can select to display the results of the command in the Information Window or the Log file. If you
select to display the results of the command in the Information window, you can:
Clear the window and only view the results of the command.
Save the results of the command to a file.

If you select to display the results in the log file, you can keep the command results with the other
commands that you execute so that you can cut and paste the information together into a new file.

For the option:

Do the following:

Command

Enter the operating system command that you want to execute.

Write Output to Command


Window and Logfile

Select if you want the output of the command to be displayed in both


the Information window and log file.

Write Output to Info Window

Select if you want the output of the command to be displayed in the


Information window.

E - I 233
Exit and Save?

Exit and Save?


File Exit

If you did not save your work, asks you if you want to save your work:
To save your work and exit Adams/View, select OK. If you want to save the model with a new

name in the current directory, enter the new name in the Filename text box.
To exit without saving your work, select Exit, Dont Save.
To continue using Adams/View, select Cancel.

Note:

If you accidentally exit without saving your work, you can use the Adams/View Log file
(aview.log) to recover your work. Learn about Using the Adams/View Log File.

234 Adams/View
Export Dialog Box

Export Dialog Box


File Export

Exports data from Adams/PostProcessor. You can export the following formats:
Numeric Data
Spreadsheet Data
Table
DAC/RPC (For Adams/Durability only; see the Adams/Durability online help.)
HTML Report

E - I 235
Export - Adams/PostProcessor Files

Export - Adams/PostProcessor Files


File Export Adams/PostProcessor Files

Shared Dialog Box

Exports data from Adams/View for use with a stand-alone version of Adams/PostProcessor. When you
export Adams/PostProcessor files, Adams/View generates a command file (.cmd) and all required
supporting files, including:
Dataset (.adm) file
Shell (.shl) files needed for geometry representation
Matrix (.mtx) files for use with the .adm file, if needed

The command file also contains commands to read in the other files when you import the command file
into Adams/PostProcessor.

Note:

The simulation results are not referenced in the command file. You must import the
analysis files (graphics, request, and results files) separately into Adams/PostProcessor.
For more information, see Import - Adams/Solver Analysis Files.

Adams/View names the command file ModelName_to_ppt.cmd, where ModelName is the name of the
model. For example, if the model from which you are exporting data is suspension14, then the command
file is suspension14_to_ppt.cmd.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Adams/PostProcessor Files.

Model Name

Enter the name of the model from which you want the data exported.

236 Adams/View
Export - Adams/Solver Analysis Files

Export - Adams/Solver Analysis Files


File Export Adams/Solver Analysis, Graphics, Request, or Results

Shared Dialog Box

Exports Adams/Solver analysis files, which are a set of output files that Adams/Solver generates during
a single Simulation. You can export them as a set or individually. The files include:
Graphics
Request
Results

Adams/View exports only a set of output files generated from the same Adams/Solver simulation.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Enter the name you want to assign to the analysis file or files. You do not need to
enter the file extension, because Adams/View adds the extensions for you.
If you want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you are
running Adams/View, enter the path name in the File Name text box. To browse for
the directory in which you want to export the command file, right-click the File
Name text box, and then select Browse to display the File Selection dialog box.

Analysis Name

Enter the name of the simulation whose data you want to export.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

E - I 237
Export - Adams/Solver Dataset

Export - Adams/Solver Dataset


File Export Adams/Solver Dataset

Shared Dialog Box

Exporting a model as an Adams/Solver dataset is a convenient method for transferring a model from one
computer platform to another. When you export a model as an Adams/Solver dataset, Adams/View
preserves the database names in your model by writing them as comments in the Adams/Solver dataset.
This allows you to import the dataset at a later date and still have the original database names.
Your model does not have to be complete to be exported as an Adams/Solver dataset. If you want to check
your model for completeness and consistency, verify your model before exporting the dataset.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Enter the name you want to assign to the dataset file. You do not need to enter
the file extension .adm, because Adams/View assumes that is the file extension.
If you want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you are
running Adams/View, enter the path name in the File Name text box. To browse
for the directory in which you want to export the command file, right-click the
File Name text box, and then select Browse to display the File Selection dialog
box.

Model Name

Enter the name of the model you want exported as a command file.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Use Parasolid

Select either:
As is - Adams/View exports any geometry that was imported from a

Parasolid file out to a Parasolid file when it writes the command file. The
command file references the newly created Parasolid file. All other
geometry (for example, cylinder, shell, and spring-dampers) are defined
using Adams/View command language and included in the command file.
Full - Adams/View exports all static geometry to Parasolid files instead of

using Adams/View command language. This includes cylinders, shells,


Parasolid, solids, and so on. It does not include dynamic outlines, springdamper graphics, and graphic force vectors. These graphics continue to be
defined in the Adams/View command language.
Write to
To specify where the text of the dataset is to be written and displayed, select
Window/Write to File one of the following:
Only
Write to Window - To display the dataset in an information window,
as well as save it in a file.
Write to File Only - To only write the dataset to a file and not display

it in an information window.

238 Adams/View
Export - Adams/Solver Dataset

For the option:


Indent Spaces

Do the following:
Enter the number of spaces used to indent the continuation line of a statement.
The allowed values are between 0 and 4 spaces. (Five or more spaces make the
subsequent text on the line a comment.) The default is 1 space.
Adams/View does not indent the text for continuation lines of function
expressions. It assumes that you will add any leading spaces that you want for
indentation of functions. Any indentation Adams/View would enter would
interfere with the indention used to show nesting of IFfunctions. Adams/View
does, however, indent the argument list of a user function if it requires more
than one line.
Adams/View precedes the values of an argument that has multiple string values
separated by colons with a comma and indents the values if you place them on
a continuation line. This applies to the PART/EXACT and COUPLER/TYPE
arguments. It does not apply to the REQUEST/TITLE argument, which doesn't
allow embedded spaces. Instead, Adams/View precedes a REQUEST/TITLE
argument with a comma.

Decimal Places

Enter the number of decimal places written after the decimal point for real
numbers

Zero Threshold

Enter the threshold value for numbers being written to an Adams/Solver


dataset. When Adams/View writes a number that has an absolute value smaller
than the zero threshold value, it writes it as zero. The zero threshold value is
independent of units.

Significant Digits

Control how many significant digits of a real number Adams/View retains


during round off. The default is 10. The number you enter is distinct from the
number of places actually printed for real numbers, which the Decimal Places
value controls. Be sure to select Round Off Values so rounding off occurs.

Scientific Notation

Specify where the format for real numbers switches from a fixed point format
to scientific notation. Enter the lower and upper power of 10. Separate the
values with commas (,). The default values are -4 and 5, meaning that
Adams/View writes any number less than or equal to 1.0E-04 or greater than
or equal to 1.0E+05 in scientific notation.

E - I 239
Export - Adams/Solver Dataset

For the option:

Do the following:

As Found In Original
File/
Put Markers Where
Used/
Keep Markers with
Parts

Control the organization of the statements within the dataset by specifying one
of the following:
As Found In Original File - Maintains the order of the statements in the

original dataset when Adams/View writes the model back to an existing


dataset. To indicate which statements came from the original dataset and
which statements are new, Adams/View writes any new statements that you
have added to the original model after all the original statements, and also
labels both sections.
Put Markers Where Used - Writes the marker statements immediately

after statements that depend on the markers. These include the statements:
BEAM, BUSHING, FIELD, SFORCE, SPRINGDAMPER, VFORCE,
VTORQUE, GFORCE, NFORCE, JOINT, JPRIM, REQUEST,
MREQUEST, CVCV, and PTCV.
If none of these types of statements use a marker, Adams/View writes the
marker statement after the part statement to which it belongs.
Adams/View writes graphic statements that belong to a single part after the
markers for that part, and writes graphic statements that connect one or
more parts after all the part statements are written.
It writes statements of the same type, such as JOINTs, JPRIMs,
BUSHINGs, as a group, in order of ascending Adams IDs.
Keep Markers with Parts - Writes the markers that belong to a part as a

group after the part to which they belong. In addition, Adams/View writes
the graphic statements that belong to a single part after the marker
statements for that part, and writes graphic statements that connect one or
more parts after all the part statements. Adams/View also writes statements
of the same type, such as JOINTs, JPRIMs, and BUSHINGs, as a group, in
order of ascending Adams IDs.
In general, Adams/View writes any statements that depend on other statements
before the statements that depend on them. For example, it writes marker
statements before the joint statements that use them, and writes joint statements
before any coupler statements that connect them.
Roundoff Values

To control the numerical rounding of real numbers, select Roundoff Values to


enable the rounding of real numbers. When you enable the rounding of
numbers, Adams/View retains the numbers of places you enter in the
Significant Digits text box.

Write Default Values

Select to set whether or not arguments that have default values are written
explicitly into the dataset. The default is to not write default values into the
dataset.

240 Adams/View
Export - Adams/Solver Dataset

For the option:


Multiple
parameters/Line

Do the following:
Select to write as many parameters and their values that fit within 80 columns
for each line of the statement. For example:
PART/1, QG = 0.5, 0, 0, REULER = 0D, 90D, 0D, MASS = 1.2

If you do not select Multiple Parameters/Line, Adams/View writes only one


parameter and its values on each line of the statement. For example:
PART/1 ,
QG = 0.5, 0, 0 ,
REULER = 0D, 90D, 0D ,
MASS = 1.2

Upper Case Text/


Lower Case Text,
Mixed Case Text

To control the case of the text of statement keywords and parameters, select one
of the following:
Upper Case Text- Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are

written in uppercase letters (BEAM). Uppercase is the default.


Lower Case Text- Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are

written in lowercase (beam).


Mixed Case Text- Text for keywords and parameters in the dataset are

written in initial case (Beam). The first character of each word is in


uppercase, and the rest are in lowercase.
Note that the text case control does not affect certain types of string-valued
arguments. For a listing of the arguments to which the text case does not apply,
see Arguments Not Affected by Case Control.
Include Trailing
Zeros

Select Include Trailing Zeros to print all the digits after the decimal point
whether they are zero or not. If you do not select Include Trailing Zeros,
Adams/View drops any zeros at the end of the fractional part of the number
leaving the last digit as a non-zero digit.

Export All Graphics

Select Export All Graphics to write all the graphics into the dataset. If this
option is not checked, only the dataset graphics that are supported by the solver
(such as BOX) and those that are referenced by contacts, are included in the
dataset.

Verify Model

Select to verify the model before exporting

Arguments Not Affected by Case Control


The text case control selection in the Export Adams/Solver Dataset dialog box does not affect certain
types of string-valued arguments. Adams/View writes the following arguments into the dataset the way
they were stored in your modeling database:
TIRE:
TPF and RDF RESULTS:
COMMENT MATRIX:
FILE and NAME MADATA:

E - I 241
Export - Adams/Solver Dataset

COMMENT STRING:
STRING REQUEST:
TITLE, COMMENT, FUNCTION, and F1 to F8 MREQUEST:
COMMENT UCON:
FUNCTION MOTION:
FUNCTION FIELD:
FUNCTION SFORCE:
FUNCTION GFORCE:
FUNCTION VFORCE:
FUNCTION VTORQUE:
FUNCTION VARIABLE:
FUNCTION CURVE:
FUNCTION DIFF:
FUNCTION GSE:
FUNCTION SENSOR:
FUNCTION:

242 Adams/View
Export - Adams/Solver Script Files

Export - Adams/Solver Script Files


File Export Adams/Solver Script

Shared Dialog Box

Exports an existing Simulation Script to an Adams/Solver script file (*.acf)

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Adams/Solver Script

File Name

File Name is optional. If not specified, a file with the same name as that of the
script, will be exported to Adams/View working directory. You do not need to
enter the file extension, because Adams/View adds the extension (.acf) for you.
If you want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you are
running Adams/View, enter the path name and the file name in the File Name
text box. To browse for the directory in which you want to export the command
file, right-click the File Name text box, and then select Browse to display the
File Selection dialog box.

Sim Script Name

An existing Simulation Script to export.

E - I 243
Export - Adams/View Command File

Export - Adams/View Command File


File Export Adams/View Command File

Shared Dialog Box

When you export a model as a command file, Adams/View creates a file containing all the commands
necessary to create the selected model. Exporting a model as an Adams/View command file is helpful
when you want to move a model from one type of computer platform to another. Note that the order of
commands in the command file may not be in the same order as you entered them in Adams/View.
Saving a model as a command file does not save your simulation results or analysis files. To save your
analysis files, set up Adams/View so that it saves the analysis files.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Enter the name you want to assign to the command file. You do not need to enter
the file extension .cmd, because Adams/View assumes that is the file extension.
If you want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you are
running Adams/View, enter the path name in the File Name text box. To browse for
the directory in which you want to export the command file, right-click the File
Name text box, and then select Browse to display the File Selection dialog box.

Model Name

Enter the name of the model you want exported as a command file.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Use Parasolid

Select either:
As is - Adams/View exports any geometry that was imported from a

Parasolid file out to a Parasolid file when it writes the command file. The
command file references the newly created Parasolid file. All other
geometry (for example, cylinder, shell, and spring-dampers) are defined
using Adams/View command language and included in the command file.
Full - Adams/View exports all static geometry to Parasolid files instead of

using Adams/View command language. This includes cylinders, shells,


Parasolid, solids, and so on. It does not include dynamic outlines, springdamper graphics, and graphic force vectors. These graphics continue to be
defined in the Adams/View command language.

244 Adams/View
Export - CAD (IGES, STEP, DXG, DWG, and Parasolid)

Export - CAD (IGES, STEP, DXG, DWG, and Parasolid)


File Export IGES, STEP, DXG/DWG, or Parasolid

Shared Dialog Box

Exports CAD geometry using Adams/Exchange. It writes the geometric definition of an Adams model
or part from to the specified CAD file format. You can then read the CAD file into a CAD program.
You can export an entire model, an individual part of a model, or a model as it exists at a particular
simulation time, which is helpful for transferring position data of an Adams model to a drafting program
to prepare drawings of the mechanism at various states of operation.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to type of geometry that you want to export (IGES, STEP, DXF, DWG,
or Parasolid).

File Name

Enter the name of the file that you want to create. The file will contain the
exported CAD geometry. You do not need to enter a file extension.
Adams/Exchange automatically generates the appropriate extension for the
type of geometry you are exporting. For example, if you are exporting IGES
geometry, Adams/Exchange adds an .igs extension.

File Type

For Parasolid geometry only, set to the type of Parasolid geometry file to
create.

Part/Model/Analysis
Name

Select the geometry that you want to export, and then enter the name of

the geometry in the text box next to the pull-down menu. You can select:
Model Name - Lets you specify the Adams/View model to be written to

the CAD file. Adams/Exchange places each rigid body in the model on a
separate level. All geometry written to the IGES file is defined with
respect to the global coordinate system of the Adams/View model.
Part Name - Lets you specify the Adams/View part to be written to the

CAD file. Adams/Exchange writes all the geometry owned by the part
to the CAD file. It defines all geometry in the CAD file with respect to
the part coordinate system.
Analysis Name - Lets you export a model at a particular simulation

frame (time) of a particular analysis. This is helpful for transferring


position data of an Adams/View model to a drafting program to prepare
drawings of the mechanism at various states of operation.
Adams/Exchange writes all parts and geometry to the CAD file in the
same relative position as they appear in a single frame display.

E - I 245
Export - DAC or RPC III

Export - DAC or RPC III


File Export DAC/RPC III

Shared Dialog Box

You can export either DAC Format or RPC III Format request files from Adams/View after a simulation
completes. This technique does not require you to set up requests before running the simulation.
By definition, results output to an RPC III or DAC file must have constant time steps. If the results data
being output includes non-constant time steps, Adams/View issues a warning, and the time axis of the
data will be warped so that the time interval is constant.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to DAC or RPC3.

File to Read

Enter the name of the DAC or RPC III file that you want to export.

Results Data

Select the result set components you want to export. The result set components
can come from results sets, measures, or requests. You can only have one
result set per DAC file. To select the data, right-click the Result Data text box,
point to Result_Set_Component, and then select Browse to display the
Database Navigator.

246 Adams/View
Export - FEA Loads

Export - FEA Loads


File Export FEA Loads

Shared Dialog Box

Export FEA load information.


Before exporting FEA load information, you must run a Simulation of your model.
Learn about:
About Exporting FEA Loads
Process for Exporting FEA Loads

E - I 247
Export - FEA Loads

Limitations for Exporting FEA Loads

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to FEA Loads.

File Format

Select the file format for the loads file that you want Adams/View to
create.

Inertia

Clear the selection of this option if you would like to output external
loads only.
When selected, Adams/View outputs inertia loads in addition to

external loads. Inertia loads include linear acceleration, angular


acceleration, and angular velocity of the part or flexible body.
Reaction loads include applied and reaction forces acting on the
body.
When cleared, Adams/View specifies a load imbalance for the

body, and you must employ a technique, such as inertia relief in


the finite element program, to recover the inertia loads based on
external loads.
File Name

Enter the name of the file to be created. If you want the file written to a
directory other than the one from which you are running Adams/View,
enter the path name in the File Name text box.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Analysis

Enter the simulation containing the information you want to export.

Loads on Rigid Body/


Loads on Flexible Body

Select whether the body whose load information you want to export is a
rigid or flexible body.

Rigid Body FEA origin


marker

For a rigid body only, enter the marker to which all load information will
be relative. The marker location and orientation must correspond to the
origin of the part in the FEA program.

Flexible Body Name

For a flexible body only, enter the name of the flexible body. Adams/View
assumes that its FEA origin is the same as it was when the flexible body
was defined.

You can skip the next two options in the following cases:
For flexible bodies because the node IDs at each load location are known.
For rigid bodies if the node IDs are not available. Then, the FEA input file will contain the

locations (with respect to the FEA coordinate reference) and Adams ID label of the marker at
each load location. You will need to edit the file, however, replacing these labels with the
actual node IDs, once they are known.

248 Adams/View
Export - FEA Loads

For the option:

Do the following:

Add Load Points to Nodes


Table

Select to have Adams/View calculate the points on the part where forces
are applied.
Adams/View calculates the load points and places the points and their
locations in the Nodes table of the File Export dialog box. The node
coordinates are displayed relative to the FEA origin of the rigid or
flexible body. You might need to resize the File Export dialog box to see
all the point locations. See Example of Nodes Table.

Node_id/Scan file for IDs

For rigid bodies only, assign node IDs to the load points Adams/View
found, if desired. You can do one of the following:
Type in the node IDs in the Node Id column fields.
Select Scan file for IDs to have Adams/View read in a text file

containing the node IDs. For more information using a text file,
see Process for Exporting FEA Loads.
Because the loads file is a text file, you can always add the node IDs to
the file as you add the load case to your FEA dataset.
Note:

Output at times

For flexible bodies, Adams/View automatically assigns node


IDs to the load points based on the actual node IDs of the
flexible body at these load locations.

Do one of the following depending on the load information you want


Adams/View to export:
To generate a complete loads history, leave the Output at times text

box blank. Adams/View exports load information at every output step


in the simulation. This is the default setting.
To generate only load information for certain output times, enter the

desired output times, separated by commas (,) in the Output at times


text box. Adams/View exports a single load case at the time closest to
the requested time.
For ABAQUS, ANSYS, and NASTRAN, you can also enter a tolerance
(+ or - a value) for the output times. For example, if you requested output
at time steps 2 and 5 with a tolerance of 0.1, Adams/View generates a load
case for all output steps between 1.9 and 2.1 and 4.9 and 5.1.
For DAC and RPC III, you can enter a start output time and an end output
time.

E - I 249
Export - FEA Loads

Caution:

Note that loads are output in the Adams/View modeling units. These units must be
consistent with those specified in the finite element model or the results of the FE analysis
that includes the Adams loads will be incorrect. After completing the Export FEA Loads
dialog box, Adams/View displays the current modeling units and gives you a chance to
modify them before continuing with the FEA loads export.

250 Adams/View
Export - HTML Report

Export - HTML Report


File Export HTML Report

Exports data in the current session of Adams/PostProcessor as HTML pages for viewing by others in your
organization. It also creates
Plots and animations as png or jpg images
Movies of animations
Information on the parts, constraints, forces, and more in the selected models. This is the same

information that appears when you select Info.


When you export an HTML report, Adams/PostProcessor creates main homepage with a left frame
containing a tree of information in your model. Learn about the resulting HTML pages.

Tab

Link

Files

Export - HTML Report - FIles

Title Page

Export - HTML Report - Title Page

Pages

Export - HTML Report - Pages

Models

Export - HTML Report - Models

E - I 251
Export - HTML Report - FIles

Export - HTML Report - FIles


File Export HTML Report Files

Defines the name of the files in which to export Adams/PostProcessor data and where to place the files.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Name

Enter the name you want applied to each of the resulting HTML files and
style sheets.

Output Directory

Enter where you want the resulting HTML files and folders to be stored.

252 Adams/View
Export - HTML Report - Models

Export - HTML Report - Models


File Export HTML Report Models

Selects the models for which you want to export information. When you export model information, you
output information about the model objects: parts, constraints, forces, measures, requests, and assembly
objects. Adams/PostProcessor creates a folder for each model and objects in the model, grouped by type.

For the option:


Models

Do the following:
Enter the name of the models.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

E - I 253
Export - HTML Report - Pages

Export - HTML Report - Pages


File Export HTML Report Pages

Defines the pages of data you want to export and in which formats to publish them.

For the option:

Do the following:

Pages

Select the pages of plots and animations you want exported. If you select Range,
enter the pages you want included.

Image Format

For the pages of plots, enter the image format in which to store the pages of plots.
You can select png or jpg.

Image Width and


Height

Enter the pixel size of the exported pages. By default, Adams/PostProcessor


maintains the aspect ratio of the images so if you enter a value for width,
Adams/PostProcessor automatically calculates the height based on the current
aspect ratio, and the reverse. See Maintain Aspect Ratio below. If you leave both
text boxes blank, Adams/PostProcessor uses their default size in
Adams/PostProcessor.

Maintain Aspect
Ratio

Clear to change the proportions of the page sizes, and then enter new values for
Image Width and Height (see above).

Export
Animations

Select to export the animations as a movie. Clear to just save an image of the first
frame of the animation in the same format selected in Image Format.

Movie Format

Select the type of movie to export the animation as. You can select: Compressed
.avi, Uncompressed .avi, .jpg, .mpg, or .png (AVI format is only available on
Windows).
If you select .jpg or .png, Adams/Processor, exports each frame as an png or

jpg file, and then plays them as a movie.


If you select compressed AVI format, set the frame rate, interval between key

frames, and quality (percentage of compression). The default is 75%


compression with each key frame 500 frames apart, and a frame rate of 10
seconds per frame.
If you select .mpg, set either of the following:
Compress the file using P frames - Turning off the compression using P

frames ensures your movie plays in many playback programs, including


as xanim. It results, however, in a much larger file (up to 4 times as large).
Round size to multiples of 16 - Some playback programs require the

pixel height and width to be multiplies of 16. Turning this option on


ensures that you movie plays in many playback programs.

254 Adams/View
Export - HTML Report - Title Page

Export - HTML Report - Title Page


File Export HTML Report Title Page

Defines what you want displayed on the title page to provide basic information about the exported data.
The title page appears when you first display the homepage. You can also enter an image to appear in the
upper right corner of the title page. The image must be a format supported in Web browsers (.gif, .jpg,
.png).

For the option:

Do the following:

Title

Enter a title for the published data.

Author

Enter the author of the data.

Date

Enter the date the data was published. Adams/PostProcessor enters the
current date by default.

Comment

Enter any comments about the data.

Image File

Enter the path and file of an image to appear in the upper right corner.

E - I 255
Export - Numeric Test Data

Export - Numeric Test Data


File Export Numeric Test Data

Shared Dialog Box

You can export the data that Adams generates during Simulations for use in other applications.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Numeric Data.

Result Set Comp. Name

Enter the name of the results set component or components that you
want to export.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Sort By

Set to either:
Value to sort the values in the result set by the magnitude.
Time (the default) to sort the values in the result set by the

simulation time associated with the value.


Order

Specify the order in which you want the values listed in the file. Select
either ascending or descending.

File Name

Specify the name of the file in which you want to save the data. If you
want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you
are running Adams, enter the path name.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Above Value/
Below Value

Enter limits of values to be exported:


Above Value to specify the highest value to be exported.
Below Value to specify the lowest value to be exported.

Write to Terminal

Select to display the data in an Adams Information window as well as


save it in a file. If you do not select Write to Terminal, Adams only
writes the data to a file.

256 Adams/View
Export - Shell

Export - Shell
File Export Shell

Shared Dialog Box

You can export Adams geometry for use as shell geometry in other applications.

For the option:


Shell Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the shell object that you want to export.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

File Name

Enter the name of the file to which you want to export the geometry.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

E - I 257
Export - Spreadsheet Data

Export - Spreadsheet Data


File Export - Spread Sheet

Shared Dialog Box

You can export an Adams/View result set to a file in spreadsheet format. By exporting the result set to a
spreadsheet, you can view and manipulate the information in spreadsheet software packages including
formatting it or performing additional calculations on it. Tabs separate the data in the exported file.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Spread Sheet.

File Name

Enter the name you want to assign to the spreadsheet file. By default, Adams
creates the spreadsheet with a .tab extension.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Result Set Name

Enter the name of the results set that you want to export.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

258 Adams/View
Export - Table

Export - Table
File Export Table

Exports plotting data as tables (HTML or spreadsheet format).

For the option:

Do the following:

File name

Enter the name of the file in which to store the table data.

Plot

Enter the name of the plot containing the data. Tips on entering object
names in text boxes.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Format

Select either html or spreadsheet.

E - I 259
Export - Wavefront

Export - Wavefront
File Export Wavefront

Shared Dialog Box

You can export Adams/View graphics and motion data to Wavefront to help you create animations in
Wavefront Technologies advanced photorealistic rendering product, the Advanced Visualizer. You can
also select to only export the model geometry, in which case Adams/View only creates object files.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Wavefront File.

Model Name/
Analysis Name

Select either depending on what information you want to export, and then enter the
name of the model or analysis you want exported in the text box next to the pulldown menu:
If you select Model Name, you export only your model geometry.
If you select Analysis, you export all motion and geometry data. You can enter

multiple models or simulations by separating the names with commas.


Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

260 Adams/View
Extrusion Tool

Extrusion Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Extrusion Tool

Creates an Extrusion. To create an extrusion, you can specify points or select a curve that defines the
extrusions profile:

The Extrusion tool extrudes the points or curve along the z-axis of the screen or Working grid, if it is
turned on. When you specify points, you can also specify the direction along the z-axis that the Extrusion
tool extrudes the profile. You can also select to extrude along a path.
You can select to create the extrusion using the Analytical Method or Non-analytical Method.

E - I 261
Extrusion Tool

Learn about Creating an Extrusion.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the extrusion to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the extrusion to ground.

Tip: Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or influence the
simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a car driving
around a race track, the geometry that defines the race track can be added to
ground.
Create profile by

Select how you want to define the shape of the extrusion:


Points: Lets you select points.
Curve: Lets you select existing curve geometry.

Closed

If creating the extrusion based on points, select to create a closed profile. If


you close the profile, Adams/View creates a solid shape. If you leave the
profile open, Adams/View creates a skin that has no mass properties.

Forward/
About Center/
Backward/
Along Path

Select the direction you want the profile to be extruded relative to the global
coordinate system or working grid. You can set the direction to one of the
following:
Forward - Extrude the profile along the +z-axis.
About Center - Extrude the profile half the depth in both the +z and

-z directions.
Backward - Extrude the profile along the -z-axis.
Along Path - Select the path along which to extrude the wire

geometry.
Learn more about Extruding Construction Geometry Along a Path. See an
Example of Extrusion Directions.
Length

Enter the depth of the extrusion. (Not available when you select Along Path,
as explained above.)

Analytical

Select to create an extrusion using the Analytical Method. Clear to use the
Non-analytical Method.

262 Adams/View
Extrusion Tool

Note:

After you draw the extrusion, hotpoints appear. If you used the non-analytical method to
create the extrusion, hotpoints appear at every vertex in the profile and at the point directly
opposite from where you began drawing the profile. If you used the analytical method,
hotpoints appear along the curves that define the extrusion. Use the vertex hotpoints to
modify the profile of the extrusion and the opposite hotpoint to control the depth of the
extrusion. See Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry.
You can also use the extrusion modify dialog box to more accurately place the points that
make up the profile and read in location points from a file. See Using Dialog Boxes to
Precisely Modify Geometry and using the Location Table.

E - I 263
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)


Edit Plot FFT

Constructs a two-dimensional Fast fourier transform (FFT) plot.


You can either determine the magnitude (Mag), the phase (Phase), or determine the power spectral
density (PSD) based on Welch's method.

For the option:

Do the following:

Curve Name

Displays the name of the curve you are plotting.

Y-Axis

Select one of the following:


Mag
Phase
PSD

Start Time

Enter the start time on the curve for which you want the signal
processing performed.

End Time

Enter the end time on the curve for which you want the signal
processing performed.

Window Type

Select the type of window type you want to use. Learn more about the
window functions.

Points/Points (Power of 2)

Select the number of points to be used for the FFT.


Tips on Selecting Points.

The following option is only available if you selected Mag or Phase.


Detrend Input Data

Select if you want to detrend the signal. This subtracts the linear least
square fit from the data stream.

The following options are only available if you selected PSD.


Number of Segments/Segment
Length

Enter the number of segments, which means that the signal will be
split in that many segments of equal length (window length).
Or, you can enter the segment length directly. This is often referred to
as the window length.

Overlap Points

Enter the number of overlaps, which indicates how many signal


samples are used.

264 Adams/View
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 3D

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 3D


Edit Plot FFT 3D

Constructs a three-dimensional (3D) Fast fourier transform (FFT) plot by performing signal processing
on individual slices of a curve. You define a slice size, and Adams/PostProcessor slides this over a range
of a curve, overlapping the slices as specified. Each slice of the curve becomes a row in the 3D plot
surface.

For the option:

Do the following:

Curve Name

Displays the name of the curve you are plotting.

Y-Axis

Select one of the following:


Mag
Phase
PSD

Start Time/End Time

Enter the start and end time to define the entire range of the curve on
which you want signal processing performed.

Time Slice Size

Enter the width of a slice of the curve on which to perform signal


processing

Percentage Overlap

Enter the percentage amount the slices can overlap.

Window Type

Select the type of window you want to use.

Points/Points (Power of 2) Select the number of points to be used for the FFT.
Tips on Selecting Points

The following option is only available if you selected Mag or Phase.


Detrend Input Data

Select if you want to detrend the signal. This subtracts the linear least
square fit from the data stream.

The following options are only available if you selected PSD.


Number of Segments/
Segment Length

Enter the number of equal segments into which the signal will be split.
Or, you can enter the segment length directly. This is often referred to as
the window length.

Overlap Points

Enter the number of overlaps, which indicates how many signal samples
are used.

E - I 265
FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table

FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table


If you selected:
Loads on Rigid Body

Set the following options:


1. In the R Marker text box, enter the rigid body marker to be the
reference coordinate system to output loads. Because Adams/Solver
resolves all loads acting on the rigid body in the coordinate system
of the specified marker, the marker should represent the FEA basic
coordinate system of the part's finite element (FE) model.
2. In the Peak Slice text box, select that FE model load data are to be
output only at those time steps where the specified peak load
occurred in the simulation. When you set the Time options in Step
5 of the procedure, Adams/View only checks the time steps within
those specifications for the peak load. You can specify one or more
of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, or GMAG.

Loads on Flex Body

Select Peak Slice to output FE model data only at those time steps

where the specified peak load occurred in the simulation. When


you set the Time options in Step 5, Adams/View only checks the
time steps within those specifications for the peak load. You can
specify one or more of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, or GMAG.
Modal Deformation

In the Flex Body text box, enter the flexible body whose data

Adams/View outputs. Adams/View outputs the data in the FE


modal basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible body.

266 Adams/View
FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table

If you selected:
Nodal Deformation

Set the following options:


In the Flex Body text box, enter the flexible body whose data

Adams/View outputs. Adams/View outputs the data in the FE


model basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible body.
In the Nodes text box, enter the node numbers of a flexible body

whose data is to be output. If you do not specify a node list,


Adams/View exports nodal data at each attachment point of the
flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node ID is
specified that does not belong to the flexible body.
In the Datum text box, enter a node ID of the flexible body to be

the datum of the nodal displacements. Adams/Solver computes all


nodal displacements relative to this node ID. If you do not specify a
datum node, Adams/Solver generates an arbitrary relative set of
nodal displacements. It displays a warning message if the specified
node does not belong to the flexible body.

E - I 267
FEMDATA Output Dialog Box Options Table

If you selected:
Stress and Strain

Set the following options:


You can select to either output the stress/strain on nodes or hotspots:
To output them on nodes:
1. In the Nodes text box, enter the node numbers of a flexible body
whose data is to be output. If you do not specify a node list,
Adams/View exports nodal data at each attachment point of the
flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node ID is
specified that does not belong to the flexible body.
2. In the R Marker text box, enter a coordinate reference marker in the
model that will be used to transform the stress or strain data. If not
specified, the stress or strain will be output in the basic FEA
coordinate system of the flexible body (LPRF). This option can be
useful when correlating strain gauge data from a physical test. If the
orientation of the strain gauge does not match the FEA coordinate
system, you can reference a marker whose orientation does match.
To define hotspots:
1. In the Hotspots text box, enter the number of hotspots to locate and
output. With this option, a text file containing a tab-delimited table
of hotspot information, such as node ID, maximum value, time
when the maximum value occurred, and location, is generated.
2. From the option menu, specify the value of stress/strain in
determining hotspots from one of Von Mises, Max Prin., Min Prin.,
Max Shear, Normal-X, Normal-Y, Normal-Z, Shear-XY, ShearYZ, or Shear-ZX. For more information, see the FEMDATA
statement.
3. In the Radius text box, enter a radius that defines the spherical
extent of each hotspot. A default value of 0.0 (zero) means that all
nodes in the flexible body will be hotspot candidates.
4. In the R Marker text box, enter a coordinate reference marker in the
model that will be used to transform the stress or strain data. If not
specified, the stress or strain will be output in the basic FEA
coordinate system of the flexible body (LPRF). This option can be
useful when correlating strain gauge data from a physical test. If the
orientation of the strain gauge does not match the FEA coordinate
system, you can reference a marker whose orientation does match.

268 Adams/View
Field Element Tool

Field Element Tool


Build Forces Field Element Tool

Creates a Field element.


Learn more about:
Field Elements

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes
of the current Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y-, and z-

axes of the screen.


Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part. The direction vector
you select defines the z-axis for the force; Adams/View automatically
calculates the x- and y-axes.

E - I 269
File Export

File Export
File Export Shared Dialog Box

Exports modeling data in a wide variety of formats so you can exchange modeling data among different
Adams products, as well as with other software manufacturers products.
Learn about exporting:
Adams/Solver Dataset
Adams/Solver Analysis Files (Graphics, Requests, and Results)
Adams/Solver Script files (*.acf)
Adams/View Command Files
Numeric Data
CAD (STEP, IGES, DXG/DWG, Parasolid) (Adams/Exchange only)
CatiaV4, CatiaV5, STEP, IGES, Acis, VDA (Adams CAD Translators only)
Wavefront
Shell Geometry
FEA Loads
Spreadsheet Data
Adams/PostProcessor
DAC/RPC III

270 Adams/View
File Import

File Import
File Import Shared Dialog Box

Imports modeling data in a wide variety of formats so you can exchange modeling data among different
Adams products, as well as with other software manufacturers products.
Learn about importing:
Adams/View command files
Adams/Solver datasets
Adams/Solver analysis files
Adams/Solver Script files (*.acf)
Test data
STEP, IGES, DXF, DWG (Adams/Exchange only)
CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis, ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA (Adams

CAD Translators only)


Parasolid (Adams/Exchange only)
Wavefront files
Stereolithography and Render
Shell
DAC and RPC III files

E - I 271
File Import - Adams/PPT

File Import - Adams/PPT


File Import

Imports data into Adams/PostProcessor. In addition to importing the same data you can import into
Adams/View, Adams/PostProcessor also imports Reports and plot configuration files for template-based
products.
To import standard data:
See the Adams/View File Import dialog box.
To import a report:
1. From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Report.
2. Enter the name of the file to import.
3. Select OK.
To load a report in a viewport:
Right-click the background of a viewport, and then select Load Report.
To import a plot configuration file for template-based products:
See Creating Plots Using a Plot Configuration File.

272 Adams/View
Files

Files
Settings Solver Output More Output Category Files

Selecting Files as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box, lets you set advanced options
for Adams/Solver analysis files.

For the option:


Request Tables

Do the following:
Specify whether or not Adams/View prints time-response-request tables in the
Tabular output file.
If you set to On, Adams/View writes tables for each request in your model.
If you set to Off, Adams/View does not write the tables. If your simulation

has many output steps or you have many requests, specifying Off results in a
much smaller tabular output file and conserves disk space.
Separator

Specify whether or not Adams writes separators to the request, graphics, results,
and tabular output files when you modify the model topology in the middle of a
Simulation. When running a Scripted simulation, you can change the model
topology by adding Adams commands to your script file to activate an element,
deactivate an element, change a marker position, or change the type or point of
application of a force or constraint.
If you set to On (which is the default), Adams/Solver reads the analysis

information into Adams/View, one analysis for each block of output between
the separators.
If you set to Off, Adams/Solver reads the analysis information into

Adams/View as a single simulation. This allow you to plot or animate the


simulation from beginning to end.
Yaw Pitch Roll

Set to Yes to specify that rotational values are to be output in yaw, pitch, and roll
coordinates, rather than in psi, theta, and phi coordinates. First Adams rotates
about the z-axis, then about the new negative y-axis (y'), and then about the
second new x-axis (x"). Note that Yaw Pitch Roll only affects rotational
displacement output. Adams/View always outputs angular velocities and
accelerations as vectors, with orthogonal x, y, and z components.

E - I 273
Fillet Tool

Fillet Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Fillet Tool

Creates rounded (filleted) edges and corners

You can think of creating filleted edges as rolling a ball over the edges or corners of the geometry to round
them.

274 Adams/View
Fillet Tool

When filleting an edge or corner, you can specify a start and an end radius for the fillet to create a variable
fillet:

Adams/View begins creating the variable fillet using the start radius and then slowly increases or
decreases the size of the fillet until it reaches the end radius. Using the ball analogy again, Adams/View
starts rounding edges and corners using one size ball and finishes using a different size.
Note:

Learn about:

You will get different results when you fillet one edge at a time than when you fillet all
edges at once. Also, you may not be able to fillet an edge if an adjoining edge has already
been filleted. It depends on the complexity of the filleting.

E - I 275
Fillet Tool

Chamfering and Filleting Objects


Chamfer Tool

For the option:

Do the following:

Radius

Enter the radius for the fillet.

End Radius

To create a variable fillet, enter the end radius. The Fillet tool uses the value you
enter for radius as the starting radius of the variable fillet.

276 Adams/View
Fixed Joint Tool

Fixed Joint Tool


Build Joints Fixed Joint Tool

Creates a fixed joint that locks two parts together so they cannot move with respect to each other. The
effect is similar to defining two parts as a single part. If you want to have the two parts move relative to
each other in a future Simulation, simply delete the fixed joint and use another type of joint.

For a fixed joint, the location and orientation of the joint often do not affect the outcome of the simulation.
In these cases, you can place the joint at a location where the graphic icon is easily visible. However,
occasionally the placement of the fixed joint can allow force moments to become quite large depending
on where you place the joint, as shown in this example. In this case, be sure to place it where you get the
results you want.

E - I 277
Fixed Joint Tool

Learn about Creating Idealized Joints.

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want to connect the joint to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Performing Initial Conditions Simulation.
Learn about Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry Feature

Set how you want to orient the joint:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

278 Adams/View
Flexible Body Mode Filter

Flexible Body Mode Filter


Right-click flexible body Modify (shortcut: Double-click) Mode Filter

Lets you select a filter type to remove modes from the animation display. By default, all enabled modes
are used to generate nodal displacements for each flexible body during animations. To increase animation
performance, Adams/Flex has three filters that let you remove graphically insignificant modes for
animations. A mode that is filtered out is excluded from the modal superposition and any contribution to
the deformation of the body is ignored. Note that these modes are not filtered out for numeric operations,
such as signal processing or xy plotting.

For the option:

Do the following:

Flex Body

Enter the name of the flexible body.

Filter Modes By

Select one of the following:


None - Includes all modes for computing the graphics display.
Frequency - Excludes any mode that is activated above the specified

frequency.
Min Displacement - Excludes any mode that does not contribute the

minimum displacement specified for at least one vertex of the flexible


body. For example, if you are viewing the animation of a vehicle driving
down the road, it is unlikely that you would be able to see deformations of
0.5 mm or less. Therefore, if you set a mode filter value of 0.5, any mode
that contributes less then 0.5 is considered insignificant and is ignored for
animations. This calculation is performed at each frame of the animation,
allowing the set of significant modes to change throughout the simulation.
Percentage - Determines the maximum displacement contributed by all

modes, and excludes any mode that doesn't contribute displacement of one
vertex at least as significant as a percentage of the maximum. For example,
setting the percentage filter at 15% excludes any mode not contributing at
least 15% of the most dominant mode. This calculation is performed for
each frame of the animation, therefore, allowing the set of significant
modes to change throughout the simulation.
Filter Value

Enter the frequency, minimum displacement, or percentage for the specified filter.

E - I 279
Flexible Body Modify

Flexible Body Modify


Right-click flexible body Modify (shortcut: Double-click)

Lets you modify a flexible body. For example, you can change its modal content to improve the efficiency
or accuracy of a Simulation.

For the option:

Do the following:

Flexible Body

Enter the name of the flexible body to modify.

Damping Ratio

Do one of the following:


Accept the default. If you accept the default, Adams/Flex applies non-zero

damping as follows:
1% damping for all modes with frequency lower than 100.
10% damping for modes with frequency in the 100-1000 range.
100% critical damping for modes with frequency above 1000.
Clear the selection of default, and then either:
Enter the scalar damping ratio that you want applied to all modes.
Enter a function. To get help building the function, next to the

Damping Ratio text box, select the More button

Learn more about Specifying Damping.


Datum Node

Set the datum node for which you want deformation color changes to be
relative to using Adams/Flex. Adams/Flex considers the deformation to be
relative to the origin of the flexible body (its local body reference frame
(LBRF) or coordinate system) by default. For example, if you were modeling
a cantilever beam in Adams/Flex, you could specify that deformations should
be relative to the clamped end as is illustrated in the first tutorial, Building and
Simulating a Flexible Model, in Getting Started Using Adams/Flex.
To set the datum node:
1. Clear the selection of LBRF.
2. In the Datum Node text box, enter the number of the desired node.
Tip:

To select a node from the screen, right-click the Datum Node


text box, and then select Pick Flexbody Node. Select the node
from the screen. The node number appears in the Datum Node
text box.

280 Adams/View
Flexible Body Modify

For the option:

Do the following:

Generalized damping Select one:


Off - Disables the generalized damping.
Full - Enables the complete generalized damping matrix, including the

effects of a resultant damping force.


Internal Only - Only enables the portion of the generalized damping

matrix corresponding to the modal coordinates (that is, ignore the


resultant damping force).
Location

Click to display the Modify Body - Name and Position dialog box and set the
name, Adams/Solver ID, and location of the flexible body.

Position ICs

Click to display the Modify Body - Position Initial Conditions dialog box and set
the initial position for a flexible body before the simulation starts, just as you
can for any part in Adams/View. You can set how you want Adams/View to
calculate these properties as well as define these properties yourself.

Velocity ICs

Click to display the Modify Body - Velocity Initial Conditions dialog box and set
the initial velocity for a flexible body before the simulation starts just as you
can for any part in Adams/View. You can set how you want Adams/View to
calculate these properties as well as define these properties yourself.

Modal ICs

Click to display the Modify Modal ICs dialog box to disable or enable range of
modes using a table. Learn About Flexible Body Modal Content.

Mode Viewing and Animation


Mode Number

Enter the number of the mode in the flexible body to view, and then press
Enter. The total number of modes in the flexible body appear to the right of the
Mode Number text box.
When you display a mode, Adams/Flex displays its frequency in the
Frequency text box. Also, when you display a mode, the mode deformations
appear along with the undeformed flexible body. You can turn this off to
display only the deformed mode.
Learn more about Viewing Modes.
Select to display the next mode.
Select to animate the specified mode to see how it deforms. By default, the
animation runs 3 times or through 3 cycles. (Use the Cycles text box (described
below) to change the number of cycles.)
Tip:

You can also use the Animation tool on the Main toolbox to
animate the entire model containing the flexible body after you've
run a simulation.

E - I 281
Flexible Body Modify

For the option:

Do the following:
Select to display the previous mode.

Frequency

Enter the frequency of the mode you'd like to view, and then press Enter.
The mode closest to the specified frequency appears.

Cycles

Enter the number of times Adams/Flex should run the animation. By default,
the animation runs 3 times or through 3 cycles.

Superimpose

Clear to display only the mode deformations. Select to display both the mode
deformations and the undeformed flexible body.

Disabling/Enabling Modes (Learn more about Enabling and Disabling Modes.)


Enable/Disable

Enable or disable the mode number in the Mode Number text box. If you
disable a mode, its mode number and natural frequency appear in parentheses.

range

Click to display the Enable or Disable a Range of Modes dialog box to disable
or enable a group of modes based on either their mode number or frequency.

auto

Click to display the Auto Disable Modes by Strain Energy dialog box to disable
or enable modes based on their contribution of strain energy.

Substituting Graphics with an Outline (Learn more about Substituting Outline Graphics for the Finite
Element Mesh.)
full MNF graphics

Select to turn on the viewing of the full MNF graphics; clear to turn off the
viewing.

Outline

Select to turn on the viewing of the Outline.


Select to sketch an outline.
To sketch the outline:
Select nodes on the flexible body using the left mouse button.
When the outline is complete, right-click.

Modifying Modal Formulation


Inertia Modeling

Select a formulation option or select Custom. Learn more about the options.
When you select Custom, Adams/Flex displays a Custom Inertial Modeling
dialog box that lets you set up the invariants that you want selected.

Setting Plot Type

282 Adams/View
Flexible Body Modify

For the option:


Plot Type

Do the following:
Select a plot type to view in Adams/Flex:
Contour - Sets Adams/Flex so that it displays Contour plots. In

addition, you can view contour plots in Adams/PostProcessor.


Vector - Sets Adams/Flex so that it displays Vector plots.
None - Sets to display no plots.
Both - Sets the display of both contour and vector plots.
Learn to set plot types in Adams/PostProcessor.

Mode Filter

Select to display the Flexible Body Mode Filter dialog box to exclude nodal
deformations from animations to increase animation performance.

Setting Deformation Scale


Deformation Scale

Move the Deformation Scale Factor slider to change the amount by which
Adams/Flex deforms a mode. For greater exaggeration, type a value in the text
box next to the slider. Changing the deformation scale lets you exaggerate
deformations that might otherwise be too subtle to see, or lets you limit the
deformations. The default scale factor is 1.
Note that setting the scale factor to a value other than 1 can make the joints at
the flexible body appear to separate. This is because the motion of a point on a
flexible body is the sum of the deformation that has been scaled and a rigid
body motion that is not scaled.
In addition, if you set the scale to 0, Adams/Flex treats the flexible body as a
rigid body during animations.
Select to add any comments to help you manage and identify the flexible body.
See Comments.
Select to create a flexible body measure. Learn about creating Object Measures

E - I 283
Force Create Element Like Friction

Force Create Element Like Friction


Models both static (Coulomb) and dynamic (viscous) friction in revolute, translational, cylindrical,
hooke/universal, and spherical joints.
For more information on the values to be entered in the dialog box, follow the information for the
Adams/Solver FRICTION statement in the Adams/Solver online help.

284 Adams/View
Force Graphics Settings

Force Graphics Settings


Settings Force Graphics

Allows you to specify settings for force graphics.


Learn about Setting Up Force Graphics.

For the option:

Do the following:

Force Scale

Enter the amount by which you want to scale force (straight arrows)
graphics. The default scale is 1.0.

Torque Scale

Enter the amount by which you want to scale torque (semi-circular


arrows) graphics. The default scale is 1.0.

Display Numeric Values

Select if you want Adams/View to continuously display the magnitudes


for all force and torque graphics during the animation.

Decimal Places

Enter the number of decimal places to be written for force graphics


numeric values. The default value is 4.

Always in Foreground

Select if you want Adams/View to show force graphics in the foreground


of the model so model geometry does not obscure them.

Always Wireframe Vectors Select if you want Adams/View to show the force graphics in wireframe
render mode even when you are rendering the view in shaded mode.

Note:

If you defined force graphics for any force elements in your model, but do not see the

associated arrows during animation, you should probably increase the appropriate scale
and animate again. Repeat the scaling process until the arrows of interest are visible.
Conversely, if you see force graphic arrows on the screen, but they are too large or not

completely visible, you should either zoom out, fit your view, or decrease the scale
factor and animate again. Repeat the scaling process until at least the arrows of interest
are completely visible.

E - I 285
Force Modify Element Like Beam

Force Modify Element Like Beam


Right-click beam Modify

After youve created a beam, you can modify the following:


Markers between which the beam acts.
Stiffness and damping values.
Material properties of the beam, such as its length and area.

Learn more about Beams.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Beam Name

Enter the name of the beam to modify.

New Beam Name

Enter a new name for the beam, if desired.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the beam. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Enter any comments about the beam that might help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Ixx

Enter the torsional constant. The torsional constant is sometimes referred to


as the torsional shape factor or torsional stiffness coefficient. It is expressed
as unit length to the fourth power. For a solid circular section, Ixx is
identical to the polar moment of inertia J=
. For thin-walled
sections, open sections, and non-circular sections, you should consult a
handbook.

Iyy/Izz

Enter the area moments of inertia about the neutral axes of the beam cross
sectional areas (y-y and z-z). These are sometimes referred to as the second
moment of area about a given axis. They are expressed as unit length to the
fourth power. For a solid circular section, Iyy=Izz=
. For thinwalled sections, open sections, and non-circular sections, you should
consult a handbook.

Area of Cross Section

Enter the uniform area of the beam cross-section geometry. The centroidal
axis must be orthogonal to this cross section.

286 Adams/View
Force Modify Element Like Beam

For the option:


Y Shear Area Ratio/ Z
Shear Area Ratio

Do the following:
Specify the correction factor (the shear area ratio) for shear deflection in the
y and z direction for Timoshenko beams. If you want to neglect the
deflection due to shear, enter zero in the text boxes.
For the y direction:

where:
Qy is the first moment of cross-sectional area to be sheared by a

force in the z direction.


lz is the cross section dimension in the z direction.

For the z direction:

where:
Qz is the first moment of cross-sectional area to be sheared by a

force in the y direction.


Iy is the cross section dimension in the y direction.
Common values for shear area ratio based on the type of cross

section are:
Solid rectangular - 6/5
Solid circular - 10/9
Thin wall hollow circular - 2

Note:

The K1 and K2 terms that are used by MSC.Nastran for defining


the beam properties using PBEAM are the inverse of the y shear
and z shear values that Adams/View uses.

Young's Modulus

Enter Youngs modulus of elasticity for the beam material.

Shear Modulus

Enter the shear modulus of elasticity for the beam material.

Beam Length

Enter the undeformed length of the beam along the x-axis of the J marker
on the reaction body.

E - I 287
Force Modify Element Like Beam

For the option:


Damping Ratio/Matrix
of Damping Terms

Do the following:
Select either:
Damping Ratio and enter a damping value to establish a ratio for

calculating the structural damping matrix for the beam. To obtain


the damping matrix, Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness matrix
by the value you enter for the damping ratio.
Matrix of Damping Terms and enter a six-by-six structural

damping matrix for the beam. Because this matrix is symmetric,


you only need to specify one-half of the matrix. The following
matrix shows the values to input:

Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to
right. The damping matrix defaults to a matrix with thirty-six zero
entries; that is, r1 through r21 each default to zero.
The damping matrix should be positive semidefinite. This ensures
that damping does not feed energy into the model. Adams/Solver
does not warn you if the matrix is not positive semidefinite.

288 Adams/View
Force Modify Element Like Beam

For the option:


I Marker/ J marker

Do the following:
Specify the two markers between which to define a beam. The I marker is
on the action body and the J marker is on the reaction body. The J marker
establishes the direction of the force components.
By definition, the beam lies along the positive x-axis of the J marker.
Therefore, the I marker must have a positive x displacement with respect to
the J marker when viewed from the J marker. In its undeformed
configuration, the orientation of the I and the J markers must be the same.
When the x-axes of the markers defining a beam are not collinear, the beam
deflection and, consequently, the force corresponding to this deflection are
calculated. To minimize the effect of such misalignments, perform a static
equilibrium at the start of the simulation.
When the beam element angular deflections are small, the stiffness matrix
provides a meaningful description of the beam behavior. When the angular
deflections are large, they are not commutative; so the stiffness matrix that
produces the translational and rotational force components may not
correctly describe the beam behavior. Adams/Solver issues a warning
message if the beam translational displacements exceed 10 percent of the
undeformed length.
Specifies the theory to be used to define the force this element will apply.
By default the LINEAR theory is used. If the NONLINEAR option is used,
the full non linear Euler-Bernoulli theory is used. If the STRING option is
used, a simplified non linear theory is used. The simplified non linear
theory may speed up your simulations with little performance penalties.

E - I 289
Force Modify Element Like Field

Force Modify Element Like Field


Right-click field element Modify

Modifies a field element to define a linear or nonlinear force.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Field Name

Enter the name of the field element to modify.

New Field Name

Enter a new name for the field element, if desired.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the field element. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Enter any comments about the field element that might help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

I marker Name/
J marker Name

Specify the two markers between which the force and torque are to be exerted.
Adams/View applies the component translational and rotational forces for a
field to the I marker and imposes reaction forces on the J marker.

Translation at
Preload/ Rotation at
Preload

Enter the preload translational and rotational force for the field element.
Translation at Preload to define three reference lengths. This is the

nominal (x0, y0, z0) position of the I marker with respect to the
J marker, resolved in the J marker coordinate system.
Rotation at Preload to define the reference rotational displacement of

the axes of the I marker with respect to the J marker, resolved in the
J marker axes (a0, b0, and c0) (specified in radians).
If the reference force is zero, then the preload is the same as the free length.
Entering preload values is optional and defaults to a six zero entry.
Define Using
Standard
Values/Define Using
Subroutine

Select one of the following:


Define Using Standard Values and enter values for the text boxes that

appear in the dialog box as explained in the next rows of this table.
Define Using Subroutine and enter parameters to be passed to the
user-written subroutine FIESUB to define a nonlinear field. Enter up to

30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/View is to pass to FIESUB. For


more on the FIESUB subroutine and nonlinear fields, see the
Adams/Solver online help.
If you selected Define Using Standard Values, the following options appear:

290 Adams/View
Force Modify Element Like Field

For the option:

Do the following:

Force Preload/Torque Define three preload force components and three preload torque components
Preload
transferred by the field element when the I and J markers are
separated/misaligned by the values specified in the Translation at Preload and
Rotation at Preload text boxes.The terms are the force components along the x, y-, and z-axis of the J marker and the torque components about the x, y-, and
z-axis of the J marker, respectively. Entering values for Force Preload and
Torque Preload is optional and defaults to six zero entries.
Stiffness Matrix

Define a six-by-six matrix of stiffness coefficients. The following matrix


shows the values to input.

Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to right.
Learn about units.
Tip:

A finite element analysis program can give you the values for the
stiffness matrix.

E - I 291
Force Modify Element Like Field

For the option:


Matrix of Damping
Terms/Damping
Ratio

Do the following:
Enter either a matrix of damping terms or a damping ratio if you want to
include damping coefficients in the calculation of the field forces as explained
below. The damping matrix defaults to a matrix with thirty-six zero entries.
To define a six-by-six matrix of viscous damping coefficients, select

Matrix of Damping Terms and enter the elements. The following


matrix shows the values to input.

Enter the elements by columns from top to bottom, then from left to right.
To enter a damping ratio that defines the ratio of the damping matrix to

the stiffness matrix, select Damping Ratio and enter the value. If you
enter a damping ratio, Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness matrix by
the ratio to obtain the damping matrix. Do not enter a ratio without also
entering a stiffness matrix.
Tip:

A finite element analysis program can give you the values for the
damping matrix.

If you selected Define Using Subroutine, the following options appear:


User Function

Enter up to 30 values (r1[,...,r30]) that Adams/Solver is to pass to Learn about


units. For more on FIESUB and nonlinear fields, see the Adams/Solver online
help.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn about
specifying your own routine with ROUTINE Argument.
Specifies the theory to be used to define the force this element will apply. By
default the LINEAR theory is used. If the NONLINEAR option is used, the full
non linear Euler-Bernoulli theory is used. If the STRING option is used, a
simplified non linear theory is used. The simplified non linear theory may
speed up your simulations with little performance penalties.

292 Adams/View
Force Modify Element Like Friction

Force Modify Element Like Friction


Models both static (Coulomb) and dynamic (viscous) friction in revolute, translational, cylindrical,
hooke/universal, and spherical joints.
For more information on the values to be entered in the dialog box, follow the information for the
Adams/Solver FRICTION statement in the Adams/Solver online help.

E - I 293
Forces

Forces
Displays tools for creating forces. Learn more about Forces.

Icon

Link

Applied Forces

Icon

Link

Special Forces
Single-Component Force tool

Create/Modify Contact

Three-Component Force tool

Create/Modify Modal
Force

Six-Component General Force tool

Create/Modify Wheel
and Tire

Single-Component Torque tool

Gravity

Three-Component Torque tool

Flexible Connections
Bushing Tool
Torsion SpringTool
Field Element Tool
Translational Spring Damper Tool
Beam

294 Adams/View
Frustum Tool

Frustum Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Frustrum Tool

Creates a frustum, which is a cone, the top of which has been cut off. You create a frustum by drawing
its length. The Frustum tool makes the bottom radius 12.5% of the length and makes the top radius of the
frustum 50% of the radius of the base radius. Before drawing, you can also specify the frustum's length
and the radii of its bottom and top

Learn about Creating a Frustum.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the frustum to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the frustum to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you are
simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry that
defines the race track can be added to ground.

Length

If desired, select and enter the length for the frustum.

Bottom Radius

If desired, select and enter the bottom radius for the frustum.

Top Radius

If desired, select and enter the top radius for the frustum.

E - I 295
Frustum Tool

Note:

Three hotpoints appear on a frustrum after you draw it. One controls the length of the
frustum, one controls its top radius, and the other controls the bottom radius. For more
information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically
Modify Geometry.

296 Adams/View
Function Builder

Function Builder
Tools Function Builder

Helps you create and modify functions and parameterize values for various entities. You can either work
in the Expression mode or the Run-time mode.
Expression Mode

E - I 297
Function Builder

Run-time Mode

298 Adams/View
Function Builder

For more information on Function Builder, see the Adams/View Function Builder online help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Create/modify a function object You can type in a function or choose from the list of system supplied
functions.
Function Categories

Use the pull-down menu to choose from:


All Functions
Math Functions
Location/Orientation Functions
Modeling Functions
Matrix/Array Functions
String Functions
Database Functions
File Functions
Misc. Functions

Information on Types of Functions.


Assist

Only available for certain functions. Displays a dialog box to help


you with function parameters.
Click to add a plus (+) sign or right-click for more operators.

Name

Enter a name of a new or existing function object.

Load

Select to update with the properties of the current function object.

Type

Select the type of value you want the function to return. Choose
from:
real
integer
array
string
object
location_orientation

Arguments

Enter the names of arguments for the function object.

Assumed Values

Select to specify assumed values for arguments to be used during


validation and/or plotting.

E - I 299
Function Builder

For the option:


Getting Object Data

Do the following:
Select a type object allowed in the object field. Choose from:
Markers
Parts
Design Points
Design Variables
Results Data
Measures
All Objects

Enter the name of an object to insert into your function definition in


the field next to the pull-down menu.
Get Data Owned By Object

Select if you want to get the name of a data field owned by the object
and insert it into your function definition.

Insert Object Name

Select if you want to insert the object name into your function
definition.

Plot

Select to plot your function.

Plot Limits

Select to specify the horizontal limits for plotting your function.

Evaluate

Select to evaluate your function.

300 Adams/View
Function Builder Plot Limits

Function Builder Plot Limits


Tools Function Builder Plot Limits

When working in the Function Builder in Run-time mode, you can set limits for the horizontal axis
values. Adams/View plots the independent data on the horizontal axis.
For more information, see the Adams/View Function Builder online help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Begin Value

Enter a value with which you want to start.

End Value

Enter a value with which you want to end.

Number of Computed Points Enter the number of points to be computed.

E - I 301
Gain Block

Gain Block
Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Gain blocks create the s-domain (Laplace domain) representation of basic linear transfer functions. You
specify the gain as an Adams/View scalar real value. You can parameterize this constant with an
Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the gain of the associated block.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input field to these blocks.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Gain

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

302 Adams/View
Gear Joint Tool

Gear Joint Tool


Build Joints Gear Joint Tool

Creates a gear pair that relates the motion of three parts and two joints using a marker, called the common
velocity (CV) marker, to determine the point of contact.

Learn about:
Creating and Modifying Gears
About Gears
Equations for Gears

E - I 303
General Point Motion Tool

General Point Motion Tool


Build Joints General Point Motion Tool

Creates a general Point Motion.


Learn about:
Motion
Creating Point Motions Using the Motion Tools

For the option:


1 location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies -1 Location/
2 Bodies -2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the motion connected to parts:
1 location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of
these options, see About Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the motion oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the motion along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the motion along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

304 Adams/View
Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack

Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack


Build Bodies/Geometry
Main toolbox Right-click Geometry tool stack

Displays tools for creating rigid body geometry.

Geometric Tool Stack

Geometric Modeling Palette (from Build


Menu)

E - I 305
Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack

Icon

Construction or
Settings
Container

Link

Icon

Link

Link Tool

Arc Tool

Box Tool

Spline Tool

Cylinder Tool

Unite Tool

Sphere Tool

Intersect Tool

Frustum Tool

Cut Tool

Torus Tool

Split Tool

Extrusion Tool

Merge Tool

Revolution Tool

Chain Tool

Plate Tool

Fillet Tool

Point Tool

Chamfer Tool

Marker Tool

Hole Tool

Plane Tool

Boss Tool

Polyline Tool

Hollow Tool

Contains options for creating the selected object. The options change
depending on the type of object that you are creating. For example, when
you create a link, Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and height
before creating it. Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set
regardless of how you move the mouse. You can also define design variables
or expressions for many values.

306 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Curve Arc

Geometry Modify Curve Arc


Right-click an arc Modify

Allows you to control the size and location of an arc. You can modify a circle by following the same steps.
Learn about the Arc Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Arc Name

Enter the name of the arc you want to modify.

New Arc Name

If you want, enter a new name for the arc.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Enter any comments about the geometry to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Center Marker

Enter values for the marker at the center of the arc or circle. The plane
of the arc is normal to the z-axis of the center marker.

Angle Extent (arcs only)

Enter values for the extended angle measured positive (according to the
right-hand rule) about the z-axis of the center marker of an arc. The
angle starts at the positive x-axis of the center marker and extends the
arc.

Radius/Ref Radius By
Marker

Choose either Radius or Ref Radius By Marker.


Enter either the radius of the arc or circle or enter a radius marker. If you
specify a radius marker, Adams/View calculates the radius of the arc or
circle as the distance from the center marker origin to the radius marker
origin. Adams/View stores the radius value, not the marker name. If you
later move the marker, the radius does not change.

E - I 307
Geometry Modify Curve Arc

For the option:

Do the following:

Segment Count

Displays the number of straight line segments Adams/View uses to


draw the circle or arc.

Close

For an arc, select one of the following:


Chord or Yes - Closes the arc from the starting point to the

ending point.
Sector - Closes the arc so that it creates a pie-shaped arc.
No - Creates an open arc.

308 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Curve Polyline

Geometry Modify Curve Polyline


Right-click a polyline Modify

Allows you to control the size and location of the polyline. Learn about the Polyline Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Polyline Name

Enter the name of the polyline to modify.

New Name

If you want, enter a new name for the polyline.

Relative To

Specify the location and orientation coordinates in the coordinate system.

Location/Path Curve Select either Location or Path Curve and then specify:
Locations to be used to define the polyline. By default, you supply

Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates. Adams/View applies the location


coordinates in the coordinate system you identify using the Relative To
parameter.
To easily edit the locations, select the More button
Location table.

to display the

A geometry object whose path defines the polyline. You can select arcs,

circles, spline curves, polylines, and outlines. Adams/View extracts the


values of the vertices of the path curve and uses them to create the
polyline.
Close

Select if you want to create a closed polyline. If closed, the polyline can be filled
(shaded). The endpoints of the polyline do not need to be coincident for you to
close it; the two endpoints will be connected with a line segment.
If you do not select Close, you create a polyline that appears as a segmented
curve. Adams/View creates the polyline by connecting the locations you
specified in the Location text box together with straight line segments in the
order in which you specified them.
Select to add any comments about the polyline that you want to enter to help
you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

E - I 309
Geometry Modify Feature Blend - Chamfer or Fillet

Geometry Modify Feature Blend - Chamfer or Fillet


Right-click a chamfer or fillet BlendFeature Modify

Allows you to control the radius of the chamfer or fillet. Learn more about:
Chamfer Tool
Fillet Tool

For the option:


Blend Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the chamfer or fillet to modify.

New Blend Name If you want, enter a new name for the chamfer or fillet.
Radius 1

Enter the width of the chamfer bevel or radius of the fillet.

Radius 2

Enter the ending radius of the fillet. You specify the end radius if you are creating
a variable blend fillet.

310 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Feature Hole

Geometry Modify Feature Hole


Right-click a hole or boss Modify

Allows you to control the location and dimensions of a hole or boss.


Learn more:
Hole Tool
Boss Tool

For the option:

Do the following:

Hole Name

Enter the name of the hole to modify.

New Hole Name

If you want, enter a new name for the hole.

Center

Specify the location of the center of the hole or boss.

Radius

Specify the radius of the hole or boss.

Depth

Specify the depth of the hole or boss.

E - I 311
Geometry Modify Feature Thinshell

Geometry Modify Feature Thinshell


Right-click a hollow Modify

Allows you to control the thickness of a hollowed shell. Learn about the Hollow Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the thinshell to modify.

New Name

If you want, enter a new name for the thinshell.

Thickness

Specify the depth of the remaining shell after you hollow the object.

312 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Shape Block

Geometry Modify Shape Block


Right-click a block Modify

Allows you to control the corner marker used as the anchor point of a block (box). By controlling the
corner marker, such as changing the marker used or changing its location, you change the block's location
and orientation.
Learn about the Box Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Block Name

Displays the name of the block you are modifying.

New Block Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the block.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the block. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the block that you want to enter to help you manage
and identify it. See Comments.

Corner Marker

Specify a marker used to define the anchor point for the block.

Diag Corner Coords Specify the location of the diagonal corner from the marker measured in the
coordinate system of the corner marker.

Block Modify Options

E - I 313
Geometry Modify Shape Cylinder

Geometry Modify Shape Cylinder


Right-click a cylinder Modify

Allows you to control the center marker used as the anchor point of a cylinder. By controlling the center
marker, such as changing the marker used or changing its location, you change the cylinder's location and
orientation.
Learn about the Cylinder Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Cylinder Name

Displays the name of the cylinder you are modifying.

New Cylinder Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the cylinder.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the array. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the cylinder that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify it. See Comments.
Cylinder Options

Center Marker

Specify the center marker that defines the center of base of the cylinder.
The length of the cylinder is oriented along the z-axis of the center marker.

Angle Extent

Specify the extended angle measured positive (according to the right-hand


rule) about the z-axis of the center marker. The angle starts at the positive
x-axis of the center marker and extends the arc of the cylinder.

Length

Enter the length of the cylinder. Adams/View uses the value of length to
specify the z distance between the two circles. A positive value specifies a
cylinder along the positive z-axis of the center marker.

Radius/Ref Radius By
Marker

Specify the radius of circles at the top and bottom of the cylinder or a radius
marker. If you enter a radius marker, Adams/View calculates the radius of
the cylinder as the distance from the center marker z-axis to the radius
marker. Adams/View stores the radius value, not the marker name. If you
later move this marker, the radius does not change.

314 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Shape Cylinder

For the option:

Do the following:

Side Count for Body

Enter the number of flat sides Adams/View draws on the side of the
cylinder. The number of sides you specify affects the calculations
Adams/View uses to determine a parts mass and inertia.

Segment Count for Ends

Displays the number of straight line segments Adams/View uses to draw


the circles at the ends of the cylinder.

E - I 315
Geometry Modify Shape Ellipsoid (Spheres)

Geometry Modify Shape Ellipsoid (Spheres)


Right-click a sphere Ellipsoid Modify

Allows you to control the center marker used as the anchor point of a ellipsoid (sphere). By controlling
the center marker, such as changing the marker used or changing its location, you change the ellipsoid's
location and orientation.
Learn about the Sphere Tool.

For the option:


Ellipsoid Name

Do the following:
Displays the name of the ellipsoid you are modifying.

New Ellipsoid Name If you want, enter a unique name for the ellipsoid.
Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the ellipsoid. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the ellipsoid that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify it. See Comments.

Center Marker

Specify the center marker that defines the center of the ellipsoid.

X Scale

Specify the diameter dimension along the center marker's x-axis.

Y Scale

Specify the diameter dimension along the center marker's y-axis.

Z Scale

Specify the diameter dimension along the center marker's z-axis.

316 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Shape Frustum

Geometry Modify Shape Frustum


Right-click a frustum Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of a frustum.


Learn about the Frustum Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Frustum Name

Enter the name of the frustum to modify.

Center Marker

Specify the marker at the center of the bottom of a frustum. Orient the center
marker so that its z-axis is normal to the bottom of the frustum and points
towards the top of the frustum.

Angle Extent

Specify the extended angle measured positive (according to the right-hand


rule) about the z-axis of the center marker. The angle starts at the positive
x-axis of the center marker and extends the arc of the frustum.

Length

Specify the height of the frustum. Adams/View uses the length value to
specify the z distance between the two circles. A positive value specifies a
frustum along the positive z-axis of the center marker.

Side Count for Body

Specify the number of flat sides Adams/View draws on the side of the
frustum. The number of sides you specify affects the calculations
Adams/View uses to determine a parts mass and inertia.

Top Radius

Specify the radius at the top of a frustum. The top is perpendicular to the
center marker z-axis.

Bottom Radius

Specify the radius at the bottom of the frustum. The bottom is perpendicular
to the center marker z-axis, and the center of the bottom is at the center
marker origin.

Segment Count for Ends Displays the number of segments Adams/View uses to draw the circles at
the ends of the frustum.
Select to add any comments about the frustum that you want to enter to help
you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

E - I 317
Geometry Modify Shape Link

Geometry Modify Shape Link


Right-click a link Modify

Allows you to precisely control the size, location, and shape of a Link. Learn about the Link Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Link Name

Enter the name of the link to modify.

New Link Name

If you want, enter a new name for the link.

Comments

Add any comments about the link that you want to enter to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

I marker

Specify the marker at one end of the link. Adams/View calculates the length of
the link as the distance between the I marker and J maker.

J marker

The J marker must lie along the I marker's x-axis.

Width

Specify the width of the link. The width of the link also controls the radius of the
semicircular ends (the radius is equal to one half of the links width).

Depth

Specify the depth of the link.

318 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Shape Plane

Geometry Modify Shape Plane


Right-click a plane Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of planes and change the name of the planes.
Learn about the Plane Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Plane Name

Enter the name of the plane to modify.

New Plane Name

If you want, enter a new name for the plane.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the plane. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the plane that you want to enter to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Ref Marker Name Specify the reference marker used to locate and orient the plane.
X Minimum

Specify the location of one corner of the plane in coordinates relative to the
reference marker. If all values are positive, the values indicate the lower left corner
of the plane. For example, the values of X Minimum = 10 and Y Minimum = 20,
place the lower left corner at 10,20 in the reference marker's coordinate system.

X Maximum

Specify the location of the opposite corner of the plane in coordinates relative to
the reference marker. If all values are positive, the values indicate the upper right
corner of the plane.

Y Minimum

Specify the location of one corner of the plane in coordinates relative to the
reference marker. If all values are positive, the values indicate the lower left corner
of the plane. For example, the values of X Minimum = 10 and Y Minimum = 20,
place the lower left corner at 10,20 in the reference marker's coordinate system.

Y Maximum

Specify the location of the opposite corner of the plane in coordinates relative to
the reference marker. If all values are positive, the values indicate the upper right
corner of the plane.

E - I 319
Geometry Modify Shape Plate

Geometry Modify Shape Plate


Right-click a plate Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of a plate and allows you to rename the plate.
Learn about the Plate Tool.
See an example of Plate.

For the option:

Do the following:

Plate Name

Displays the name of the plate you are modifying.

New Plate Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the plate.

Comments

Add any comments about the plate that you want to enter to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Marker Name

Specify the markers used to define the vertices of the plate. The first marker listed
is the anchor point for the plate. It is the first point that you specified when you
created the plate.

Width

Enter the thickness of the plate measured along the z-axis of the corner marker.

Radius

Specify the radius of the corners of the plate.

Note:

To change the corner locations of a plate, modify the markers that define the corner
locations.

320 Adams/View
Geometry Modify Shape Torus

Geometry Modify Shape Torus


Right-click a torus Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of a torus.


Learn about Torus Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Torus Name

Displays the name of the torus you are modifying.

New Torus Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the torus.

Adams Id

Specify an integer to be used to identify this element in the Adams data file.

Comments

Add any comments about the torus that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify it. See Comments.

Center Marker

Specify the marker at the center of the torus.

Angle Extent

Specify the extended angle measured positive (according to the right-hand


rule) about the z-axis of the center marker. The angle starts at the positive
x-axis of the center marker and subtends the arc of the torus.

Major Radius

Specify the radius of the circular spine of the torus.

Minor Radius

Specify the radius of the circular-cross sections of the torus.

Side Count for Perimeter Enter the number of circular cross-sections to create along the spine of the
torus. The number of sides you specify affects the calculations
Adams/View uses to determine a parts mass and inertia.
Segment Count

Enter the number of sides for each of the circular cross-sections of the torus.

E - I 321
Graphical Topology

Graphical Topology
Database Navigator Graphical Topology

Allows you to display a representation of the selected part and shows its connections to other parts. The
connections represent the joints or forces between the parts. Each time you select a different part in the
tree list of the Database Navigator, the graphical display changes to show the selected part at the center
of the display. If the object is inactive, the part appears dimmed.
Below is an example of graphical view topology.
Learn about Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator.

322 Adams/View
Gravity

Gravity
Settings Gravity
Build Forces Gravity Tool

You can specify the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of gravity. For each part with mass, the
gravitational force produces a point force at its center of mass.
When you turn on gravity, an icon appears in the middle of the Adams/View Main window. To turn off
the display of the gravity icon, see Displaying View Accessories.
Learn about setting gravity.

For the option:

Do the following:

Gravity

Select to turn on gravity. Clear to turn off gravity.

Enter the acceleration value in the x direction or select + or - to enter a standard


positive or negative value.

Enter the acceleration value in the y direction or select + or - to enter a standard


positive or negative value.

Enter the acceleration value in the z direction or select + or - to enter a standard


positive or negative value.

E - I 323
Group Attributes

Group Attributes
Build Group Attributes

Allows the specification of attributes to be set on a group.


Learn more about group attributes.

For the option:

Do the following:

Group Name

Enter a name of existing group.

Scale of Icons

Specifies a unit-less scale factor to apply to the current icon size.

Size of Icons

Specifies the size, in modeling units, the Adams/View icons will appear in.

Visibility

Specifies the visibility of graphic entities.

Name Visibility

This parameter provides control over the visibility of the view name
displayed at the top center position of a given view.

Transparency

Specifies the transparency level for graphic entities.

Lod

Specifies the level of details for shells.

Color

Specifies the color the modeling entity should be drawn in.

Entity Scope

This parameter is used to control how a color modification is to affect a


particular graphic entity.

Active

When you set ACTIVE=NO, that element is written to the data set as a
comment.

Dependents Active

Specifies whether children of the objects are to be acted upon in the same way
as the active parameter does.

Line Thickness

Specifies the thickness of the line for a curve.

Line Type

This parameter allows the selection of the line type for a curve.

324 Adams/View
Group Create

Group Create
Build Group New ...

Lets you group several objects so that you can work on them as a single object. This is particularly helpful
for objects that make up a unit or subsystem of your model, such as a suspension system or a handle of
a latch. Once youve grouped the objects, you can add them to the Select list all at once so that you can
perform editing operations on them, such as move or copy them. You can also set up their activation and
deactivation status during simulations. (Learn about Activating and Deactivating Objects.)
When you create a group, you can specify the objects to be included or set up a filter to specify the objects
in the group. You can also enter an expression that sets whether or not the objects are active or deactive
during a simulation.
Learn about the procedures for Grouping and Ungrouping Objects.

For the option:

Do the following:

Group Name

Enter a name for the group of objects or accept the default name.

Comments

Add any comments about the group that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify the group. See Comments.

Objects in Group

To explicitly specify the objects to be grouped:


In the Objects in Group text box, enter the names of the objects.

Separate each name with a comma (,).


You can select an object on the screen or browse for an object in the
Database Navigator. If you select objects to group using the shortcut
menu, Adams/View enters commas between the objects.

To set filters for specifying objects to be grouped:


In the Objects in Group text box, enter a wildcard, and then specify

the type of objects in the Type Filter text box. For example, enter
Parts to include only rigid bodies or Markers to include only
coordinate system markers.
Type Filter

If you set a filter in Objects in Group, specify the type of objects to be


included in the group. For example, enter Parts to include only rigid bodies
or Markers to include only coordinate system markers.

Expand Group

Do not use. It is only present to provide backward compatibility. We


recommend that you not use it.

Expr Active

Specify whether or not the group of objects is active during a simulation. You
can enter an expression that evaluates to 0 (not active) or 1 (active) or enter
1 or 0. If you do not specify a value, Adams/View uses the activation status
you set using the Activate and Deactivate commands.

E - I 325
Group Modify

Group Modify
Build Group Modify ...

Lets you modify an exisitng group. A group is particularly helpful for objects that make up a unit or
subsystem of your model, such as a suspension system or a handle of a latch. Once youve grouped the
objects, you can add them to the Select list all at once so that you can perform editing operations on them,
such as move or copy them. You can also set up their activation and deactivation status during
simulations. (Learn about Activating and Deactivating Objects.)
When you create a group, you can specify the objects to be included or set up a filter to specify the objects
in the group. You can also enter an expression that sets whether or not the objects are active or deactive
during a simulation.
Learn about the procedures for Grouping and Ungrouping Objects.

For the option:

Do the following:

Group Name

Enter a name of existing group.

New Group Name

Enter a new name for the group.

Comments

Add any comments about the group that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify the group. See Comments.

Objects in Group

To explicitly specify the objects to be grouped:


In the Objects in Group text box, enter the names of the objects.

Separate each name with a comma (,).


You can select an object on the screen or browse for an object in the
Database Navigator. If you select objects to group using the shortcut
menu, Adams/View enters commas between the objects.

To set filters for specifying objects to be grouped:


In the Objects in Group text box, enter a wildcard, and then specify

the type of objects in the Type Filter text box. For example, enter
Parts to include only rigid bodies or Markers to include only
coordinate system markers.
Type Filter

If you set a filter in Objects in Group, specify the type of objects to be


included in the group. For example, enter Parts to include only rigid bodies
or Markers to include only coordinate system markers.

Expand Group

Do not use. It is only present to provide backward compatibility. We


recommend that you not use it.

Expr Active

Specify whether or not the group of objects is active during a simulation. You
can enter an expression that evaluates to 0 (not active) or 1 (active) or enter
1 or 0. If you do not specify a value, Adams/View uses the activation status
you set using the Activate and Deactivate commands.

326 Adams/View
Hole Tool

Hole Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Hole Tool

Creates circular holes in solid objects.

As you create a hole, you can specify its radius and depth.

Note:

You cannot specify the radius and depth of a hole so that it splits the current geometry into
two separate geometries.

Learn about Creating a Hole or Boss.

For the option:

Do the following:

Radius

Enter the radius of the hole.

Depth

Enter the depth of the hole.

E - I 327
Hollow Tool

Hollow Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Hollow Tool

Hollows out one or more faces of a solid object to create a shell. As you hollow an object, you can specify
the thickness of the remaining shell and the faces to be hollowed. You can also specify that Adams/View
add material to the outside of the object. In this case, Adams/View uses the original object as a mold.
Adams/View adds material of the specified thickness to the original object and then takes the original
object away, leaving a shell.
Example of Hollowed Boxes.

Note:

You can hollow any object that has a face. You cannot hollow spheres, revolutions, or
Construction geometry

Learn about Hollowing Out a Solid.

For the option:

Do the following:

Thickness

Specify the thickness of the remaining shell after you hollow the object.

Inside

Clear if you want to add the shell to the outside of the object.

328 Adams/View
Hooke/Universal Joint Tool

Hooke/Universal Joint Tool


Build Joints Hooke/Universal Joint Tool

Creates a hooke/universal joint that allows the rotation of one rigid body to be transferred to the rotation
of another rigid body.

This joint is particularly useful when transferring rotational motion around corners, when you need to
simulate the non-constant velocity of a physical universal joint, or when transferring rotational motion
between two connected shafts that are permitted to bend at the connection point (such as the drive shaft
on an automobile).
The location point of the universal joint represents the connection point of the two parts. For a hooke
joint, two shaft axes leading to the cross bars identify the axes about which the two parts are permitted
to rotate with respect to each other. Note that Adams/View uses rotational axes that are parallel to the
rotational axes you identify but that pass through the location point for the hooke joint. For a universal
joint, the cross bars identify the axes about which the two parts are permitted to rotate with respect to
each other.
Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

E - I 329
Hooke/Universal Joint Tool

Adding Friction to Idealized Joints

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints
to Parts.

Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry Feature

Set how you want the joint oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

330 Adams/View
Hot Point Snapping Increments

Hot Point Snapping Increments


There is currently no help available for this dialog box. To return to the previous online help, select the
browser Back button, or select Show to see the table of contents for the entire help system.

E - I 331
Icon Settings Dialog Box

Icon Settings Dialog Box


Settings Icons

Sets up how you want Screen icons displayed for the entire Modeling database or a particular type of
object, such as all parts or joints. By default, all objects inherit the screen icon display options that you
specify for the modeling database. You can set screen icon options for the following types of objects:
Curve-curves
Couplers
Data elements
Equations (System elements)
Forces
Gears
Joints
Markers (Note that markers belong to parts and, therefore, by default, inherit screen icon display

options for parts.)Motion


Parts
Points
Point-curves

Learn more about Setting Screen Icon Display.

For the option:

Do the following:

The next two options apply to the entire modeling database:


New Value

Choose one of the following to select whether or not you want to turn on screen
icons:
No Change - Select No Change to not change the current settings.
On - Turns on all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for

individual objects or types of objects.


Off - Turns off all icons regardless of how you set the icon display for

individual objects or types of objects.


New Size

Enter the size you want for the screen icons. Note that any changes you make to
the size of icons for individual objects or types of objects take precedence over
this size setting.

The remaining options apply to a particular type of modeling object:


Specify Attributes
for

Select the type of object for which you want to set the screen icon options

332 Adams/View
Icon Settings Dialog Box

For the option:


Visibility

Do the following:
Select whether or not you want to turn on screen icons for the selected object
type. You can select:
On - Turns on the display of screen icons for the selected type of object.
Off - Turns off the display of screen icons for the selected type of object.

Remember, however, that turning on the display of screen icons for the
entire database overrides this setting.
Inherit - Lets the object type simply inherit the display settings from its

parent. For example, a coordinate system marker inherits settings from


its parent part.
No Change - Does not change the current settings. Lets you make

changes to other display options without affecting the visibility of the


icons.
Size of Icons/Scale Enter the size you want for the icons or select the amount by which you want to
of Icons
scale the icons. The scale factor is relative to the current size set. A scale factor
of 1 keeps the icons the same size. A scale factor less than 1.0 reduces the size of
the icons and a scale factor greater than 1.0 increases the size of the icons. Note
that these changes take precedence over the size you specify globally for the
modeling database.
Color

Enter the color you want to use for the icons.


To browse for or create a color, right-click the Color text box, and then select
Browse or Create.

Name Visibility

Select whether or not you want the names of objects of the selected type
displayed in the view. Refer to Visibility option above for choices.

Reset

Select to reset the screen icon display to the previous values.

E - I 333
Import - Adams/Solver Analysis Files

Import - Adams/Solver Analysis Files


File Import Adams/Solver Analysis, Adams Graphics, Adams Request, or Adams Results Shared Dialog
Box

Imports Adams/Solver analysis files, which are a set of output files that Adams/Solver generates during
a single Simulation. The files include:
Graphics
Request
Results

You can import multiple files if you associate and store the files with a model. Adams/View reads and
creates all analyses under the specified model. If you do not provide a model name, Adams/View reads
each analysis into its own model. For request files, when you specify multiple files, the Request IDs
button only displays the requests from the first file listed. The list of IDs will, however, be applied to all
files.
If you select to associate the files with a particular simulation, you can only import one set of output files
generated from the same Adams/Solver simulation. Adams/View uses the time-date stamp placed at the
beginning of each output file to determine if the files were generated by the same simulation run.
If you have very large request files that you want to import, Adams/View lets you read in only a subset
of the request file to conserve memory use. You can specify to read in only the request IDs in which you
are interested and skip time steps. Note that this is only available when reading in a single request file,
not when reading in an entire set of analysis files.

Note:

Importing an entire set of analysis files works even if you have only one of the three files
included in the analysis set as explained below.
If Adams/View cannot find any of the three files, it issues a message. The most common
reasons that Adams/View cannot find one or more of the files are that the path to the files
is incorrect or you do not have permission to read the file. You can either:
Import the files again using the correct path name.
Move the files into the directory from which you are running Adams/View and

check the file permission. Then, import the files again. You do not need to specify
the file locations.

334 Adams/View
Import - Adams/Solver Analysis Files

For the option:


File Type

Do the following:
To import sets of analysis files, select Adams/Solver Analysis Files.
To import individual analysis files one at a time, select Graphics, Request,

or Results.
Note:

File(s) to Read

When you import only a graphics file, you can select to display the
graphics and choose to store the data on your disk drive and not in the
Adams Modeling database. Then when Adams/View or
Adams/PostProcessor animates the model, it references the data on
disk. By saving the data on disk and not in the Adams database you
can save substantial amounts of memory, especially if the files are
large (containing 20,000 output steps or more). Note that storing the
data on disk results in slightly longer animation time.

Enter the base name of the file or set of files. You do not need to enter their
extension.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Model/Analysis

Enter either the model or analysis name under which you want to store the
analysis files in the modeling database. You can enter multiple files if you select
to store them under a model.

View

(Adams/PostProcessor only)
Enter the viewport in which to display the data.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Display Model
After Completion

(Graphics file only)


Select if you want to display the final results of the import.

Keep Results Data


On Disk

Select if you want to avoid reading the entire contents of the graphics, request,
or results data (XML only) into the database. Adams/View references the data
only when needed for animations or xy plotting. Storing the data on disk reduces
the memory footprint and improves performance for very large simulations, for
example, those containing durability results. Learn more about storing results
files in XML format with Results (.res) Options dialog box help.

If you selected to import a request file, the following two options appear:
Request IDs

Enter the IDs of the requests in which you are interested and want read into the
Adams/View database. Select the More tool
to select from a list of all the
requests and their IDs in the specified request file.

Time Step Skip

Enter whether or not to skip time steps by specifying a pattern of time steps to
skip. If you have a large request file with unnecessarily fine time resolution, this
can significantly reduce the amount of memory used to store the data. For
example, enter 1 to have Adams/View store only the following time steps in the
database: 1st, 3rd, 5th, and so on. Enter 2 to store only the 1st, 4th, 7th, and so
on.

E - I 335
Import - Adams/Solver Dataset

Import - Adams/Solver Dataset


File Import Adams/Solver Dataset

Shared Dialog Box

Imports datasets that you created for Adams/Solver into Adams/View.


When you import an Adams/Solver dataset, Adams/View creates a new Model using the model
description defined in the dataset. It makes the model part of the current Modeling database. To display
the model, see Displaying Models in the Database.

Note:

If Adams/View encounters special characters in the file, such as <CTRL m>, it cancels the
operation. Special characters can appear in files that have been transferred between
different computer systems (for example, from Windows NT to Linux). If Adams/View
cancels the operation, edit the file to remove the special characters and import the file into
Adams/View again.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Adams/Solver Dataset.

File to Read

Enter the name of the dataset that you want to import. You do not
need to enter the file extension .adm, since Adams/View assumes
that this is the file extension.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Model to Create

Enter the name of the model you want to create from the dataset.

Set Default Units

Set the default units for the model. For more information, see Units
Dialog Box.

Display Model Upon Completion Display the final results of the import.

336 Adams/View
Import - Adams/Solver Script

Import - Adams/Solver Script


File Import Adams/Solver Script (*.acf)

Shared Dialog Box

Imports an Adams/Solver script file (*.acf) into Adams/View. After importing Adams/View creates a
Simulation Script in the database.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Adams/Solver Script.

File to Read

Enter the name of the solver script file that you want to import. You do not
need to enter the file extension .acf, since Adams/View assumes that this is
the file extension.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Simulation Script Name A new or an existing Simulation Script. If an existing script is specified, then
the import operation will modify the script with the commands from the
specified file.

E - I 337
Import - Adams/View Command Files

Import - Adams/View Command Files


File Import Command Files

Shared Dialog Box

Imports a command file into Adams/View so that Adams/View executes the commands stored in the
command file.
You can also use Tools Read Command File to import a command file, and set the
options using Settings Command File.

Tip:

Learn about:
Sources of Command Files
Command File Format
Ensuring Upward Compatibility of Command Files
Reading Command Files

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Adams/View Command File.

File to Read

Enter the name of the command file that you want to import. You
do not need to enter the file extension .cmd since Adams/View
assumes that it is the file extension.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Echo Commands

Select to display the commands that Adams/View executes as it


imports the file.

Update Screen

Display the results of the commands in the main window. If you


do not select Update Screen, Adams/View displays the results
when it finishes reading the command file.

Display Model Upon Completion Display the final results of the import.
On Error

Set what Adams/View does when it encounters an error.

338 Adams/View
Import - CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis, ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA

Import - CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis,


ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA
File Import STEP, IGES, or DXF or DWG

When you import CAD geometry, Adams reads the CAD file and converts the geometry into a set of
Adams geometric elements. By importing geometry from standard CAD packages you can reduce the
need to recreate geometry primitives within Adams, and you can enhance your ability to realistically
view the behavior of complicated mechanical systems.
Be sure that the model into which you want to import the geometry is currently open and displayed in
Adams. You can associate the geometry that you import with an existing part or create a new part with
which to associate it.

E - I 339
Import - CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis, ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to the type of geometry that you want to import.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file that you want to import.


Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Part Name

Enter the name of the part with which you want to associate the imported geometry.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Model Name

Enter the name of the model with which you want to import the geometry. If the
input data is an assembly, then individual parts in the assembly will be translated
as separate parts under the Adams model.

Level

Enter the level or levels to be translated in the CAD file for IGES, DXF, and DWG
files. Levels let you associate geometry into a group. These groups can be
manipulated as a single entity for purposes of visibility and color. The CAD
program that generated the CAD file defines the levels and are labeled with
integers greater than or equal to 0. Levels are typically used to organize data for
viewing and are similar to layers. If you do not specify the levels you want
translated, Adams/Exchange reads all levels.
You can specify a single level or a range of levels. Separate the range with a comma
(,). For example, enter 10, 15 to translate levels 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15.

Scale

Enter the factor by which you want to scale the size of the geometry created in
Adams/Exchange. The default scale factor is 1.0, meaning that the geometry in
Adams/Exchange will be the same size as the geometry in the CAD file. A scale
factor less than 1.0 reduces the size of geometry and a scale factor greater than 1.0
increases the size of the geometry.
For example, if you specify a scale factor of 0.5, Adams translates a cylinder of
length 2 meters and diameter of .5 meters to a length of 1 meter and diameter of
.25 meters. Adams also scales the distance from the geometry to the coordinate
system specified in the Relative To text box according to the scale value. If the
cylinder was located at 3, 2, 0 in the file, it would be located at 1.5, 1, 0 after it is
translated to Adams. The orientation of the geometry is not effected by scale value.

340 Adams/View
Import - CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis, ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA

For the option:


Blanked Entities

Do the following:
Select to translate entities that are blanked (made not visible). Adams/Exchange
translates the blanked entities and makes them invisible. If you do not select
Blanked Entities, Adams does not translate the blanked entities.
Blanked entities are typically construction entities that are used in the definition of
another geometric entity. For example, a line can be used as the center of rotation
of another line in the definition of a cylinder. The center line and the sweep line
rotated about the center line are both blanked because they are temporary entities
used in the construction of the cylinder.
Once you translate blanked entities to Adams, there is no distinction between
construction entities and other geometry. You can change the visibility of the
entities.

Location

Specify the translational position where the geometry in the CAD file is to be
located, relative to the Adams part coordinate system. These coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
By default, you enter Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinates. You can change the convention
for entering translational positions. Learn about Setting Default Coordinate
System.
Note:

Orientation

This parameter is valid only when importing the geometry under a part
and not a model. If the geometry is being imported under a model, the
parameter will simply be ignored.

Specify the angular position where the geometry in the CAD file is to be oriented
relative to the Adams part coordinate system. These orientation coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
Adams/View orients the coordinate system starting from the initial coordinate
system and applying three successive rotations. By default, you supply body-fixed
313 angles. You can change the convention for entering orientation angles.Learn
about Setting Default Coordinate System.
Note:

Relative To

This parameter is valid only when importing the geometry under a part
and not a model. If the geometry is being imported under a model, the
parameter will simply be ignored.

Enter the coordinate system relative to which the translated geometry will be
defined. The coordinates you specified in the Location and Orientation text boxes
are relative to the coordinate system that you specify. You can specify a coordinate
system, part, or model.
Note:

This parameter is valid only when importing the geometry under a part
and not a model. If the geometry is being imported under a model, the
parameter will simply be ignored.

E - I 341
Import - CatiaV4, CatiaV5, Inventor, STEP, IGES, Acis, ProE, SolidWorks, Unigraphics, VDA

For the option:


Consolidate To
Shells

Do the following:
Set to import all the geometry as one shell. If you do not select Consolidate To
Shells, Adams imports the geometry as individual entities. We recommend that you
select Consolidate To Shells to receive the best animation results.
Note:

This parameter is valid only when importing the geometry under a part
and not a model. If the geometry is being imported under a model, the
parameter will simply be ignored.

Display
Summary

Select to write a verbose log file to the disk. A message will be displayed indicating
the log file to which the translation operation details have been written.

Translation
Options

Click on this button to invoke the Manage Geometry Translation Options dialog
box for the relevant geometry and translation operation (read or write). The dialog
box would be pre-filled with the option name, short description of what the option
is for and the default value.
Upon changing the desired option values, click on the 'Done' button. The
translation options so set will be used in the ensuing translation operation.

Note:

The translation via 'Adams CAD Translators' is applicable for STEP and IGES only if
MSC_GEOM_TRANSLATE_INTEROP is set to an integral value of 1.

342 Adams/View
Import - DAC or RPC III

Import - DAC or RPC III


File Import DAC/RPC III

Shared Dialog Box

You can import test data in DAC or RPC III format. The steps involved in importing the data are
essentially the same for both formats; however, it is important to remember that RPC III format supports
multiple channels per file while DAC format only has one channel per file.
Adams/View creates a DAC_FILE or RPC_FILE object below Root in the database after you
successfully import these files. It only stores information about the imported file from the file header. It
does not store time history data in the database. Adams/View also creates Result_Set_Component
placeholders below the file object for each RPC III data channel or DAC file.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to DAC or RPC3.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file or files that you want to import. With DAC
files, you may want to select multiple files because each file has only
one result set. You can use Shift+click or Ctrl+click multiple selection
techniques.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

RPC Object Name/DAC


Object Name

Enter the RPC or DAC objects that you want to import.

E - I 343
Import - Parasolid

Import - Parasolid
File Import Parasolid

Shared Dialog Box

Imports Parasolid geometry. Requires Adams/Exchange.


When you import Parasolid geometry, Adams/Exchange reads the file and converts the geometry into a
set of Adams geometric elements. By importing geometry from standard CAD packages you can reduce
the need to recreate geometry primitives within Adams, and you can enhance your ability to realistically
view the behavior of complicated mechanical systems.
Be sure that the model into which you want to import the geometry is currently open and displayed in
Adams. You can associate the geometry that you import with an existing part or create a new part with
which to associate it.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Parasolid.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file that you want to import.


Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

File Type

Select the type of Parasolid file that you are importing.

Model Name/Part Name Select whether or not you want to store the geometry under a model or part
name in the Modeling database and enter the name of the object in the text
box.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

344 Adams/View
Import - Shell

Import - Shell
File Import Shell

Shared Dialog Box

Imports shell geometry to enhance animations.

Note:

In Adams/PostProcessor, you can specify whether or not you want Adams/PostProcessor


to import triangular geometry into trimesh strips when you import CAD geometry. Trimesh
strips display significantly faster than individual polygons, resulting in faster animations.
Adams/PostProcessor automatically imports shell files (.shl , .slp, and .stl) as trimesh
strips. For more information, see PPT Preferences - Geometry.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the file that you want to import.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Shell Name

Enter the name with which you want to associate the imported shell geometry.

Reference Marker Enter the name of the marker to which the shell is paired. During animations, the
shell geometry moves with the marker.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Wireframe Only

Set to import the shell geometry as wireframe.

E - I 345
Import - STEP, IGES, DXF/DWG

Import - STEP, IGES, DXF/DWG


File Import STEP, IGES, or DXF or DWG

Shared Dialog Box

When you import CAD geometry, Adams/Exchange reads the CAD file and converts the geometry into
a set of Adams geometric elements. By importing geometry from standard CAD packages you can reduce
the need to recreate geometry primitives within Adams, and you can enhance your ability to realistically
view the behavior of complicated mechanical systems.
Be sure that the model into which you want to import the geometry is currently open and displayed in
Adams. You can associate the geometry that you import with an existing part or create a new part with
which to associate it.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to the type of geometry that you want to import.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file that you want to import.


Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Part Name

Enter the name of the part with which you want to associate the imported
geometry. Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Tolerance

Enter the tolerance for the geometry. The tolerance value is the measure of the
midpoint chordal distance from the approximated curve/surface to the true
curve/surface:
Schematic of the Tolerance Value

Be careful when specifying the tolerance. You should have advanced knowledge
of the units and size of the geometry in the CAD file before setting the tolerance.
If you do not know the size of the geometry in the file, Adams/Exchange may
translate the geometry so it is too coarse, or too fine. A tolerance that is too fine
can potentially cause Adams/Exchange to use excessive computing power and
memory.
The tolerance reported in the log file is the tolerance of the data defined in the
CAD file. This is the maximum tolerance available in the CAD file and is usually
too fine for efficient translation to Adams/View. We recommend, therefore, that
you try a tolerance several orders of magnitude greater then the tolerance specified
in the CAD file.

346 Adams/View
Import - STEP, IGES, DXF/DWG

For the option:


Level

Do the following:
Enter the level or levels to be translated in the CAD file for IGES, DXF, and DWG
files. Levels let you associate geometry into a group. These groups can be
manipulated as a single entity for purposes of visibility and color. The CAD
program that generated the CAD file defines the levels and are labeled with
integers greater than or equal to 0. Levels are typically used to organize data for
viewing and are similar to layers. If you do not specify the levels you want
translated, Adams/Exchange reads all levels.
You can specify a single level or a range of levels. Separate the range with a
comma (,). For example, enter 10, 15 to translate levels 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15.

Scale

Enter the factor by which you want to scale the size of the geometry created in
Adams/Exchange. The default scale factor is 1.0, meaning that the geometry in
Adams/Exchange will be the same size as the geometry in the CAD file. A scale
factor less than 1.0 reduces the size of geometry and a scale factor greater than 1.0
increases the size of the geometry.
For example, if you specify a scale factor of 0.5, Adams/Exchange translates a
cylinder of length 2 meters and diameter of .5 meters to a length of 1 meter and
diameter of .25 meters. Adams/Exchange also scales the distance from the
geometry to the coordinate system specified in the Relative To text box according
to the scale value. If the cylinder was located at 3, 2, 0 in the file, it would be
located at 1.5, 1, 0 after it is translated to Adams. The orientation of the geometry
is not effected by scale value.

Create

Select either:
Polygons to represent surfaces as polygons. Selecting Polygons allows for the

quickest animations and rendering.


Solids to represent surfaces as solid representations. Selecting Solids allows

for the greatest precision and mass property calculations.


Blanked Entities

Select to translate entities that are blanked (made not visible). Adams/Exchange
translates the blanked entities and makes them invisible. If you do not select
Blanked Entities, Adams/Exchange does not translate the blanked entities.
Blanked entities are typically construction entities that are used in the definition of
another geometric entity. For example, a line can be used as the center of rotation
of another line in the definition of a cylinder. The center line and the sweep line
rotated about the center line are both blanked because they are temporary entities
used in the construction of the cylinder.
Once you translate blanked entities to Adams, there is no distinction between
construction entities and other geometry. You can change the visibility of the
entities.

E - I 347
Import - STEP, IGES, DXF/DWG

For the option:


Location

Do the following:
Specify the translational position where the geometry in the CAD file is to be
located, relative to the Adams part coordinate system. These coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
By default, you enter Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinates. You can change the convention
for entering translational positions. Learn about Setting Default Coordinate
System.

Orientation

Specify the angular position where the geometry in the CAD file is to be oriented
relative to the Adams part coordinate system. These orientation coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
Adams/View orients the coordinate system starting from the initial coordinate
system and applying three successive rotations. By default, you supply body-fixed
313 angles. You can change the convention for entering orientation angles. Learn
about Setting Default Coordinate System.

Relative To

Enter the coordinate system relative to which the translated geometry will be
defined. The coordinates you specified in the Location and Orientation text boxes
are relative to the coordinate system that you specify. You can specify a coordinate
system, part, or model.

Mesh Density

Enter the density of the mesh in uv coordinates.

Consolidate To
Shells

Set to import all the geometry as one shell. If you do not select Consolidate To
Shells, Adams/Exchange imports the geometry as individual entities. We
recommend that you select Consolidate To Shells to receive the best animation
results.

Display
Summary

Select to display a summary of the exporting in a message window.

348 Adams/View
Import - Stereolithography and Render Files

Import - Stereolithography and Render Files


File Import Stereolithography, Render

Shared Dialog Box

You can import both Stereolithography (SLA) and render geometry into Adams. As you import the SLA
and render geometry, you associate the geometry with an existing part or you create a new part with
which to associate it.
Importing your geometry as SLA or render geometry is more reliable than using other CAD formats, such
as IGES or STEP, and the file formats are very simple. There are, however, the following disadvantages:
The files are much larger than IGES and DXF files.
Because the surfaces have been represented as polygons, you cannot change the accuracy of the

surface representations in Adams/View. You must specify the accuracy when you create the files
in your CAD program.
Note:

Only ASCII .stl files (Stereolithography) are supported. Binary .stl files are not currently
supported.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Stereolithography or Render.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file that you want to import.


Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

Part Name

Enter the name of the part with which you want to associate the imported geometry.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Scale

Enter the factor by which you want to scale the size of the geometry created in
Adams. The default scale factor is 1.0, meaning that the geometry in Adams will
be the same size as the geometry in the SLA or render file. A scale factor less than
1.0 reduces the size of the geometry and a scale factor greater than 1.0 increases
the size of the geometry.
For example, if you specify a scale factor of 0.5, Adams translates a cylinder of
length 2 meters and diameter .5 meters to a length of 1 meter and diameter of .25
meters. Adams also scales the distance from the geometry to the coordinate system
specified in the Relative To text box according to the scale value. If the cylinder
was located at 3, 2, 0 in the imported file, it would be located at 1.5, 1, 0 after it is
translated to Adams. The orientation of the geometry is not affected by scale value.

E - I 349
Import - Stereolithography and Render Files

For the option:


Location

Do the following:
Specify the translational position where the geometry in the file is to be located
relative to the Adams/View part coordinate system. These coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
By default, you enter Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinates. You can change the convention
for entering translational positions. Learn about Setting Default Coordinate
System.

Orientation

Specify the angular position where the geometry in the file is to be oriented relative
to the Adams/View part coordinate system. These orientation coordinates can be
relative to any other coordinate system defined in the model.
Adams/View orients the coordinate system starting from the initial coordinate
system and applying three successive rotations. By default, you supply body-fixed
313 angles. You can change the convention for entering orientation angles.Learn
about Setting Default Coordinate System.

Relative To

Enter the coordinate system to which the translated geometry will be defined
relative to. The coordinates you specified in the Location and Orientation text
boxes are relative to the coordinate system that you specify. You can specify a
coordinate system, part, or model.

350 Adams/View
Import - Test Data

Import - Test Data


File Import Test Data

Shared Dialog Box

You can import test data, such as the results of hardware prototype testing, calculations, or Simulations
performed by other software or earlier sessions. When you import test data, you can compare it with
Adams simulation results or use the data in the definition of your model. For example, you might want
to import the results from physical tests of a mechanical system and compare them to the results of
simulations in Adams of the same mechanical system to evaluate the accuracy of a model or to help you
improve your model.
Learn about Test Data Format.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set it to Test Data.

File to Read

Enter the name of the file that you want to import. Tips on Entering File
Names in Text Boxes.

Create Splines/
Create Measures

Select whether you want to import the data as splines or as measures.

Time Column Index

For measures only, specify which column in the data file contains the xaxis data. Enter the column number. Adams uses all other columns as the
y-axis data.

Independent Column Index For splines only, enter the column number to specify which column in the
file to use for the independent data (X parameter) in the Adams spline.
The columns are numbered sequentially from left to right starting with 1,
2, 3, and so on.
If you specify an independent data index for splines, Adams does not
create a spline for the column of the file with that index. Instead, that
column of data is used as the x data for all splines. If you do not include
an independent column index, then the series of numbers 1, 2, 3, and so
on is used for the x data of all splines.

E - I 351
Import - Test Data

For the option:


Units

Do the following:
Specify the unit category to be applied to the dependent data for the
spline. You can provide a unit category for each dependent column in the
file.
Once Adams assigns the units to the spline, it performs automatic unit
conversions based on the current default units specified (Settings
Units). For example, if you import test data and assign the unit category
of length, and then you change the length unit from millimeter to meter,
Adams/View automatically converts the test data by 0.001.
Note that you should take care to ensure the current units in Adams are
set to the appropriate units for the data in the file before importing the file.
If the Adams default units are millimeter, and you are importing data in
inches, the data in the file will be interpreted as millimeters.
The units field is optional. If you omit it, Adams assigns no_units to the
imported data, and performs no automatic unit conversion.

Model Name/
Analysis Name

Specify the name of the model or, for measures, the name of the analysis
in which you want to store the data. Select:
Model Name and then enter the name of the model in the text box

next next to the pull-down menu.


Analysis Name and then enter the name of the simulation in the text

box next to the pull-down menu. You can only store measures under
simulation results. (Not available if you are importing the data as a
spline.)
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Names in File

Specify how to define the names of the splines or measures


If there are textual column headers in the file, select Names in File.

Adams uses the column header text as the names of each spline.
If there are no textual column headers, do not select Names in File.

Adams automatically generates names for the splines (for example,


SPLINE_1, SPLINE_2, and so on).

352 Adams/View
Import - Wavefront Files

Import - Wavefront Files


File Import Wavefront

Shared Dialog Box

Lets you import Wavefront geometry (.obj) files to define polygon vertices and connectivity for all
Adams graphics, except deformable geometry (springdampers, force/torque vectors, and multi-part
outlines). When you import a Wavefront .obj file, Adams only interprets vertex, face, and group
information. It ignores smoothing groups, textures, and material properties.
You can associate the imported geometry with an entire model, single part, or marker. Each option is
explained below:
Entire model - If you associate the contents of a Wavefront .obj with an entire model, Adams

creates a new part for each unique group name in the .obj file.
Single part - If you associate the contents of a Wavefront .obj with a single Adams part, Adams

creates a separate shell graphic object for each occurrence of a group in the .obj file.
Marker - If you associate the contents of a Wavefront .obj with a marker, Adams creates a

separate shell graphic object for each occurrence of a group in the .obj file. These shells become
the children of the part to which the marker belongs. The selected marker is the reference marker
for the shells.
Learn about Export - Wavefront.

For the option:

Do the following:

File Type

Set to Wavefront.

File to Read

Enter the name of the Wavefront .obj file that you want to import.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

E - I 353
Import - Wavefront Files

For the option:


Part Name/
Model Name

Do the following:
Set to whether you want to associate the geometry with a part or a model, and then
enter the name of the part or model in the text box located next to the pull-down
menu:
Model Name - If you select to associate the geometry with a model,

Adams/View creates a new part for each unique group name that appears in the
file. If the same group name appears more than once, Adams/View adds a
separate shell geometric entity to the part with the same name as the group. It
assigns names to the shell using the convention SHLx, where x is a unique
integer.
Part Name - If you select to associate the geometry with a single part,

Adams/View creates a new shell for each group that appears in the file. It
assigns names to the shells using the convention group_name_x where x is a
unique integer.
Marker Name - If you select to associate the geometry with a marker,

Adams/View creates a new shell for each group that appears in the file. It
assigns names to the shells using the convention group_name_x where x is a
unique integer.
The parts Adams/View creates are massless and editing their properties and then
attaching them to your model could be cumbersome. Therefore, we suggest you
use the Part Name option. See also Tips on Importing Wavefront Files.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Scale Factor

Enter the amount you want to scale the geometry in the Wavefront .obj file.
Adams/View scales the geometry uniformly in the x, y, and z directions.

Geometry Placed Set to define whether the coordinates in the Wavefront file are to be interpreted as
relative to the part (relative_to_part) or relative to ground (relative_to_ground). By
default, Adams/View writes Wavefront files with the coordinates relative to the
part.
Set Read Only

Set if you want all shells that are created as a result of importing a WaveFront file
to be tagged as read only. If you select read-only, Adams/View does not export the
read-only shells, which protects your shell files from being overwritten. You
cannot remove the read-only setting once Adams/View creates the shells.

354 Adams/View
Impose Motion(s)

Impose Motion(s)
Right-click general motion Modify

Lets you modify a general Point Motion. It displays a set of options for each of the motion's six Degrees
of freedom (DOF). It displays a pull-down menu next to a DOF if it is free and can have motion applied
to it, and displays the label fixed if the DOF is constrained and cannot move.
Learn more:
About Motion
Modifying General Point Motion

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the point motion to modify.

Moving Point

Change the marker that defines the location of the motion on the parts. Learn
About Point Motion. Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Reference Point

Change the marker that defines the orientation of the motion on the parts.

Type

Enter how you want to define the motion.

F(time)

Enter the following in the F(time) text boxes. The text boxes that appear
depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.
Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in

radians.)
Function expression
Parameters to be passed to a user-written subroutine

To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the
More tool
to display the Function Builder.
Disp. IC and Velo. IC Enter the initial conditions for displacement or velocity. The text boxes that
appear depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.

E - I 355
Information

Information
Database Navigator Information

Allows you to view information about the selected object. This lists the database fields for the selected
object.
Learn Viewing Object Information Through Database Navigator.

The option:

Does the following:


Select to go back to the previous object.

Save to File

Select to save the information to a file.

356 Adams/View
Information Window

Information Window
Tools Model Topology Map/Model Verify or Right-click on a part Info

Adams/View uses the Information window to display many different types of information about your
model, simulation, or motion data. In addition to just viewing information about your model, you can
perform a variety of operations in the Information window.
The information includes:
Topology on the different objects in your model
Object information, such as information about a part or a view
Model verification results
Measurements from one coordinate system marker to another
Result set component information
View attributes
Results from a system command you run using the Tools System Command

Learn more about:


Information Window
Viewing Model Topology Map Through Information Window
Verifying Your Model

For the option:

Do the following:

Apply

Executes the command but leaves the dialog box open so you can execute the
command again.

Parent

Displays an object's parent.

Children

Displays an object's children.

Modify

Select to display the modify dialog box for the object displayed in the text box at
the top of the Information window.

Verbose

Select if you want to display more information about the object such as children of
the object, its geometry, whether or not commands are associated with it, and its
attributes like color and visibility.

Clear

Removes all current information in the window.

Read from File

Allows you to read information from a saved file.

Save to File

Allows you to save the information.

E - I 357
Initial Conditions Tool

Initial Conditions Tool


Interactive Simulation dialog box Initial Conditions tool

Performs an initial conditions simulation to check for any inconsistencies in your model. An initial
conditions simulation tries to reconcile any positioning inconsistencies that exist in your model at its
design configuration and make it suitable for performing a nonlinear or linear simulation. Most
importantly, the initial conditions simulation tries to ensure that all joint connections are defined properly.
For example, for a revolute joint to be defined properly, the origins of the Markers that define the joint
must be coincident throughout a simulation. If the markers are not coincident, the joint is broken and
needs to be repaired. In this example, the initial conditions simulation helps repair the broken revolute
joint by moving the origins of the two markers until they are coincident
You can also use the initial conditions simulation if you are creating parts in exploded view. Exploded
view is simply creating the individual parts separately and then assembling them together into a model.
You might find this convenient if you have several complicated parts that you want to create individually
without seeing how they work together until much later. Adams/View provides options for specifying
that you are creating your model in exploded view as you create constraints.
After selecting the Initial Conditions tool, Adams/View tells you when it has assembled your model
properly. You can revert back to your original design configuration or you can save your assembled
model as the new design configuration for your model.
Learn about Performing Initial Conditions Simulation.

358 Adams/View
Inline Joint Tool

Inline Joint Tool


Build Joints Inline Joint Tool

Constrains one part so that it can only move along a straight line defined on a second part as shown below.
In the figure, the solid circle indicates the first part that the joint connects and the hollow circle indicates
the second part that the joint connects. The first part is constrained relative to the second part.

The location of the inline joint on the first part must remain on the z-axis of the second part.
Learn about Creating Joint Primitives.

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints
to Parts.

Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

E - I 359
Inplane Joint Tool

Inplane Joint Tool


Build Joints Inplane Joint Tool

Constrains one part so that it can only move in a plane of a second part as shown below. In the figure, the
solid circle indicates the first part that the joint connects and the hollow circle indicates the second part
that the joint connects. The first part is constrained relative to the second part.

The origin of the inplane joint on the first part must remain in the xy plane of the second part.

360 Adams/View
Inplane Joint Tool

Learn about Creating Joint Primitives.

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints
to Parts.

Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

E - I 361
Input-Signal Function Block

Input-Signal Function Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Input function blocks are needed wherever a control or filter block does not receive its input from another
control or filter block. This includes external time functions that need to be passed into a block, as well
as measures of your model that represent error signals to pass into a block.
An input function block takes any valid Adams/Solver (run-time) expression as its input. The input
function block is a valid controls block to reference as the input to any other controls block.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Function

Enter the function expression that defines the function block. Select the More
button to display the Function Builder and build an expression. See Function
Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.
Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.


Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

362 Adams/View
Integrator Block

Integrator Block
Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Integrator filter blocks create the s-domain (Laplace domain) representation of basic linear transfer
functions. The filter coefficients are specified as an Adams/View scalar real value. You can parameterize
this constant with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the gain of
the associated block.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input field to these blocks.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Initial Condition

Specify the initial conditions.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

E - I 363
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Interactive Simulation Palette and Container


Simulate Interactive
Main toolbox Click

Display tools for controlling Simulation. The dialog box contains a complete set of simulation controls,
while the Simulation container contains only a subset of the most commonly used simulation controls.

Simulation Container

Learn about:
Simulation Basics
Types of Simulations

Simulation Controls Palette


(from Simulate Menu)

364 Adams/View
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Performing an Interactive Simulation


About Adjusting Your Model Before Simulation
Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes

Icon

Description
Sets your model back to its initial design configuration so you can modify
your model or perform another simulation starting at time 0.
You do not have to set the model back to its design configuration to
continue simulating. You can pick up from the last frame of your animation
and continue.
Shortcut: Double-click the Select tool.
Stops any further processing, and the modeling objects appear in the
positions that Adams/Solver last successfully calculated.
Starts the Simulation.

Replays an Animation of the last Simulation. Replaying an animation


displays the results much faster than if you simulate the model again and
watch the frames update as the solution calculates results. You can also
replay an animation of a saved simulation; for more information, see
Animation Controls.
How Adams/View replays your simulation depends on whether or not you
have finished the simulation and reset the model back to its initial design
configuration.
If you have run a simulation, or part of a simulation, but not set the

model back to its initial configuration, when you select to replay the
animation, Adams/View animates the model up to the last simulation
step and leaves your model there.
If you reset your model back to its initial configuration, when you select

to replay the animation, Adams/View automatically sets the model back


to the initial design configuration when the animation is complete.
Model Verify Tool

E - I 365
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Icon
Sim. Type

Description
Sets the type of Simulation:
Default
Dynamic simulation
Kinematic simulation
Static equilibrium

End Time/
Duration/Forever

Enter the time interval over which the simulation takes place and set how
you want it defined. You can select:
End Time - Specify the absolute point in time at which you want

the simulation to stop.


Duration - Specify the amount of time over which you want the

simulation to run.
Forever - Adams/View continues simulating until you stop the

simulation or until it can no longer solve the equations of motion to


within your specified tolerance. This option is only available on the
Simulation Control dialog box.
Steps/Step Size

Set the frequency with which Adams/View outputs data during your
simulation. You can specify:
Steps - Represents the total number of times you want

Adams/View to provide output information over your entire


simulation. For example, specify 50 steps over a 1-second
simulation interval to define an output period of 0.02 seconds per
step, which yields an output frequency of 50 steps/second.
Step Size - Represents the amount of time, in current model units,

between output steps. The output frequency remains constant even


if you change your simulation end time or duration. For example,
enter a step size of 0.01 seconds to specify an output period of 0.01
seconds per step, which yields an output frequency of 100
steps/second.
Static Equilibrium Tool

No Debug/Eprint/Table

Select either:
No Debug - Display no debugging information.
Eprint
Table

More button
Render

Displays the full Interactive Simulation dialog box.


See Rendering mode.

366 Adams/View
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Icon
Icons

Description
By default, Adams/View turns off all Screen icons during animations to
speed up the animation.
To turn on and off icons:
On the Main toolbox, select the Icons button.
On the Animation Controls dialog box, select Icons.

Shortcut: Type a lowercase v.


Start at equilibrium

Select to have Adams/View perform a static simulation before performing


a dynamic simulation.

Reset before running

Sets your model back to its initial design configuration before you run the
Simulation.
Initial Conditions Tool

Allows the user to grab a part and drag it while the C++ Solver honors all
of the model's constraints. Useful for quickly verifying a model's behavior.
Displays the Compute Linear Modes dialog box.

Displays the Perform Vibration Analysis dialog box. Only available when
you have Adams/Vibration. For more information, see the Adams/Vibration
help.
See Linear Modes.

Displays the Compute and Export Linear States dialog box letting you
generate a state-space matrix representation of your mechanical system.
Displays the Adams2Nastran dialog box allowing the export of a linearized
NASTRAN model from Adams.
Update Graphics Display Clear the selection to never have your model updated during the simulation.
Select this when you are sure that your simulation will run to completion
without difficulty, and you want to maximize the efficiency of the
simulation.
Learn about setting more options for simulation display with Solver
Settings - Display dialog box help.

Interactive/Scripted

Displays tools for controlling either an interactive or Scripted simulation.

E - I 367
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Icon

Description
Save/Delete Simulation Results
Left-click to display the Save Run Results dialog box so you can

save the simulation results.


Right-click to select a set of simulation results to delete.

Save Simulated Position


Displays the Save Model at Simulation Position dialog box so you can save
the model at a simulated position into the Modeling database under a new
name.
Displays the Animation Controls dialog box.
Displays the Linear Modes Controls dialog box.

Displays Adams/PostProcessor.

Simulation Settings...

Displays the Solver Settings dialog box, letting you set how you want the
Simulation performed.

368 Adams/View
Intersect Tool

Intersect Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Intersect Tool

Creates a single part that is made up of only the intersecting geometries of two solids. It merges the
second part that you select with the geometry of the first part that you select and forms one rigid body
from the two geometries.

Learn about Creating One Part from the Intersection of Two Solids.

J - O 369
Intersect Tool

J-O

370 Adams/View
Joint Initial Conditions

Joint Initial Conditions


Modify Joint dialog box Initial Conditions

Sets initial conditions for revolute, translational, and cylindrical joints, including translational and
rotational displacement and velocity. If you specify initial conditions, Adams/View uses them as the
initial displacement velocity of the part during an Initial conditions simulation regardless of any other
forces acting on the part.
Some options in the dialog box are not available (ghosted) depending on the type of joint for which you
are setting initial conditions.
Learn more about initial conditions for joints.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Joint Name

Enter the name of the joint to modify.

Trans. Displ.

Set the translational displacement.

Trans. Velo.

Set the translational velocity.

Rot. Displ.

Set the rotational displacement.

Rot. Velo.

Set the rotational velocity.

Note:

If the initial rotational displacement of a revolute or cylindrical joint varies by anywhere


from 5 to 60 degrees from the actual location of the joint, Adams/Solver issues a warning
message and continues execution. If the variation is greater than 60 degrees, Adams/View
issues an error message and stops execution.

J - O 371
Joint Motion

Joint Motion
Right-click joint motion Modify

Lets you modify a Joint motion.


Learn more:
Modifying Joint Motion
Tips on Creating Motions
Defining the Motion Magnitude
DOF Removed by Motion

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the joint motion to modify.

Joint

Change the joint to which the motion is applied. The Joint Type text box
automatically updates to the selected type of joint.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Joint Type

Displays the type of joint motion. For information only.

Direction

Set to the desired motion direction (rotational or translational). You can select
only translational motion for a translational or cylindrical joint. You can select
only rotational motion for a revolute or cylindrical joint.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the motion. Select Function to define using a
numerical value or Subroutine to define using a user-written subroutine.

Function

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following in the
Function (time) text box that appears:
Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in

radians.)
Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the
More button
to display the Function Builder.
Tip:

Use the DTOR or RTOD functions to specify rotation in


degrees.

Parameters and ID

If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be


passed to the MOTSUB user-written subroutine and its ID. Entering an ID is
optional.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine MOTSUB.
Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

372 Adams/View
Joint Motion

For the option:

Do the following:

Type

Set to Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration to specify how motion


magnitude is defined.

Displacement IC and
Velocity IC

Enter the initial conditions for displacement or velocity. The text boxes that
appear depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.

J - O 373
Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks

Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks


Build Joints
Main toolbox Right-click Joints and Motion tool stacks

Displays tools for creating joints. The palette contains the entire library of joints while the tool stacks on
the Main toolbox contain only subsets of the most commonly used joints.
Learn about Using Toolboxes, Tool Stacks, and Palettes. Also learn about:
Types of Motion

374 Adams/View
Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks

Overview of Constraints

J - O 375
Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks

Joint Toolstack

Motion Toolstack

Create Joints Palette (from Build


Menu)

376 Adams/View
Joint Palette and Joint and Motion Tool Stacks

Icon

Link

Icon

Link

Revolute Joint Tool

Planar Joint Tool

Hooke/Universal Joint Tool

Gear Joint Tool

Fixed Joint Tool

Rotational Motion Tool

Translational Joint Tool

Single Point Motion Tool

Constant-Velocity Joint Tool

Translational Motion Tool

Point-Curve Constraint Tool

General Point Motion Tool

Cylindrical Joint Tool

Parallel Axes Joint Tool

Coupler Joint Tool

Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool

2D Curve-Curve Constraint Tool

Orientation Joint Tool

Spherical Joint Tool

Inplane Joint Tool

Screw Joint Tool

Inline Joint Tool

Create/Modify General Constraint

Construction
or Settings
Container

Contains options for creating the selected object. The options change depending
on the type of object that you are creating. For example, when you create a link,
Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and height before creating it.
Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set regardless of how you move
the mouse. You can also define design variables or expressions for many values.

J - O 377
Lead-Lag Filter Block

Lead-Lag Filter Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Lead-lag filter blocks create the s-domain (Laplace domain) representation of basic linear transfer
functions. The filter coefficients are specified as an Adams/View scalar real value. You can parameterize
this constant with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the gain of
the associated block.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Low Pass
Constant

Specify the low pass constant.

The lead-lag filter is represented as: T(s) = s+ b/s+a


Lead constant

Specify the value of b above.

Lag constant

Specify the value of a above.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

378 Adams/View
Lighting Settings

Lighting Settings
Settings Lighting Settings

Helps you enhance the quality and realism of your animations.


Click a tool below for more information.
Learn more about Setting Up Lighting.

Icon

Description

Intensity

Slide to set how bright the overall light is.

Ambient

Slide to set the ambient light.

Angle

Slide to set how far from the center line the light source is. May not be appropriate
for all light sources, such as front.

Reflections

Toggle to set up reflections off of parts. See Reflections Example.

Two-Sided

Turn on to have lighting come from two sides.


Turns on and off the light

J - O 379
Lighting Settings

Icon

Description
Set from upper left corner.

Set from top

380 Adams/View
Lighting Settings

Icon

Description
Set from upper right corner

Set from left side

J - O 381
Lighting Settings

Icon

Description
Set from right side

Set from lower right corner

382 Adams/View
Lighting Settings

Icon

Description
Set from bottom

Set from lower left corner

J - O 383
Linear Modes Controls

Linear Modes Controls


Review Linear Modes Controls

Allows you to view your model oscillating at one of its natural frequencies. It cycles through the model
deformation starting from the operating point of the requested natural frequency of the eigensolution.
You can also see the effect of the damping on the model and display a table and plot of modes and
frequencies.
Learn about Animating Natural Frequencies.

For the option:

Do the following:

Eigen

Enter the name of an eigensolution in an existing analysis. The


eigensolution must be in an existing analysis that is associated with the
current model.

View

Enter the name(s) of view(s) in which to display.

Mode Number/Frequency Select the mode to be used to calculate the deformation of the model. Set
to either:
Mode - Enter the number of the mode to be used
Frequency - Enter the frequency of the mode

Displays the next mode.

Select to animate the model.

Displays the previous mode.

Frames Per Cycle

Enter the number of frames to be displayed for each cycle.


Adams/View performs the interpolation between the frames using
trigonometric functions; therefore, the frames tend to be segregated at the
maximum deformation in the positive and negative directions.

Number of Cycles

Enter the parameter used to specify the number of complete cycles to


animate.

Show time decay

Select if you want the amplitudes of the deformations to remain constant


or decay due to the damping factor calculated in the eigensolution.

384 Adams/View
Linear Modes Controls

For the option:


Show trail

Do the following:
Select if you want to show the path, or trail, of parts from one frame to
another.
Showing the trail is useful in showing the relationship of the model parts
between frames but often obscures the view of the motion.

Show undeformed

Select if you want the undeformed model to be displayed with the


deformed shape superimposed on top of it.
If you select Show undeformed, select a color for the underformed model.
If you do not specify a color, Adams/View displays the undeformed model
using the same color as the deformed mode.

Show icons

Select to turn on the display icons during an animation.

Undef. Color

Specify the color for undeformed shape or use original colors.

Max. Translation

Enter a value to scale mode shape so that translations are smaller than it.

Max. Rotation

Enter a value to scale mode shape so that rotations are smaller than it.

Table

Select to display eigenvalues in a tabular form.

Plot

Select to plot complex eigenvalue scatter.


Select to switch to Simulation Controls.

J - O 385
Linear Modes Eigenvalue Plot

Linear Modes Eigenvalue Plot


Review Linear Modes Controls Plot

Displays the plot of eigenvalues and allows you to save or delete the plot.
Learn about Animating Natural Frequencies.

For the option:

Do the following:

Delete Plot

Select if you want to delete the plot.

Save Plot

Select if you want to save the plot.

Name

Only available if you selected Save Plot. Enter a name for the plot you want to
save.

386 Adams/View
Link Tool

Link Tool
Buid Bodies/Geometry Link Tool

Creates a link by drawing a line indicating the links length. By default, the Link tool creates the link with
a width that is 10% of the indicated length and a depth that is 5% of the length. The radius of the ends of
the link is equal to half the width. Before drawing, you can also define the length, width, and depth of the
link.

Learn about Creating a Link.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the link to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the link to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or influence


the simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a
car driving around a race track, the geometry that defines the race
track can be added to ground.

Length

If desired, select and enter the length for the link.

Width

If desired, select and enter the width for the link.

Depth

If desired, select and enter the depth for the link.

Note:

Two hotpoints appear after you draw the link: one hotpoint lets you modify the length of
the link and the other hotpoint lets you modify the depth, width, and height. For more
information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically
Modify Geometry.

J - O 387
Location Table

Location Table
Polyline, Spline, Extrusion, Revolution Modify dialog box More button

Lets you view the points in polylines, splines, extrusions, and revolutions and edit them. You can also
save the location information to a file or read in location information from a file.
Learn more:
Displaying the Location Table
Working in the Location Table
Reading and Writing Location Information

For general information on using tables in Adams/View, see Using Tables to Enter Values.

388 Adams/View
LocationEvent

LocationEvent
When Adams/View asks you for a location, right-click

Lets you enter location coordinates to precisely set the location of an object, such as a design point or a
force. You can enter the location relative to the origin of the Working grid, the global coordinate system,
or any other object on the screen.
Learn about:
Entering Precise Location Coordinates
Selecting Objects from a Crowd

For the option:

Do the following:

Upper box (no title) Enter the coordinates at which to place the object. By default, displays the
current coordinates of the cursor.
Pull-down menu

Select the element (working grid, global coordinate system, or modeling object)
to which the coordinates are relative. By default, the coordinates are relative to
the working grid.

Lower box (no title) In the lower box, enter the object to which the coordinates are relative. You only
need to enter an object if you selected that the coordinates are relative to an
object.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

J - O 389
Low-Pass Filter Block

Low-Pass Filter Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Low-pass filter blocks create the s-domain (Laplace domain) representation of basic linear transfer
functions. The filter coefficients are specified as an Adams/View scalar real value. You can parametrize
this constant with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the gain of
the associated block.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input field to these blocks.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Low Pass
Constant

Specify the low pass constant.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

390 Adams/View
MDI Insight Build

MDI Insight Build


Command Navigator MDI Insight Build

This command enables you to write all the investigation .adm and .acf files out to disk. This can be
helpful if you do not want to run all the simulations in one Adams/View session or if you want to
distribute the jobs to multiple CPUs. This command temporarily sets solver preferences to
write_files_only and creates the simulation and command files. You can subsequently use the primary
driver .acf file (<prefix>_bat.acf) to run all the simulations. When all the jobs have completed
successfully, you use the commands MDI INSIGHT LOAD to load the results back into the
Adams/Insight experiment file with the use of <prefix>_bat.cmd.
If you use the <prefix>_bat.acf file to launch all the simulations, note the following:
Be sure your SENSOR statements do not have the HALT qualifier.
If one job fails, the process will need to be restarted manually.
Instead of the <prefix>_bat.acf you can create a script to run the jobs.
Set nosep.

Once the analysis files have been written, it is important to check a few of the files to verify that the
factors are actually being altered the way you expect them to. Using a text file differencing tool is a
convenient way to accomplish this task.
To run the simulations external to Adams/View, make sure you select the appropriate simulation script
type and that you're saving the appropriate OUTPUT files. It is recommended that you perform a
Perimeter Study exercising each aspect of this process before running the longer set of simulations.
Once the simulations have completed, be sure to review the simulations results by checking .req and .msg
file sizes. Also, perform a grep for ERROR in the .msg files.
After the simulation results have been completed and read back into Adams/Insight, make sure you
review the contents of the response columns in the WorkSpace matrix.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Experiment

Enter the name of a previously-defined experiment. This experiment will be


referenced to build all the .adm and .acf files required to complete the investigation
defined in the experiment.

Ain Prefix

Enter the prefix that will be added to the beginning of all the files generated during
the build process, and then subsequently during the simulations.

J - O 391
Macro Editor

Macro Editor
Tools Macro Edit New

Edits Macros that you recorded or that you created by reading in a macro file. You can also use the Macro
Editor to create a macro.

Note:

If you select Modify from this menu, the Database Navigator appears. From the Database
Navigator, select a macro to modify.

Learn about Automating Your Work Using Macros.

For the option:


Macro Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the macro.

User-Entered Command Enter the command string that executes the macro. To use the name of the
macro, select Use Macro Name.
Wrap in Undo

Specify if the entire macro can be undone with a single Undo command.
Note that a single undo command can consume a great deal of memory for
very large macros, or slow macro execution noticeably, even if you do not
actually use the Undo.

Commands

Enter the commands the macro is to execute.

392 Adams/View
Macro Read

Macro Read
Tools Macro Read

Allows you to read in an existing command file containing the commands to be executed as a macro. You
can also assign a help file or text string to the macro that explains the macro's use.
Learn about Automating Your Work Using Macros.

For the option:


Macro Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the macro that Adams/View uses to save the macro in the
Modeling database.

File Name

Enter the name of the file containing the commands to be executed.

User Entered Command Specify the command string that executes the macro. The command string
defaults to the name of the macro if you do not enter a command sting.
Note:

The command string you enter must be unique. You cannot


redefine an existing command, although you can add a new
keyword at any level to an existing command.

Wrap in Undo

Specify if the entire macro can be undone with a single Undo command.
Note that a single Undo, while convenient, can consume a great deal of
memory for very large macros or slow macro execution noticeably, even if
you do not actually use the Undo.

Create Panel

Select Yes if you want to create a dialog box, or select no if you do not want
to create a dialog box.

J - O 393
Macro Write

Macro Write
Tools Macro Write

Saves the macro to a command file. Saving the macro to a command file lets you give the macro to
another user, and also helps you modify long macros when you do not have the original file.
If you used non-default values for the other macro data, such as the help string, the command file includes
comments with those values.

Note:

Adams/View saves all macros in the current Modeling database when you save the
database.

Learn about Automating Your Work Using Macros.

For the option:

Do the following:

Macro Name

Enter the name of the macro to save to a file.

File Name

Enter the file name in which to save the macro, and then select OK.

394 Adams/View
Main Toolbox

Main Toolbox
Displays commonly used tools for creating, editing, and selecting modeling elements, as well as
simulating the model and undoing operations. The tools are shortcuts to using the menus in the menu bar.
In addition, many of the tools are Tool stacks. Right-click a tool to display its tool stack.

J - O 395
Main Toolbox

Icon

Description
Select Tool

Geometric Modeling Palette and Tool Stack

Measure Toolstack

Undoing and Redoing Operations

Joint Toolstack

Interactive Simulation Palette and Container

Object Color Tool Stack

Motion Toolstack

Animation Controls

Move Toolstack

Forces Tool Stack

Displays Adams/PostProcessor
See Fitting a Model in a Window
See Defining a Zoom Area
See Setting the Center of a View Window

396 Adams/View
Main Toolbox

Icon

Description
Dynamic Rotation Tool Stack

Translate Tool Stack

See Dynamically Zooming the Display


Increment

Entering a value lets you more precisely control the view display changes,
such as zooming and rotations.
View Orientation Tools

See Orienting the View Using an Object XY

See Orienting the View Using Three Points

Background Color Tool Stack

Toggle Tool Stack

Window Layout

Grid

See Working grid

Depth

See Setting the View Perspective

Render

See Rendering mode

Icons

Toggles the display of icons.

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Marker Modify

Marker Modify
Right-click a marker Modify

Allows you to precisely control the location and orientation of your marker. The options available depend
on whether or not the marker is attached to a part, ground, or curve or a node on a flexible body. Select
a topic below:
Marker on Part, Ground, or Curve
Marker Attached to Node on Flexible Body or an external system (when an MNF/MD DB is
specified)

Marker on Part, Ground, or Curve


When you modify a marker on a part or ground, you can define its location and orientation more precisely
than when you created it.
If you are using Adams/Solver (C++), you can define a curve along which the marker will move (splines
and data-element curves are all considered curves) and be oriented. You can then use the marker to define
constraints. For example, you could use it to define the position and orientation of a joint or joint
primitive. This requires two markers, one in each part that the joint or joint primitive connects. Learn
about switching solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the marker you are modifying.

Location

Enter x, y, z coordinate defining the marker's location in a given


reference frame.

Location Relative To

You can:
Enter the marker in which you specify the location coordinates.
Leave blank to use the default coordinate system.

Curve

Enter the curve along which the marker will move. The curve (its
direction and curvature) define the position and orientation of the marker.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Curve Reference Marker

Enter the marker that defines the location and orientation of the spline.
The marker acts as a reference coordinate system for the coordinate
values used to define the reference curve points.

398 Adams/View
Marker Modify

For the option:


Tangent Velocity/Vector
Velocity

Do the following:
Define the velocity of the marker origin along the curve. Select either:
Tangent Velocity - Defines the initial velocity of the marker

origin along the curve. It is negative if the marker is initially


moving toward the start of the curve, and it is positive if the
marker is moving toward the end of the curve.
Vector Velocity - Specifies the initial translational velocity of

the maker along the x-, y-, and z-axes of the Curve Reference
Marker coordinate system. Adams/View projects the initial
velocity onto the curve. Therefore, any contribution of the
specified initial velocity vector that is not along the curve is
discarded.
Orientation/
Along Axis Orientation/
In Plane Orientation

Specify either of these three Orientation Methods:


Orientation
Along Axis Orientation
In Plane Orientation

Orientation Relative To

You can:
Specify the orientation coordinates.
Leave blank to use the default coordinate system.

Solver ID

Enter a unique ID number for the marker. See Adams/Solver ID.


Select to add any comments about the marker that you want to enter to
help you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

Marker Attached to Node on Flexible Body or an external system


When you modify a marker attached to a node on a flexible body, you can define its location and
orientation more precisely than when you created it. If you are using Adams/Solver (C++), you can define

J - O 399
Marker Modify

the marker so it is offset from the node or you can attach it to several nodes. Learn about Adding Markers
to Flexible Bodies.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the marker you are modifying.

Location

Enter x, y, z coordinate defining the marker's location in a given


reference frame. You can enter a location that is offset from the node ID
to which the marker is attached.

Location Relative To

You can:
Enter the marker in which you specify the location coordinates.
Leave blank to use the default coordinate system.

Node ID

Enter a node ID to which the marker is attached. If you are using


Adams/Solver (C++), you can enter a comma-separated list of
attachment nodes, or right-click the text box, select Pick FlexBody
Node, and then click the desired attachment nodes with the mouse.

Snap

Select to define the location of the marker so it is coincident with the


node listed in the Node ID text box. Note that when the option is
checked, the Node ID parameter is compulsory. If left unchecked, it is
NOT mandatory to define the Node Id parameter.

Orientation/

Specify either of these three Orientation Methods:

Along Axis Orientation/


In Plane Orientation

Orientation
Along Axis Orientation
In Plane Orientation

Orientation Relative To

You can:
Specify the orientation coordinates.
Leave blank to use the default coordinate system.

Solver ID

Enter a unique ID number for the marker. See Adams/Solver ID.


Select to add any comments about the marker that you want to enter to
help you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

400 Adams/View
Marker Tool

Marker Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Marker Tool

Creates a marker on:


Ground
A part (including a flexible body or an external system)
A curve (available in Adams/Solver (C++) only) (Learn about switching solvers with Solver
Settings - Executable dialog box help.)

When you select to create a marker using the Marker tool, you specify the marker's location and
orientation (when you define a marker on a curve, its orientation is prescribed implicitly). You can align
the orientation of the marker with the global coordinate system, the current view coordinate system, or a
coordinate system that you define. When you define a coordinate system, you specify one or two of its
axes and Adams/View calculates the other axes accordingly.
After you create the marker, you can make changes to it, such as attach it to several nodes of a flexible
body and align it so it stays along a specified curve. Learn about modifying marker with Marker Modify
dialog box help.

Note:

You can parameterize the locations and orientations of other objects to that of markers. For
example, you can align the location of a part to be the same as a marker regardless of how
the marker moves. Unlike points, whose parameterization is automatic, you must set up
relationship of markers to other objects. For more information on establishing parameteric
relationships, see, Improving Your Model Designs.

Tip:

To reorient the marker, use the Align & Rotate tool from the Move tool stack, select Align
One Axis, and then follow the prompts:
Select the object to align (the first marker)
Select the axis on object to align (z-axis on first marker)
Select the direction for the axis:
Select the center of the first marker
Select the center of the second marker

J - O 401
Marker Tool

Learn about Creating Markers.

For the option:


Add to Part/Add to
Ground/

Do the following:
Select either:
Add to Part - Adds the marker to another part in your model.
Add to Ground - Adds the marker to ground.
Add to Curve - Adds the marker to a spline curve.

Tip:

Add the geometry to ground if the geometry does not move


or influence the simulation of your model. For example, if
you are simulating a car driving around a race track, the
geometry that defines the race track can be added to ground.

For flex markers or markers on an external system (with a MNF/MD DB


specified), you can turn the snapping behavior on and off using the Snap
to Node checkbox. Note that the checkbox is seen, only while adding
markers to a flexible body or an external system with an MNF/MD DB
specified.
Orientation

Select an orientation method for how you want the marker oriented. When
you define a marker on a curve, its orientation is prescribed implicitly.

402 Adams/View
Maximum Equation Error (Debug Table)

Maximum Equation Error (Debug Table)


Simulate Interactive Table

Displays the Debug table, which contains a running count of the iterations needed to solve the equations
of motion for the current Simulation. You can use the information as a measure of how many
computations Adams/Solver is performing.
Learn more about Debugging Your Model.

The option:

Displays the following:

Time

The value of time at the beginning of a step.

Type

The type of simulation currently being run. It can be one of the following:
DYN for a Dynamic simulation.
KIN for a Kinematic simulation.
STA for a Static equilibrium simulation.
TRA for Transient simulation.
QST for Quasi-static simulation.
ICD for initial conditions displacements.
ICV for initial conditions velocity.
ICA for initial conditions acceleration.
EIG for Eigen solution.
STM for state matrix solution.

Steps

The current Output step number. It is a running count of the number of integration
steps taken, and you can use it as a measure of how hard Adams/Solver is working.
Learn about displaying a strip chart of this information.

Step Size

The current size of the integration time step.

Iterations

The number of the current iteration. It is one at the beginning of each time step and
increments by one until Adams/Solver converges to a solution or exceeds the
maximum allowable number of iterations.

Order

The order of the predictor. It corresponds to the order of the polynomial Adams/Solver
uses to predict the solution at the end of an integration step.

Rank

The current ranking of the modeling objects in order of their experiencing the most
error or the greatest change, acceleration, or force, depending on the element that you
are currently tracking.

Element

The modeling objects experiencing the most error or the greatest change, acceleration,
or force, depending on the element that you are currently tracking. The number of
objects listed depends on the number you requested in the Show box.

J - O 403
Maximum Equation Error (Debug Table)

The option:

Displays the following:

Hits

The number of times the modeling object was placed in the top n of modeling objects
where n is the number of modeling objects that appear in the maximum list. You
specify the number of objects in the maximum list in the Show box.

Percent

The percentage of time the modeling object was placed in the top n of modeling objects
where n is the number of modeling objects that appear in the maximum list. You
specify the number of objects in the maximum list in the Show box.

History Depth Number of iterations for which the listed modeling objects appeared. You can change
this value.
Show

The number of modeling objects that appear in the maximum list. You can change this
value. By default, Adams/View displays three objects in the list at any one time.

404 Adams/View
Measure Attributes

Measure Attributes
Build Object Measure Modify Measure Attributes Tool

When you modify a measure, you can set the attributes for a Strip chart, including creating a legend,
setting axis limits, and setting the color and line type for the curve.

For the option:


Measure Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the measure whose attributes you want to set.

General Attributes
Legend

Enter text that describes the data that the curve in the strip chart represents. The
text appears in the title bar of the strip chart. Note that you have to redisplay the
strip chart to see the effects of changing the legend. Learn about redisplaying
strip charts.

Comments

Enter text that describes the measure. The text appears in Adams/PostProcessor
when you transfer the strip chart to it for plotting. See Comments.
Learn how to transfer a strip chart to Adams/PostProcessor.

Axis Attributes
Lower/Lower/Label Currently not available.
Type

Select the type of plot to be displayed in Adams/PostProcessor when you


transfer the strip chart to it for plotting:
linear - Performs no transformation of data or axis values. This is the

default.
logar (Logarithmic) - Scales the axis values so that each power of 10 is

separated by the same distance. For example, the values 1, 10, 100,
1000, and 10,000 are equally spaced.
db (Decibel) - Displays 20 * log 10 (value) for each value.
default - Selecting this means no specific axis type is requested and it
appears in the default axis type, which is usually linear. Learn how to
transfer a strip chart to Adams/PostProcessor.

Axis Attributes
Note that you have to redisplay the strip chart to see the effects of changing the legend using the options
below. Learn about redisplaying strip charts.
Line Type

Select a type of line style for the curve. For example, you can select a line that
alternates between dots and dashes.

Symbol

Set the type of symbol displayed at data points along the curve.

J - O 405
Measure Attributes

For the option:

Do the following:

Color

Change the color of the curve.

Thickness

Change the weight of the curve line. Weight values range from 1 to 5 screen
pixels.

406 Adams/View
Measure Distance

Measure Distance
Tools Measure Distance

Shared Dialog Box

Calculates the relative distance and orientation between two positions in your model (Markers, Points, or
a marker/point) and ground. Adams/View calculates the following distance information:
Magnitude
x, y, and z component
Angular displacement

You can also select that Adams/View calculate the results relative to a reference marker. You can select
to measure the distance at the model's initial configuration (how you built it) or at a particular simulation
step. You can specify a time, frame number, or a configuration of the model. You can view the results in
an Information window or have Adams/View store the results in a file.
Learn more about Measuring Distance Between Positions.

For the option:

Do the following:

First Position

Enter the marker from which you want to measure the distance.

Second Position

Enter the marker to which you want to measure the distance.

Ref Position

You can:
Enter a marker or point that defines the coordinate system in

which to represent distance information. Using a point as the


reference position is the same as using a marker whose
orientation is identical to the global orientation.
Leave blank to define the distance information in the global

coordinate system.
Write Result to File Name

Enter the name of the file in which you want to save the distance
information. If you want the information written to a directory other
than the one from which you are running Adams/View, include the
path.
Note:

Model Name/
Analysis Name

If you do not specify a file, your results will appear in an


Information window.

Choose either:
Model Name - To calculate the distance based on the current

configuration of a model.
Analysis Name - To calculate the distance based on a
configuration or simulation time in a particular Simulation.

If you selected Model Name, the following option appears:

J - O 407
Measure Distance

For the option:


Model Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the current model in the text box. If you want to
measure distance in the current model, you do not need to enter a
model name.

If you selected Analysis Name, the following options appear:


Analysis Name

Enter the name of the simulation.

Configuration/Time/Frame
Number

Select to use a particular time, frame, or configuration store in the


selected simulation.

408 Adams/View
Measure Toolstack

Measure Toolstack
Main toolbox Measure toolstack

Displays a shortcuts to creating measures.

See Creating a Point-to-Point Measure Using the Simple Method.


See Selecting Markers to Define Angle Measures - Select Method.

J - O 409
Merge Tool

Merge Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Merge Tool

Merges two non-intersecting rigid body geometries into one without performing any Boolean operations
on the geometry. The geometry can contain any type of geometry: solid, wire, or complex. The geometry
can also belong to the same part. If the geometry belongs to the different parts, The Merge tool merges
the parts into one.
Because Adams/View does not perform any Boolean operations on the merged geometries, overlapping
volumes produce double-density mass in the part and change the results of the mass property
calculations. Therefore, you should use this operation only for non-intersecting rigid bodies that the Unite
Tool cannot combine.
Adams/View merges the second geometry that you select into the first geometry you select.
Learn about Merging Geometry.

410 Adams/View
Merge Two Models

Merge Two Models


Tools Merge Two Models

Allows you to merge one Model in your Modeling database into another model. Adams/View maintains
the source model and does not change it after the merge operation.
This is helpful for merging two subsystems stored in the same database into a single model. It allows you
to work on each subsystem individually and merge them together when you are ready to work on them
as a whole.
Learn about the procedure for Merging Models.

For the option:

Do the following:

Base Model Name

Enter the name of the destination model.

Model to be merged

Enter the name of the source model that you want merged into the
destination model.
You can browse for a model by right-clicking the text boxes and selecting
the appropriate commands.

Translate

Specify the translations to apply to the source model before merging it


with the destination model.
By default, you enter Cartesian (x,y,z) coordinates. You can change the
convention for entering translational positions. Learn more about
Coordinate Systems in Adams/View.

Rotation

Specify the angular position of the parts and polylines in the source
model.

Add all elements to a


Group named

Optional. Enter a new or existing group into which Adams/View adds all
merged objects. Learn about Grouping and Ungrouping Objects.

Merge/Rename

Select either:
Merge - Merge parts that have the same name.
Rename - Rename the parts before merging the models.

Note:

Merge ground parts

This option affects parts only. All other objects in the model to
be merged which share the same name as those in the base
model will automatiocally have an indexing suffix (for
example, _2) added to their names in the merged model.

When Rename parts is selected, this option will merge the ground parts
rather than renaming them.

J - O 411
Message (.msg) Content

Message (.msg) Content


Settings Solver Output More Output Category Message (.msg) Content

Selecting Message (.msg) Content as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box lets you set
the contents of the Message file. You only receive a message file when you are using External
Adams/Solver. Learn about setting the type of Adams/Solver.

For the option:

Do the following:

Topology

Select to print model topological data in the message file.

Statistics

Prints a block of information for each kinematic, static, or dynamic step. This
information helps you monitor the simulation process and locate the source of the
error if there is a problem. Each step consists of two phases:
A forward step in time (the predictor for dynamics)
The solution of the equations of motion (the corrector for dynamics)

For more information, see the argument EPRINT in the DEBUG command in the
Adams/Solver online help.

Verbose

Prints additional information, such as the name of the subroutine from which
Adams/Solver sends each diagnostic, explanations, and possible remedies (when
available). If you set Verbose to No, Adams/Solver outputs only basic error
messages.

412 Adams/View
Message Settings

Message Settings
View Message Window Settings

Allows you to set the messages displayed in the Message Window and clear the messages from the
window. By default, the message window only displays error and fatal messages and messages from
commands that you execute from the user interface (for example, menus and dialog boxes). You can also
display messages that you execute from the Command window, Command Navigator, and command files.
In addition, you can set the severity level of the messages displayed, from informational to fatal
messages. Learn about Managing Messages in Adams/View.

For the option:

Do the following:

only Graphical User Interface


(GUI) widgets

Select if you want to display messages that are generated from


commands you execute from the user interface.

the GUI, the command line,


and command files

Select if you want to display messages that you execute from the user
interface, command window, Command Navigator, and command
files.

Don't display messages

Select if you want to turn off the display of all messages.

Information

Select to display messages about what is occurring during a


command. Setting the message window to display these types of
messages helps you understand what is happening in Adams/View
but requires no action from you.

Warning

Select to display messages that warn you that something unusual


occurred but the operation can continue. You may want to fix or
change something to complete the operation without warnings.

Error

Select to display messages that indicate that the operation cannot be


executed. You need to fix or change something to complete the
operation.

Fault

Select to display messages that indicate that a programming error


occurred. You should report the message to MSCs Technical Support
staff.

Clear

Select to clear the messages displayed.

J - O 413
Message Window

Message Window
View Message Window

Provides you with messages on the status of Adams/View and displays helpful information while you are
using Adams.
Adams/View displays messages about the execution of a command in the message window. By default,
the message window only displays messages about commands you execute from the user interface. You
can also set it to display messages about commands that you execute from the Command window,
Command Navigator, and command files.
Learn about Managing Messages in Adams/View.

414 Adams/View
MNF and MD DB Transformation

MNF and MD DB Transformation


Build Flexible Bodies MNF XForm...

It performs transformation on an already existing flexible body or Modal Neutral File (MNF) or MD DB
File (.master). The types of transformation operations that can be performed are:
Translation - Translate along a vector, by specified distance.
Rotation - Rotate about an axis, by specified angle.
Mirroring - Mirror about a plane.

For the option:


Flexible Body
Name/MNF File/MD
DB

Do the following:
Select either:
Flexible Body Name, and then select a flexible body that already

exists.
MNF File, and then select the name of the MNF to import.
MD DB, and then select the name of the MD DB to import.

Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.


Index

The parameter applies only, when you select MD DB file. The parameter
specifies the index of the flexible body in the specified MD DB. The parameter
is optional. Default value is 1.
Note:

You can view all the flexible bodies in the MD DB, using the
button provided beside the Index. The desired flexible body can be
selected by double-clicking on the displayed list.

MNF/MD DB

Select the appropriate option for Output File and enter the name of the MNF
or the MD DB file.

Create Flexible
Body...

Select to open Create a Flexible Body dialog box after the intended
transformation is carried out, so that you can create the flexible body and see
the transformation.

Mirror

Select to perform mirroring operation. You need to specify mirroring plane to


perform mirroring operation.

Translate

Select to perform translation operation. You need to specify a direction for


translation and a distance to translate.

Rotate

Select to perform rotation operation. You need to specify the axis about which
rotation can be done and an angle for rotation.

If Mirror option is selected, following options are available.

J - O 415
MNF and MD DB Transformation

For the option:


Plane Normal to
Vector/
Plane From 3 Points/
Plane Normal to 2
Points

Do the following:
Specify either of these three methods to specify the mirroring plane:
Plane Normal to Vector - This option allows you to specify a vector

which is normal to the plane about which you want to mirror the
flexible body.
Plane From 3 Points - This option allows you to specify three points

to define the mirroring plane.


Plane Normal to 2 Points - This option allows you to specify 2 points

which define a vector normal to the plane about which you want to
mirror the flexible body.
If Plane Normal to Vector is selected, following options are available.
Direction

Direction can be one of the following:


Global X - This option specifies that the mirror plane is normal to the

global X axis.
Global Y - This option specifies that the mirror plane is normal to the

global Y axis.
Global Z - This option specifies that the mirror plane is normal to the

global Z axis.
X axis of Marker - This option specifies that the mirror plane is

normal to the specified Marker's X axis.


Y axis of Marker - This option specifies that the mirror plane is

normal to the specified Marker's Y axis.


Z axis of Marker - This option specifies that the mirror plane is

normal to the specified Marker's Z axis.


User Defined - This option specifies the mirror plane is normal to the

user entered vector.


Marker

Only available if Direction is either X Axis, Y Axis or Z Axis of Marker.


Mirroring will be done with respect to marker's orientations (X Axis, Y Axis or
Z Axis) respectively.

Direction Vector

Only available if Direction is User Defined.

Location

Enter a location on the mirror plane.

If Plane From 3 Points is selected, the following options will be available.


Point 1, Point 2,
Point3

Specify the coordinates of three points that define the mirroring plane.

If Plane Normal to 2 Points is selected, the following options will be available.

416 Adams/View
MNF and MD DB Transformation

For the option:


From Location, To
Location

Do the following:
Enter the coordinates of two end points of a vector that is normal to the
mirroring plane.

If Translate option is selected, the following options are available.


Direction From
Vector/
Direction Normal to 3
Points/
Direction From 2
Points

Specify either of these three methods to define the direction of translation:


Direction From Vector - direction is specified as a vector.
Direction Normal to 3 Points - direction is specified as normal to a

plane.
Direction From 2 Points - direction is specified by two end points of

a vector.
If Direction From Vector option is selected, the following options will be available.
Direction

Direction can be one of the following:


Global X - This option translates the flexible body in the direction of

global X axis.
Global Y - This option translates the flexible body in the direction of

global Y axis.
Global Z - This option translates the flexible body in the direction of

global Z axis.
X axis of Marker - This option translates the flexible body in the

direction of the specified Marker's X axis.


Y axis of Marker - This option translates the flexible body in the

direction of the specified Marker's Y axis.


Z axis of Marker - This option translates the flexible body in the

direction of the specified Marker's Z axis.


User Defined - This option translates the flexible body in the specified

direction.
Marker

Only available if Direction is either X Axis, Y Axis or Z Axis of Marker.


Translation will be done with respect to marker's orientation (X Axis, Y Axis
or Z Axis) respectively.

Direction Vector

Only available if Direction is User Defined.

If Direction Normal to 3 Points option is selected, the following options will be available.
Point 1, Point 2,
Point3

Specify the coordinates of three points that define a plane. Translation will be
performed in the direction which is normal to the plane.

If Direction From 2 Points option is selected, the following options will be available.
From Location, To
Location

Enter the coordinates of two end points; translation will be done in the
direction of the two end points.

J - O 417
MNF and MD DB Transformation

For the option:


Distance

Do the following:
Enter the distance for translation of the flexible body. Except for the Direction
From 2 Points option you are required to specify a value for Distance. For
Direction From 2 Points option, if Distance is not specified it is calculated to
be the distance between the two points.

If Rotate option is selected, following options will be available.


Direction From
Vector/
Direction Normal to 3
Points/
Direction From 2
Points

Specify either of these three methods to specify an axis of rotation:


Direction From Vector - rotation axis is defined as a vector.
Direction Normal to 3 Points - rotation axis is defined as a plane

normal.
Direction From 2 Points - rotation axis is defined by two end points.

If Direction From Vector option is selected, the following options are available.
Direction

Direction either can be


Global X - The rotation axis is parallel to the global X axis.
Global Y - The rotation axis is parallel to the global Y axis.
Global Z - The rotation axis is parallel to the global Z axis.
X axis of Marker - The rotation axis is parallel to the specified

Marker's X axis.
Y axis of Marker - The rotation axis is parallel to the specified

Marker's Y axis.
Z axis of Marker - The rotation axis is parallel to the specified

Marker's Z axis.
User Defined - The rotation axis is parallel to the user specified

vector..
Marker

Only available if Direction is either X Axis, Y Axis or Z Axis of Marker.


Rotation will be done with respect to marker's orientation (X Axis, Y Axis or Z
Axis) respectively.

Direction Vector

Only available if Direction is User Defined.

Center of rotation

Enter the coordinates for the center of rotation.

If Direction Normal to 3 Points option is selected, the following options are available.
Point 1 (center of
rotation), Point 2,
Point3

Enter the coordinates of the three points that define a plane; rotation will be
done about the axis which is normal to the plane, using Point 1 as the center of
rotation.

If Direction From 2 Points option is selected, the following options are available.
From Location, To
Location

Enter the coordinates of end points; the end points define the axis for rotation.

418 Adams/View
MNF and MD DB Transformation

For the option:

Do the following:

Angle

Enter the angle for rotation of the flexible body.

Node Offset/ New


Interface IDs

This option allows you to offset all the node IDs or to specify new interface IDs
of the flexible body. This option is common for all the transformation options
(that is, Mirroring, Translation and Rotation).
Node Offset - Enter a value to offset all the node IDs.
New Interface IDs - Enter new interface IDs for the current interface

node IDs. Here the number of interface node ids entered have to be
less than or equal to current interface node IDs of the flexible body.
If you check the More option following parameter will appear.
MNF Write Options

This option optimizes the MNF through Adams/Flex toolkit. It corresponds to


the parameters in the MDI_MNFWRITE_OPTIONS environment variable.
For more information on the MDI_MNFWRITE_OPTIONS, see Setting Up
Translation Options through the MNF Toolkit.

J - O 419
Model Verify Tool

Model Verify Tool


Interactive/Scripted Simulation Dialog Box Model Verify Tool
Tools Model Verify

Checks for error conditions in your model, such as misaligned joints, unconstrained parts, or massless
parts in dynamic models, and alerts you to other possible problems. It is a good tool to use periodically
as you add detail to or refine your model.
The Model Verify tool calculates the number of Degrees of freedom (DOF) in your model. It gives you
two separate calculations:
The Gruebler count, which is a rough estimate of the number of DOF in your model using the

Gruebler equation to add up the number of DOF introduced by parts and to subtract the number
of DOF removed by constraints.
The actual number and type of movable parts and constraints in the model that Adams/Solver

determines after it formulates your models equations of motion.


It issues warning messages to alert you to any inconsistencies in your model. For example,
inconsistencies can occur when you have not defined connections properly or parts are free to move but
have no mass properties assigned to them.
The verification results appear in the Information Window.
Learn about Verifying Your Model.

420 Adams/View
Modify Body

Modify Body
Right-click part Part name Modify

Modifies the following for a part:


Name, location, and orientation
Mass and inertia
Initial velocities
Initial location and orientation

In addition, it also defines a new ground part.


To modify these properties:
Set Category to:
Name and Position
Mass Properties
Velocity Initial Conditions
Position Initial Conditions
Ground Part

J - O 421
Modify Body - Ground Part

Modify Body - Ground Part


Defines a new or existing part as the ground part.
Examples of where defining a new part may be helpful:
If you merge two models, each of which has its own ground part, after the merge, the resulting

ground part may not be what you want so you will need to define another part as the ground part.
You build a model that represents a small subset of your actual system, and then want to expand

the model and need to redefine what is ground. For example, if you were modeling a door handle
on a car door, you might just have a simple model where the door is ground. Later, you may want
to expand the model so that the door swings on the car frame. In that case, you would want to
define a new part representing the car body as ground and attach the old ground to the car body
with a revolute joint.
For the option:
New Ground

Do the following:
Enter a new or existing part to be used as the ground part. Tips on Entering
Object Names in Text Boxes.
Add any comments about the variable to help you manage and identify it.
Learn about Comments.

422 Adams/View
Modify Body - Mass Properties

Modify Body - Mass Properties


By default, Adams/View calculates the mass and inertia for a rigid body part based on the parts geometry
and material type. The geometry defines the volume and the material type defines the density. The default
material type for rigid bodies is steel.
You can change the material type used to calculate mass and inertia or simply specify the density of the
part. If you do not want Adams/View to calculate mass and inertia using a parts geometry, material type,
or density, you can enter your own mass and moments of inertia.
It is possible to assign zero mass to a part whose six Degrees of freedom you constrain with respect to
parts that do have mass. You should not assign a part zero mass, however. Any part that has zero mass
and translational degrees of freedom can causes simulation failure (since a = F/m). Therefore, we
recommend that you assign finite masses and inertias to all parts. In addition, a part without mass cannot
have mass moments of inertia.
Learn about Methods for Calculating Mass Properties.

For the option:


Define Mass By

Do the following:
Set to:
Material Type
Geometry and Density
User Input

If you selected Material Type, the following options appears:


Material Type

Enter the type of material for the rigid body. Adams/View displays the
materials composition below the text box. Adams/View uses the density
associated with the material type and volume of the geometry of the part to
calculate the parts mass and inertia. Learn about Standard Material
Properties. Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Show calculated inertia

Select to view the mass-inertia tensor matrix that Adams/View calculates.

If you selected Geometry and Density, the following options appears:


Density

Enter the density of the part. Adams/View uses the parts density and the
volume of the geometry to calculate its mass and inertia.

Show calculated inertia

Select to view the mass-inertia tensor matrix that Adams/View calculates.

If you selected User Input, the following options appear:


Mass
Moments of inertia

Enter the mass of the part.


Enter the mass moments of inertia. Learn About Entering Mass Moments of
Inertia.

Center of Mass Marker

Enter the marker that is to be used to define the center-of-mass (CM) for
the part.

J - O 423
Modify Body - Mass Properties

For the option:


Off-Diagonal Terms

Do the following:
Select to enter the cross-products of inertia (Ixy, Ixz, and Iyz). Clear to enter
just the principal mass moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy, Izz).

Inertia Reference Marker Specify the marker that defines the axes for the inertia properties. If you do
not enter an inertia marker, Adams/View uses the part CM marker for
inertia properties.
Add any comments about the variable to help you manage and identify it.
You can enter any alphanumeric characters. The comments appear in the
Information window when you select to display information about the
request, in the Adams/View Log file, and in a command or dataset file when
you export your model to these types of files.

424 Adams/View
Modify Body - Name and Position

Modify Body - Name and Position


Changes the name of a part and sets its position. Learn about Modifying Part Name and Location.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the rigid body.

Solver ID

Assign a unique ID number to the rigid body. See Adams/Solver ID.

Location

Enter the coordinates to which you want to move an object. If you enter a location
in the Relative To text box, Adams/View applies the coordinates relative to that
coordinate system.

Orientation/
Along Axis/
In Plane

Select one of the following to set different Orientation Methods:


Orientation
Along Axis
In Plane

Relative To

Enter a reference frame relative to which the location and orientation are defined.

Planar

Available for rigid bodies only


Set to identify a three-dimensional rigid body as a planar part.

If the selected part is a flexible body following 3 options will appear


Char Length

Specify the characteristic length of the flexible body for linear limit check. This
should be in the model length unit.

Dynamic Limit

Specify the threshold frequency for quasi-static modes.

Stability Factor

Specify the amount of damping needed to add to the quasi-static modes.


Select to add any comments about the body to help you manage and identify it.
Learn about Comments.

J - O 425
Modify Body - Position Initial Conditions

Modify Body - Position Initial Conditions


In addition to specifying initial velocities, you can also control the initial position for a parts location
and orientation. You should specify the initial position when you do not want Adams/View to reposition
the part. Adams/Solver uses the initial position during an Initial conditions simulation, which it runs before
it runs a Simulation of your model.
You can control initial locations and orientations for rigid bodies and flexible bodies but only initial
locations for Point masses.
Location fixes any of the current translational coordinates (x, y, or z) of the part as the initial

location.
Orientation fixes any of the current body-fixed 313 rotational coordinates (psi, theta, or phi

angles) as the initial orientation. These rotation angles are those associated with a body-fixed
313 rotation sequence regardless of which sequence you set as the default for the modeling
database. (Learn about Rotation Sequences.)
If Adams/Solver has to alter part positions to obtain consistent initial conditions during an initial
conditions simulation, it does not vary the coordinates you specify, unless it must vary them to satisfy the
initial conditions you specify for a joint or a motion.
If you fix the initial positions of too many parts, the initial conditions simulation can fail. Use initial
positions sparingly.

For the option:

Do the following:

Positions held FIXED during assembly


Global X, Global
Y,Global Z

Select the coordinates that you want fixed during initial conditions
simulation.

Orientations held FIXED during assembly


PSI Orientation,THETA
Orientation,PHI
Orientation

Select the angles that you want fixed during initial conditions simulation.

Add any comments about the part to help you manage and identify it. Learn
about Comments.

426 Adams/View
Modify Body - Velocity Initial Conditions

Modify Body - Velocity Initial Conditions


You can specify initial velocities for parts. Adams/View uses the initial velocity during the Initial
conditions simulation, which it runs before it runs a Simulation of your model.
You can specify translational and angular velocities for rigid bodies and only translational velocity for
point masses.
Translational velocity defines the time rate of change of a parts center of mass with respect to

ground or another marker in your model. You can specify translational velocity for each vector
component of the marker.
Angular velocity defines the time rate of change of a parts rotational position with respect to the

CM marker of the part or another marker in your model. You can specify angular velocity for
each vector component of the marker.
If you specify initial velocities, Adams/View uses them as the initial velocity of the part during assemble
model operations, regardless of any other forces acting on the part. You can also leave some or all of the
velocities unset. Leaving a velocity unset lets Adams/View calculate the velocity of the part during an
assemble operation depending on the other forces and constraints acting on the part. Note that it is not
the same as setting the initial velocity to zero. Setting an initial velocity to zero means that the part will
not be moving in the specified direction when the simulation starts, regardless of any forces and
constraints acting upon it.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Translational Velocity
Ground

Select to specify the global reference coordinate system as the system in


which the translational velocity vector components will be specified.

Marker

Select and enter a marker along whose axes the translational velocity vector
components will be specified.

X Axis/Y Axis/Z Axis

Select the axes in which you want to define velocity and enter the velocity
in the text box that appears next to the axes check boxes. Remember,
leaving a velocity unset lets Adams/View calculate the velocity of the part
during an initial conditions simulation, depending on the other forces and
constraints acting on the part. It is not the same as setting the initial velocity
to zero.

Angular Velocity (Not available if you are modifying a point mass.)


Part CM

Select to specify the parts center-of-mass (CM) marker as the coordinate


system about whose axes the translational or angular velocity vector
components will be specified.

Marker

Select and enter a marker about whose axes the translational or angular
velocity vector components will be specified.

J - O 427
Modify Body - Velocity Initial Conditions

For the option:


X Axis/Y Axis/Z Axis

Do the following:
Select the axes in which you want to define velocity and enter the velocity
in the text box that appears next to the axes check boxes. Remember,
leaving a velocity unset lets Adams/View calculate the velocity of the part
during an initial conditions simulation, depending on the other forces and
constraints acting on the part. It is not the same as setting the initial velocity
to zero.
Add any comments about the body to help you manage and identify it.
Learn about Comments.

428 Adams/View
Modify Bushing

Modify Bushing
Right-click bushing Modify

Modifes the following for a bushing:


The two bodies to which the forces are applied.
Translational and rotational properties for stiffness, damping, and preload.
Force graphics.

Learn more about Modifying Bushings.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name of the bushing to modify.

Action Body

Change the action body to which the force is applied.

Reaction Body

Change the body that receives the reaction forces.

Translational Properties:
Stiffness

Enter three stiffness coefficients.

Damping

Enter three viscous-damping coefficients. The force due to damping is


zero when there are no relative translational velocities between the
markers on the action and reaction bodies.

Preload

Enter three constant force (preload) values. Constant values indicate the
magnitude of the force components along the x-, y-, and z-axeis of the
coordinate system marker of the reaction body (J marker) when both the
relative translational displacement and velocity of the markers on the
action and reaction bodies are zero.

Rotational (Torque) Properties:


Stiffness

Enter three stiffness coefficients.

Damping

Enter three viscous-damping coefficients. The torque due to damping is


zero when there are no relative rotational velocities between the markers
on the action and reaction bodies.

Preload

Enter three constant torque (preload) values. Constant values indicate the
magnitude of the torque components about the x-, y-, and z-axes of the
coordinate system marker on the reaction body (J marker) when both the
relative rotational displacement and velocity of the markers on the action
and reaction bodies are zero.

Force Display

Specify whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts,
both, or none.

J - O 429
Modify Bushing

For the option:

Do the following:
Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.
Select to change the position of the force using the Precision Move dialog
box.
Select to create a force measure. Learn about creating Object Measures

430 Adams/View
Modify Comment

Modify Comment
Modify/Create Dialog Box

Shared Dialog Box

Adds notes about the objects in your Model, and for Template-Based products, about entities in your
subsystem, to help you manage and identify them. The types of objects about which you can add
comments in Adams/View are listed below. For parts, constraints, and forces, you add comments when
you modify the object. For models, you can add the comments as you create the model, and you can also
modify the comments.
Models
Parts
Constraint
Forces
Materials

The comments that you create appear in the following:


Information window
Adams/View Log file
Command or dataset files

For the option:

Do the following:

Object

Enter the name of the object or entity.

Type

Enter the type of object for which you are creating comments.

Comment Text

Enter your comments.

Date

Select to add the date when you created the comments. In template-based products,
it adds both date and time.

Time

Select to enter the time when you created the comments.

Clear

Clear the text, time, and date.

Reset

Set the comments to the previous ones.

J - O 431
Modify Coupler

Modify Coupler
Right-click coupler Modify

Modifies a coupler allowing you to specify the relationship between the driver and the coupled joint or
to create a three-joint coupler.
Learn about:
Modifying Couplers
Creating Couplers

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the coupler to modify.

Two Joint Coupler/ Three Joint


Coupler

Select whether you want a two- or three-joint coupler.

By Scales/By
Displacement/User Defined

Select the relationship between the joints (either linear or


nonlinear).

Driver and Coupler

Change the joints to be coupled, and then set Freedom Type to their
type. If you have any cylindrical joints, you can specify either
translational or rotational displacement. Translational joints always
have translational displacements. Revolute joints always have
rotational displacements.

Scale

If the coupler is linear, enter a scale for the second and third coupled
joints. The scales are r2 and r3 in the following equation:
delta1 + r2 * delta2 + r3 * delta3 =0

If the joint displacement is rotational, its corresponding delta in the


equation above is in radians.
If you selected User Defined, the following options appear:
User-Written Subroutine
Parameters

If the coupler is nonlinear, specify the user parameters to be passed


to the User-written subroutine COUSUB, COUXX, COUXX2. For
more on user-written subroutines, see the Adams/Solver online help.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine


COUSUB, COUXX, COUXX2.

432 Adams/View
Modify Extrusion

Modify Extrusion
Right-click an extrusion Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of an Extrusion and allows you to rename the extrusion.
Learn about Extrusion tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Extrusion Name

Displays the name of the extrusion you are modifying.

New Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the extrusion.

Reference Marker Specify the marker used to locate and orient the extrusion.
Relative To

Specify the coordinate system in which the location and orientation coordinates
are specified. If you do not specify this parameter, Adams/View uses the reference
marker.

Profile Points/
Profile Curve

Select either:
Profile Points - Enter the locations of the points that define the profile. The

points are relative to the reference marker.


To edit the locations of the points, select the More button

to display the

Location table.
Profile Curve - Enter the object used to define the profile of the extrusion.

You can specify an arc, circle, spline curve, polyline, chain, or outline as the
profile curve. The object should be in the xy plane of the reference marker.
Path Points/
Path Curve/
Length along Z

Select either:
Path Points - Enter points used to define the path of the extrusion. The points

are relative to the reference marker. The points define the path along which the
profile curve will be extended.
To edit the locations of the points, select the More button
Location Table.

to display the

Path Curve - Enter the object used to define the path of the extrusion. You can

specify an arc, circle, spline curve, polyline, chain, or outline. The object
defines the path along which the profile curve is extended.
Length along Z - Z-axis of the reference marker defining the straight line

along which the profile curve will be extruded. Enter a positive length to
extrude along the +z-axis.

J - O 433
Modify Extrusion

For the option:

Do the following:
Select to add any comments about the extrusion that you want to enter to help you
manage and identify it.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

434 Adams/View
Modify FEMDATA

Modify FEMDATA
Build Data Elements FEMDATA Modify

Produces data files of component loads, deformations, stresses, or strains for input to subsequent finite
element or fatigue life analysis. You use the Solver Settings Output More Durability Files
to specify the type of file to produce (for more information, see Solver Settings - Output dialog box help
and Adams/Durability online help). Adams/View will not output to any files unless you specify the format.

For the
option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name of the FEMDATA element to modify.

Type

Select the information that you want output:


Loads on Rigid Body/Flexible Body - Outputs all external forces (reaction

and applied forces except gravity) acting on the specified body and inertial
forces of the specified body (angular velocities and accelerations including
effects of gravity) as a function of time. Load data will be output in the
simulation set of units.
Modal Deformation - Outputs modal deformations as a function of time of

the specified flexible body. Adams/View will only export coordinates of the
active modes in the simulation.
Nodal Deformation - Outputs nodal deformations as a function of time of

the specified flexible body. Adams/View writes the deformations in the


simulation set of units.
Strain - Outputs strain information if strain modes are available in the modal

neutral file (MNF) of the specified flexible body. Adams/View outputs all
six components of strain (normal-X, normal-Y, normal-Z, shear-XY, shearYZ, shear-ZX). It outputs strains in the basic FEA coordinate system of the
flexible body.
Stress - Outputs stress information if modal stresses are available in the
Modal Neutral File (MNF) of the flexible body. Adams/View outputs all six

components of stress (normal-X, normal-Y, normal-Z, shear-XY, shear-YZ,


shear-ZX). It outputs stresses in the simulation set of units in the basic FEA
coordinate system of the flexible body
If you selected Loads on Rigid Body, the following options appear:
R Marker

Enter the rigid body marker to be the reference coordinate system to output loads.
Because Adams/Solver resolves all loads acting on the rigid body in the coordinate
system of the specified marker, the marker should represent the FEA basic
coordinate system of the part's finite element model (FEM).

J - O 435
Modify FEMDATA

For the
option:
Peak Slice

Do the following:
Select that FEM load data are to be output only at those time steps where the
specified peak load occurred in the simulation. With the START and END,
Adams/View only checks the time steps within those specifications for the peak load.
You can specify one or more of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, and GMAG.

If you selected Loads on Flexible Body, the following options appear:


Flex Body

Enter the name of the flexible body whose data Adams/View outputs. Adams/View
outputs the data in the FEM basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

Peak Slice

Select that FEM load data are to be output only at those time steps where the
specified peak load occurred in the simulation. With the START and END,
Adams/View only checks the time steps within those specifications for the peak load.
You can specify one or more of FX, FY, FZ, FMAG, GMAG.

If you selected Modal Deformation, the following option appears:


Flex Body

Specifies the name of the flexible body whose data FEMDATA outputs. FEMDATA
outputs the data in the FEM basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

If you selected Nodal Deformation, the following option appears:


Flex Body

Enter the name of the flexible body whose data FEMDATA outputs. FEMDATA
outputs the data in the FEM basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

Nodes

Enter the node numbers of a flexible body whose data is to be output. If you do not
specify a node list, FEMDATA exports nodal data at each attachment point of the
flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node id is specified that does not
belong to the flexible body.

Datum

Enter a node ID of the flexible body to be the datum of the nodal displacements.
Adams/Solver computes all nodal displacements relative to this node ID. If you do
not specify a datum node, Adams/Solver generates an arbitrary relative set of nodal
displacements. It displays a warning message if the specified node does not belong
to the flexible body.

If you selected Stress or Strain, the following two options appear:


Flex Body

Specifies the name of the flexible body whose data FEMDATA outputs. FEMDATA
outputs the data in the FEM basic coordinate system that is inherent to the flexible
body.

Nodes

Enter the node numbers of a flexible body whose data is to be output. If you do not
specify a node list, FEMDATA exports nodal data at each attachment point of the
flexible body. Adams/Solver issues a warning if a node id is specified that does not
belong to the flexible body.

For all types, set the following options:

436 Adams/View
Modify FEMDATA

For the
option:

Do the following:

File

Enter the output file name for the FEM data. You can specify an existing directory,
root name, and/or extension. By default, the file name will be composed of the
Adams run and body IDs according to the type of data and file format that you
specified in the Solver Settings Output More Durability Files (for more
information, see Adams/Durability online help).

Time

Specify the start and end times for outputting the data:
From - Enter the time at which to start outputting the data. The default is the

start of the simulation.


To - Enter the time at which to end the output of the data or the search of a

peak load. The default is to output to the end of the simulation.

J - O 437
Modify Force

Modify Force
Right-click single-component force Modify

Modifies the following for a Single-component force:


Force direction, if only one part is affected.
Action body to which the force is applied. If you created the force between two parts, you can

also change the reaction body. You cannot change a force created on one part and ground to a
force created between two parts because the direction methods are not compatible. Youll have to
delete the force and create it again.
Force magnitude.
Force graphics

The options available in the dialog box change depending on the direction of the force.
Learn more about:
How To create a single-component force:
Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces
Modifying Single-Component Forces

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Displays the name of the force.

Direction

Set the number of parts affected and the direction of the force:
On One Body, Fixed in Space - Sets the force direction so it is applied to

a part. The force direction is fixed on ground.


On One Body, Moving with Body - Sets the force so it is applied to a

part. The part defines the direction of the force.


On One Body, Moving with Other Body - Sets the force so it is applied

to a part. A second part (the direction part) defines the direction of the
force.
Between Two Bodies - Creates a force between two parts. One of the

parts can be ground. You cannot change a force on one part to a force
defined between two parts or the reverse. You can, however, change a
torque on one part to a torque on two parts or the reverse.
The following text boxes are available depending on how you defined the direction of the force.
Body

Change the action body to which the force is applied.

Action Body

For a force defined between two parts, change the action body to which the force
is applied.

Reaction Body

Change the body that receives the reaction forces.

438 Adams/View
Modify Force

For the option:

Do the following:

Direction Body

Change the body that defines the direction of the force if you selected the direction
option, On One Body, Moving with Other Body.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the force. Select:


Function to define using a numerical value or function expression.
Subroutine to define using a user-written subroutine SFOSUB.

Function

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following in the Function
(time) text box that appears:
Constant force value
Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the


Function text box, select the More button

to display the Function Builder.

Parameters and ID If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be passed
to a user-written subroutine and its ID. Entering an ID is optional.
Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine SFOSUB. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

Force Display

Set whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both, or none.
By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action body for singlecomponent forces.

J - O 439
Modify General Force

Modify General Force


Right-click six-component general force Modify

Modifies the following for a Six-component general force:


Action and reaction body to which the force is applied or the action and reaction markers
Reference marker
Force magnitude
Force graphics

Learn about Multi-Component Forces.

For the option:

Do the following:

Force Name

Enter the name of the general force to modify.

Action Part/

Change the action body or marker to which the force is applied.

Action Marker
Reaction Part/

Change the reaction body or marker that receives the reaction forces.

Reaction Marker
Reference Marker

Change the reference marker that indicates the direction of the force.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the force. Select:


Function to define using a numerical value or function expression.
Subroutine to define using a User-written subroutine.

X Force/

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following for each
component of the force:

Y Force/
Constant force value

Z Force/
AX Torque/

Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select
the More button

AY Torque/
AZ Torque

to display the Function Builder.

Parameters and ID

If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be


passed to a user-written subroutine and the ID of the force being modified.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine GFOSUB.
Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

440 Adams/View
Modify General Force

For the option:


Force Display

Do the following:
Set to whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both,
or none. By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action
body.
Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.
Select to create a force measure. Learn about creating Object Measures

J - O 441
Modify Geometric Spline

Modify Geometric Spline


Right-click a spline Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of your splines.


Learn about the Spline Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the spline to modify.

Closed

Select Yes if you want the spline to be closed or select no if you want the spline to
be open.

Segment Count

Displays the number of segments Adams/View uses to graphically display the


fitting of the points in the curve. To have Adams/View automatically calculate the
number of segments, select the Calculate tool
.
For an open curve, Adams/View defaults to a segment count that is five times the
number of curve points that you have provided. Specifying fewer segments results
in a coarser curve. For a closed curve, Adams/View defaults to a segment count
that is five times the number of points, plus one. In mathematical terms:
5 * ( #pts + 1 )
For both closed and open curves, there are no limits to how many or how few
segments you use (other than hardware limitations), but for every curve there is a
plateau, beyond which increasing the number of segments does not enhance the
graphics of your spline.

Values

Enter values for the locations of the points that define the spline. The points are
relative to the reference marker.
You can edit the locations of the points by selecting the More button
to
display the Location table. The values cannot be modified if a reference_profile is
specified.

Reference Marker Enter the marker that defines the location and orientation of the spline. The marker
acts as a reference coordinate system for the coordinate values used to define the
reference curve points.
Reference Curve

Displays the existing data element curve that is used to mathematically define the
spline. When you define the points that make up the spline, Adams/View creates
a curve fit through the points. Learn about Data Element Modify Curve dialog box.

Reference Profile

Enter an existing Wire Geometry from which the bspline is to be created. Note that
the ref curve and matrix will be automatically generated and hence the
corresponding fields are disabled if a profile is specified.

442 Adams/View
Modify Geometric Spline

For the option:

Do the following:

Reference Matrix

Displays a data element matrix that contains all the spline point coordinates. Learn
about Create/Modify Matrix dialog box.

Spread Points

Specify the value to yes or no (applicable only when a ref profile is specified).
If specified to yes, then the generated bspline will have its points equally spaced.

Num new pts

Specify the number of points on the bspline. This parameter is usable only if
spread points is specified to yes.
Select to enter any comments about the geometry that you want to enter to help
you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

J - O 443
Modify Joint

Modify Joint
Right-click idealized or primitive joint Modify

Changes several basic properties about an idealized or primitive joint, including:


Parts that the joint connects. You can also switch which part moves relative to another part.
What type of joint it is. For example, you can change a revolute joint to a translational joint.
For a screw joint, you can also set the pitch of the threads of the screw.

444 Adams/View
Modify Joint

For the option:


Joint Name

Do the following:
Enter the name of the joint to modify.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Type

Select the type of joint to which you want to change the current joint.
The following are exceptions to changing a joints type:
You can only change a simple idealized joint to another type of simple

idealized joint or to a joint primitive.


You cannot change a joints type if motion is applied to the joint. In

addition, if a joint has friction and you change the joint type, Adams/View
returns an error.
First Body

Change the part that moves relative to the second body.

Second Body

Change the part that the first body moves relative to.

Force Graphics

Select to display force graphics.

Pitch Value

For a screw joint, enter its pitch value (translational displacement for every full
rotational cycle).

Impose Motion

Select to impose motion on the joint. After selecting, set the translational or
rotational displacement or velocity, and then select OK.
Note:

If the initial rotational displacement of a revolute or cylindrical joint


varies by anywhere from 5 to 60 degrees from the actual location of the
joint, Adams/Solver issues a warning message and continues execution.
If the variation is greater than 60 degrees, Adams/View issues an error
message and stops execution.

Initial Conditions Select to set initial conditions for a revolute, translational, or cylindrical joint using
the Joint Initial Conditions dialog box. Learn About Initial Conditions for Joints.
Add any comments about the joint that you want to enter to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.
Select to change the position of the joint using the Precision Move dialog box.

Select to create a joint measure. Learn about creating Object Measures

Select to apply friction to the joint. See Create/Modify Friction dialog box help.

J - O 445
Modify Modal ICs

Modify Modal ICs


Flexible Body Modify dialog box Modal ICs

Displays all the modes in the flexible body and lets you enable and disable them, and set their initial
conditions. An asterisk (*) appears next to all modes that are enabled.
To enable or disable modes:
Highlight the modes that you want to enable or disable.
Select Disable Highlighted Modes or Enable Highlighted Modes.

Learn more about:


Enabling and Disabling Modes
About Flexible Body Modal Content

For the option:

Do the following:

Disabled Highlighted Modes

Select to disable highlighted modes.

Enable Highlighted Modes

Select to enable highlighted modes.

Set Exact

Select to make Adams/Flex enforce the initial conditions for


displacements exactly as specified.

Clear Exact

Select to allow Adams/Flex to modify the initial conditions for


displacements at the beginning of the simulation as necessary.

Text box and Apply


Displacement IC

In the text box, enter the initial condition for modal displacement, and
then select Apply Displacement IC to set the initial condition for the
highlighted mode.

Text box and Apply Velocity


IC

In the text box, enter the initial condition for modal velocity, and then
select Apply Velocity IC to set the initial condition for the highlighted
mode.

446 Adams/View
Modify Run-Time Clearance

Modify Run-Time Clearance


Simulate Run-Time Clearance Modify

Run-Time Clearances can be used to monitor the clearance distance between two selected
geometries/flexible bodies. This clearance distance is based upon tesselation of geometry or analytical
representation of known geometry. For flexible parts, clearance is based upon the external face geometry
in the MNF.
The clearance tool only considers distance between polygons (whether from a mesh for flexible parts or
from tesselation of geometry) so additional single point nodes are left out of the clearance analysis.
After a simulation is complete, the minimum clearance location between the two geometries/flexible
bodies may be animated. This is represented as a line between the objects involved. You can also plot the
clearance result sets and export the clearance data in the results file.
Multiple clearance analyses may be conducted between the same two bodies by selecting different
regions of a flexible part for each analysis.

For the option:

Do the following:

Clearance Name

Enter the name of an existing Clearance object.

Clearance Type

Set to the type according to the participating bodies in the clearance


analysis. Clearances can be created between geometries, flexible parts or
between flexible parts and geometries.The text boxes change depending on
the clearance type you selected.

Threshold

Optional field to allow the user to specify a maximum distance for which
the clearance calculations will not be computed. Set to 0.0 by default.

If you selected Geometry to Geometry, Adams/View displays the following two options:
I Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

J Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

If you selected Geometry to Flexible Body, Adams/View displays the following four options:
I Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

J Flexible Body

Select a Flexible Body.

J - O 447
Modify Run-Time Clearance

For the option:

Do the following:

J Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. J
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node"
option.Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the
nodes with the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse
button to finish.

Exclude J Regions

Toggle Box that either excludes or includes all the nodes in the J Region
selected in the clearance Computation. If this field is not entered, all the J
Region nodes selected will be included in the Clearance computation.

If you selected Flexible Body to Geometry Adams/View displays the following four options:
I Flex Body

Select a Flexible Body

I Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. I
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node" option.
Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the nodes with
the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse button to finish.

J Geometry

Enter one or more geometry solids. The solids must all belong to the same
part.

Exclude I Regions

Toggle Box that either excludes or includes all the nodes in the I Region
selected in the clearance Computation. If this field is not entered, all the I
Region nodes selected will be included in the Clearance computation.

If you selected Flexible Body to Geometry Adams/View displays the following five options:
I Flex Body

Select a Flexible Body

I Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. I
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node" option.
Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the nodes with
the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse button to finish.
Note:

By default nodes can be selected from the last created/selected


flexible body. In case a new flexible body has been created or
selected after the I Flex Body or the J Flex Body fields have been
entered, the original flexible body needs to be made the default
flexible body by the command "defaults model
flexible_body_name= name"

448 Adams/View
Modify Run-Time Clearance

For the option:

Do the following:

J Flex Body

Select a Flexible Body.

J Region

This Field that appears only for Flexible bodies and allows selection of
specific nodes in the MNF for clearance analysis. If this field is not entered,
then all the nodes in the MNF are considered for the clearance analysis. J
Region Nodes can be entered either by typing the node numbers or by rightclicking on the field and selecting the "Pick FlexBody Node"
option.Multiple flexible body nodes can be selected by clicking on the
nodes with the left mouse button and then clicking on the right mouse
button to finish.
Note:

By default nodes can be selected from the last created/selected


flexible body. In case a new flexible body has been created or
selected after the I Flex Body or the J Flex Body fields have been
entered, the original flexible body needs to be made the default
flexible body by the command "defaults model
flexible_body_name= name"

Exclude I Regions

Toggle Box that either excludes or includes all the nodes in the I Region
selected in the clearance Computation. If this field is not entered, all the I
Region nodes selected will be included in the Clearance computation.

Exclude J Regions

Toggle Box that either excludes or includes all the nodes in the J Region
selected in the clearance Computation. If this field is not entered, all the J
Region nodes selected will be included in the Clearance computation.

J - O 449
Modify Surface of Revolution

Modify Surface of Revolution


Right-click a revolution Modify

Allows you to control the location and orientation of a revolution. Learn about the Revolution Tool.

For the option:

Do the following:

Revolution Name

Displays the name of the revolution you are modifying.

New Name

If you want, enter a unique name for the revolution.

Reference Marker

Specify the marker used to locate and orient a revolution.

Relative To

Specify the coordinate system in which the location and orientation


coordinates are specified. If you do not specify this parameter, Adams/View
uses the reference marker.

Angle Extent

Specify the extended angle measured positive (according to the right-hand


rule) about the z-axis of the reference marker. The angle starts at the x-axis
of the reference marker and extends the arc of the revolution.

Number of Sides

Enter the number of flat sides Adams/View draws on a revolution. The


number of sides you specify affects the calculations Adams/View uses to
determine a parts mass and inertia.

Profile Points/Profile
Curve

Select either:
Profile Points - Enter points used to define the profile of the

revolution. The points are relative to the revolutions reference


marker. The profile defined by the points is swept around the
reference markers z-axis.
To edit the locations of the points, select the More button
display the Location table.

to

Profile Curve - Enter an object used to define the profile of the

revolution. You can specify an arc, circle, spline curve, polyline,


chain, or outline.
Select to add any comments about the revolution that you want to enter to
help you manage and identify it. See Comments.
Select to display the Edit Appearance Dialog Box.

450 Adams/View
Modify Torque

Modify Torque
Right-click single-component torque Modify

Modifies the following for a single-component torque:


Force direction, if only one part is affected.
Action body to which the force is applied.
Force magnitude.
Force graphics.

The options available in the dialog box change depending on the direction of the force.
Learn about:
Single-Component Torque tool
Modifying Single-Component Forces
Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the torque to modify.

Direction

Set the number of parts affected and the direction of the torque:
On One Body, Fixed in Space - Sets the force direction so it is applied

to a part. The force direction is fixed on ground.


On One Body, Moving with Body - Sets the force so it is applied to a

part. The part defines the direction of the force.


On One Body, Moving with Other Body - Sets the force so it is

applied to a part. A second part (the direction part) defines the direction
of the force.
Between Two Bodies - Creates a force between two parts. One of the

parts can be ground. You cannot change a force on one part to a force
defined between two parts or the reverse. You can, however, change a
torque on one part to a torque on two parts or the reverse.
Note:

You cannot change a force created on one part and ground to a force
created between two parts because the direction methods are not
compatible. Youll have to delete the force and create it again.

The following text boxes are available depending on how you defined the direction of the force:
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.
Body

Change the action body to which the force is applied.

Action Body

For a force defined between two parts, change the action body to which the
force is applied.

J - O 451
Modify Torque

For the option:

Do the following:

Reaction Body

Change the body that receives the reaction forces.

Direction Body

Change the body that defines the direction of the force if you selected the
direction option, On One Body, Moving with Other Body.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the force. Select:


Function to define using a numerical value or function expression.
Subroutine to define using a user-written subroutine.

Function

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following in the Function
(time) text box that appears:
Constant force value
Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the Function text box, select the More
button
to display the Function Builder.
Parameters and ID

If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be passed
to a user-written subroutine and its ID.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn about
specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

Torque Display

Set to whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both, or
none. By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action body for
single-component torques.

452 Adams/View
Modify Torque Vector

Modify Torque Vector


Right-click multi-component torque Modify

Modifies the following for a Three-component torque:


Action and reaction body to which the force is applied or the action and reaction markers
Reference marker
Force magnitude
Force graphics

Learn about Multi-Component Forces.

For the option:

Do the following:

Force Name

Enter the name of the force to modify.

Action Part/Action
Marker

Change the action body or marker to which the force is applied.

Reaction
Part/Reaction Marker

Change the reaction body or marker that receives the reaction forces.

Reference Marker

Change the reference marker that indicates the direction of the force.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the force. Select:


Function to define using a numerical value or function expression.
Subroutine to define using a user-written subroutine.

AX Torque/

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following for each
component of the force:

AY Torque/
Constant force value

AZ Torque

Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the
More button
to display the Function Builder.
Parameters and ID

If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be passed
to a user-written subroutine and the ID of the torque being modified.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the standard user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

Force Display

Set to whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both, or
none. By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action body.

J - O 453
Modify Torque Vector/Modify General Force

Modify Torque Vector/Modify General Force


Right-click multi-component torque Modify
Right-click six-component force Modify

Modifies either a Three-component torque or a Six-component general force. Its title and options change
depending on the type of force. Select a title below for more information on the options available:
Modify Torque Vector (three-component torque)
Modify General Force

454 Adams/View
Modify a Request

Modify a Request
Build Measure REQUEST Modify

Modifies a request.
Learn about Creating Requests.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Request Name

Enter the name of the request to modify.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the request. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the request to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.

Define Using Type &


Markers/Define Using Function
Expressions/Define Using
Subroutines

Set to:
Define Using Type & Markers
Define Using Function Expressions
Define Using Subroutines

If you selected Define Using Type & Markers, the following options appear:
Output Type

Select the type of output (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, or


Force).

I Marker/J Marker/R Marker

Specify the markers with respect to which the output will be


calculated.

If you selected Define Using Subroutines, the following options appear:


User Function

Enter parameters to the user-written subroutine REQSUB. Enter the


user function using the following format where r1 through r30 are
constants passed to the subroutine: r1, ..., r30. Learn About
Specifying a Subroutine.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine


REQSUB. Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE
Argument..

Title

If you specified to write an output file (.out), enter up to eight


headings for columns of request output. Separate each heading with
a comma (,). Each heading can have as many as eight alphanumeric
characters, including underscores (_). The first character in each
heading must be alphabetic. You cannot use a comma (,), a
semicolon (;), an ampersand (&), or an exclamation point (!). If you
do not want to specify a title for a particular column, use two
quotation marks (" ") with no characters between them.

J - O 455
Modify a Request

For the option:

Do the following:

If you selected Define Using Function Expressions, the following options appear:
f2 , f3 , f4 , f6 , f7 , and f8

Enter function expressions in the boxes f2 , f3 , f4 , f6 , f7 , and f8 .


Do not use f1 and f5 . Adams/Solver uses them to hold magnitudes
for the three functions that follow. You do not need to enter a
function in every text box. Learn About Specifying Function
Expressions.

Title

Enter a title for the top of each set of information output. The entire
comment must be on one line. The title can be only eighty characters
long. You can use blank spaces and all alphanumeric characters.
However, you cannot use the comma (,), the semicolon (;), the
ampersand (&), and the exclamation point (!).

456 Adams/View
Modify a Spring-Damper Force

Modify a Spring-Damper Force


Right-click spring damper Modify

For a Translational spring damper, you can modify:


Parts between which the spring damper acts.
Stiffness and damping values, including specifying splines that defines the relationship of
stiffness to displacement and damping to velocity. Learn about defining Splines.
Preload values.

Learn about:
Translational Spring Damper Tool
Equations Defining the Force of Spring Dampers

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Name

Enter the name of the spring damper to modify.

Action Body

Change the action body to which the force is applied.

Reaction Body

Change the body that receives the reaction forces.

Stiffness and Damping:


Stiffness Coefficient/
No Stiffness/

Select one of the following:


Stiffness Coefficient and enter a stiffness value for the spring

damper.
Spline: F=f(defo)

No Stiffness to turn off all spring forces and create a pure damper.
Spline: F=f(defo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of

force to deformation.
Damping Coefficient/
No Damping/

Select one of the following:


Damping Coefficient and enter a viscous damping value for the

spring damper.
Spline: F=f(velo)

No Damping to turn off all damping forces and create a pure spring.
Spline: F=f(velo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of
force to velocity.

Length and Preload:


Preload

Enter the preload force for the spring damper. Preload force is the force of
the spring damper in its reference position.

J - O 457
Modify a Spring-Damper Force

For the option:


Default Length/
Length at Preload

Do the following:
Select either:
Default Length to automatically use the length of the spring damper

when you created it as its reference length.


Length at Preload and enter the reference length of the spring at its

preload position.
Tip:

If you set preload to zero, then displacement at preload is the


same as the springs free length. If the preload value is nonzero, then the displacement at preload is not the same as the
springs free length.

Spring Graphic

Specify whether coil spring graphics are always on, always off, or on
whenever you have defined a spring coefficient.

Force Display

Specify whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both,
or none. By default, Adams/View displays the force graphic on the action
body.

Damper Graphic

Specify whether cylinder damper graphics are always on, always off, or on
whenever you have defined a damping coefficient.
Select to add any comments about the variable to help you manage and
identify it. See Comments.
Select to change the position of the spring damper using the Precision Move
dialog box.
Select to create a force measure.
Learn about creating Object Measures.

458 Adams/View
Modify a Torsion Spring

Modify a Torsion Spring


Right-click torsion spring Modify

After youve created a Torsion spring, you can modify:


Parts between which the torque acts
Stiffness and damping values
Preload values
Force graphics

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the torsion spring to modify.

Action Body

Change the action body to which the force is applied.

Reaction Body

Change the body that receives the reaction forces.

Stiffness and Damping:


Stiffness Coefficient/

Select one of the following:

No Stiffness/

Stiffness Coefficient to enter a stiffness value for the torsion spring.

Spline: F=f(defo)

No Stiffness to turn off all spring forces and create a pure damping force.
Spline: F=f(defo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of
stiffness to rotational deformation (radians). Learn about defining Splines.

Damping Coefficient/ Select one of the following:


No Damping/

Damping Coefficient and enter a viscous damping coefficient for the

torsion spring.
Spline: F=f(velo)

No Damping to turn off all damping forces and create a pure spring force.
Spline: F=f(velo) and enter a spline that defines the relationship of force to

angular velocity (radians per second).


Length and Preload:
Preload

Enter the preload force for the torsion spring. Preload force is the force of the
torsion spring in its preload position.

Default Angle/

Select one of the following:

Angle at Preload

Default Angle to set the rotation angle of the spring when you created it at

its preload position.


Angle at Preload and enter the angle of the spring at its preload position.

Torque Display

Specify whether you want to display force graphics for one of the parts, both,
or none.

J - O 459
Motions

Motions
Displays tools for creating motions.

Icon

Link

Joint Motions

Construction
or Settings
Container

Icon

Link

General Motions
Translational Motion Tool

Single Point Motion Tool

Rotational Motion Tool

General Point Motion Tool

Contains options for creating the selected object. The options change depending
on the type of object that you are creating. For example, when you create a link,
Adams/View lets you specify its width, length, and height before creating it.
Then, as you create the link, these dimensions are set regardless of how you move
the mouse. You can also define design variables or expressions for many values.

460 Adams/View
New Color

New Color
Postprocessing Edit Preferences Colors Tab New Color button

Defines a new color name in the Modeling database. After creating the new color, return to the Colors
tab in the PPT Preferences dialog box to define its color values. See PPT Preferences - Colors.

For the option:


Color Name

Do the following:
Enter a name for the new color.

J - O 461
New Dialog Box

New Dialog Box


Tools Dialog Box Create Dialog Box New

Creates a new dialog box.


Learn Customizing Dialog Boxes Using the Dialog-Box Builder.

For the option:

Do the following:

Library

Enter the library in which to store the dialog box. By default, the library is .gui.

Name

Enter a title for your dialog box.

Create Buttons

Select any predefined buttons you'd like on your dialog box.

462 Adams/View
No Help Available

No Help Available
There is currently no help available for this dialog box.

J - O 463
Node Finder Dialog Box

Node Finder Dialog Box


Build Flexible Bodies Rigid to Flex/Flex to Flex Node Finder

Searches for nodes on the replacement flexible body that are within a specified radius or closest to a given
marker. It displays the nodes that it found in the lower portion of the dialog box. This is helpful if you are
not sure to which node to transfer a marker.
Learn about Replacing Existing Bodies with Flexible Bodies.

For the option:


Find Nodes

Do the following:
Select how you want to find nodes:
Closest to Marker - Find those nodes closest to the marker specified.
By Radius Around Marker - Find those nodes within a specified radius of

the marker.
Marker Name

Enter the name of the marker that you want to search for nodes closest to.
Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.

Number of Nodes

Available only when Closest to Marker is selected.


Enter the number of nodes to search for which are closest to the specified
marker. For example, find the 10 nodes closest to a marker.

Radius

Available only when By Radius Around Marker is selected.


Enter the radius around the marker to search for nodes.

Interface Nodes Only Select to search only interface nodes.


Find Nodes

Select to search for closest nodes.

Node listing

Lists the nodes found. You can copy one of the nodes to the Swap a rigid body
for another flexible body or Swap a flexible body for another flexible body dialog
box:
1. Right-click a node, and then select Copy.
2. In the swap a rigid body/flexible body dialog box, right-click the Node
ID text box, and then select Paste.

464 Adams/View
Object Color Tool Stack

Object Color Tool Stack


Main Toolbox Object Color Tool Stack

Contains 15 colors to which you can set the color of an object.

Learn about Changing an Object's Color.

J - O 465
Object Measure

Object Measure
Select object Build Measure Object Create/Modify

Creates a measure on an object in your model, including Point Measures. Its title changes depending on
the type of object. For example, its title is Joint Measure if you are creating a measure on a joint.
In general, all objects in your model have some pre-defined measurable characteristics. For example, you
can capture and investigate the power consumption of a motion, or measure a parts center-of-mass
velocity along the global x-axis, taking time derivatives in the ground reference frame. The default
coordinate system is the ground coordinate system, but you can use any marker as the coordinate system.

Note:

You cannot modify a point measure from the Build menu as noted above. Instead, rightclick in the Strip chart of the point measure and select Modify Measure. You can also clear
the select list and, from the Edit menu, select Modify.

Learn more about:


Object Characteristics You Can Measure
Point Characteristics you can measure
About Simulation Output

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Enter the name for the measure.

Characteristic

Select the object characteristic to measure.

Component

Select the component on which to report. You can select x, y, z, or


magnitude (Mag).

Cartisian/Cylindrical/Spherical Set to the desired coordinate system (Cartesian, spherical, or


cylindrical).
From/At area

If it is appropriate, select a reference point indicating where the force


will be measured or from where the kinematic quantities will be
measured.
Note:

The From/At selection does not apply to point measures


because all forces are measured at the selected marker point
and all kinematic quantities are measured from the global
origin to the selected marker point.

Orientation

Select to help you keep track of the orientations of your local part
coordinate systems as you define them. See Orientation Measure
dialog box help.

Represent coordinates in

Enter the marker on which the vector quantity is projected. The


default is the global coordinate system.

466 Adams/View
Object Measure

For the option:


Create Strip Chart

Do the following:
Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.
Select to set the attributes of the measure. Only available when you
are modifying a measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help.

J - O 467
Object Position Handle

Object Position Handle


Settings Object Position Handle
Main toolbox Move toolstack

Allows you to create a global position handle with respect to the which you can translate and rotate
selected objects. When you create a global position handle, Adams/View turns off the object position
handle for individual objects.
Learn more about Using Object Position Handle.

For the option:

Do the following:

Set Handle Location Select and click on the screen to indicate the location of the handle.
Orientation Via

First, in the pull-down menu, select how you want to orient the handle. You can
orient the axes of the handle. By default, the orientation of the position handle
is set to that of the current working grid axes.
Next, select Orientation Via to set.

Reset

Select if you want to reset the location of the global position handle to the
location of the selected object's position handle.

468 Adams/View
Optimize Constraint Evaluate

Optimize Constraint Evaluate


Simulate Design Constraint Evaluate

Lets you interactively apply the design constraint to an analysis and print the resulting value. This helps
you develop and debug constraints. It is a good idea to test your constraint on an existing analysis before
using it in an optimization.
Adams/View prints the constraint value in the Information window.
Learn more About Optimization.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Constraint Name

Enter the name of a constraint.

Analysis Name

Enter the name of an analysis

J - O 469
Optimize Objective Evaluate

Optimize Objective Evaluate


Simulate Design Objective Evaluate

Lets you interactively apply the design objective to an analysis and print the resulting value. This helps
you develop and debug objectives. It is a good idea to test your objective on an existing analysis before
using it in an optimization.
Adams/View prints the objective value in the Information window.
Learn more About Optimization.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Objective Name

Enter the name of a objective.

Analysis Name

Enter the name of an analysis

470 Adams/View
Orientation Joint Tool

Orientation Joint Tool


Build Joints orientation Joint Tool

Constrains the marker of one part so that it cannot rotate with respect to a second part as shown below.
In the figure, the solid circle indicates the first part that the joint connects and the hollow circle indicates
the second part that the joint connects. The first part is constrained relative to the second part. The axes
of the coordinate systems must maintain the same orientation.

The location of the origins of the coordinate systems does not matter.
Learn:
About Joint Primitives

J - O 471
Orientation Joint Tool

Creating Joint Primitives

For the option:


1 Location
(Bodies Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint and

2 Bodies - 1
Location/
2 Bodies - 2
Locations

have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be connected.


Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only one
part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains fixed on
the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You should
use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on exploded
view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints to
Parts.
Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry
Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working grid, if it

is displayed, or normal to the screen.


Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on

a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

472 Adams/View
Orientation Measure

Orientation Measure
Build Measure Orientation New/Modify

Measures an orientation characteristic listed in Orientation Characteristics You Can Measure.

Note:

When creating an object or point measure, select the Orientation button from the Object
Measure Dialog Box.

Learn more :
About Measuring Orientation Characteristics
About Simulation Output

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Enter the name of the measure.

Characteristic

Select a characteristic convention with which to associate the component.

Component

Set to the rotational component you want to measure.

To Marker

Enter the marker representing the coordinate system to which to measure.

From Marker

Enter the marker representing the coordinate system from which to measure.

Create Strip Chart Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.


Select to set the attributes of the measure. Only available when you are modifying
a measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help.

J - O 473
Output (Out) Content

Output (Out) Content


Settings Solver Output More Output Category Output (.out) Content

Selecting Output (Out) Content as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box lets you set
the format of the tabular output file. You only receive a tabular output file when you are using External
Adams/Solver. Learn about setting type of Adams/Solver.

For the option:

Do the following:

Jacobian Matrix

Prints the Jacobian matrix at each iteration. Learn about setting Jacobian matrix.

Request Data

Prints the requests output at each iteration.

RHS and States

Prints the YY array (state vector), RHS array (error terms), and DELTA array
(increment to state vector) at each iteration.

Degrees of Freedom Prints a degree-of-freedom table in the tabular output file. The table indicates
whether or not each of the six components of motion (that is, translation along
the x- , y- , and z-axis and rotation about the x- , y- , and z-axis) is constrained
for each part center of mass relative to the origin of the ground reference frame.
These are the degrees of freedom as input.
To determine the degrees of freedom for the degree-of-freedom table,
Adams/Solver factorizes the constraint matrix. Adams/Solver then checks for
columns that are linear combinations of the other columns of the matrix. The
components of motion corresponding to these columns are not constrained. After
the matrix has been factored, Adams/Solver selects the components
corresponding to the zero pivot elements as the degrees of freedom.
Adams/Solver reports these as the independent coordinates in the degree-offreedom table.
Equation Map

Writes the internal representation of a model in the tabular output file after
Adams/Solver reads and checks the input. It maps the equations and variables in
the system and provides their numeric codes.

474 Adams/View
Output (Out) Content

P-Z

P - Z 475
PPT Preferences

PPT Preferences
Edit Preferences

Changes the ways in which Adams/PostProcessor works. In addition, you can specify the directory to
which Adams/PostProcessor saves files.

For description on each tab click the link below

Tab

Link

Animation

PPT Preferences - Animation

Colors

PPT Preferences - Colors

Curves

PPT Preferences - Curves

Files

PPT Preferences - Files

Fonts

PPT Preferences - Fonts

Geometry

PPT Preferences - Geometry

Orientation PPT Preferences - Orientation


Page

PPT Preferences - Page

Plot

PPT Preferences - Plot

Units

PPT Preferences - Units

Stereo

PPT Preferences - Stereo

476 Adams/View
PPT Preferences

Tab

Link

Restore

Select to restore the settings to their defaults

Save

Save

P - Z 477
Page Layouts

Page Layouts
View Page Page Layouts

Allows you to select different page layouts so you can see more than one viewport. Page layout is also
referred to as the viewport layout.

Note:

A page that contains a Fast fourier transform (FFT) or Bode plot has two viewports. For an
FFT plot, the top viewport contains the plot with the input data and the bottom viewport
contains the plot with the output from the FFT. For a Bode plot, the top viewport contains
the gain plot and the bottom viewport contains the phase plot.

Selecting a Layout
You can access the page layout palette in two ways. Both methods contain the same set of viewport
options.

To select a layout:
1. Do either of the following:
On the View menu, point to Page, and then select Page Layouts. The palette appears.

On the Main toolbar, right-click the Page Layout tool stack

. A selection of layouts

appears.
2. Select a layout.
3. If you used the palette, select Close to close the palette. You can leave the palette open and
continue working so you can quickly change the window.

478 Adams/View
Parallel Axes Joint Tool

Parallel Axes Joint Tool


Build Joints Parallel Axes Joint Tool

Constrains the z-axis of the marker of one part so that it remains parallel to the z-axis of the marker of a
second part, as shown below. In the figure, the solid circle indicates the first part that the joint connects
and the hollow circle indicates the second part that the joint connects. The first part is constrained relative
to the second part.

The marker of the first part can only rotate about one axis with respect to the coordinate system of the
second part.
Learn:
About Joint Primitives

P - Z 479
Parallel Axes Joint Tool

Creating Joint Primitives

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be connected.
Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only
one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to that part and
ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints to
Parts.

Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry Feature Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working grid,
if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

480 Adams/View
Part Create Equation Linear State Equation

Part Create Equation Linear State Equation


Build System Elements Linear State Equation New

Creates a linear state equation.


Learn about:
Creating and Modifying Linear State Equations
System Elements

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Linear State Equation Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the linear state equation.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the equation. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the equation to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.

X State Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the state array for the linear system.
The array must be a states (X) array. It cannot be used in any other linear
state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.

U Input Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the input (or control) array for the
linear system. Entering an inputs (U) array is optional. The array must
be an inputs (U) array. If you enter an inputs (U) array, you must also
specify either a B input matrix, a Dnbsp;feedforward matrix, or both.
The B and D matrices must have the same number of columns as there
are elements in the inputs (U) array.

Y Output Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of output
variables for the linear system. Entering an outputs (Y) array is
optional. If you enter an outputs (Y) array, you must also specify a C
output matrix or a D feedforward matrix. The corresponding matrix
elements must have the same number of rows as there are elements in
the outputs (Y) array. It also must be an outputs (Y) array, and it cannot
be used in any other linear state equation, general state equation, or
transfer function.

IC Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of initial
conditions for the linear system. Entering the IC array is optional. The
IC array must have the same number of elements as the states (X) array
(equal to the number of rows in the A state matrix). When you do not
specify an IC array, Adams/Solver initializes all states to zero.

P - Z 481
Part Create Equation Linear State Equation

For the option:

Do the following:

A State Matrix Name

Enter the matrix data element that defines the state transition matrix for
the linear system. The matrix must be a square matrix (same number of
rows and columns), and it must have the same number of columns as
the number of rows in the states (X) array.

B Input Matrix Name

Enter the matrix data element that defines the control matrix for the
linear system. The B input matrix must have the same number of rows
as the A state matrix and the same number of columns as the number of
elements in the inputs (U) array.
Entering a B input matrix is optional. If you enter a B input matrix, you
must also include an inputs (U) array.

C Output Matrix Name

Enter the matrix data element that defines the output matrix for the
linear system. The C output matrix must have the same number of
columns as the A state matrix and the same number of rows as the
number of elements in the outputs (Y) array. Entering a C output matrix
is optional. If you enter a C output matrix, you must also include an
outputs (Y) array name.

D Feedforward Matrix Name Enter the matrix data element that defines the feedforward matrix for
the linear system. The D feedforward matrix must have the same
number of rows as the number of elements in the Y output array and the
same number of columns as the number of elements in the inputs (U)
array.
When you enter a D feedforward matrix, you must also include both a
Y output matrix and an inputs (U) array.
Static Hold

Select yes to hold states at the constant value determined during static
and quasi-static simulations; select no if they can change. Learn about
Controlling Equilibrium Values When Using System Elements.

482 Adams/View
Part Modify Equation Linear State Equation

Part Modify Equation Linear State Equation


Build System Elements Linear State Equation Modify

Modifies a linear state equation.


Learn about:
Creating and Modifying Linear State Equations
System Elements

For the option:

Do the following:

Linear State Equation Name

Change the name that you want assigned to the linear state equation.

Adams Id

Assign a unique ID number to the equation. See Adams/Solver ID.

Comments

Add any comments about the equation to help you manage and identify
it. See Comments.

X State Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the state array for the linear system.
The array must be a states (X) array. It cannot be used in any other linear
state equation, general state equation, or transfer function.

U Input Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the input (or control) array for the
linear system. Entering an inputs (U) array is optional. The array must
be an inputs (U) array. If you enter an inputs (U) array, you must also
specify either a B input matrix, a D feedforward matrix, or both.
The B and D matrices must have the same number of columns as there
are elements in the inputs (U) array.

Y Output Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of output
variables for the linear system. Entering an outputs (Y) array is optional.
If you enter an outputs (Y) array, you must also specify a C output
matrix or a D feedforward matrix. The corresponding matrix elements
must have the same number of rows as there are elements in the outputs
(Y) array. It also must be an outputs (Y) array, and it cannot be used in
any other linear state equation, general state equation, or transfer
function.

IC Array Name

Enter the array element that defines the column matrix of initial
conditions for the linear system. Entering the IC array is optional. The
IC array must have the same number of elements as the states (X) array
(equal to the number of rows in the A state matrix). When you do not
specify an IC array, Adams/Solver initializes all states to zero.

A State Matrix Name

Enter the matrix data element that defines the state transition matrix for
the linear system. The matrix must be a square matrix (same number of
rows and columns), and it must have the same number of columns as the
number of rows in the states (X) array.

P - Z 483
Part Modify Equation Linear State Equation

For the option:


B Input Matrix Name

Do the following:
Enter the matrix data element that defines the control matrix for the
linear system. The B input matrix must have the same number of rows
as the A state matrix and the same number of columns as the number of
elements in the inputs (U) array.
Entering a B input matrix is optional. If you enter a B input matrix, you
must also include an inputs (U) array.

C Output Matrix Name

Enter the matrix data element that defines the output matrix for the
linear system. The C output matrix must have the same number of
columns as the A state matrix and the same number of rows as the
number of elements in the outputs (Y) array. Entering a C output matrix
is optional. If you enter a C output matrix, you must also include an
outputs (Y) array name.

D Feedforward Matrix Name Enter the matrix data element that defines the feed forward matrix for
the linear system. The D feedforward matrix must have the same
number of rows as the number of elements in the Y output array and the
same number of columns as the number of elements in the inputs (U)
array.
When you enter a D feedforward matrix, you must also include both a
Y output matrix and an inputs (U) array.
Static Hold

Select yes if you do not want the linear state equation states to change
during static and quasi-static simulations; select no if they can change.
For more information on holding values constant, see Controlling
Equilibrium Values When Using System Elements..

484 Adams/View
Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool

Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool


Build Joints Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool

Constrains the marker of one part so that it remains perpendicular to the z-axis of a second part as shown
below. In the figure, the solid circle indicates the first part that the joint connects and the hollow circle
indicates the second part that the joint connects. The first part is constrained relative to the second part.

The marker of the first part can rotate about two axes with respect to the second part.
Learn:
About Joint Primitives

P - Z 485
Perpendicular Axes Joint Tool

Creating Joint Primitives

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be connected.
Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only
one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to that part and
ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see about Connecting Constraints to
Parts.

Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry Feature Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working grid,
if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.

486 Adams/View
Picture of Marker and Node Table

Picture of Marker and Node Table

P - Z 487
PID Controller

PID Controller
Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

The PID controller creates a general proportional-integral-derivative control block. Two inputs are
necessary for this block: the proportional input and the derivative input. You must specify the derivative
state for input to this block that is consistent with the proportional state. For example, if the proportional
input is the measured x position of a part, the derivative input should be the linear velocity in the x
direction.
This block automatically creates the integrated state of the proportional input for use as the integrated
input. You can parameterize the P, I, and D gains of this block with an Adams/View real design variable
to quickly study the effect of changing control gains.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Deriviative Input

Specify the signal representing the first-time derivative of the input.

P Gain

Specify the gain applied to the input signal.

I Gain

Specify the gain applied to the integral of the input signal.

D Gain

Specify the gain applied to the derivative input.

Initial Condition

Enter the initial condition for the input signal.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

488 Adams/View
Planar Joint Tool

Planar Joint Tool


Build Joints Planar Joint Tool

Creates a planar joint that allows a plane on one part to slide and rotate in the plane of another part. The
location of the planar joint determines a point in space through which the joints plane of motion passes.

The orientation vector of the planar joint is perpendicular to the joints plane of motion. The rotational
axis of the planar joint, which is normal to the joints plane of motion, is parallel to the orientation vector.
Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

P - Z 489
Planar Joint Tool

Modeling Two-Dimensional Body Using Planar Option

For the option:


1 location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies -1
Location/
2 Bodies -2
Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint and

have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be connected.


Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If there is only
one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to that part and
ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains fixed
on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You should
use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on exploded
view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of these options,
see Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry
Feature

Set how you want the joint oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current working grid, if

it is displayed, or normal to the screen.


Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector

on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
First Body/Second
Body (only appears
Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
if you select to
explicitly define the Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach the
bodies using the
joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint follows
options 2 Bodies - 1
the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with Marker Modify
Location or 2 Bodies
dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is only available with
- 2 Locations
Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching solvers with Solver Settings explained above)
Executable dialog box help.

490 Adams/View
Plane Tool

Plane Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Plane Tool

Creates a two-dimensional box. You can draw a planes length and width in the plane of the screen or the
Working grid, if it is turned on. You will find planes most useful when you are creating contact forces
between objects, as explained in Contacts.
When you create a plane, you can select to create a new part consisting of the plane geometry or add the
plane geometry to an existing part or ground. If you create a new part, it has no mass since it is composed
of only wire geometry.
Learn about Creating Two-Dimensional Plane.

For the option:


New Part/Add to Part/On
Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds plane to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the plane to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you
are simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry
that defines the race track can be added to ground.

Notes on Modifying Planes: One hotpoint appears after you draw the plane. It lets you modify the length
and height of the plane. For more information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using
Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry.

P - Z 491
Plate Tool

Plate Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Plate Tool

Creates a plate, which is an extruded polygon solid with rounded corners. You create a plate by indicating
the location of its corners. You must select at least three locations. The first location you select acts as an
anchor point defining the position and orientation of the plate in space. The Plate tool creates markers at
each location. The marker at the anchor point is called the reference marker.

After you indicate the locations, the Plate tool creates a polygon with the specified number of sides and
extrudes it. By default, it creates the plate with a depth that is 1 and has corners with radii of 1 in current
length units. Before drawing, you can also specify the thickness and radius of the corners of the plate.

Note:

The reference marker of the plate determines the plate orientation and defines the plane of
the plate to its x and y axes. Adams/View defines the x and y axes of the reference marker
using the working grid, if it is turned on, or the view screen. Adams/View defines the plate
vertices as the component of distance from the reference marker to the vertex marker as
defined along the reference marker's y-axis. Therefore, if you choose a plate vertex marker
that is out-of-plane from the xy plane of the reference marker, the vertex marker is not the
actual plate vertex.

492 Adams/View
Plate Tool

Learn about Creating a Plate.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds plate to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the plate to ground.

Tip:

Thickness

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you are
simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry that
defines the race track can be added to ground.

Select and then enter the thickness of the plate.


If you do not specify a thickness, Adams/View creates the plate with a thickness
of 1 in current length units.

Radius

Select and then enter the radius of the plate corners.


If you do not specify a radius, Adams/View creates the plate with corners with
radii of 1 in current length units.

Note:

After you draw a plate, a hotpoint appears at the reference marker. It lets you change the
depth of the plate. For more information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using
Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry

You can also use the Geometry Modify Shape Plate dialog box to change the markers used
to define the plate, the thickness of the plate, and the radius of the corners of the plate.

P - Z 493
Plot Design Evaluation Results

Plot Design Evaluation Results


Simulate Design Evaluation

Automatically plots the results of a parametric analysis.


Learn about Generating Plots.

For the option:

Do the following:

Result Set

Enter the name of the parametric analysis result set you want to plot.

Create plot of
measure/objective value vs.
run

Select if you want to generate a plot of the measure or objectives


versus the variable value, trial number, or iteration number.

Create plot of measure vs.


time for all runs

Select if you want to generate a plot of the measure or objectives


versus time with a curve for each trial or iteration. If you use this
option,you must have specified a measure or an objective that refers to
a measure or result set component (not a macro or function). In
addition, you must have saved the results from the individual runs.
Learn more about Saving Results from individual runs.

494 Adams/View
Plots Transfer Function

Plots Transfer Function


Build System Elements Transfer Function New or Modify Check Format and Display Plot

Displays a plot of the transfer function you created using the Create/Modify Transfer Function dialog box.
Learn more about Creating and Modifying Transfer Functions.

P - Z 495
Plots Transfer Function

For the option:


Plot

Do the following:
Select the type of plot to display:
Magnitude - The magnitude of the transfer function element's

frequency response.
Phase Angle - Phase of the transfer function element's frequency

response.
Real Part - Real part of the frequency response of the transfer function

element.
Imaginary Part - Imaginary part of the frequency response of the

transfer function element.


Plot Display

Display a plot of the transfer function. Right-click to perform operations on


the plot, such as clear the plot. Right-click on each element in the plot to
delete that element.
Note: There are several operations displayed in the shortcut menu when
you right-click but many are not supported in the plot display.

Min

Set the minimum value for the frequency axis (horizontal). Press Enter to
enable the Redraw button.

Max

Set the maximum value for the frequency axis (horizontal). Press Enter to
enable the Redraw button.

Scale

Select either:
log - Scales the axis values so that each power of 10 is separated by the

same distance. For example, the values 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 are
equally spaced.
lin - Displays the axis values linearly, starting at 0.

Redraw

Redraws the plot after you change the scale of the plot.

496 Adams/View
Plugin Manager

Plugin Manager
Tools Plugin Manager

Shared Dialog Box

Manages the add-on modules or plugins to Adams/View, which expand its functionality. The MSC
plugins include Adams/Vibration, Adams/Controls, and Adams/Durability. The Plugin Manager lets you
run these products from within Adams/View and set Adams/View to load them automatically when you
start up. It also lets you unload them while in your current session of Adams/View, and view whether or
not there is a license available to run them.
Learn about Loading and Unloading Plugins.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Displays the names of the plugins installed.

Load

To load a plugin, next to the name of the plugin, select Yes. To unload a plugin,
clear the selection of Yes.

Load at Startup

To load a plugin automatically at startup, next to the name of the plugin, select Yes.
To not have the plugin load automatically, clear the selection of Yes.

Description

Displays a description of the plugin selected in the Name column.

Version

Displays the version of the plugin selected in the Name column.

Author

Displays the company that published the plugin selected in the Name column.

License

Displays the number of total licenses of the plugin selected in the Name column,
and how many of those licenses are available. A license must be available for you
to load the plugin.

P - Z 497
Point Motion

Point Motion
Right-click point motion Modify

Lets you modify a single Point Motion.


Learn more about:
Tips on Creating Motions
Defining the Motion Magnitude
DOF Removed by Motion

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name of the point motion to modify.

Moving Point

Change the marker that defines the location of the motion on the parts. Learn
About Point Motion.

Reference Point

Change the marker that defines the orientation of the motion on the parts.

Direction

Specify direction axis on reference point marker.

Define Using

Enter how you want to define the motion. Select Function to define using a
numerical value or Subroutine to define using a user-written subroutine.

Function

If you selected Function for Define Using, enter the following in the
Function (time) text box that appears:
Numerical value (For rotational motion, specify the magnitude in

radians.)
Function expression

To enter a function expression, next to the Function (time) text box, select the
More button
to display the Function Builder.
Parameters and ID

If you selected Subroutine for Define Using, enter the parameters to be


passed to the MOTSUB user-written subroutine and its ID. Entering an ID is
optional.

Routine

Specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine MOTSUB.
Learn about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.

Type

Set to Displacement, Velocity, or Acceleration to specify how motion


magnitude is defined.

Displacement IC and
Velocity IC

Enter the initial conditions for displacement or velocity. The text boxes that
appear depend on how the magnitude of the motion is defined.

498 Adams/View
Point Motion/Joint Motion

Point Motion/Joint Motion


Right-click point/joint motion Modify

Modifies either a Point Motion or a Joint motion. Its title and options change depending on the type of
motion. Select a motion below for more information on the options available:
Point Motion
Joint Motion

P - Z 499
Point Tool

Point Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Point Tool

Defines locations in three-dimensional space upon which you can build your model. Points allow you to
build parameterization between objects, as well as position objects. For example, you can attach a link to
points so that each time you move the points, the links geometry changes accordingly.
You can also use points to define the location where modeling objects connect, such as the point where
a joint connects two parts. Points do not define an orientation, only a location.
As you create a point, you define whether Adams/View should add it to ground or to another part. In
addition, you specify whether other parts near the same location should be attached (parameterized) to
the point. If you attach other bodies to the point, then the location of those bodies is tied to the location
of that point. As you change the location of the point, the location of all attached bodies change
accordingly.

Note:

You should not attach a parts center of mass marker to a point, however. If you attach a
center of mass marker, Adams/View removes the parameterization whenever it recomputes
the center of a part, unless you defined mass properties for the part.

Learn about:
Creating Points
Parameterization

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds point to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the point to ground.

Tip:

Don't Attach/Attach
Near

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you are
simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry that
defines the race track can be added to ground.

Don't Attach - Keep other objects surrounding the point unattached to the
point. There will be no parameterization relationship set up.
Attach Near - Attach other nearby objects to the point. When you change the
location of the points, the other objects locations and orientations update
accordingly.

500 Adams/View
Point Tool

Note:

After creating the point, you can modify its name and set its location using the Table Editor.
Learn about Editing Objects Using the Table Editor.

P - Z 501
Point-Curve Constraint Tool

Point-Curve Constraint Tool


Build Joints Point-Curve Constraint

The point-curve constraint restricts a fixed point defined on one part to lie on a curve defined on a second
part. The first part is free to roll and slide on the curve that is fixed to a second part. The curve on the
second part can be planar or spatial or open or closed. The first part cannot lift off the second part; it must
always lie on the curve. A point-curve constraint removes two translational Degrees of freedom from
your model.
When you specify the location of the point-curve constraint on the first part, Adams/View creates a
marker at that location. The marker is called the I marker. The I marker can only translate in one direction
relative to the curve. The I marker, however, is free to rotate in all three directions.
You can use the point-curve constraint to model a Pin-in-slot mechanism or a Simple Cam Follower
mechanism where a lever arm is articulated by the profile of a revolving cam.
When modeling a pin-in-slot mechanism, the point-curve constraint keeps the center of the pin in the
center of the slot, while allowing it to move freely along the slot and rotate in the slot.
Learn more about:
Point-Curve Constraints
Tips on Creating Higher-Pair Constraints

For the option:


Curve/Edge

Do the following:
Select whether you are defining the point-curve constraint along a curve or an edge
of a part:
Curves - Splines, chains, and data-element curves are all considered

curves.
Edge - An edge is one of the wireframe outlines drawn on a solid. For

example, you can use a Parasolid object representing a cam that you
imported into Adams/View.

502 Adams/View
Point-to-Point Measure

Point-to-Point Measure
Select object Build Measure Point-to-Point Create/Modify

Measures kinematic characteristics, such as displacement or velocity, between two locations on a model
during a Simulation.
Learn more about:
Point-to-Point Measures
Methods for Creating Point-to-Point Characteristics
About Simulation Output

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Enter the name of the measure.

To Point

Enter the marker or point to which to measure.

From Point

Enter the marker or point from which to measure.

Characteristic

Select the kinematic characteristic to be measured. The values you


enter in the next text boxes depend on whether you select a
translational or angular characteristics.
Learn about Point-to-Point Characteristics You Can Measure.

Component

Select the component in which you are interested. The components


available depend on the coordinate system.

Cartisian/Cylindrical/Spherical

For translational characteristics only, set to the associated


coordinate system (Cartesian, spherical, or cylindrical).

Represent Coordinates in

Specify:
A marker along whose axes the measure will be represented.
Leave blank to represent in the ground reference frame.

Do time derivatives in

(Available if you selected translational velocity, translational


acceleration, or angular acceleration as the characteristic.)
You can:
Enter a marker representing the measure reference frame.
Leave blank to use ground as the reference frame.

Create Strip Chart

Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.


Select to set the attributes of the measure. Only available when you
are modifying a measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help.

P - Z 503
Polyline Tool

Polyline Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Polyline Tool

Creates single- and multi-line segments (polylines) and create open or closed polylines (polygons)

Before drawing lines or polylines, you can specify the length of the line or lines to be created so you can
quickly create perfectly sized lines and polylines.
When creating a single line, you can also specify the angle of the line. The angle you specify is relative
to the x-axis of the global coordinate system or the working grid, if it is turned on. When you create line
geometry, you can select to create a new part consisting of the line geometry or add the line geometry to
an existing part. If you create a new part, it has no mass since it is composed of only wire geometry. You
can extrude the lines into solid geometry that has mass. For more information, see Extruding Construction
Geometry Along a Path.

Learn about Creating Lines and Polylines.

For the option:

Do the following:

New Part/Add to Part/On Select either:


Ground
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the polyline to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the polyline to ground.

Tip:

Polyline/One Line

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you
are simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry
that defines the race track can be added to ground.

Select either:
Polyline - Creates a line made up of multiple lines.
One Line - Creates a single line.

504 Adams/View
Polyline Tool

For the option:

Do the following:

Length

Set the length of the single line or the individual lines making up the
polyline. This should give you greater control.

Angle

Set the angle of the line. If you set the angle for a polyline, Adams/View
creates all the lines making up the polyline at the same angle.

Closed

Set to create a closed polygon.

Note:

Adams/View places hotpoints at the endpoint of each line segment after you draw the
objects. The hotpoints let you reshape the lines. If you create a closed polyline,
Adams/View maintains it as a closed polyline regardless of how you move the hotpoints.
For more information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to
Graphically Modify Geometry.

You can also use the line or polyline modify dialog box to more accurately place the points
that make up the line or polyline. You can also read in location points from a file. For more
information, see Using Dialog Boxes to Precisely Modify Geometry and Using the Location
Table.

P - Z 505
Precision Move

Precision Move
Edit Move

Moves objects either by increments or to precise coordinates.


You can select to move the objects relative to a specified objects coordinate system, called the reference
coordinate system. You can also select to move objects relative to the screen. In addition, you can use the
Precision Move dialog box to view the coordinates of one object in relation to another.

Learn about Moving Objects Using the Precision Move Dialog Box.

Option

Description

Rotate Y, X, Z

Select each to rotate an object with respect to a body-fixed or reference


coordinate system in incremental amounts specified in the +/- text box. You
specify the reference coordinate system using the Relative to/About the
options.

Translate Y, X, Z

Select each box to translate an object with respect to a body-fixed or


reference coordinate system in incremental amounts specified in the +/text box. You specify the reference coordinate system using the Relative
to/About the options.

Relocate the

Enter the object or objects to be moved.

506 Adams/View
Precision Move

Option
Relative to/About the

Description
Select to define the coordinate system whose axes are to be used for
defining rotations and translations. For rotations:
Relative to rotates objects in place (their locations do not change) and

their rotations are with respect to the coordinate system specified in the
Relative to the text box.
About the rotates the objects rotate about the origin of the coordinate

system specified (their locations change) and the rotations are with
respect to the coordinate system specified in the About the text box.
Translations are with respect to the coordinate system defined as either
Relative to the or the About the.
Model/Part/Marker/Vie
w/Entity/Screen

By default, the Precision Move dialog box moves the selected objects
relative to the default coordinate system. You can specify that Adams/View
use a different coordinate system as the reference coordinate system. The
rotational and translational coordinates you enter for the move or the
incremental values you select are with respect to the origin and orientation
of this coordinate system.
You can select the following types of objects:
Model - Global coordinate system.
Part or marker - Part or marker in your model.
View - Adams/View defined View, such as front, right, or left. Use the

Database Navigator to select the name of the view.


Entity - Any entity, including those that are not on the screen. Entities

also include the working grid and gravity.


Screen - The plane of the screen. When you select to move objects

relative to the screen, the Precision Move dialog box changes the dials
on the left to those shown in this picture. The dials translate and rotate
the objects:
Think of the translation as pulling the object in the direction of the

arrow. For example, when you select the small arrow that points
up, you pull an object up along the vertical axis. The double arrows
to the right translate an object along an axis that is normal to the
screen (works only if the view is in perspective mode).
Think of the rotation as pushing on an object at that point. For

example, if you select the arrow that points to the right, you are
pushing the horizontal axis back, resulting in a positive rotation
around the vertical axis.

P - Z 507
Precision Move

Option
C1 - C3

Description
Enter the coordinates to which you want to move an object relative to
another objects coordinate system (the reference coordinate system). You
specify the reference coordinate system using the Relative to the and About
the options.
Enter the coordinates in the default coordinate system (Cartesian,
spherical, or cylindrical).

Note: If you select Load, C1 displays the current coordinates of an object.


A1 - A3

Enter the coordinates to which you want to rotate an object relative to


another objects coordinate system (the reference coordinate system). You
specify the reference coordinate system using the Relative to the and About
the options.
Enter the coordinates in the default coordinate system (Cartesian,
cylindrical, or spherical).
Note: If you select Load, C1 displays the current coordinates of an object.

Load

Select to view the current coordinates of an object with respect to the


coordinate system of another object (reference coordinate system).
Adams/View displays the coordinates in the six position text boxes (C1
through C3 for translation and A1 through A3 for rotation).
For example, if you want to ensure that two markers, which you want to
connect using an inplane joint, are in the same plane, you can set one
marker as the object to be moved and the other object as the relative to
object. You can then view the rotation coordinates of the first marker to
ensure that they are (0, 0, 0).

508 Adams/View
Print

Print
Adams/PostProcessor File Print

You can print pages directly to a printer or store them in a file for printing at a later time.

Note:

Adams/PostProcessor only prints the portion of a report or table that fits on the paper.
To print a multi-page report, open the report in a browser and print from there.
To print a multi-page table, export the table in HTML format, open the report in a

browser, and print from there. Pages with only reports and tables on them print
significantly faster than pages with mixed views (for example, plot and report),
depending on the type of printer being used.

For the option:


Print to

Do the following:
Select either:
Printer:
On Linux, in the Print to area, select Printer and enter an operating system

command to execute the print job (for example, lpr -Psp2 or lp -c -Ppd1).
On Windows, select also show Windows print dialog to display the

default Windows printer dialog box from which you can select a printer.
The dialog box appears after you select OK.
File:
In the Print to area, select File and enter the location and name of the file

to which you want to print the page.


Note that if you print more than one page to a file, Adams/PostProcessor
uses the page number of each page as the name of the file.
If you selected to print to a file, select the type of file format. You can
select Postscript, HPGL, Encapsulated Postscript, tif, jpg, xpm, bmp, and
Native Windows (Windows only).
Note:

If you select jpg format, you can set the level of quality.

(A)Paper Size

Select the size of paper, or to accept the current default paper for the printer, select
default.

Landscape

Select if you want the page to print horizontally.

Portrait

Select if you want the page to print vertically.

P - Z 509
Print

For the option:


Black and White

Do the following:
Select if you want the page to print in black and white.
If you select Black and White, Adams/PostProcessor prints all colors in black and
the background in white even if you are using a color printer.
Selecting black and white is generally considered more readable for presentations,
but you should use altering line style or line thickness to distinguish between the
curves on the plot.

Color

Select if you want to print the plot in color.


If you print a plot in color but send it to a black-and-white printer, the printer
approximates the colors using grayscale.

Current Page

Select to print the page you currently have displayed.

All Pages

Select to print all the pages.

Page Range

Select to print specific pages and enter the first page and last page.

510 Adams/View
Range Measure

Range Measure
Build Measure Range New/Modify

Creates range measures with which you can obtain statistical feedback about any existing measure.
Ranges dynamically calculate the maximum, minimum, average, or variation characteristics of any
measure.
Learn about Range Measures.

For the option:

Do the following:

Measure Name

Enter the name of the measure.

Type

Select the range characteristic to measure.

Of Measure

Enter an existing measure to analyze.

Create Strip Chart Select to display a Strip chart of the measure.


Select to set the attributes of the measure. Only available when you are modifying
a measure. See Measure Attributes dialog box help.

P - Z 511
Reading a Command File

Reading a Command File


Before reading a command file, set the display and error options as described in Command File dialog
box help.
To read (import) a command file:
1. From the Tools menu, select Read Command File.
2. Select the command file to import.
Shortcut: Press F2.
Learn about importing command files using Import - Adams/View Command Files.

512 Adams/View
Rename

Rename
Database Navigator Rename

Renames any object in the Modeling database.


Learn about Renaming Objects Through the Database Navigator.

For the option:

Do the following:

Text box

Enter the new name for the object you selected in the tree list.

Apply

Select to apply the new name to the object.

P - Z 513
Rename Dialog Box

Rename Dialog Box


Tools Dialog Box Modify Dialog Box Rename

Renames a dialog box.


Learn more about Customizing Dialog Boxes Using the Dialog-Box Builder.

For the option:


Name

Do the following:
Enter a new name for your dialog box.

514 Adams/View
Rename Object

Rename Object
Edit Rename

Lets you rename any object in your Modeling database. You can change the default name assigned to the
object but you cannot change its full name.
Learn About Object Naming.

For the option:


New Name

Do the following:
Enter the name you want to assign to the object.
Select to display the Database Navigator and rename another object in the
database.

P - Z 515
Results (.res) Content

Results (.res) Content


Settings Solver Output More Output Category Results (.res) Content

Selecting Results (.res) Content as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box lets you set the
content of the results file.
Select the options for the content you want in the results file.

516 Adams/View
Results (.res) Options

Results (.res) Options


Settings Solver Output More Output Category Results (.res) Options

Selecting Results (.res) Options as the Output Category in the Solver Settings dialog box lets you set the
format of the results file.
For the option:

Do the following:

Comment

Enter a title for the results file.

Format

Set the type of format:


Binary - By default, Adams/View saves the results file as a binary file.

You cannot view a binary file nor can you move it to different computer
platforms. It, however, provides greater precision, faster access, and
more compact size than a standard Adams/View text file.
ASCII - Standard Adams/View text file with no formatting.
XML - XML is a license-free, platform-independent file format used

often for Web applications. The XML format's structured data


representation is an ideal framework for storing Adams information.
Because XML is an ASCII file, you can use it across all platforms and
read it in a text editor. Although the formatting is not optimized for
reading in text editors, you will find it useful to quickly check the
progress of a simulation, or debugging a model. You can tag XMLformatted results for retrieval from many database or pdm systems.
Freely available tools for reading and writing XML files makes it easy to
incorporate Adams results into other programs.
If you selected XML as the format, the following options are active:
Decimal Places

Specify how many digits are written after the decimal point for real numbers.
The default value is 17 decimal places (full precision for recovery of doubleprecision numbers).

Round Off

Set to On to turn on the roundoff feature for real numbers (the default is
disabled). The Significant digits option controls the actual numbers of digits
retained during rounding off.

Scientific Notation

Specify the boundaries at which the format for real numbers switches from a
fixed point format to scientific notation. The values are exponents for the base
ten. The default values are -4 and 5, meaning that any number less than or equal
to 1.0E-04 or greater than or equal to 1.0E+05 will be written in scientific
notation.

P - Z 517
Results (.res) Options

For the option:


Shift Width

Do the following:
Specify a positive integer that defines the number of spaces added at the left of
each level of hierarchy in the XML data structure. The default is zero spaces to
minimize the file size, but provides the lowest level Kof readability. The
following shows an example of a portion of an XML file when Shift Width is set
to 3.
------------------------------------xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Results>
< Analysis>
< ModelInfo title="model_1" />
< Units angle="deg" length="mm" mass="kg" time="sec"
/>
...

Significant digits

Specify how many significant figures of a real number are retained during round
off (when round off is enabled). The default is to use ten significant figures. This
number is distinct from the number of places actually printed for a real number,
which the Decimal Places option controls. Significant Figures includes digits to
the left and right of the decimal point.

Trailing Zeros

Set to On to specify that trailing zeros are printed for real numbers. The default
is not to print trailing zeros. When enabled, all the digits after the decimal point
will be printed, whether they are zero or not. When disabled, any zeros at the end
of the fractional part of the number will be dropped, leaving the last digit as a
non-zero digit.

Zero Threshold

Enter the zero threshold value for numbers being written to an output file. If a
number has an absolute value smaller than the zero threshold value, then it will
be written out as zero. This value is independent of units.

518 Adams/View
Revolute Joint Tool

Revolute Joint Tool


Build Joints Revolute Joint Tool

Creates a revolute joint that allows the rotation of one part with respect to another part about a common
axis. The revolute joint can be located anywhere along the axis about which the joints parts can rotate
with respect to each other.

The orientation of the revolute joint defines the direction of the axis about which the joints parts can
rotate with respect to each other. The rotational axis of the revolute joint is parallel to the orientation
vector and passes through the location.
Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

P - Z 519
Revolute Joint Tool

Adding Friction to Idealized Joints

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of
these options, see Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry Feature

Set how you want the joint oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction

vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

520 Adams/View
Revolution Tool

Revolution Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Revolution Tool

Creates geometry by revolving a profile. You specify the profile and the axis about which to revolve the
profile. The Revolution tool revolves the profile around the axis in a counterclockwise direction (righthand rule)

You can create an open or closed revolution. If you create a closed revolution, the Revolution tool closes
the profile by drawing a line segment between the profiles first and last points and creates a solid
revolution from this profile. If you leave the revolution open, the Revolution tool creates a skin that has
no mass properties.
You can also select to create the revolution using the Non-analytical Method or Analytical Method.
Learn about Creating a Revolution.

For the option:


New Part/Add to Part/On
Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the revolution to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the revolution to ground.

Tip: Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or influence
the simulation of your model. For example, if you are simulating a car
driving around a race track, the geometry that defines the race track can be
added to ground.
Create by Picking

Select:
Points to select the locations on the screen that define the profile.
Curve to select the curve to be used to define the profile.

P - Z 521
Revolution Tool

For the option:

Do the following:

Closed

Select to create a closed revolution. (Available only when you set Create
by Picking to Points.)

Analytical

Select to create a revolution using the analytical method. Clear to use the
non-analytical method

Note:

After you draw a revolution, hotpoints appear. If you used the non-analytical method to
create the revolution, the hotpoints appear at the vertexes of the profile. If you used the
analytical method, hotpoints appear at points along the curves that define the revolution.
The hotpoints let you resize and reshape the revolution. For more information on
modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry.
You can also use the revolution modify dialog box to more accurately place the points that
make up the profile and read in location points from a file. For more information, see Using
Dialog Boxes to Precisely Modify Geometry and Using the Location Table.

522 Adams/View
Rotational Motion Tool

Rotational Motion Tool


Build Joints Rotational Motion Tool

Rotates the first part that the joint connects about the z-axis of a second part. The right-hand rule
determines the sign of the motion. The z-axis of the first part must be aligned with the z-axis of the second
part at all times. The angle is zero when the x-axis of the first part is also aligned with the x-axis of the
second part.
Learn about:
Overview of Motion
Creating Joint Motion

For the option:


Rot. Speed

Do the following:
Specify the speed of the motion in displacement units per second. By
default, creates a rotational motion with a speed of 30 degrees per second.
To enter a function expression or User-written subroutine, right-click the
Rot. Speed text box, point to Parameterize, and then select Expression
Builder to display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on
using the Function Builder, see Function Builder and Adams/View Function
Builder online help.

P - Z 523
Save Binary Notebook As

Save Binary Notebook As


Postprocessing File Save As

In stand-alone mode, Adams/PostProcessor saves your current session in notebooks, which are binary
files that store all the simulation results, animations, and plots that you are working on. You can also save
a copy of a notebook with a different name or in a different location. When you save a notebook,
Adams/Posrocessor saves all the pages you created and their content. It also saves the simulation results
in the binary file. The results are not associated with the files you imported.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Enter a name for the notebook.
To save the document in a different directory, right-click the File Name text box,
select Browse, and then select the desired directory.

524 Adams/View
Save Database

Save Database
File Save Database

Alerts you that Adams/View is saving the current Modeling database as an Adams/View binary file and
asks you if you want to create a backup file. To save the model data in another format, see the File Export
dialog box.
Learn about Modeling Database.

For the option:


model_name exists.
Create backup?

Do the following:
Yes - Creates a backup file of the existing database file and saves the

database. When Adams/View creates a backup file, it adds a % to the


end of the file extension (for example, model.bin%).
No - Overwrites the existing database file with the current database

contents without creating a backup.


Cancel - Exits the command without saving the database.

P - Z 525
Save Database As

Save Database As
File Save Database As

Saves the current Modeling database to a binary file with a new name. This lets you keep several versions
of your database under different names and reduces the risk of losing your work if you inadvertently
change or delete your model. Saving your modeling database saves all modeling information, including
any customization changes you made.
To save the model data in another format, export the data as explained Exchanging Data in Adams. To
save your preferences, see Saving and Restoring Settings.

For the option:


File Name

Do the following:
Specify the name you want to assign to the file.
If you want the file written to a directory other than the one from which you are
running Adams/View, enter the path name in the File Name text box.
Tips on Entering File Names in Text Boxes.

526 Adams/View
Save Design Evaluation Results

Save Design Evaluation Results


Simulate Design Evaluation
Allows you to save a single set of results for a parametric analysis.
Learn about Saving Results.

For the option:


Name

Do the following:
Enter a name for the analysis.

Auto-Increment Name Select if you want Adams/View to add a unique number at the end of the
name. Adams/View copies the current parametric results to a new analysis
with the name you specify.

P - Z 527
Save Model at Simulation Position

Save Model at Simulation Position


Simulate Interactive

Saves the model at a simulated position into the Modeling database under a new name so you can use it
as your new design configuration.
Learn about Saving a Simulation Frame as New Model.

For the option:

Do the following:

New Model

Enter a name for the model to be created.

Analysis

Specify the simulation containing the frame you want to save.

Frame

Enter the frame number of the configuration you want to save to a new model.

528 Adams/View
Save Run Results

Save Run Results


Simulate Interactive

Saves the results of the last Simulation under a new name so that you can animate or plot the results at a
later time. Saving simulation results is particularly important when you want to compare the results from
several design variations.
Be sure to save your Modeling database after you save your simulation results (File Save Database).

Note:

By default, the results of a simulation are only saved to the modeling database, not to
external Adams/Solver analysis files. To save the results to external Adams/Solver analysis
files, set the simulation output before you run the simulation, as explained in Setting
Simulation Controls. To export the results to analysis files, see Export - Adams/Solver
Analysis Files.

For the option:


Name

Do the following:
Enter the name for the simulation results.

Auto-Increment Name Select if you want Adams/View to automatically increment the run names
when you save subsequent simulations.

P - Z 529
Screw Joint Tool

Screw Joint Tool


Build Joints Screw Joint Tool

Creates a screw joint that specifies the rotation of one part about an axis, as the part translates along the
axis with respect to a second part.

The screw joint does not require that the two parts remain parallel with respect to the axis of rotation and
translation. However, the z-axis of the coordinate system marker on the first part and the z-axis of the
coordinate system marker on the second part must always be parallel and co-directed. Although the screw
joint does not enforce this parallelism, the chain of parts and joints that connects the two markers should.
After you create a screw joint, you need to specify the pitch value. The pitch value is the distance from
one peak on a thread of the screw to the next thread. It defines the amount of translational displacement
of the first part for every rotation of the second part about the axis of rotation.
By default, Adams/View sets the pitch value to 1. The pitch value is in length units. A positive pitch
creates a right-hand thread, and a negative pitch creates a left-hand thread.

530 Adams/View
Screw Joint Tool

Learn about Creating Idealized Joints.

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of
these options, see about Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the joint oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers with Solver Settings - Executable dialog box help.

P - Z 531
Scripted Simulation

Scripted Simulation
Simulate Scripted

Display tools for performing Scripted simulation.


Learn about Performing a Scripted Simulation.

532 Adams/View
Scripted Simulation

Icon

Description
Sets your model back to its initial design configuration so you can modify
your model or perform another simulation starting at time 0.
You do not have to set the model back to its design configuration to
continue simulating. You can pick up from the last frame of your animation
and continue.
Shortcut: Double-click the Select tool.
Stops any further processing, and the modeling objects appear in the
positions that Adams/Solver last successfully calculated.
Starts the Simulation.

Replays an Animation of the last Simulation. Replaying an animation


displays the results much faster than if you simulate the model again and
watch the frames update as the solution calculates results. You can also
replay an animation of a saved simulation; for more information, see
Animation Controls.
How Adams/View replays your simulation depends on whether or not you
have finished the simulation and reset the model back to its initial design
configuration.
If you have run a simulation, or part of a simulation, but not set the

model back to its initial configuration, when you select to replay the
animation, Adams/View animates the model up to the last simulation
step and leaves your model there.
If you reset your model back to its initial configuration, when you select

to replay the animation, Adams/View automatically sets the model back


to the initial design configuration when the animation is complete.
Model Verify Tool

Simulation Script Name

Enter the name of the simulation Script.

Reset before and after

Sets your model back to its initial design configuration before you run the
Simulation.

Interactive/Scripted

Displays tools for controlling either an interactive or Scripted simulation.

P - Z 533
Scripted Simulation

Icon

Description
Save/Delete Simulation Results
Left-click to display the Save Run Results dialog box so you can

save the simulation results.


Right-click to select a set of simulation results to delete.

Save Simulated Position


Displays the Save Model at Simulation Position dialog box so you can save
the model at a simulated position into the Modeling database under a new
name.
Displays the Animation Controls dialog box.
Displays the Linear Modes Controls dialog box.

Displays Adams/PostProcessor.

Simulation Settings...

Displays the Solver Settings dialog box, letting you set how you want the
Simulation performed.

534 Adams/View
Second-Order Filter Block

Second-Order Filter Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

The second-order filter block creates a second-order filter by specifying the undamped natural frequency
and the damping ratio. You can parameterize the undamped natural frequency or damping ratio constant
with an Adams/View real design variable to quickly study the effect of varying the frequency or damping
ratio of the associated block.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Natural
Frequency

Specify the natural frequency.

Damping Ratio

Specify the damping ratio.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

P - Z 535
Select List

Select List
Database Navigator Select List

Allows you to view objects that you've selected. You can also add and remove objects from the select list.
Learn about:
Managing the Select List
Showing , Hiding, and Selecting Objects in the Database Navigator

For the option:

Do the following:

Add

Select to add objects from the tree list or view window.

Remove

Select to remove the highlighted objects from the list.

Clear All

Select to clear all objects from the select list.

536 Adams/View
Select List Manager

Select List Manager


Edit Select List

Lets you view objects youve selected and add to and remove objects from the select list. You can add
and remove objects based on their name, type, group, and parent.
Learn more about Selecting Objects.

For the option:

Do the following:

Tips on Entering Object Names in Text Boxes.


Number of Objects in Select
List

Lists the objects currently selected (in the select list).

Object Name

Enter the name of the object that you want to add, and then select the
Add button next to the text box.

Add

Select to add the object in the Object Name text box to the select list.

Name Filter

Enter the name of the objects that you want to add to or remove from
the select list. Type any wildcards that you want included. For
example, to remove all objects that contain a particular character,
such as an h.

Type Filter

Set to the type of object or objects that you want to add or remove.
To display all the different object types, select Browse.

Scope

Limit the scope of objects to be added or removed to only objects


belonging to a certain object by entering the name of the parent
object. For example,you can tell Adams/View to limit the scope from
all markers to only markers belonging to a PART_1.

Expand Groups

Select to add or remove objects in a group to the Select List Manager.


Before adding the object to the select list, you can set whether or not
you want to list each object in the group in the Select List Manager
or just list the name of the group.

Remove Objects

Select and then select the objects to be removed from a list.


Tips To select objects: in a list.

Clear All

Select to quickly remove all objects in the select list.

Refresh

Select to update the list of objects in the Select List Manager window
so that it reflects any selections that you made using the mouse or
Shortcut menus.

Add

Select to add the object in objects to and from the select list based on
search criteria.

Remove

Removes multiple objects from the select list based on search


criteria.

P - Z 537
Setting Screen and Printer Fonts

Setting Screen and Printer Fonts


Settings Fonts

Changes the font Adams/View uses to display text in a view, such as the name of a part or a note on the
screen, or to print text to a printer. The fonts available for displaying text in a view are those available
with your operating system. The fonts available for printing text are a fixed set of 12 fonts.

Note:

Your printer may not support all of these printer fonts.

For the option:


Screen Font

Do the following:
Enter the name of the font you want Adams/View to use to display text in a view.
To browse for a font, right-click the text box, point to Browse, and then select a
font.

Postscript Font

Select the font you want to use to print the text.

538 Adams/View
Simulation Controls

Simulation Controls
Simulate Interactive/Scripted
Main toolbox Click

Displays tools for controlling Interactive Simulation and Scripted simulations. Select a topic below:
Interactive Simulation Palette and Container
Scripted Simulation

P - Z 539
Single-Component Force tool

Single-Component Force tool


Build Forces Single-Component Tool

Applies a translational force in one of two ways:


To one movable part - You select the part, the location of the point of application, and the

direction. Adams/View automatically applies the force to ground.


To two parts - You select the parts and the locations of the point of application on each part.

Adams/View automatically defines the direction based on the line of sight between the two
locations. The direction is continuously updated during Simulation.

You cannot use the line-of-sight method if the two points that define the force will become coincident
during a simulation because the force direction becomes undefined. When running a simulation,
Adams/Solver warns you when the points become nearly coincident. The following shows an example
of a warning:

Caution:

The direction cosines for SFORCE model_1.FORCE_1 are invalid. This is usually caused
by a (nearly) zero length SFORCE or SPRINGDAMPER.

You can ignore the warning only if the computed force is zero when the points are coincident (for
example, when you are using a BISTOP function that is inactive when its markers are coincident).
Otherwise, having coincident points is a modeling error with unpredictable results.
Learn more about:

540 Adams/View
Single-Component Force tool

Single-Component Forces

For the option:


Run-Time Direction

Do the following:
Specify the number of parts and the nature of the force direction. You can
select the following:
Space Fixed
Body Moving
Two Bodies

Learn about Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces.


Construction

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current

working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.


Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a


part.
Characteristic

Specify the characteristics of the force:


Constant torque - Lets you enter a constant torque value or let

Adams/View use a default value.


Spring-Damper - Lets you enter stiffness and damping coefficients and
lets Adams/View create a function expression for damping and stiffness

based on the coefficient values. (Not available when you are using the
Main toolbox to access the force tool.)
Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in

effect, creates a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force,
you modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a
User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Constant Torque, the following option appears:
Force Value

Enter a constant torque value.

If you selected Spring-Damper, the following two options appear:


Translational K

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter the damping coefficients.

P - Z 541
Single-Component Torque tool

Single-Component Torque tool


Build Forces Single-Component Torque Tool

Applies a rotational force to either one part or two about a specified axis. You specify the point of
application and the direction. The following figure shows an example of a single-component torque
applied to one part.

Learn more about:


Single-Component Forces

For the option:


Run-Time Direction

Do the following:
Specify the number of parts and the nature of the force direction. You can
select the following:
Space Fixed
Body Moving
Two Bodies

Learn about Specifying Force Direction for Single-Component Forces.


Construction

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a


part.

542 Adams/View
Single-Component Torque tool

For the option:


Characteristic

Do the following:
Specify the characteristics of the force:
Constant torque - Lets you enter a constant torque value or let

Adams/View use a default value.


Spring-Damper - Lets you enter stiffness and damping coefficients and
lets Adams/View create a function expression for damping and stiffness

based on the coefficient values. (Not available when you are using the
Main toolbox to access the force tool.)
Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in

effect, creates a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force,
you modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a
User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Constant Torque, the following option appears:
Force Value

Enter a constant torque value.

If you selected Spring-Damper, the following two options appear:


Translational K

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter the damping coefficients.

P - Z 543
Single Point Motion Tool

Single Point Motion Tool


Build Joints Single Point Motion Tool

Creates a single Point Motion.


Learn more about:
Tips on Creating Motions
Defining the Motion Magnitude
Types of Motion
Creating Point Motions Using the Motion Tools

For the option:


1 location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies -1 Location/
2 Bodies -2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the motion connected to parts:
1 location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of
these options, see About Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the motion oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the motion along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the motion along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


Characteristic

Specify the direction of the motion.

544 Adams/View
Single Point Motion Tool

For the option:


Trans. Speed

Do the following:
If you set Characteristic to Translational, specify the speed of the motion
in displacement units per second. By default, Adams/View creates a
translational motion with a speed of 10 millimeters per second.
To enter a function expression or user-written subroutine, right-click the
Trans. Speed text box, point to Parameterize, and then select Expression
Builder to display the Function Builder. For information on using the
Function Builder, see Function Builder and the Adams/View Function
Builder online help.

Rot. Speed

If you set Characteristic to Rotational, specify the speed of the motion in


displacement units per second. By default, creates a rotational motion with
a speed of 30 degrees per second.
To enter a function expression or user-written subroutine, right-click the
Rot. Speed text box, point to Parameterize, and then select Expression
Builder to display the Adams/View Function Builder.

P - Z 545
Six-Component General Force tool

Six-Component General Force tool


Build Forces Six-Component General Tool

Creates rotational and translational force between two parts in your model using six orthogonal
components.
Learn more about:
Multi-Component Forces

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:

Pick Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a


part.
Characteristic

Specify the characteristics of the force:


Constant - Lets you enter a constant force and torque values or lets

Adams/View use a default value.


Bushing Like- Lets you enter stiffness and damping coefficients and

lets Adams/View create a function expression for damping and stiffness


based on the coefficient values.
Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in

effect, creates a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force,
you modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a
User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Constant Force, the following options appears:
Force and Torque

Enter a constant force value.

546 Adams/View
Six-Component General Force tool

For the option:

Do the following:

If you selected Bushing Like, the following options appear:


K and KT

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

C and CT

Enter the damping coefficients.

P - Z 547
Sizes

Sizes
Dialog-Box Builder Preferences Sizes

Displays the default size of a new interface object if you create it by clicking in the new dialog box or
container.
It does not display the size for the objects you created and modified by dragging the item to a desired size.
Learn more about Customizing Dialog Boxes Using the Dialog-Box Builder.

For the option:

Do the following:

Default Height

Displays the default height for the object.

Default Width

Displays the default width for the object.

548 Adams/View
Snap Grid

Snap Grid
Dialog Box-Builder Preferences Snap Grid

Allows you to restrict the possible positions and sizes of your interface objects, similar to the Working
grid in the modeling window.

When you drag an item with the mouse to move or resize it, the mouse position will snap to the nearest
grid point. Because the snap grid points are not visible, and the default grid is very fine (2 pixel distance)
it is generally not very noticeable.
You can turn this option on or off in the Option menu in the Dialog-Box Builder.

For the option:

Do the following:

Horizontal Grid Spacing Enter a value to set the horizontal distance between grid points.
Vertical Grid Spacing

Enter a value to set the vertical distance between grid points.

Horizontal Grid Offset/

Enter the number of pixels from the top left border to begin grip snaps.

Vertical Grid Offset

P - Z 549
Solver Settings

Solver Settings
Settings Solver Dynamics/Kinematics/Equilibrium/Initial
Conditions/Executable/Display/Output/Optimizer/Debugging

Displays options for setting the Simulation depending on the command you selected:
Dynamics
Kinematics
Equillibrium
Initial Conditions
Executable
Display
Output
Pattern for Jacobian
Optimizer
Debugging
Contacts
Flexible Bodies

550 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Contacts

Solver Settings - Contacts


Settings Solver Contacts

You can set default options for the performing three-dimensional contact operations.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Contacts.

Model

Enter the name of the model associated with the settings.

Geometry Library

Select the geometry library to be used for contact operations:


Parasolids - Specifies that the Parasolid geometry library to be used for

three-dimensional contact determination. Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)


supports Parasolid version 19.0.17.
Default_Library - Specifies that the default geometry library to be used

for three-dimensional contact determination. The default library is based


on RAPID, a polygon-based interference detection package developed
at the University of North Carolina. Currently, Adams/Solver supports
RAPID version 2.01.
For many models, the Default Library can substantially reduce simulation time.
Because it is polygon-based, however, it is not always as accurate as the
Parasolids geometry engine. Parasolids is an exact boundary-representation
geometric modeler, which makes it highly accurate, but not as fast as a polygonbased engine. For these reasons, you can switching from one to the other
depending on your needs.
Faceting Tolerances Specify the faceting tolerances when you select the Default_Library as the
geometry library (see above). Faceting is the process of approximating the
surface of an object by a mesh of triangles. All polygon-based geometry engines
used faceted representations of surfaces.
The default value Faceting Tolerances is 300. Increasing this value will result in
a finer mesh of triangles, which gives a more accurate representation of surfaces
which are curved. Increasing the tolerance, however, also increases the memory
requirements of the geometry engine and adds to the computational overhead,
which makes it run slower. Setting the faceting tolerance to values greater than
1000 is not recommended. Values smaller than 300 will give negligible
performance improvements. The faceting tolerance has no effect on inherently
polygonal surfaces such as boxes.

P - Z 551
Solver Settings - Debugging

Solver Settings - Debugging


Settings Solver Debugging

You can set default options for the debugging information that appears when you run a Simulation.
You can also turn on the display of Strip charts and step through a simulation. Learn more about
Debugging Your Model.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Debugging.

Debugger

Set to:
On - Turn on the Simulation Debugger
Off - Turn off the Simulation debugger

Display

Set to:
None - Displays no information.
Table - Displays the Debug table.
Highlighting - Highlights those objects experiencing the most error or the

most change, force, or acceleration, depending on the element you select


to track. Note that selecting highlighting of objects will significantly slow
down your simulation.
Table and Highlighting - Displays both the Debug table and highlights

objects. The objects highlighted are the same objects shown at the top of
the Element list in the Debug table.
Track Maximum

Set to track:
Error - Track objects with the largest equation residual error. This number

is an indicator of how far Adams/Solver is from a solution. It should


decrease with every iteration.
Force - Track objects generating the greatest force. Includes forces and

constraints.
Change - Track variables with the most change.
Acceleration - Track objects experiencing the greatest acceleration.

Includes only parts.


More

Select to display options for stepping through a simulation and displaying strip
charts.

552 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Debugging

For the option:


Single Step

Do the following:
Set to Yes to single step through a simulation. The Simulation Debugger pauses
after each simulation output step, time step, or iteration so you can closely inspect
the simulation behavior. You can step through a simulation with any of the other
debugger options selected, such as strip charts, tables, or object highlighting. As
you run a simulation, Adams/View displays a dialog box that gives you the option
to continue with the simulation or cancel it.

Display Stripchart Select the type of strip chart you want to display to provide you with insight into
the simulation.
Learn about the types of strip charts.

P - Z 553
Solver Settings - Display

Solver Settings - Display


Settings Solver Display

Controls how Adams/View displays your model during a single Simulation or how it displays your model
during a parametric analysis. You can also set the information that Adams/View displays during a
parametric analysis.
Use the Solver Settings dialog box so you see just the amount of information you need during a
simulation. For example, when you perform a simulation on a new model, set up the display to see the
model change as the solution proceeds to determine if the simulation is working properly. Updating the
display of the model frequently can, however, slow down the overall solution process. Once your model
runs properly, change the options so Adams/View only updates the model at the end of the simulation.
You can even set Adams/View so it never updates the model. You can then play an animation of the
simulation, as required.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Display.

Show Messages

If you are running Adams/Solver externally, set to Yes to display the messages that
Adams/Solver generates into an Information window. The messages include the
diagnostic messages that Adams/Solver generates during a simulation, as well as
warnings and errors, which are always displayed. Adams/View displays all
messages output during a simulation to the message window and to its Log file.

554 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Display

For the option:


Update Graphics

Do the following:
Set to one of the options below to indicate when you want your model updated
during the simulation. The options are listed from option that sets the fewest
updates to the option that sets the most.
Never - No updates. Use this option only when you are sure that your

simulation will run to completion without difficulty, and you want to


maximize the efficiency of the simulation. (You can also set this option
directly from the Interactive Simulation Palette and Container when
Running an Interactive Simulation.)
At Simulation - Update your model display only at the end of the

simulation.
At Output Step - Update your model display at every output time step

that you specified when you submitted your simulation and omit any
contact steps. Because it does not display contact steps, your simulation
time may improve because the graphical processing operations will not be
burdened with intermediate contact events.
At Contact/Output Step - Update the model display at each output time

step and contact step. This is the default.


At Integration Step - An update of your model display at every

integration time step that Adams/Solver requires to provide a solution to


your specified level of accuracy. This option only applies to dynamic
simulations since they are the only type requiring numerical integration. It
is helpful for debugging purposes but can lead to significantly longer
simulation times. For more information, see Solver Settings - Dynamic.
At Iteration - Update your model display at every iteration. This option is

most useful when debugging static simulations because they are purely
iterative in nature since there is no integration required. This option is also
available for dynamic simulations, in which case Adams/View displays
the model at every corrector step associated with each predictor step.
Using the At Every Iteration option with dynamic simulations can result
in significantly longer simulation times.
Icons

To see all your model icons as your model is updated, set to On. Keeping your
icons on as your model is updated can help you understand how model objects
behave, especially constraints and forces. By default, icons are not visible during
animations.

More

Select to more display options, including those for parametric analysis.

Prompt

Set to Yes to indicate that you want to be prompted whether or not Adams/View
should display each updated frame. By default, there is no delay and you are not
prompted to display each updated frame.

Time Delay

Enter the number of seconds Adams/View should pause after displaying each
updated frame so you can study it. By default, there is no delay.

P - Z 555
Solver Settings - Display

For the option:

Do the following:

Update Toolbar

Select an option to set how Adams/View should update the simulation information
that appears in the status bar as the solution proceeds. The options are a subset of
the options available under the Update Graphics pull-down menu and behave in a
similar way.

Chart Objective

Select to display a strip chart of the following depending on the type of parametric
analysis:
Objective value versus variable value for a Design study.
Objective value versus trial for a Design of experiments (DOE).
Objective value versus iteration number for an Optimization.

Adams/View updates the strip chart at every trial or iteration.


Chart Variables

Displays a strip chart for each design variable, plotting its value versus the trial or
iteration number. Adams/View updates the strip chart every trial or iteration.

Save Curves

Clears all displayed measures at the beginning of the parametric analysis and
automatically saves the curve from each trial or iteration. If you do not select Save
Curves, Adams/View does not clear or save any curves. It only displays the curve
for the current simulation and any curves you previously saved.

Show Report

Automatically displays a tabular report at the end of the parametric simulation.


You can use the Tabular Report

tool
to display this table at any time, write it to a file, and control its format
(see Generating a Table).

556 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Dynamic

Solver Settings - Dynamic


Settings Solver Dynamic

Dynamic simulations are transient or time-varying simulations used to investigate the movements of parts
over time; these movements result from the combined effects of forces and constraint relationships. You
can perform dynamic simulations on models that have any number of Degrees of freedom (DOF).

It is computationally more efficient, however, to perform Kinematic simulations on models with zero DOF
and to perform dynamic simulations only on models with one or more DOF. For dynamic simulations,
Adams/Solver can use several numerical algorithms to calculate an approximate solution to the equations
of motion it formulates for your mechanical system.
Learn more About Dynamic Simulations.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Dynamic.

Integrator

Select an integrator (the integrators HASTIFF, HHT and Newmark are only available
with Adams/Solver (C++)).
For more on the integrators, see Comparison of Integrators and the:
INTEGRATOR statement in the Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) online help
INTEGRATOR statement in the Adams/Solver (C++) help

Note:

Formulation

Unknown appears if your model uses an integrator that is not used or no


longer supported. For example, if you import a dataset (.adm) file that
contains the statement "INTEGRATOR/DSTIFF", which is discontinued,
Adams/View displays Unknown. If you try to select Unknown,
Adams/View defaults to GSTIFF.

If you selected the integration method GSTIFF, WSTIFF, HASTIFF or Constant


BDF, select a formulation for the integrator:
I3
SI2
SI1 - only available in Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)

See Equation Formulation Comparison and the INTEGRATOR statement in the


Adams/Solver online help, for more on the integrators.
Note:

Unknown appears if your model uses an integration method that is not


used or no longer supported. If you try to select Unknown, Adams/View
defaults to I3.

P - Z 557
Solver Settings - Dynamic

For the option:


Corrector

Do the following:
Specify the corrector algorithm that is to be used with the stiff integrators GSTIFF,
WSTIFF, or Constant BDF. The corrector in a stiff integrator ensures that all the
unknowns satisfy the equations of the system. The two algorithms, original and
modified, differ primarily in the algorithm that they use to define when the corrector
iterative process has converged.
Original - Specifies that the corrector available in the previous releases of

Adams/Solver be used. This is the default. This implementation of the


corrector requires that at convergence, the error in all solution variables be
less than the corrector error tolerance.
Modified - Specifies that a modified corrector is to be used. This

implementation of the corrector requires that at convergence, the error in


only those variables for which integration error is being monitored, be less
than the corrector error tolerance. This is a slightly looser definition of
convergence, and you should use proper care when using this. The modified
corrector is helpful for models containing discontinuities in the forcing
functions. Problems with contacts belong in this category.
For additional information, see Extended Definition in the INTEGRATOR statement
in the Adams/Solver online help.
Error

Specify the relative and absolute local integration error tolerances that the integrator
must satisfy at each step. For BDF, HHT, and Newmark integrators, Adams/Solver
monitors the integration errors in the displacement and state variables that the other
differential equations (differential equations, linear state equations, general state
equations, and transfer functions) define. ABAM, SI1, and SI2 formulations also
monitor errors in velocity variables. The larger the error, the greater the error per
integration step in your solution.
Note that the value for error is units-sensitive. For example, if a system is modeled in
mm-kg-s units, the units of length must be in mm. Assuming that all the translational
states are larger than 1 mm, setting ERROR=1E-3 implies that the integrator
monitors all changes of the order of 1 micron.
The error tolerances (e) are enforced as:
|| Yc - Y || < MAX (e, e * ||Y||)
where:
Yc is the column matrix of computed values for the unknowns, Y.
The symbol || . || indicates the root-mean-square of the array of numbers.

558 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Dynamic

For the option:


Hmax

Do the following:
Enter the maximum time step that the integrator is allowed to take.
When setting the Interpolate option, the integration step size is limited to the value
that is specified for Hmax. If Hmax is not defined, no limit is placed on the
integration step size. If you do not set the Interpolate option, the maximum step size
is limited to the output step.
Range is 0 < Hmin
Note:

Hinit

Hmax.

In the dialog box, click More to see Interpolate, Hinit, and Hmin options.

More

Click to set more advanced options.

Hmin

Specify the minimum time step that the integrator is allowed to take.
Default is 1.0E-6*HMAX for GSTIFF and WSTIFF integrators, and machine
precision for ABAM, SI1, and SI2 formulations and HHT and Newmark integrators.
Range is 0 < HMIN

Hinit

HINIT

HMAX.

Enter the initial time step that the integrator attempts. The default is 1/20 of the output
step.
Range is 0 < HMIN

HINIT

HMAX.

P - Z 559
Solver Settings - Dynamic

For the option:


Adaptivity

Do the following:
All of the BDF integrators (GSTIFF, WSTIFF, HASTIFF and Constant BDF) use
Newton-Raphson iterations to solve the nonlinear Differential-Algebraic equations
of motion. This iteration process is referred to as correcting the solution. The
adaptivity value modifies the corrector error tolerance to include a term that is
inversely proportional to the integration step size. This is intended to loosen the
corrector tolerance when the step size gets small (many corrector failures occur
because of small step size). If the integration step size is equal to h, Adaptivity/h is
added to the corrector tolerance.
When setting a value for Adaptivity, begin with a small number, such as 1E-8. Note
that this relaxes the tolerance of the corrector, which can introduce additional error
into the dynamic solution. The corrector tolerance must be at least a factor of 10
stricter than the integration tolerance. The ratio advocated in theoretical literature
ranges from .1 to .001 and is a function of the integrator order and step size. The ratio
that Adams/Solver uses varies with the integrator chosen, but is within the range
specified above. If you use an Adaptivity value to relax the corrector tolerances, be
sure to validate your results by running another simulation using a different
integration error tolerance.
The Adaptivity value affects only the GSTIFF, WSTIFF, and Constant BDF
integrators.
An Adaptivity value is typically required to overcome corrector convergence
difficulties and you should not use it in normal situations.
The default is 0, and the range is Adaptivity

Interpolate

0.

Set to Yes when you don't want the integrator to control the integration step-size to
precisely hit an output step. The integrator might then overshoot an output point and
in this case an interpolation algorithm will provide an approximation of the solution
at the output point. This approximate is then refined to provide for the consistent
solution at the output point.

560 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Dynamic

For the option:


Kmax

Do the following:
Specify the maximum order that the integrator can use. The order of integration refers
to the order of the polynomials used in the solution. The integrator controls the order
of the integration and the step size, and, therefore, controls the local integration error
at each step so that it is less than the error tolerance specified.
For problems involving discontinuities, such as contacts, setting Kmax to 2 can
improve the speed of the solution. However, we do not recommend that you set the
Kmax option unless you are a very experienced user. Any modification can adversely
affect the integrators accuracy and robustness.
Kmax's default and range depend on the integrator you selected:
For the
integrator:

The range is:

ABAM

12

Kmax

12

GSTIFF,
WSTIFF,
HASTIFF,
Constant
BDF

Kmax

RKF45,
HHT,
Newmark

Not
applicable

Not applicable

Note:

Maxit

The
default is:

KMAX is irrelevant (ignored) if the integrator selected is HHT or


Newmark. Both these integrators are constant order (order 2 and 1,
respectively) and, therefore, the order does not change during simulation as
is the case for the rest of the integrators available in the solver.

Enter the maximum number of iterations allowed for the Newton-Raphson iterations
to converge to the solution of the nonlinear equations. The correctors in GSTIFF and
WSTIFF use the Newton-Raphson iterations. ABAM also uses Newton-Raphson
iterations to solve for the dependent coordinates.
We recommend that you do not set Maxit larger than 10. This is because round-off
errors start becoming large when a large number of iterations are taken. This can
cause an error in the solution.
The default is 10, and the range is Maxit > 0.

P - Z 561
Solver Settings - Dynamic

For the option:


Scale

Do the following:
Enter the sum of the relative and absolute error tolerances. If T is the sum of the
relative and absolute error tolerances applied to the state vector, then the following
tolerance is applied:
r1 * T to the translational displacements
r2 * T to the angular displacements
r3 * T to the modal coordinates
The scale applies to only WSTIFF and ABAM. It is does not apply to GSTIFF and
Constant BDF. The use of scale factors is not supported in Adams/Solver (C++).

Beta

One of the two defining coefficients associated with the Newmark method. Learn
more about the Newmark integrator with INTEGRATOR statement help.
Default value is 0.36.
Range is defined in conjunction with Gamma. Together they must satisfy the stability
condition.

Gamma

One of the two (together with Beta) defining coefficients associated with the
Newmark method.
Default value is 0.7.
Range is defined in conjunction with Beta. Together they must satisfy the stability
condition.

Alpha

Defining coefficient for the HHT method.


Default value is -0.3.
Range is -0.3 < Alpha < 0.

562 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Equilibrium

Solver Settings - Equilibrium


Settings Solver Equilibrium

Specifies error tolerances and other parameters for Static equilibrium and Quasi-static simulations.
A static or quasi-static equilibrium analysis is appropriate only when inertia forces, such as, dAlembert
forces, are not important and the system has one or more Degrees of freedom (degrees of freedom after
Adams/Solver has removed any redundant constraints). Static and quasi-static equilibrium simulations
solve for displacement and static forces, but not for velocity, acceleration, or inertia forces, which are all
assumed to be zero.

P - Z 563
Solver Settings - Equilibrium

To set the Jacobian matrix for dynamic simulations, see Solver Settings - Pattern for Jacobian.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Equilibrium.

Equilibrium Type

Select either:
Static - Performs a static equilibrium operation. Learn more.
Dynamic - Performs a dynamic simulation to find the static equilibrium.
Learn more

If you selected Static, the following options are available:


Error

Specifies the relative correction convergence threshold. The iterative process


carried out during the equilibrium analysis can not converge prior to all relevant
relative corrections being smaller than this value.
The default is 1.0E-04 and the range is Error > 0

Tlimit

Specifies the maximum translational increment allowed per iteration during static
simulations performed using static simulations.
The default is 20 and the range is Tlimit > 0.

Alimit

Specifies the maximum angular increment allowed per iteration. The default is 10
degrees, and the range is Alimit > 0. Enter the value in the current modeling units
(degrees by default).

Maxit

Specifies the maximum number of iterations allowed for finding static


equilibriums.
The default is 25 and the range is Maxit > 0.

Stability

Specifies the fraction of the mass and damping matrices Adams/Solver adds to the
stiffness matrix. Adding a fraction of the mass and damping matrices to the
stiffness matrix can stabilize the iteration process and prevent the iteration from
diverging. Often the stiffness matrix is singular for a system because the system is
neutrally stable (for example, the system moves in certain directions without
affecting the potential energy). Adding a fraction of the mass and damping
matrices to the stiffness matrix removes this singularity and makes it possible to
solve for equilibrium positions. The value of Stability does not affect the accuracy
of the solution, but it does affect the rate of convergence of the iteration process.
The default is 1.0E-05 and the range is Stability > 0.

Imbalance

Specifies the equation imbalance convergence threshold. The iterative process


carried out during the equilibrium analysis can not converge prior to each equation
imbalance being smaller than this value.
The default is 1.0E-04 and the range is Imbalance > 0.

564 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Equilibrium

For the option:


Static Method

Do the following:
Select either:
1. ORIGINAL, for running only the ORIGINAL Solver
2. ADVANCED, runs, in order, the following methods until one shows
progress:
a. ORIGINAL
b. ORIGINAL+Krylov
c. ORIGINAL+UMF
d. Newton+Krylov
e. Tensor-Krylov block-3
f. Tensor-Krylov block-2+
3. AGGRESSIVE, runs, in order, the following methods until one shows
progress:
a. ORIGINAL
b. ORIGINAL+Krylov
c. ORIGINAL+UMF
d. Newton+Krylov
e. Tensor-Krylov block-3
f. Tensor-Krylov block-2+
g. Broyden-Armijo
h. Trust-Region
4. ALL, runs, in order, all the available methods, until one shows progress:
a. ORIGINAL
b. ORIGINAL+Krylov
c. ORIGINAL+UMF
d. Newton+Krylov
e. Tensor-Krylov block-3
f. Tensor-Krylov block-2+
g. Broyden-Armijo
h. Trust-Region
i. Hooke-Jeeves

If you selected Advanced, the following options are available:


Atol

Specify the absolute tolerance value.


The default is 1.0E-06 and the range is

0.0 atol < 1.0

P - Z 565
Solver Settings - Equilibrium

For the option:


Rtol

Do the following:
Specify the relative tolerance value.
For all solvers, except ORIGINAL and ORIGINAL+Krylov, the tolerance is
defined as : TOL=ATOL+||xIC||*RTOL.
For ORIGINAL and ORIGINAL+Krylov solvers the tolerance is equal to ERROR.
The default is 0.0 and the range is

Maxitl

0.0 rtol < 1.0 .

Specifies the maximum number of allowed inner loops in all the solvers, except
ORIGINAL, ORIGINAL+Krylov and ORIGINAL+UMF. For Hooke-Jeeves
method, allowed budget of function evaluations is set to MAXITL*N, where N is
the size of the problem (number of unknowns).
The default is 40 and the range is maxit1 1.0 .

Etamax

Specify the maximum threshold for the error tolerance of the linear Krylov solver
(for Newton+Krylov and Tensor-Krylov methods), that solves the linear systems,
required by Krylov algorithm. Maximum error tolerance for residual in inner
iteration. The inner iteration terminates when the relative linear residual is smaller
than eta*| F(x_c) |. eta is determined by the modified Eisenstat-Walker formula if
etamax > 0. If etamax < 0, then eta = |etamax| for the entire iteration.
The default is 0.9 and the range is 0.0 etamax < 1.0 .

If you selected Aggressive or All, along with the above options (i.e Atol, Rtol, Maxitl and Etamax)
following additional options will also be available:
Eta

Specify the initial residual tolerance for the linear Krylov Solver for
Tensor_Krylov method. The Tensor-Krylov ETA parameter is maintained
adaptively by the Krylov algorithm but ETA is the indicated starting value, while
ETAMAX is the maximum threshold for ETA.
Default: 1.0e-4
Range: 0.0 < ETA < 1.0
Specify the dimensionless radius of the trust-region for Trust-region method. The
smaller the value, the more the refinement of Trust-region solution (hence more
work).
Range: 0.0 < ETA < 0.25

If you selected Dynamic, the following options are available:


Global Damping

Specify the coefficient for global damping applied to all bodies during static
simulations performed using dynamic analyses.
The default is 0 and the range is Global Damping > 0.

566 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Equilibrium

For the option:


Settling Time

Do the following:
Specify the maximum time allowed to reach equilibrium during static simulations
performed using dynamic analyses.
The default is 100 and the range is Settling Time > 0.

Acceleration Error Specify the maximum acceleration error allowed during static simulations
performed using dynamic analyses.
The default is 1.0E-02 and the range is Acceleration Error > 0.
Kinetic Energy
Error

Specify the maximum kinetic energy error allowed in static simulations performed
using dynamic analyses.
The default is 1.0E-02 and the range is Kinetic Energy Error > 0.

Note:

Convergence happens when both of the following occur:


Maximum (Static Equation Residual Values) < Imbalance

AND
Maximum (Relative State Errors) < Error

P - Z 567
Solver Settings - Flexible Bodies

Solver Settings - Flexible Bodies


Settings Solver Flex Bodies ...

Sets the options for flexible body linear limit feature.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Flexible Bodies.

Model

Enter the name of the model associated with the settings.

Limit Check

Select the limit check option to be used


Skin - Adams/Solver C++ will check the deformation of all the nodes on the

skin to see whether they exceed the linear limit. To use this option,
MNF_FILE or DB_FILE need to be specified in FLEX_BODY statement.
Selnod - Adams/Solver C++ will only check the nodes specified in

SELNOD section in MTX file.


None

The linear limit is defined as 10% of the characteristic length of the flexible
body. You can use CHAR_LEN in FLEX_BODY statement to specify the
characteristic length. If CHAR_LEN is not specified, Adams/Solver C++ will
calculate the characteristic length using MNF or MD DB if MNF_FILE or
DB_FILE is specified. Otherwise, Adams/Solver C++ issues a warning.
Limit Action

Select the action to be performed when flexible body exceeds its linear limit.
Halt - Terminates execution of Adams/Solver C++.
Return - Stops the simulation and returns to the command level.
Message Only - Issues a warning message only (Default).

568 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Executable

Solver Settings - Executable


Settings Solver Executable

Sets the type of Adams/Solver to run.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Executable.

Executable

Select:
Internal - Run Adams/Solver from within Adams/View and animate the

results as they are calculated, which is the default


External - Perform a Simulation with Adams/Solver while in

Adams/View, but without seeing the model update on your screen during
the simulation. Adams/View automatically plays an animation of the
simulation when the simulation is complete.
Write Files Only - Instruct Adams/View to write out the files that are

needed to run a simulation using Adams/Solver from outside of


Adams/View. The files include the:
Dataset (.adm) file
Command (.acf) file, which contains the commands necessary to run

the desired simulation.


If you select Internal, you can perform either an Interactive Simulation or a
Scripted simulation. If you select External or Write Files Only, you can only
perform a scripted simulation. Adams/View issues an error if you try to perform
an interactive simulation after choosing either of these options.
If you selected Internal or External, you can set the following options:
Solver Library

Set it to use the standard Adams/Solver executable (leave it blank) or a userdefined or customized Adams/Solver library. A customized Adams/Solver library
is required if you used subroutines to define any objects in your model, such as
motions or forces. For more information, see the following:
Adams/Solver help
Running and Configuring Adams

Note:

On Linux, you can use the Adams Toolbar to set the Adams/Solver
library to run and create different tools on the Adams Toolbar for each
library you have.

P - Z 569
Solver Settings - Executable

For the option:


Choice

Do the following:
Select either:
FORTRAN - Our existing version of Adams/Solver.
C++ - Our new, C++-based version of Adams/Solver, which promises to

be faster, provide new linear analysis capabilities, and have an improved


methodology for identifying and handling redundant constraints.
Currently, it supports several new capabilities that Adams/Solver
(FORTRAN) does not support, though not all modeling elements that the
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) supports are included.
As you create modeling objects in Adams/View, it lets you know whether or not
they are compatible with the C++ version or the FORTRAN. If you use the
Adams/Solver C++, please provide us with feedback through the Adams Feedback
Database at http://simcompanion.mscsoftware.com/KB8019304. Be sure to select
the product Adams/Solver (C++). For more information on the different solvers,
see Release Notes and Adams/Solver (C++) help.
Verify First

Set to yes to verify your model before running a simulation. See Model Verify Tool
dialog box help.

Hold License

Set whether or not the Adams/Solver license is checked back in once the
simulation is complete. By default, Adams/View does not check the license back
in for another user. You must exit Adams/View before other users can use the
Adams/Solver license.
If you set Hold License to Yes, then Adams/View checks out the

necessary licenses when you perform a model verify operation (because


of the degrees of freedom calculation, which uses Adams/Solver) or any
type of simulation using the internal Adams/Solver. It only releases the
licenses when you exit Adams/View or when you run a simulation using
the external Adams/Solver.
If you set Hold License to No, Adams/View releases all Adams/Solver

licenses (static, kinematic, and dynamic), and all module licenses


(Adams/Tire, Adams/Linear, and Adams/SmartDriver) in these cases:
You run a simulation using the external Adams/Solver (as before).
After a model verify operation.
When you reset after a single simulation using the internal

Adams/Solver.
After a parametric analysis (licenses are held throughout the

parametric analysis)
More

Select to display options for setting the remote computer on which to run
Adams/Solver.

570 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Executable

For the option:


Remote Compute

Do the following:
Linux only; not displayed when running on Windows
Enter the name of the remote host where you run Adams/Solver or leave

blank to use local machine. The option you select depends on where the
Adams/Solver is licensed at your site.
Note:

Network access and multi-task package licenses allow you to submit


tasks to Adams/Solver while Adams/View runs on one of many desktop
workstations. To see if you can submit multiple tasks to Adams/Solver,
check the licensing information on the password certificate that is
included in the Installers Kit. If you do not know the type of license you
have, check with the administrator who installed the Adams.

If you set Remote Compute to Yes, the following options are available:
Node Name

Enter the node ID of the remote computer.

MDI Directory

Enter the name of the Adams/Solver installation directory on the remote machine.

Remote Directory Specify a directory that Adams/Solver uses to write out its files and search for
input files. The directory is optional. You need to specify it only if the users file
system is not automounted on the remote machine upon log in.
The following options are available for Adams/Solver (C++) only
Thread Count

Adams/Solver (C++)
Specify the number of parallel threads that Adams/Solver (C++) uses when
performing the simulation. The number of threads, n, must be an integer in the
range of 1 to 8. The default value is 1. By executing multiple threads in parallel
across multiple processors, Adams/Solver (C++) can reduce the walltime required
for a simulation.
Typically, the optimal number of threads is between N and 2N, where N is the
number of processors (including virtual processors in the case of Pentium
processors with HyperThreading enabled).
Learn more about Threaded (Parallel) Operation of Adams/Solver(C++).

P - Z 571
Solver Settings - IC (Initial Conditions)

Solver Settings - IC (Initial Conditions)


Settings Solver IC (Initial Conditions)

Sets error tolerances and other parameters for an Initial conditions simulation. By default, the integrators
ABAM, WSTIFF, and DSTIFF reconcile integrator results to be consistent with constraints; GSTIFF
does not, unless you set Interpolate to Yes in Solver Settings - Dynamic.
The initial conditions simulation ensures that the system satisfies all constraints within the system. If
necessary, Adams/Solver moves parts until both parts of each joint are in contact. The simulation
involves three separate phases:
First, Adams/Solver makes the displacements between all parts and joints in the system

physically consistent. This requires the use of Newton-Raphson iteration to solve a set of
nonlinear algebraic equations. (To learn more about Newton-Raphson solutions, see the DEBUG
statement in the Adams/Solver online help.)
Once the displacements are consistent, Adams/Solver makes the velocities physically consistent.

Because this requires solving a set of linear equations, iteration is not necessary.
Finally, Adams/Solver calculates consistent accelerations and forces. This solution also requires

solving a set of nonlinear equations using Newton-Raphson iteration.


When reconciling, the integrator uses the initial conditions solution process at each Output step to ensure
that velocities, accelerations, and forces are consistent with the system constraints. If you set Interpolate
to Yes, the integrator also uses the initial conditions solution at each output step to ensure displacements
are consistent with the constraints. The IC parameters control those solutions as well as the initial
conditions solution.
Because the initial conditions simulation relies on an iterative procedure, it is possible for it to fail if
model inconsistencies are initially too large. If this ever occurs, you should review your model for errors
in part and constraint inconsistencies. When using the Stabilized Index 2 (SI2) and Stabilized Index 1
(SI1) integrators, it is also important to ensure that initial velocities do not introduce discontinuities at
time equal to zero. The initial conditions settings can be used to adjust the convergence criteria as
appropriate for problematic modeling scenarios. See Equation Formulation Comparison for more
information.
To set the Jacobian matrix for initial condition simulations, see Solver Settings - Pattern for Jacobian.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to IC (Initial Conditions).

Error

Specify the maximum displacement error Adams/Solver is to allow for the


assembly process.
The default is 1.0E-10 and the range is Error > 0.

572 Adams/View
Solver Settings - IC (Initial Conditions)

For the option:


Tlimit

Do the following:
Specify the maximum translational increment Adams/Solver is to allow while
testing trial solutions during a solution step.
The default is 1.0E10 (no limit) and the range is Tlimit > 0.

Alimit

Specify the maximum angular increment Adams/Solver is to allow while testing


trial solutions for a set of consistent initial conditions that satisfy all system
constraints. The default units for Alimit are radians. To specify Alimit in degrees,
add a D after the value.
The default is 30D and the range is Alimit > 0.

More

Click to set more advanced options.

Maxit

Specify the maximum number of iterations Adams/Solver is to allow for finding


displacements during initial conditions, or when reconciling displacement output.
The default is 25 and the range is Maxit > 0.

Amaxit

Specify the maximum number of iterations Adams/Solver is to allow for finding


accelerations during an initial conditions solution or for reconciling acceleration
output.
The default is 25 and the range is Amaxit > 0.

Aerror

Specify the maximum acceleration error Adams/Solver is to allow during an initial


conditions solution or for reconciling acceleration output.
The default is 1.0E-4 and the range is Aerror > 0.

P - Z 573
Solver Settings - Kinematic

Solver Settings - Kinematic


Settings Solver Kinematic

Specifies error tolerances and other parameters for Kinematic simulations.


A kinematic simulation is only appropriate when a system has zero Degrees of freedom. A kinematic
analysis solves for the displacements, velocities, accelerations, and forces (if any) at a series of points in
time. To find the displacements,Adams/Solver uses Newton-Raphson iteration to solve a nonlinear set of
algebraic equations. (To learn more about Newton-Raphson solutions, see the DEBUG statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.)
After finding the displacements, Adams/Solver solves a system of linear equations to find the velocities,
then solves another set of nonlinear equations to find accelerations and forces. Adams/Solver repeats this
procedure at successively later times until it obtains results over the period of time specified in a
SIMULATE command.
To set the Jacobian matrix for dynamic simulations, see Solver Settings - Pattern for Jacobian.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Kinematic.

Model

Enter the name of the model associated with the settings.

Error

Specifies the maximum displacement error Adams/Solver is to allow for each time
step.
The default is 1.0E-4 and the range is Error > 0.

Tlimit

Specifies the maximum translational increment Adams/Solver is to allow per


iteration.
The default is 1.0E10 (no limit) and the range is Tlimit > 0.

Alimit

Specifies the maximum angular increment Adams/Solver is to allow per iteration.


The default units for Alimit are radians. To specify Alimit in degrees, add a D after
the value.
The default is 30D and the range is ALIMIT > 0.

More

Click to set more advanced options.

Maxit

Enter the maximum number of iterations Adams/Solver is to allow for finding the
displacements at a point in time.
The default is 25 and the range is Maxit > 0.

Aerror

Enter the maximum acceleration error Adams/Solver is to allow for each time step.
The default is 1.0E-4 and the range is Aerror > 0.

574 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Kinematic

For the option:


Amaxit

Do the following:
Enter the maximum number of iterations Adams/Solver is to allow for finding
accelerations at a point in time.
The default is 25 and the range is Amaxit > 0.

Hmax

Enter the maximum time step that the kinematics solver is allowed to take.
The default is the output step size.

P - Z 575
Solver Settings - Optimizations

Solver Settings - Optimizations


Settings Solver Optimizer

Allows you to set options for Optimizations.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Optimization.

Algorithm

Specify the algorithm used to perform the optimization. The OPTDES algorithms
are provided with Adams/View. The DOT algorithms can be purchased from
Vanderplaats R&D, Inc. You can also include your own optimization algorithm.
The contact information for Vanderplaats R&D, Inc. is:
Vanderplaats R&D, Inc.
1767 S. 8th Street, Suite. 100
Colorado Springs, CO 80906
http://www.vrand.com/
http://www.vrand.com/dot.htm

More about Algorithms.


Tolerance

Specify the limit below which subsequent differences of the objective must fall
before an optimization is considered successful. If the condition:
ABS(objective[now] - objective[now-1]) < convergence_tolerance is true for a
certain number of iterations (usually two), then the convergence tolerance criterion
is met. Note that this is only one test that is made by most optimization algorithms
before they terminate successfully.
Like other Adams/Solver tolerances, you may need to experiment with this
tolerance to find the right value for your application. Display the objective versus
iteration Strip chart. (See Solver Settings - Display) If the optimizer quits even
though the last iteration made noticeable progress, try reducing the tolerance. If the
optimizer continues iterating even after the objective has stopped changing very
much, make the tolerance larger.

Max. Iterations

Set how many iterations the optimization algorithm should take before it admits
failure. Note that a single iteration can have an arbitrarily large number of analysis
runs.

Rescale

Enter the number of iterations after which the design variable values are rescaled.
If you set the value to -1, scaling is turned off.

576 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Optimizations

For the option:

Do the following:

Differencing

Control how the optimizer computes gradients for the design functions. Centered
differencing perturbs each design variable in the negative direction from the
nominal value, then again in the positive direction using finite differencing
between the perturbed results to compute the gradient. If you choose forward
differencing, each design variable is perturbed in a positive direction only.
Centered differencing can sometimes generate smoother, more reliable gradients
(especially in noisy models), but it causes twice as many analysis runs to be
performed.

More

Click to set more advanced options, listed below.

Increment

The differencing increment specifies the size of increment to use when performing
finite differencing to compute gradients. When using forward differencing, this
value is added to the nominal value of each design variable on successive runs.
When using central differencing, this value is first subtracted from the nominal
value and then added to it.
Smaller increments may give more accurate approximations of the gradient, but are
also more susceptible to random variations from run to run. Larger increments help
minimize the effects of variations, but give less accurate gradients.

Debug

Set to display messages from the optimizer. Turning on debugging output sends
copious optimizer diagnostics to the window that launched Adams/View. Keep an
eye on that window anyway, as some important warnings might be written there.
The debugging output shows you the data the optimizer is receiving from
Adams/View, among other things. If the optimizer is behaving erratically, this may
help you determine the source of the problem.

User

Adams/View passes the user parameters to a user-written optimization algorithm.


Realizing that there may be parameter information that is not conveyed through the
existing parameter set, this parameter was added to allow you to pass any real
numeric data to your algorithm.

Min. Converged

The number of consecutive iterations for which the absolute or relative


convergence criteria must be met to indicate convergence in the DOT Sequential
Linear Programming method.

P - Z 577
Solver Settings - Output

Solver Settings - Output


Settings Solver Output

Sets whether or not Adams/View stores Simulation results in three external files: graphics, request, and
results.
Selecting More lets you set options for the format and content of the results files, and the format and
content of the message and tabular output file when you are using External Adams/Solver. In addition,
you can set up how Adams/View stores the simulation results in the Modeling database.
To learn more, see the DEBUG statement in the Adams/Solver online help.

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Output.

Save Files

Set to Yes to create Adams/Solver analysis files in the directory from which you
ran Adams/View. Adams/View saves the files after each simulation.

Prefix

After setting Save Files to Yes, enter the prefix you want added to the name of each
saved analysis file to help identify it.

Graphics

Set to Yes to save a graphics file.

Request

Set to Yes to save a request file.

Results

Set to Yes to save a results file.

More

Select to display more files to which to save output.

Output Category

Select what you'd like to set about the files. Click the output category to learn more
about its options.
Files
Database Storage
Results (.res) Options
Results (.res) Content
Output (Out) Content
Message (.msg) Content
Durability Files - For more information, see Adams/Durability online help.

578 Adams/View
Solver Settings - Pattern for Jacobian

Solver Settings - Pattern for Jacobian


Settings Solver Pattern for Jacobian

Specifies as many as ten character strings that together establish the pattern for evaluating the Jacobian
matrix during the modified Newton-Raphson solution for a dynamic, kinematic, or Initial conditions
simulation. (To learn more about Newton-Raphson solutions, see the DEBUG statement in the
Adams/Solver online help.)
For each iteration, T or TRUE indicates that Adams/Solver is to evaluate the Jacobian, and F or FALSE
indicates that Adams/Solver is not to evaluate the Jacobian, instead it is to use the previously calculated
Jacobian matrix as an approximation of the current one. Therefore, cj determines whether or not
Adams/Solver is to evaluate the Jacobian at the jth iteration. If necessary, Adams/Solver repeats the
pattern of evaluations until it reaches the maximum number of iterations (set by the option Amaxit or
Maxit).

For the option:

Do the following:

Category

Set to Pattern for Jacobian.

Integrator Pattern

Select a pre-defined pattern:


TFFFTFFFTFFFTF - Sets the pattern to the default for dynamic

simulations.
T - Sets the pattern to all TRUEs, which evaluates the Jacobian at every

iteration.
F - Sets the pattern to all FALSEs. A pattern of all FALSEs implies that

Adams/Solver is to not evaluate the Jacobian until it encounters a


corrector failure. For problems that are almost linear or are linear, this
setting can improve simulation speed substantially.
Advanced - Indicates that you created a custom pattern by selecting

More and setting options as explained below. Select More to see the
custom pattern. Not available until you created a custom pattern.
Tip:

More

Selecting a pattern to request less frequent evaluations of the


Jacobian matrix can decrease the computation time, decreasing the
cost and improving the response time. However, infrequent
evaluations could also be more expensive since the modified
Newton-Raphson algorithm might require more iterations due to the
slower convergence rates.

Select to create your own pattern.

Specify Pattern for Set the type of solution for which you are setting the Jacobian pattern.
Number of Entries Enter the number of TRUE's and FALSE's. The number of Ts or TRUEs and Fs
or FALSEs together must be at least one and no more than 10.
Pattern

Click a box to set the pattern. A check mark indicates TRUE.

P - Z 579
Sorting Settings

Sorting Settings
Tools Table Editor Sorting

Allows you to sort the type of objects and category information after you have set it up in the Filter menu
of the Table Editor.
You can sort the information by object name or by a particular column. You can set the type of sorting.
You can select:
Alphanumeric sorting - Sorts the information so that alphabetic characters are first followed by

numeric characters
Numeric sorting - Sorts objects based on their numeric values. It sorts any alphanumeric

characters as zeros.
Note:

When you sort the Table Editor, Adams/View sets the values displayed in cells back to
those stored in the Modeling database. Therefore, you lose any changes you made to cells
and did not apply to your modeling database.

Learn more about Editing Objects Using the Table Editor.

For the option:


Category on which
objects are sorted

Do the following:
Choose from:
No sorting - Object appear in the Table Editor in the order they are

stored in the modeling database.


Sort By Name - Sorts the objects by their name (by rows).
Sort By Column Labeled - Select and enter the name of the

column on which to sort the objects. To select a column name from


a list, select Select.
Type of Sorting

Choose alphanumeric to sort alphabetic characters first.


Choose numeric to sort in numeric order. It sorts any alphabetic

characters as zero.

580 Adams/View
Sphere Tool

Sphere Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Sphere Tool

Creates a solid ellipsoid whose three radii are of equal length. You draw the sphere by indicating its center
point and the radius for the three radii.
Before you draw the sphere, you can also specify the radius value for the three radii

Learn about Creating a Sphere.

For the option:


New Part/Add to Part/On
Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the sphere to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the sphere to ground.

Tip:

Radius
Note:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you
are simulating a car driving around a race track, the
geometry that defines the race track can be added to
ground.

Select, and then enter the desired radius.


After you draw the sphere, three hotpoints appear on it that let you reshape the radii of the
sphere. For example, you can elongate the sphere into an ellipsoidal shape. For more
information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically
Modify Geometry.

P - Z 581
Spherical Joint Tool

Spherical Joint Tool


Build Joints Spherical Joint Tool

Creates a spherical joint that allows the free rotation about a common point of one part with respect to
another part. The location of the spherical joint determines the point about which the joints parts can
pivot freely with respect to each other.

Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

582 Adams/View
Spherical Joint Tool

Adding Friction to Idealized Joints

For the option:

Do the following:

1 Location (Bodies Implicit)/ Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the

joint and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be
connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint
location. If there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View
connects the joint to that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to

be connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint
remains fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to

be connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part.
You should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For
more on exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool.
For more on the effects of these options, see About Connecting
Constraints to Parts.

Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the joint oriented:

Pick Geometry Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Geometry Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a

direction vector on a feature in your model, such as the face of a


part.
Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
First Body/Second Body
(only appears if you select to
Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
explicitly define the bodies
using the options 2 Bodies - 1 Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
attach the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and
Locations explained above)
the joint follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve
markers with Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to
a spline curve is only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn
about switching solvers.

P - Z 583
Spline Tool

Spline Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Spline Tool

Creates a spline, which is a smooth curve that a set of location coordinates define.
You create splines by defining the locations of the coordinates that define the curve or by selecting an
existing geometric curve or edge and specifying the number of points to be used to define the spline. The
Spline tool produces a smooth curve through the points.
You can also close the spline or leave it open. A closed spline must be composed of at least eight points;
an open spline must be composed of at least four points.

Tip:

You can also create a spline in the following ways:


Creating Trace Spline
Creating and Modifying Data Element Splines

584 Adams/View
Spline Tool

Learn about Creating Splines.

For the option:


New Part/Add to
Part/On Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the spline to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the spline to ground.

Tip:

Closed

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move or


influence the simulation of your model. For example, if you are
simulating a car driving around a race track, the geometry that
defines the race track can be added to ground.

Select if you want to create a closed spline. Note that it must contain eight
points.
Tip:

Create by Picking

You can extrude a closed spline into solid geometry that has
mass. For more information, see the Extrusion Tool.

Select:
Points to select the locations on the screen where you want the spline

to pass through. You must specify at least eight locations for a closed
spline and four locations for an open spline.
Curve to select the curve to define the spline.
Edge to select the edge to define the edge.

If you selected Curve or Edge for Create by Picking, you have one additional option:
Spread Points

Set how many points you want used to define the curve or clear the selection
and let Adams/View calculate the number of points needed.
Note: If you are using this tool from the Main toolbox, the Spread Points text
box is called # of Points.

Note:

Adams/View places hotpoints at locations on the spline as you draw it. The hotpoints let
you reshape the spline. For more information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see
Using Hotpoints to Graphically Modify Geometry.
You can also modify the spline by editing the point locations directly or by changing the
curve and matrix data elements that Adams/View creates to support the spline. In addition,
you can change the number of segments that Adams/View creates through the spline. For
more information on modifying splines, see Using Dialog Boxes to Precisely Modify
Geometry.

P - Z 585
Split Tool

Split Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Split Tool

Splits a complex solid (often referred to as a CSG) that you created using the other Boolean tools back
into its primitive solids. It creates a part for each solid resulting from the split operation.
Learn about Splitting a Solid.

586 Adams/View
Static Equilibrium Tool

Static Equilibrium Tool


Interactive Simulation dialog box Static Equilibrium Tool

Performs a static simulation on your model. Adams/Solver iteratively repositions all the parts in an
attempt to balance all the forces for one particular point in time. Each static simulation is independent of
the time-varying effects of velocity and acceleration. Therefore, no inertial forces are taken into account.
A positioning of your parts for which all your forces balance is known as an equilibrium configuration.
If your force and motion inputs change over time and you want to investigate how your equilibrium
configurations change, you can choose to perform a series of static simulations over an interval of time.
A series of static simulations is often referred to as a quasi-static simulation because time is allowed to
vary between static simulations but time-varying inertial effects are neglected for each individual static
simulation. Quasi-static simulations are useful for approximating the dynamic response of models that
move very slowly and for which you can assume that the effects of inertial force can be neglected.
Since Adams/Solver must be able to move parts around as it attempts to iterate to an equilibrium
configuration, it does not make sense to perform a static simulation on a model that has no Degrees of
freedom (DOF). If the model has no DOF, no parts are allowed to move.
Learn about Performing Static Equilibrium Simulations.

P - Z 587
Stereo Viewing

Stereo Viewing
Settings Stereo Viewing

Sets options for using Adams/View with stereo viewing. Stereo viewing is available on all Linux
platforms but not Windows.
Before running Adams/View in stereo-viewing mode, you need to set the MDI_STEREO environment
variable MDI_STEREO (setenv MDI_STEREO 1). Learn more about setting Adams/View Environment
Variables.
Stereo viewing is only available when running Native OpenGL graphics with the
OpenGL_Software_Assisted registry setting set to disabled. You use the Registry Editor.
To set this registry setting:
1. From the Adams Toolbar, right-click the Toolbar tool

, and then select Registry Editor.

The Registry Editor appears.


2. Select AView Preferences Graphics OpenGL_Software_Assisted.
Using Stereo Viewing on SGI Machines
There are two types of stereo views available on SGI machines:
Above-and-below viewing - The first, and least useful, is above-and-below viewing. This type

of viewing is used with non-stereo- ready hardware and splits the screen into two halfs, a top half
and bottom half. The result is that the screen size in pixels is effectively cut in half in the vertical
direction. For example, on a monitor set for a screen size 1024 x 768 pixels, the screen size
changes to 1024 x 384. This changes the aspect ratio of the screen and of the resulting images
displayed within Adams/View and Adams/PostProcessor. They appear to be one half as tall as
they should be.
Interlaced stereo viewing - The second type of viewing is Interlaced stereo viewing, which is

available on stereo-capable graphics cards. This approach has the advantage that the screen
aspect ratio is not changed and, therefore, the resulting images maintain the same proportions
has their non-stereo counterparts. To enable this mode in the current Adams code, the video
format for the monitor must be set to a format that supports interlaced stereo viewing. To do this,
use the SGI setmon(1) shell command. For example, on a SGI tezro machine with a V12
graphics card, you could use the following command:
/usr/gfx/setmon -n 1280x1024_100s
For the option:

Do the following:

Stereo viewing

Select to enable stereo viewing.

Depth of Field

Slide to control the depth of the perspective matrix.

Eye Separation

Slide to control of offset between the left and right modeling views.

588 Adams/View
Stereo Viewing

For the option:


Parallax

Do the following:
Control the type of parallax view used to display the model:
Positive - Positive parallax viewing produces images that appear to be

within the space of the monitor. For engineering purposes where objects
are often cut off by the window borders or partially obscured by dialog
boxes, positive parallax viewing produces images that are less confusing
to the viewer and are, therefore, easier to view.
Negative - Negative parallax viewing produces images that appear to float

in space in front of the display. Viewing floating images that are partially
obscured by interface items produces confusing cues to the viewer. While
the image appears in front of the screen, the interface items appear to be on
the screen but these interface items can obscure part of the image. These
conflicting inputs can be confusing and lead to extra strain.
Eye Position

Use with Negative parallax viewing and use it to control how far the image floats
in front of the screen.

P - Z 589
Summing Junction Block

Summing Junction Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

Summing junction blocks add or subtract the outputs from other standard blocks. You can select whether
the positive or negative value of an input to a summing junction is used by single-clicking on the +/- sign
button.
A summing junction block takes any valid controls block output as its input.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input 1/
Input 2

Specify the assembly name of any controls block, including input function blocks,
in either text box. You can select whether the positive or negative value of the input
to a summing junction is used by single-clicking on the +/- sign button. Single-click
on the +/- button to select whether the positive or negative value of an input to a
summing junction is used.
Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.


Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

590 Adams/View
Swap a flexible body for an external system

Swap a flexible body for an external system


Build External Systems Flex to External System...

Lets you substitute an existing flexible body in your model for an external system.
To substitute a flexible body for an external system, use the following tabs:

Alignment
Connections

Alignment
For the option:

Do the following:

Flexible Body

Enter the flexible body to be replaced

External System

Select either:
An existing external system in the model
Or Create an external system on the fly

The button can be used to invoke the External System Cremod dialog,
in order to create an external system as a replacement for the rigid body.
Note:

Only external systems with an MNF or an MD DB specified are


supported for the swap operation. If the selected external system
does not have either an MNF or an MD DB specified, then an error
message is seen, indicating that such external systems are not
supported.

External System Positioning


Align External System
CM with CM of
Current Part

Select to align the external system by comparing the center of mass and inertia
tensor of the two bodies. The external system is:
Positioned such that its center of mass (CM) is coincident with the

flexible body CM.


Oriented such that its principal inertia directions are coincident with

the part's principal inertia directions.


If the inertia properties of the two bodies are similar, this method closely
aligns the external system with the flexible body. If the bodies are symmetric
about a plane, this method may rotate the external system 180 from the
flexible body. In this case, you can use the Flip about buttons to rotate the
flexible body 180 back into position.
Launch Precision
Move Panel

Displays the Precision Move dialog box, which lets you move objects either
by increments or to precise coordinates.

P - Z 591
Swap a flexible body for an external system

For the option:

Do the following:

3 Point Method

Select to specify three point pairs to define the location and orientation of the
external system. A point pair consists of a point on the original flexible body
and a point on replacement external system. The three points on each body
must uniquely define a plane. The first point pair defines the location of the
flexible body and the second and third points define the orientation. The
external system is positioned by making the first point pair coincident. It is
then oriented by making points 2 and 3 on the External System reside in the
plane defined by points 2 and 3 on the flexible body.

Flip about

Only available if you used Align External System CM with CM of Current


Part.
Select either of the following to rotate the flexible about the corresponding
axis:
X axis - Rotate external system 180 about its largest principal inertia

direction.
Y axis - Rotate external system 180 about its second largest principal

inertia direction.
Z axis - Rotate external system 180 about its smallest principal

inertia direction.
View parts only

Select to display only the flexible body and its replacement external system.

View topology

Select to display a flexible representation of the body and its connections to


other parts. Learn more about Graphically Viewing Model Topology.

Copy original part

Leave a copy of the flexible body in the modeling database. This is helpful if
you want to reactivate the flexible body.

Connections
For the
option:

Do the following:

Update Table Select to update the Marker and Node table with the changes you have made.
Reset Table

Select to reset the Marker and Node table to the original connections found.

Node Finder

Select to display the Node Finder Dialog Box and search for nodes.

Node
ID/Apply

Enter a node ID, and then select Apply to replace the node in a selected row of the
Marker and Node table with the node ID you entered.

Move to
node

Select to move the marker in the selected row of the Marker and Node table to the
location of the specified node.

Preserve
expression

Select to maintain the parameterization of the marker in the selected row of the Marker
and Node table. The parameterization would be specified through Adams/View
expressions. This will keep the marker at its parameterized position.

592 Adams/View
Swap a flexible body for an external system

For the
option:
Preserve
location

Do the following:
Select to maintain the location of the marker in the selected row of the Marker and Node
table. If a marker is not coincident with the attachment node, Adams/Flex preserves the
offset. This is helpful if you have defined a joint location on the marker. It keeps the
joint from breaking.
Note:

Number of
digits

Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not support markers offset from their


attachment nodes. Therefore, Adams/Flex (FORTRAN) automatically
introduces a massless link between the marker and the flexible body. Learn
more.

Enter the number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal point in the Marker and
Node table.

P - Z 593
Swap a flexible body for an external system

For the
option:
Sort by

Do the following:
Select how to sort the Marker and Node table based on the headings of the columns. For
example, you can sort the table by the marker that is the most distant from its selected
node.
Marker - Sort alphabetically by marker name
Connections - Sort by markers with connections
Node ID - Sort by the ID of the node
Interface - Sort by interface nodes
Distance - Sort by markers that are most distant from the selected node
Move - Sort by the values in the Move column

594 Adams/View
Swap a flexible body for an external system

For the
option:
Marker and
Node Table

Do the following:
Displays the markers on the existing body and the node to which the marker will be
transferred on the replacement external system. See the Picture of Marker and Node
Table. Note that if a marker is attached to more than one node, the marker is listed in
the table for each node to which it is attached. You need to change the marker
individually for each of the nodes.
Marker - All the markers on the flexible body that will be transferred to the

external system.
Connections - All the forces and joints on the flexible body that use the marker

for their definitions. These joints and forces will be transferred to the external
system.
Old Node - The nodes the marker is attached to on the replacement external

system.
Interface - The existing or replacement node may or may not be an interface

node. An asterisk appears if the node is an interface node.


Old Relative Location - The x, y, and z coordinates of the old node relative to

the marker's current position, resolved in the marker's coordinate system.


Old Distance - The magnitude of the old relative location vector.
New Node - The attachment node chosen for the marker when it is transferred

to the external system. When Adams/Flex initially creates the table, it chooses
the closest node. You can change the chosen node using the Node ID text box.
New Distance - The magnitude of the relative location vector.
New Relative Location - The x,y,z coordinates of the chosen attachment node

relative to the marker's current position, resolved in the marker's coordinate


system. A perfect match is 0.
Move column - Indicates how Adams/Flex will position the marker. The three

options are:
move - When Adams/Flex transfers the marker to the external system, it

will move it to the chosen attachment node. How far the marker will be
moved is given in the Distance column.
loc - The current location of the marker will be preserved. If the marker's

position was defined by an Adams/View expression, the parameterization


will be lost.
expr - If the marker's position is defined by an Adams/View expression,

the parameterization will be preserved. Otherwise, the marker's current


position will be preserved. This is helpful if you have defined a joint
location using the marker. It keeps the joint from breaking.
Use the Move to node, Preserve location, and Preserve expression buttons to set the
Move column value.

P - Z 595
Swap a flexible body for another flexible body

Swap a flexible body for another flexible body


Build Flexible Bodies Flex to Flex
(Template-based products, Standard Interface: Adjust Flexible Body Modify)

Lets you substitute an existing flexible body in your model for another flexible body. The name of the
replacement flexible body is the name of the existing body with _flex appended to it.
Learn more about Replacing Existing Bodies with Flexible Bodies.
To substitute a flexible body for a flexible body, you use the following tabs:
Alignment
Connections

Alignment
For the option:
Flexible Body
MNF File/
MD DB file

Do the following:
Enter the flexible body to be replaced.
Select the Modal Neutral File (MNF) containing the replacement

flexible body.
MD DB File, and then select the name of the MD DB to import. The

index parameter applies only to MD DBs.


Index

The parameter applies only, when the user is creating a flexible body out of
the MD DB. The parameter specifies the index of the flexible body in the
specified MD DB. The parameter is optional. If not specified, it is assumed
to have the value 1.
Note:

Flex body positioning

The user can wish to view all the flexible bodies in the MD DB,
using the button provided beside the index. The desired
flexible body can be selected by double-clicking on the displayed
list.

596 Adams/View
Swap a flexible body for another flexible body

For the option:


Align Flex Body CM
with CM of Current
Part

Do the following:
Select to align the flexible body by comparing the center of mass and inertia
tensor of the two bodies. The flexible body is:
Positioned such that its center of mass (CM) is coincident with the

rigid body CM.


Oriented such that its principal inertia directions are coincident with

the part's principal inertia directions.


If the inertia properties of the two bodies are similar, this method closely
aligns the flexible body with the rigid body. If the bodies are symmetric about
a plane, this method may rotate the flexible body 180 from the rigid body.
In this case, you can use the Flip about buttons to rotate the flexible body 180
back into position.
Launch Precision
Move Panel

Displays the Precision Move dialog box, which lets you move objects either
by increments or to precise coordinates.

3 Point Method

Select to specify three point pairs to define the location and orientation of the
flexible body. A point pair consists of a point on the original flexible body
and a point on replacement flexible body. The three points on each body must
uniquely define a plane. The first point pair defines the location of the
flexible body and the second and third points define the orientation. The
flexible body is positioned by making the first point pair coincident. It is then
oriented by making points 2 and 3 on the flexible body reside in the plane
defined by points 2 and 3 on the original flexible body.

Flip about

Only available if you used Align Flex Body CM with CM of Current Part.
Select either of the following to rotate the flexible about the corresponding
axis:
X axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its largest principal inertia

direction
Y axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its second largest principal

inertia direction
Z axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its smallest principal inertia

direction
View parts only

Select to display only the original flexible body and its replacement.

View topology

Select to display a flexible representation of the body and its connections to


other parts. Learn more about Graphically Viewing Model Topology.

Copy original part

Leave a copy of the original flexible body in the modeling database. This is
helpful if you want to reactivate the original flexible body.

P - Z 597
Swap a flexible body for another flexible body

Connections
For the
option:

Do the following:

Update Table

Select to update the Marker and Node table with the changes you've made.

Reset Table

Select to reset the Marker and Node table to the original connections found.

Node Finder

Select to display the Node Finder Dialog Box and search for nodes.

Node
ID/Apply

Marker and Node table with the node ID you entered.

Enter a node ID, and then select Apply to replace the node in a selected row of the

Move to node

Select to move the marker in the selected row of the Marker and Node table to the
location of the specified node.

Preserve
expression

Select to maintain the parameterization of the marker in the selected row of the Marker
and Node table. The parameterization would be specified through Adams/View
expressions. This will keep the marker at its parameterized position.

Preserve
location

Select to maintain the location of the marker in the selected row of the Marker and
Node table. If a marker is not coincident with the attachment node, Adams/Flex
preserves the offset. This is helpful if you have defined a joint location on the marker.
It keeps the joint from breaking.
Note:

Number of
digits

Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not support markers offset from their


attachment nodes. Therefore, Adams/Flex (FORTRAN) automatically
introduces a massless link between the marker and the flexible body. Learn
more.

Enter the number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal point in the Marker and
Node table.

598 Adams/View
Swap a flexible body for another flexible body

For the
option:
Sort by

Do the following:
Select how to sort the Marker and Node table based on the headings of the columns.
For example, you can sort the table by the marker that is the most distant from its
selected node.
Marker - Sort alphabetically by marker name.
Connections - Sort by those markers with connections.
Node ID - Sort by the ID of the node.
Interface - Sort by those nodes that are interface nodes.
Distance - Sort by those markers the most distant from the selected node.
Move - Sort by the values in the Move column.

P - Z 599
Swap a flexible body for another flexible body

For the
option:
Marker and
Node Table

Do the following:
Displays the markers on the existing body and the node to which the marker will be
transferred on the replacement flexible body. See a Picture of Marker and Node Table.
Note that if a marker is attached to more than one node, the marker is listed in the table
for each node to which it is attached. You need to change the marker individually for
each of the nodes.
Marker - All the markers on the rigid body that will be transferred to the

flexible body.
Connections - All the forces and joints on the rigid body that use the marker

for their definitions. These joints and forces will be transferred to the flexible
body.
Old Node - The nodes the marker is attached to on the replacement flexible

body.
Interface - Whether or not the existing or replacement node is an interface

node. An asterisk appears if the node is an interface node.


Old Relative Location - The x, y, and z coordinates of the old node relative to

the marker's current position, resolved in the marker's coordinate system.


Old Distance - The magnitude of the old relative location vector.
New Node - The attachment node chosen for the marker when it is transferred

to the flexible body. When Adams/Flex initially creates the table, it chooses
the closest node. You can change the chosen node using the Node ID text box.
New Distance - The magnitude of the relative location vector.
New Relative Location - The x,y,z coordinates of the chosen attachment

node relative to the marker's current position, resolved in the marker's


coordinate system. A perfect match is 0.
Move column - Indicates how Adams/Flex will position the marker. The three

options are:
move - When Adams/Flex transfers the marker to the flexible body, it

will move it to the chosen attachment node. How far the marker will be
moved is given in the Distance column.
loc - The current location of the marker will be preserved. If the marker's

position was defined by an Adams/View expression, the parameterization


will be lost.
expr - If the marker's position is defined by an Adams/View expression,

the parameterization will be preserved. Otherwise, the marker's current


position will be preserved. This is helpful if you have defined a joint
location using the marker. It keeps the joint from breaking.
You use the Move to node, Preserve location, and Preserve expression buttons to set
the Move column value.

600 Adams/View
Swap a rigid body for an external system

Swap a rigid body for an external system


Build External Systems Rigid to External System...

Lets you substitute a rigid body for an external system.


To substitute a rigid body for an external system, use the following tabs:
Alignment
Connections

Alignment
For the option:

Do the following:

Current Part

Enter the rigid body to be replaced

External System

Select either:
An existing external system in the model
Or Create an external system on the fly

The button can be used to invoke the External System Cremod


dialog, in order to create an external system as a replacement for the rigid
body.
Note:

Only external systems with an MNF or an MD DB specified are


supported for the swap operation. If the selected external system
does not have either an MNF or an MD DB specified, then an
error message will be shown, indicating that such external
systems are not supported.

External System Positioning


Align External System
CM with CM of Current
Part

Select to align the external system by comparing the center of mass and
inertia tensor of the two bodies. The external system is:
Positioned such that its center of mass (CM) is coincident with the

flexible body CM.


Oriented such that its principal inertia directions are coincident

with the part's principal inertia directions.


If the inertia properties of the two bodies are similar, this method closely
aligns the external system with the rigid body. If the bodies are symmetric
about a plane, this method may rotate the external system 180 from the
rigid body. In this case, you can use the Flip about buttons to rotate the rigid
body 180 back into position.
Launch Precision Move
Panel

Displays the Precision Move dialog box, which lets you move objects
either by increments or to precise coordinates.

P - Z 601
Swap a rigid body for an external system

For the option:

Do the following:

3 Point Method

Select to specify three point pairs to define the location and orientation of
the external system. A point pair consists of a point on the original rigid
body and a point on replacement external system. The three points on each
body must uniquely define a plane. The first point pair defines the location
of the rigid body and the second and third points define the orientation. The
external system is positioned by making the first point pair coincident. It
is then oriented by making points 2 and 3 on the External System reside in
the plane defined by points 2 and 3 on the rigid body.

Flip about

Only available if you used Align External System CM with CM of Current


Part.
Select either of the following to rotate the flexible about the corresponding
axis:
X axis - Rotate external system 180 about its largest principal

inertia direction.
Y axis - Rotate external system 180 about its second largest

principal inertia direction


Z axis - Rotate external system 180 about its smallest principal

inertia direction.
View parts only

Select to display only the rigid body and its replacement external system.

View topology

Select to display a representation of the rigid body and its connections to


other parts. Learn more about Graphically Viewing Model Topology.

Copy original part

Leave a copy of the rigid body in the modeling database. This is helpful if
you want to reactivate the rigid body.

Connections
For the option:

Do the following:

Update table

Select to update the Marker and Node table with the changes you have made.

Reset table

Select to reset the Marker and Node table to the original connections found.

Node Finder

Select to display the Node Finder Dialog Box and search for nodes.

Node ID/Apply

Enter a node ID, and then select Apply to replace the node in a selected row of
the Marker and Node table with the node ID you entered.

Move to node

Select to move the marker in the selected row of the Marker and Node table to
the location of the specified node.

602 Adams/View
Swap a rigid body for an external system

For the option:

Do the following:

Preserve expression Select to maintain the parameterization of the marker in the selected row of the
Marker and Node table. The parameterization would be specified through
Adams/View expressions. This will keep the marker at its parameterized
position.
Preserve location

Select to maintain the location of the marker in the selected row of the Marker
and Node table. If a marker is not coincident with the attachment node,
Adams/Flex preserves the offset. This is helpful if you have defined a joint
location on the marker. It keeps the joint from breaking.

Number of digits

Enter the number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal point in the
Marker and Node table.

P - Z 603
Swap a rigid body for an external system

For the option:


Sort By

Do the following:
Select how to sort the Marker and Node table based on the headings of the
columns. For example, you can sort the table by the marker that is the most
distant from its selected node.
Marker - Sort alphabetically by marker name
Connections - Sort by markers with connections
Node ID - Sort by the ID of the node
Interface - Sort by interface nodes
Distance - Sort by markers most distant from the selected node
Move - Sort by the values in the Move column

604 Adams/View
Swap a rigid body for an external system

For the option:


Marker and Node
Table

Do the following:
Displays the markers on the external system and the node to which the marker
will be transferred on the replacement external system.
Marker - All the markers on the rigid body that will be transferred to the

external system.
Connections - All the forces and joints on the rigid body that use the

marker for their definitions. These joints and forces will be transferred to
the external system.
Node ID - The attachment node chosen for the marker when it is

transferred to the external system. When Adams/Flex initially creates the


table, it chooses the closest node. You can change the chosen node using
the Node ID text box.
Interface - An asterisk (*) in this column indicates that the chosen

attachment node is an interface node.


Relative Location - The x,y,z coordinates of the chosen attachment

node relative to the marker's current position, resolved in the marker's


coordinate system. A perfect match is 0.
Distance - The magnitude of the relative location vector.
Move column - Indicates how Adams/Flex will position the marker. The

three options are:


move - When Adams/Flex transfers the marker to the external system,

it will move it to the chosen attachment node. How far the marker will
be moved is given in the Distance column.
loc - The current location of the marker will be preserved. If the

marker's position was defined by an Adams/View expression, the


parameterization will be lost.
expr - If the marker's position is defined by an Adams/View

expression, the parameterization will be preserved. Otherwise, the


marker's current position will be preserved. This is helpful if you have
defined a joint location using the marker. It keeps the joint from
breaking.
Use the Move to node, Preserve location, and Preserve expression buttons to
set the Move column value.

P - Z 605
Swap a rigid body for another flexible body

Swap a rigid body for another flexible body


Build Flexible Bodies Rigid to Flex
(Template-based products, Standard Interface: Adjust General Part Rigid to Flex)

Lets you substitute a rigid body for an Adams/Flex flexible body. The name of the replacement flexible
body is the name of the existing body with _flex appended to it.
Learn more about Replacing Existing Bodies with Flexible Bodies.
To substitute a rigid body for a flexible body, you use the following tabs:
Alignment
Connections

Alignment
For the option:
Current Part

Do the following:
Enter the rigid body to be replaced.
For template-based products: Enter the general part to be replaced. If the
general part has a symmetric brother (counterpart), both the left/right
general parts will be set to asymmetric, and only the general part specified
will be made flexible.

Flex Body/
MNF File/
MD DB File

Select either:
Flex Body, and then select a flexible body that already exists.
MNF File, and then select the name of the MNF to import.
MD DB File, and then select the name of the MD DB to import.

The index parameter applies only to MD DBs. The appropriate


index of the body in the specified DB file, is input here. If not
specified, it is assumed that the value is 1.
Index

The parameter applies only, when the user is creating a flexible body out
of the MD DB. The parameter specifies the index of the flexible body in
the specified MD DB. The parameter is optional. If not specified, it is
assumed to have the value 1.
Note:

The user can wish to view all the flexible bodies in the MD DB,
using the button provided beside the index. The desired
flexible body can be selected by double-clicking on the
displayed list.

606 Adams/View
Swap a rigid body for another flexible body

For the option:


Load

Do the following:
The load button needs to be/can be used only when the user specifies a MD
DB option, to create the replacement flexible body from. Pressing the load
button, after specifying a valid MD DB file (and index if specified), loads
the appropriate flexible body from the MD DB.
For the flex-body and MNF option, the load button stays disabled and
cannot be used.

Flex Body Positioning


Align Flex Body CM with Select to align the flexible body by comparing the center of mass and
CM of Current Part
inertia tensor of the two bodies. The flexible body is:
Positioned such that its center of mass (CM) is coincident with the

rigid body CM.


Oriented such that its principal inertia directions are coincident

with the part's principal inertia directions.


If the inertia properties of the two bodies are similar, this method closely
aligns the flexible body with the rigid body. If the bodies are symmetric
about a plane, this method may rotate the flexible body 180 from the rigid
body. In this case, you can use the Flip about buttons to rotate the flexible
body 180 back into position.
Launch Precision Move
Panel

Displays the Precision Move dialog box, which lets you move objects
either by increments or to precise coordinates.

3 Point Method

Select to specify three point pairs to define the location and orientation of
the flexible body. A point pair consists of a point on the rigid body and a
point on the flexible body. The three points on each body must uniquely
define a plane. The first point pair defines the location of the flexible body
and the second and third points define the orientation. The flexible body is
positioned by making the first point pair coincident. It is then oriented by
making points 2 and 3 on the flexible body reside in the plane defined by
points 2 and 3 on the rigid body.

Flip about

Only available if you used Align Flex Body CM with CM of Current Part.
Select either of the following to rotate the flexible about the corresponding
axis:
X axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its largest principal

inertia direction
Y axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its second largest

principal inertia direction


Z axis - Rotate flexible body 180 about its smallest principal

inertia direction

P - Z 607
Swap a rigid body for another flexible body

For the option:

Do the following:

View Parts Only

Select to display only the rigid body and the replacement flexible body.

View Topology

Select to display a representation of the rigid body and its connections to


other parts. Learn more about Graphically Viewing Model Topology.

Copy original part

Leave a copy of the original rigid body in the modeling database. This is
helpful if you want to reactivate the rigid body.
For template-based products: The original part is always copied.

Connections
For the option:

Do the following:

Update table

Select to update the Marker and Node table with the changes you've made.

Reset table

Select to reset the Marker and Node table to the original connections found.

Node Finder

Select to display the Node Finder Dialog Box and search for nodes.

Node ID/Apply

Enter a node ID, and then select Apply to replace the node in a selected row
of the Marker and Node table with the node ID you entered.

Move to node

Select to move the marker in the selected row of the Marker and Node table
to the location of the specified node.

Preserve expression

Select to maintain the parameterization of the marker in the selected row


of the Marker and Node table. The parameterization would be specified
through Adams/View expressions. This will keep the marker at its
parameterized position.

Preserve location

Select to maintain the location of the marker in the selected row of the
Marker and Node table. If a marker is not coincident with the attachment
node, Adams/Flex preserves the offset. This is helpful if you have defined
a joint location on the marker. It keeps the joint from breaking.
Note:

Number of digits

Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not support markers offset


from their attachment nodes. Therefore, Adams/Flex
(FORTRAN) automatically introduces a massless link between
the marker and the flexible body. Learn more.

Enter the number of digits displayed to the right of the decimal point in the
Marker and Node table.

608 Adams/View
Swap a rigid body for another flexible body

For the option:


Sort By

Do the following:
Select how to sort the Marker and Node table based on the headings of the
columns. For example, you can sort the table by the marker that is the most
distant from its selected node.
Marker - Sort alphabetically by marker name.
Connections - Sort by those markers with connections.
Node ID - Sort by the ID of the node.
Interface - Sort by those nodes that are interface nodes.
Distance - Sort by those markers the most distant from the

selected node.
Move - Sort by the values in the Move column.

P - Z 609
Swap a rigid body for another flexible body

For the option:


Marker and Node Table

Do the following:
Displays the markers on the existing body and the node to which the
marker will be transferred on the replacement flexible body.
Marker - All the markers on the rigid body that will be transferred

to the flexible body.


Connections - All the forces and joints on the rigid body that use

the marker for their definitions. These joints and forces will be
transferred to the flexible body.
Node ID - The attachment node chosen for the marker when it is

transferred to the flexible body. When Adams/Flex initially creates


the table, it chooses the closest node. You can change the chosen
node using the Node ID text box.
Interface - An asterisk (*) in this column indicates that the chosen

attachment node is an interface node.


Relative Location - The x,y,z coordinates of the chosen

attachment node relative to the marker's current position, resolved


in the marker's coordinate system. A perfect match is 0.
Distance - The magnitude of the relative location vector.
Move column - Indicates how Adams/Flex will position the

marker. The three options are:


move - When Adams/Flex transfers the marker to the flexible

body, it will move it to the chosen attachment node. How far the
marker will be moved is given in the Distance column.
loc - The current location of the marker will be preserved. If the

marker's position was defined by an Adams/View expression,


the parameterization will be lost.
expr - If the marker's position is defined by an Adams/View

expression, the parameterization will be preserved. Otherwise,


the marker's current position will be preserved. This is helpful
if you have defined a joint location using the marker. It keeps
the joint from breaking.
You use the Move to node, Preserve location, and Preserve
expression buttons to set the Move column value.

610 Adams/View
Switch Block

Switch Block
Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

The switch is a convenient means to zero the signal into any block. Connect the switch at a point in the
feedback loop to quickly see the change from open loop control to closed loop control. The switch takes
any control block as its input.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Close Switch

Set the loop to be closed.


Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

P - Z 611
Table Editor

Table Editor
Tools Table Editor

Allows you to enter values for all types of objects. It displays the objects in your Modeling database in
table format so you can compare, update, and manage the objects. The object information you can view
and update depends on the type of object. You can create and delete object.
To set the type of objects displayed:
Select a check box of the desired object type from along the bottom of the Table Editor.

Adams/View updates the Table Editor to display the selected type of object.
Learn about Editing Objects Using the Table Editor.

For the option:

Do the following:
Select to insert the text in the input cell into the selected cell.

(Insert tool)

Select to insert text from the input cell into the selected cells.

(Object Name & Field tool) Select to insert the database name for the next selected cell into the
input box. Learn about entering database names into cells.

(Cell Variable tool)

Select to insert the self-reference operator into the input cell. Learn
about entering modifying cells based on their current contents.

Input cell

Enter text to add to more than one cell at a time and quickly update the
values in the cell. Learn more about Working with Cells in the Table
Editor.

Apply

Click to execute the object table's commands.

OK

Click to execute the object table's commands and close the Table
Editor.

Create

Select to create a new object for the current table type.

Filters

Displays the Table Editor Filters dialog box.

Sorting

Displays the Sorting Settings dialog box.

Write

Select to write out the contents of this object table.

Reload

Select to reload the values in the database into the Table Editor.

612 Adams/View
Table Editor Filters

Table Editor Filters


Tools Table Editor Filters

Narrows the display of objects in Table Editor based on an objects name or parent, such as to display
only markers that belong to PART_1, which is called setting the scope. You can also narrow the display
based on the names of objects. For example, you can set the name filter to only display the names of
objects that contain the number 2 (MARKER_20, MARKER_21, and so on). Using the scope and name
filter together, you can focus on those objects of interest and filter out the rest.
The categories of information that you can display about an object depend on the type of object. For
example, for parts, you can display their location, initial conditions, and attributes, such as whether they
are visible or active in the current Simulation. For markers, you can view their locations, as well as their
locations relative to ground. For forces, you cannot change the information displayed, only the types of
forces displayed. For joints, you can change the information displayed as well as the type of joints
displayed.
Learn more about Editing Objects Using the Table Editor.

For the option:


Scope

Do the following:
You can limit the scope of the search, if you want, to all objects beneath a
particular object in the database hierarchy by entering the name of the object.
For example, enter .model_1 to display all objects under your entire model or
enter .model_1.PART_3 to display objects belonging only to PART_3.
Note:

Name Filter

You cannot enter wildcards.

Enter the name of the object or objects that you want to display. Type any
wildcards that you want included. By default, Adams/View displays all objects
that meet the scope entered in the previous step regardless of their name.

Select the categories of information or set the type of object that you want displayed and then select
OK.

P - Z 613
Three-Component Force tool

Three-Component Force tool


Build Forces Three-Component Tool

Creates a translational force between two parts in your model using three orthogonal components.
Learn more about:
Multi-Component Forces

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:

Pick Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a


part.
Characteristic

Specify the characteristics of the force:


Constant force - Lets you enter a constant force value or let

Adams/View use a default value.


Bushing Like- Lets you enter stiffness and damping coefficients and

lets Adams/View create a function expression for damping and stiffness


based on the coefficient values.
Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in

effect, creates a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force,
you modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a
User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Constant Force, the following option appears:
Force Value

Enter a constant force value.

If you selected Bushing Like, the following two options appear:

614 Adams/View
Three-Component Force tool

For the option:

Do the following:

Translational K

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter the damping coefficients.

P - Z 615
Three-Component Torque tool

Three-Component Torque tool


Build Forces Three-Component Torque Tool

Creates a rotational force between two parts in your model using three orthogonal components.
Learn more about:
Multi-Component Forces

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:

Pick Feature

Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force normal to the current
Working grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as along an edge or normal to the face of a


part.
Characteristic

Specify the characteristics of the force:


Constant - Lets you enter a constant force value or let Adams/View use

a default value.
Bushing Like- Lets you enter stiffness and damping coefficients and

lets Adams/View create a function expression for damping and stiffness


based on the coefficient values.
Custom - Adams/View does not set any values for you, which, in

effect, creates a force with zero magnitude. After you create the force,
you modify it by entering a function expressions or parameters to a
User-written subroutine that is linked to Adams/View. You can also
specify an alternative library and name for the user subroutine. Learn
about specifying routines with ROUTINE Argument.
If you selected Constant , the following option appears:
Torque

Enter a constant torque value.

If you selected Bushing Like, the following two options appear:

616 Adams/View
Three-Component Torque tool

For the option:

Do the following:

KT

Enter the stiffness coefficients.

CT

Enter the damping coefficients.

P - Z 617
Tool Settings

Tool Settings
View Toolbox and Toolbars

Turns on and off the Model Browser, Ribbon Capability and Standard toolbar. You can also set where the
model browser and status toolbars appear. By default, the model browser appears at the left of the main
window and the status bar appears at the bottom of the window.

For the option:

Do the following:

Model Browser

Select to display the Modal Browser.

Ribbon

Select to display the Ribbon Capability.

Status toolbar

Select to display the Status toolbar.

618 Adams/View
Tool Settings (Classic)

Tool Settings (Classic)


View Toolbox and Toolbars

Turns on and off the Main toolbox and the Standard toolbar and Status bars. You can also set where the
Standard and status toolbars appeareither at the top of thes main window under the menu bar or at the
bottom of the window. By default, the Main toolbox appears at the left of the main window, the Standard
toolbar is turned off, and the status bar appears at the bottom of the window.

For the option:

Do the following:

Main toolbox

Select to display the Main toolbox.

Standard toolbar

Select to display the Standard toolbar.

Status toolbar

Select to display the Status toolbar.

P - Z 619
Toolbar Settings

Toolbar Settings
View Toolbars Settings

Allows you to turn the display of toolbars on and off. The toolbars are:
Main toolbar - The Main toolbar appears by default. It contains tools for setting options and

performing operations. The contents of the toolbar change depending on the


Adams/PostProcessor mode. Learn About the Main Toolbar.
Curve Edit toolbar - Lets you manipulate curve data. Learn about using the Curve Edit toolbar.
Statistics toolbar - Lets you view statistics about curves, such as the minimum and maximum
values. Learn about viewing statistics.
Status bar - Displays information messages and prompts while you work. The right side of the

status bar displays the number of the displayed page and the total number of pages.
You can also set where the toolbars appeareither at the top of the window under the menu bar or at the
bottom of the window. You can also turn on and off the dashboard and treeview. By default, the dashboard
and treeview are displayed, the Main toolbar appears at the top of the window, the Curve Edit and
Statistics toolbars are turned off, and the status bar appears at the bottom of the window.

For the option:

Do the following:

Main Toolbar, Curve Edit


Toolbar, Statistics Toolbar, and
Status Toolbar

Select which toolbars you want visible. The changes take place
immediately.

Top

Select if you want the toolbar placed at the top of your screen.

Treeview

Select if you want to display the treeview.

Dashboard

Select if you want to display the dashboard.

620 Adams/View
Topology By Connections

Topology By Connections
Database Navigator Topology By Connections

Allows you to display information about a selected constraint or force with the parts that they connect
and act on.
Learn about Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator.

The option:
Save to File

Does the following:


Select if you want to save the topology to a file.

P - Z 621
Topology By Parts

Topology By Parts
Database Navigator Topology By Parts

Allows you to display information about a selected part of your model. It displays information of the
selected part and shows its connections to other parts.
Learn about Viewing Model Topology Through the Database Navigator.

The option:
Save to File

Does the following:


Select if you want to save the topology to a file.

622 Adams/View
Torsion SpringTool

Torsion SpringTool
Build Forces Torsion SpringTool

Creates a Torsion spring.


Learn about:
Torsion Springs

For the option:


Construction

Do the following:
Set the method you want to use to define the bodies and force-application
points. You can select the following:
1 Location
2 Bodies - 1 Location
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Learn about Applying Multi-Component Forces to Parts.


Normal to Grid/
Pick Feature

Set how you want the force oriented. You can select:
Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the force using the x-, y-, and z-axes
of the current Working grid, if it is displayed, or using the x-, y-, and z-

axes of the screen.


Pick Feature - Lets you orient the force along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part. The direction vector
you select defines the z-axis for the force; Adams/View automatically
calculates the x- and y-axes.
KT

Enter the torsional stiffness coefficients.

CT

Enter the torsional damping coefficients.

P - Z 623
Torus Tool

Torus Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Torus Tool

Creates a solid circular ring. You draw the ring from the center outward. By default, the Torus tool makes
the radius of outer ring (minor radius) 25% of the inner ring (major radius).

You can also specify the minor and major radii before you draw.
Learn about Creating a Torus.

For the option:


New Part/Add to Part/On
Ground

Do the following:
Select either:
New Part - Creates a new part.
Add to Part - Adds the torus to another part in your model.
On Ground - Adds the torus to ground.

Tip:

Add geometry to ground if the geometry does not move


or influence the simulation of your model. For example,
if you are simulating a car driving around a race track, the
geometry that defines the race track can be added to
ground.

Minor Radius

If desired, select and enter the inner radius for the torus.

Major Radius

If desired, select and enter the outer radius for the torus.

624 Adams/View
Torus Tool

Note:

Two hotpoints appear on a torus after you draw it. One controls the centerline of the torus
circular shape and the other controls the radius of the circular cross-section. For more
information on modifying geometry using hotpoints, see Using Hotpoints to Graphically
Modify Geometry.

P - Z 625
Translate Nastran Output to Modal Neutral File

Translate Nastran Output to Modal Neutral File


Build Flexible Bodies Adams/Flex FEM Translate

Translates either:
MSC.Nastran output data into a Modal Neutral File (MNF) using the MSC.Nastran-Adams
Interface. You generate the output data by running MSC.Nastran first and then running the

Adams/Flex DMAP alter.


Universal file into an MNF that you can use to create a flexible body with a constant coupling
inertia invariant formulation. Learn more.

To set the type of translation:


Set the option menu in the upper left corner to either:
MSC.Nastran
Test Modal

MSC.Nastran
For the option:

Do the following:

OUTPUT2 File Name Enter the name of the output (.out) file that you generated by running
MSC.Nastran with the AdamsMNF Case Control command or a special
DMAP alter. Learn about generating output. The MCS.Nastran translator
generates the MNF file based on the .out file name.
Invariants

Set which inertia invariants should be computed and stored in the MNF. You
can select:
Fast Set - If you select Fast Set, Adams/Flex does not compute

invariants five and nine. It corresponds to the Partial Coupling


formulation mode for modal flexibility. It is also suitable for use with
the Constant Coupling formulation. Only Full Coupling requires all
nine invariants. Unless you think you might need the Full Coupling
formulation, you can safely select Fast Set. Learn about the different
formulations.
Full Set - If you select Full Set, Adams/Flex computes all inertia

invariants, including invariants five and nine.


None - If you select None, Adams/Flex does not perform any invariant

calculations, and must compute invariants each time you save an


Adams/Solver dataset with a modified selection of modes or nodes.

626 Adams/View
Translate Nastran Output to Modal Neutral File

For the option:


Units

Do the following:
Do one of the following:
To preserve the units in the original MNF, select Original. If you

select to preserve the units, Adams/Flex performs the unit scaling as it


performs different operations, which can degrade performance
noticeably.
To convert all data to Adams/View internal units, which are meters,

kilogram, seconds, and Newtons, select SI. This is the optimal setting
for processing flexible bodies in Adams/View.
Formatting

From the Formatting pull-down menu, do either of the following:


To turn off the encoding that makes the MNF platform independent,

select Platform Specific.


The encoding has some computational overhead that you may want to
remove if you are not concerned about MNF portability.
To keep the encoding and portability, select Standard Portable.

Remove Internal Solid Select to remove certain interior geometry, such as the mated faces of two brick
Element Geometry
elements, to enhance graphics performance. When used with invariants
computation (explained above), removing interior geometry can significantly
reduce the size of an MNF.

P - Z 627
Translate Nastran Output to Modal Neutral File

For the option:


Automatic

Do the following:
Select the tab Automatic, and then select Remove Internal Solid Element
Geometry.
When you remove the interior geometry, the graphics performance of
Adams/View is greatly enhanced. When you remove both interior geometry
and calculate the invariants, Adams/Flex removes nodes that were only
connected to the geometry that it also removed. Occasionally, the removal of
the geometry may be undesirable especially when a particular interior node is
to be the target for an attachment in Adams.

Apply Mesh
Select and then use the sliders to set the following:
Coarsening Algorithm
Target Mesh Resolution - Slide the Mesh Resolution slider to the
fraction of the total component size below which Adams/Flex removes
the detail of the mesh. For example, if your component is
approximately 1 m long, and you select 15% mesh resolution, the
coarsening results in a mesh with 15 cm-wide mesh cells.
Face Smoothing - Slide the Face Smoothing slider to the angle

between adjacent faces below which Adams/Flex should merge faces.


For example, if you select 15, the coarsening algorithm does not merge
two faces when one face is more than 15o out of the plane of the other
face.
Colinear Point Removal - Select Remove Colinear Points to control

removal of nodes that are intermediate nodes on the straight edge of a


face.
Retain Particular Nodes - In the Retained Node List text box,

specify a list of nodes that Adams/Flex should not remove during


coarsening.
When you use mesh coarsening and also calculate the invariants, Adams/Flex
removes nodes that were only connected to the geometry that was removed by
coarsening, which results in a great reduction in MNF size.
Test Modal
For the option:

Do the following:

Universal File

Enter the name of the Universal file containing datasets 15, 55, 82.

I-DEAS/CADAX/STAR

Specifies the program from which the Universal file was generated.

MNF File

Enter the name of the MNF to be created. If you do not provide a file
name, Adams/Flex generates an MNF with the same path and prefix as
the Universal file.

Total Mass

Enter the global mass of the tested component.

628 Adams/View
Translate Nastran Output to Modal Neutral File

Center of Mass

Enter the x, y, and z coordinates of the tested components center of


mass, relative to datum used to measure the nodal positions in dataset 15
of the Universal file.

Inertia Tensor

Enter the inertia tensor of the tested component relative to the center of
mass.

Title

Enter a title for the MNF to help you identify it (optional).

Comment #1/ Comment #2/ Enter comments for the MNF to help you identify it (optional).
Comment #3
Length/Mass/Time/Force
Units

Set Length Units, Mass Units, Time Units, and Force Units to, Mass
Units, Time Units, and Force Units toto the units used in the Universal
file and the data entered in this dialog box.

P - Z 629
Translate Tool Stack

Translate Tool Stack


Main Toolbox Translate Tool Stack

Contains tools for translating the view in the View window and setting the perspective.

Icon

Link
Dynamically Translating a View

Setting the View Perspective

630 Adams/View
Translational Joint Tool

Translational Joint Tool


Build Joints Translational Joint Tool

Creates a translational joint that allows one part to translate along a vector with respect to another part.
The parts can only translate, not rotate, with respect to each other.

When you create a translational joint, you specify its location and orientation. The location of a
translational joint does not affect the motion of the joint. It simply determines where Adams/View places
the joint. The orientation of the translational joint, however, determines the direction of the axis along
which the parts can slide with respect to each other. The direction of the motion of the translational joint
is parallel to the orientation vector and passes through the location.
Learn about:
Creating Idealized Joints

P - Z 631
Translational Joint Tool

Adding Friction to Idealized Joints

For the option:


1 Location (Bodies
Implicit)/
2 Bodies - 1 Location/
2 Bodies - 2 Locations

Do the following:
Set how you want the joint connected to parts:
1 Location (Bodies Implicit) - Lets you select the location of the joint

and have Adams/View determine the two parts that should be


connected. Adams/View selects the parts closest to the joint location. If
there is only one part near the joint, Adams/View connects the joint to
that part and ground.
2 Bodies - 1 Location - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint. The joint remains
fixed on the first part and moves relative to the second part.
2 Bodies - 2 Locations - Lets you explicitly select the two parts to be

connected by the joint and the location of the joint on each part. You
should use this option if you are working in exploded view. For more on
exploded view, see Initial Conditions Tool. For more on the effects of
these options, see About Connecting Constraints to Parts.
Normal to Grid/
Pick Geometry Feature

Set how you want the joint oriented:


Normal to Grid - Lets you orient the joint along the current Working
grid, if it is displayed, or normal to the screen.
Pick Feature - Lets you orient the joint along a direction vector on a

feature in your model, such as the face of a part.


First Body/Second Body Set the bodies on which you want to attach the joint. Select either:
(only appears if you
select to explicitly define Pick Body - Select to attach the joint to a body.
the bodies using the
Pick Curve - Select to attach the joint to a curve. If you select to attach
options 2 Bodies - 1
the joint to a curve, Adams/View creates a curve marker, and the joint
Location or 2 Bodies - 2
follows the line of the curve. Learn more about curve markers with
Locations explained
Marker Modify dialog box help. Attaching the joint to a spline curve is
above)
only available with Adams/Solver (C++). Learn about switching
solvers.

632 Adams/View
Translational Motion Tool

Translational Motion Tool


Build Joints Translational Motion Tool

Moves the first part that the joint connects along the z-axis of the second part.
Learn about:
Overview of Motion
Creating Joint Motion

For the option:


Trans. Speed

Do the following:
Specify the speed of the motion in displacement units per second. By default,
Adams/View creates a translational motion with a speed of 10 millimeters per
second. To enter a function expression or User-written subroutine, right-click the
Trans. Speed text box, point to Parameterize, and then select Expression Builder to
display the Adams/View Function Builder. For information on using the Function
Builder, see Function Builder and Adams/View Function Builder online help.

P - Z 633
Translational Spring Damper Tool

Translational Spring Damper Tool


Build Forces Spring-Damper Tool

Adds a translational spring damper to your model by defining the locations on two parts between which
the spring-damper acts. You define the action force that is applied to the first location, and Adams/Solver
automatically applies the equal and opposite reaction force to the second location.
Learn about:
Equations Defining the Force of Spring Dampers
Translational Spring Dampers

For the option:

Do the following:

Translational K

Enter stiffness coefficients.

Translational C

Enter damping coefficients.

634 Adams/View
Unite Tool

Unite Tool
Build Bodies/Geometry Unite Tool

Creates complex geometry by joining two intersecting solids. It merges the second part you select into
the first part, resulting in a single part.
The union has a mass computed from the volume of the new solid. Any overlapping volume is only
counted once.

Learn about Creating One Part from the Union of Two Solids

P - Z 635
Units

Units
Settings Units

Changes the default units Adams/View uses in modeling, importing, and exporting files. You can select
individual units or select a set group of units.
Learn about:
Units of Measurement in Adams/View
Unit Labels
Entering Unit Measurements in Text Boxes

For the option:

Do the following:

Length

Select the desired unit.

Mass

Select the desired unit.

Force

Select the desired unit.

Time

Select the desired unit.

Angle

Select the desired unit.

Frequency

Select the desired unit.

MMKS

Select to set length to millimeters, mass to kilograms, and force to Newtons. When
you select a predefined unit system, the units selected appear in the upper portion
of the dialog box.

MKS

Select to set length to meters, mass to kilograms, and force to Newtons. When you
select a predefined unit system, the units selected appear in the upper portion of the
dialog box.

CGS

Select to set length to centimeters, mass to grams, and force to Dyne. When you
select a predefined unit system, the units selected appear in the upper portion of the
dialog box.

IPS

Select to set length to inches, mass to pound mass, and force to PoundForce. When
you select a predefined unit system, the units selected appear in the upper portion
of the dialog box.

Note:

In all the unit systems, time is in seconds and angle is in degrees.

636 Adams/View
Update Design Variables

Update Design Variables


Simulate Design Evaluation

Allows you to set the design variable values to those of a trial or iteration. This is helpful if you want to:
Update your model to match the best trial of a Design study or Design of experiments (DOE).
Visualize the variable settings of a particular trial or iteration.
Use an intermediate iteration in an optimization instead of the final values.

Learn more about Updating Variables.

For the option:

Do the following:

Result Set

Enter the name of the parametric analysis result set that you want to use to update
the variables.

Trial

Enter the trial or iteration number you want to use. Adams/View sets the design
variable values to match those used in the specified trial or iteration, and updates
the model graphics to reflect the new values.

P - Z 637
User-Defined Transfer Function Block

User-Defined Transfer Function Block


Build Controls Toolkit Standard Control Blocks New/Modify

The user-defined transfer function block creates general rational polynomial blocks by specifying the
polynomial coefficients. Specify the coefficients in the order n0, n1, n2 for the numerator.
Specify the assembly name of any controls block as the input.

For the option:

Do the following:

Name

Enter the name that you want assigned to the function block.

Input

Specify the assembly name of any controls block.

Numerator
Coefficients/
Denominator
Coefficients

Specify the polynomial coefficients in the order n0, n1, n2.

Check the inputs to the function block.

Display the Information window to review the connections to the block.

Create an output measure. See Controls_measure_panel dialog box help.

638 Adams/View
View Accessories

View Accessories
View View Accessories

Sets the display of the following in the currently active View window:
Working grid
Screen icons
View triad
View title

Note:

You can also use the tools in the Main toolbox to set the display of these items. If you use
the tools, you can change the accessories for all view windows at once but you cannot
change the view title.

For the option:

Do the following:

Working grid

Select to display the working grid.

Screen icons

Select to display the screen icons.

View triad

Select to display the view triad.

View title

Select to display the view title.

P - Z 639
View Orientation Tools

View Orientation Tools


View Pre-Set A View
Main Toolbox View Orientation tool

Provide seven pre-set views of your model that you can display in any of your view windows. You can
access the pre-set views using the Pre-set command on the View menu or using the set of View Orientation
Tool Stacks on the Main toolbox.
Learn about:
The different Orientations and the tools that activate them
Changing the View in a Window

640 Adams/View
View Rotation

View Rotation
Main toolbox Toggle toolstack View Rotation

Rotates the View in a View window about the x, y, and z screen axes by a specified increment.

Learn about Dynamically Rotating a View.

Icon

Description
Rotate view about the screens z-axis

Rotate view about screens x- and y-axis

Set the amount by which you want to incrementally rotate the view in the text box.

P - Z 641
Welcome

Welcome
Lets you start your Adams session by creating a new model or opening an existing one. It also lets you
to specify your working directory.

For the option:

Do the following:

How would you like to Sets how you will proceed with Adams/View:
proceed?

New Model - Lets you start a new modeling session with a new
modeling database.
Existing Model - Lets you open an existing model.
Exit - Lets you exit Adams/View without performing an
operation.

If you selected New Model, following options available.


Model name

Enter the name you want assigned to the new Model. You can enter up to 80
alphanumeric characters. You cannot include special characters, such as
spaces or periods.

Gravity

Select the gravity settings for the new model. You can select:
Earth Normal - Sets the gravity to 1 G downward.
No Gravity - Turns off the gravitational force.
Other - Lets you set the gravity as desired. The Gravity Settings

dialog box appears after you select OK on the Welcome dialog box.
Learn about Specifying Gravitational Force.
Units

Select a preset unit system for your model. In all the preset unit systems, time
is in seconds and angles are in degrees. You can set:
MMKS - Sets length to millimeter, mass to kilogram, and force to

Newton.
MKS - Sets length to meter, mass to kilogram, and force to Newton.
CGS - Sets length to centimeter, mass to gram, and force to Dyne.
IPS - Sets length to inch, mass to slug, and force to PoundForce.

If you do not want any of the preset unit systems, you can change the units as
required. Learn about Setting Units of Measurement.
Working Directory

Specify the directory to be used as your working directory. Adams/View saves


all files in this directory. Learn about Specifying Working Directory.

642 Adams/View
Welcome

For the option:

Do the following:

If you selected Existing Model, following options available.


File Name

Specify the file name you wish to open. Use the browse option to locate the
files.

Working Directory

The set working directory will be displayed. It defaults to the directory in


which the selected file resides. Optionally, you can also browse for a different
directory. Learn about Specifying Working Directory.

P - Z 643
Welcome (Classic Interface)

Welcome (Classic Interface)


Appears when you start Adams/View or create a database (File - New Database)

Lets you create a new Modeling database or use an existing one. It also lets you import modeling data
and specify your working directory. Learn about creating a modeling database.

For the option:

Do the following:

How would you like to Sets how you will proceed with Adams/View:
proceed?
Create a new model - Lets you start a new modeling session with a
new modeling database.
Open an existing database - Lets you open an existing modeling

database.
Import a file - Lets you start a new modeling session by reading in a
model from an Adams/View command file or an Adams/Solver
dataset. For more information, see:
Import - Adams/Solver Dataset
Import - Adams/View Command Files
Exit - Lets you exit Adams/View without performing an operation.

Start in

Specify the directory to be used as your working directory. Adams/View saves


all files in this directory. Learn about Specifying Working Directory.

Model name

Enter the name you want assigned to the new Model. You can enter up to 80
alphanumeric characters. You cannot include special characters, such as
spaces or periods.

644 Adams/View
Welcome (Classic Interface)

For the option:


Gravity

Do the following:
Select the gravity settings for the new model. You can select:
Earth Normal - Sets the gravity to 1 G downward.
No Gravity - Turns off the gravitational force.
Other - Lets you set the gravity as desired. The Gravity Settings</