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# CHAPTER-11

## HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS

FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.
2.

One mole of a monoatomic ideal gas is mixed with one mole of a diatomic ideal gas. The molar specific heat of the
mixture at constant volume is .....
(1984, 2M)
The variation of temperature of a material as heat is given to it at constant rate as shown in the figure. The material
is in solid state at the point O. The state of the material at the point P is ....
(1985, 2M)

C
T

A P
B

During an experiment an ideal gas is found to obey an additional law P2V = constant. The gas is initially at a
temperature T and volume V. When it expands to a volume 2V, the temperature becomes ....
(1987, 2M)
4. 300 g of water at 25C is added to 100 g of ice at 0C. The final temperature of the mixture is ....C (1989, 2M)
5. The earth receives at its surface radiation from the sun at the rate of 1400 Wm2. The distance of the centre of the
sun from the surface of the earth is 1.5 1011 m and the radius of the sun is 7 108 m. Treating the sun as a black
body, it follows from the above data that its surface temperature is ....K.
(1989, 2M)
6. A solid copper sphere (density and specific heat c) of radius r at an initial temperature 200 K is suspended inside
a chamber whose walls are at almost 0 K. The time required for the temperature of the sphere to drop to 100 K is
......
(1991, 2M)
7. A point source of heat of power P is placed at the centre of a spherical shell of mean radius R. The material of the
shell has thermal conductivity K. If the temperature difference between the outer and inner surface of the shell is
not to exceed T, the thickness of the shell should not be less than.
(1991, 1M)
8. A substance of mass M kg requires a power input of P watts to remain in the molten state at its melting point. When
the power source is turned off, the simple completely solidifies in time t seconds. The latent heat of fusion of the
substances is ....
(1992, 1M)
9. A container of volume 1 m3 is divided into two equal parts by a partition. One part has an ideal gas at 300 K and
the other part is vacuum. The whole system is thermally isolated from the surroundings.When the partition is
removed, the gas expands to occupy the whole volume. Its temperature will now be .....
(1993; 1M)
10. An ideal gas with pressure P, volume V and temperature T is expanded isothermally to a volume 2V and a final
pressure P1. If the same gas is expanded adiabatically to a volume 2V, the final pressure is Pa. The ratio of the specific
3.

Pa
is .....
P1

(1994, 2M)

11. Two metal cubes A and B of a same size are arranged as shown in figure. The extreme
ends of the combination are maintained at the indicated temperatures. The arrangement
is thermally insulated. The coefficients of thermal conductivity of A and B are 300
W/mC and 200 W/mC, respectively. After steady state is reached the temperature of
the interface will be .......
(1996, 2M)

100C

## heats of the gas is 1.67. The ratio

12. A ring shaped tube contains two ideals gases with equal masses and relative molar masses
M1 = 32 and M2 = 28. The gases are separated by one fixed partition and another movable
stopper S which can move freely without friction inside the ring. The angle as shown in
the figure is .... degrees.
(1997, 2M)

B 0C
T
M2

M1

144

13. A gas thermometer is used as a standard thermometer for measurement of temperature. When the gas container of
the thermometer is immersed in water at its triple point 273.16 K, the pressure in the gas thermometer reads 3.0
104N/m2. When the gas container of the same thermometer is immersed in another system the gas pressure reads
3.5 104N/m2. The temperature of this system is therefore......C.
(1997, 1M)
14. Earth receives 1400 W/m2 of solar power. If all the solar energy falling on a lens of area 0.2 m2 is focussed onto
a block of ice of mass 280g, the time taken to melt the ice will be .... minutes. (Latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.3
105 J/kg)
(1997, 2M)

TRUE FALSE
1.
2.

The root mean square speeds of the molecules of different ideal gases, maintained at the same temperature are the
same.
(1981; 2M)
The volume V versus temperature T graphs for a certain amount of a perfect gas at two pressure p 1 and p 2 are as
shown in figure. It follows from the graphs that p 1 is greater than p 2 .
(1982; 2M)
V
P1

P2

3.
4.

Two different gases at the same temperature have equal root mean square velocities.
(1982; 2M)
The curves A and B in the figure shown P-V graphs for an isothermal and an adiabatic process for an ideal gas.
The isothermal process is represeented by the curve A.
(1985; 3M)
P

A
B
V

5.

6.
7.

The root mean square (rms) speed of oxgen molecules (O2 ) at a certain temperaure T (degree absolute) is V. If the
temperature is doubled and oxygen gas dissociates into atomc oxygen, the rms speed remains unchanged.
(1987; 2M)
At a given temperature, the specific heat of a ideal gas at constant pressure is always greater than its specific heat
at constant volume.
(1987; 2M)
Two spheres of the same material have radii 1 m and 4 m temperature 4000 K and 2000 K respectively. The energy
radiated per second by the first sphere is greater than that by the second.
(1988; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

2.

## At room temperature, the rms speed of the molecules

of a certain diatomic gas is found to be 1930 m/s. The
gas is :
(1984; 2M)
(a) H2
(b) F2
(c) O2
(d) Cl2

3.

## 70 calories of heat required to raise the temperature of

2 moles of an ideal diatomic gas at constant pressure
from 30C to 35C. The amount of heat required (in
calories) to raise the temperature of the same gas
through the same range (30C to 35C) at constant
volume is :
(1985; 2M)
(a) 30
(b) 50
(c) 70
(d) 90

## Only One option is correct :

1. An ideal monoatomic gas is taken round the cycle
ABCDA as shown in the P-V diagram (see figure). The
work done during the cycle is :
(1983; 1M)
P
2P, V
B

(a) PV
(c)

1
PV
2

P, V

2P, 2V
C

P, 2V

D
V

(b) 2PV
(d) zero
145

4.

5.

6.

7.

## Steam at 100C is passed into 1.1 kg of water contained

in a calorimeter of water equivalent 0.02 kg at 15C till
the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents
rises to 80C. The mass of the steam condensed in kg
is :
(1986; 2M)
(a) 0.130
(b) 0.065
(c) 0.260
(d) 0.135
If one mole of a monoatomic gas ( = 5/3) is mixed with
one mole of a diamonic gas ( = 7/5), the value of
for the mixture is :
(1988; 2M)
(a) 1.40
(b) 1.50
(c) 1.53
(d) 3.07
A cylinder of radius R made of a material of thermal
conductivity K1 is surrounded by a cylindrical shell of
inner radius R and outer radus 2R made of a material
of thermal conductivity K2 . The two ends of the
combined system are maintained at two different
temperatures. There is no loss of heat across the
cylindrical surface and the system is in steady state.
The effective thermal conductivity of the system is :
(1988; 2M)
(a) K1 + K2
(b) K1 K2 /(K1 + K2 )
(c) (K1 + 3K 2 )/4
(d) (3K1 + K2 )/4
When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant
pressure the fraction of the heat energy supplied
which increases the internal energy of the gas is :
(1990; 2M)

2
(a)
5
(c)
8.

3
7

3
(b)
5
(d)

5
7

## Three closed vessels A, B and C at the same

temperature T and contain gases which obey the
Maxwellian distribuion of velocities. Vessel A contains
only O2 , B only N2 and C a mixture of equal\quantities
of O2 and N2. If the average speed of the O2 molecules
in vessel A is v1 , that of the N2 molecules in vessel B
is v2 , the average speed of the O2 molecules in vessel
C is :
(1992; 2M)
(a) (v1 + v2 )/2
(b) v1
(c) (v1 v2 )1/2

(d)

3kT / M
where M is the mass of an oxygen molecules.
9.

## Three rods of identical cross-sectional area and made

from the same metal form the sides of an isosceles
triangle ABC, right angled at B. The points A and B are
maintained at temperature T and

( 2 )T

respectively.

T is :
(1995; 2M)

1
(a)

3
(b)

2( 21)

(c)

1
21

(d)

2 +1
1

2 +1

## 10. Two metallic spheres S 1 and S 2 are made of the same

material and have got identical surface finish. The
mass of S 1 is thrice that of S 2 . Both the spheres are
heated to the same high temperature and placed in the
same room having lower temperature but are thermally
insultated from each other. The ratio of the initial rate
of cooling of S 1 to that S 2 is :
(1996; 2M)
(a)

(c)

1
3

3
1

1
(b)

3
1/3

1
(d)
3

## 11. The temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 120

K to 480 K. If at 120 K the root mean square velocity
of the gas molecules is v, at 480 K it becomes :
(1996; 2M)
(a) 4 v
(b) 2 v
(c) v/2
(d) v/4
12. The average translational KE and the rms speed of
molecules in a sample of oxygen gas at 300 K are
6.21 10 2 1 J and 484 m/s respectively. The
corresponding values at 600 K are nearly (assuming
ideal gas behaviour) :
(1997; 1M)
(a) 12.42 1021 J, 968 m/s
(b) 8.78 1021 J, 684 m/s
(c) 6.21 1021 J, 968 m/s
(d) 12.42 1021 J, 684 m/s
13. The intensity of radiation emitted by the sun has its
maximum value at a wavelength of 510 nm and that
emitted by the north star has the maximum value at 350
nm. If these starts behave like blackbodies, then the
ratio of the surface temperature of the sun and the
north star is :
(1997; 1M)
(a) 1.46
(b) 0.69
(c) 1.21
(d) 0.83
14. The average translational kinetic energy of O2 (molar
mass 32) molecules at a particular temperature is 0.048
eV. The translational kinetic energy of N2 (molar mass
28) molecules in eV at the same temperature is :
(1997; 1M)
(a) 0.0015
(b) 0.003
(c) 0.048
(d) 0.768

146

## 17. A vessels contains a mixture of one mole of oxygen

and two moles of nitrogen at 300 K. The ratio of the
average rotational kinetic energy per O2 molecules to
per N2 molecule is :
(1998; 2M)
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 2
(c) 2 : 1
(d) depends on the moment of inertia of the two
molecules
18. Two identical containers A and B with frictionless
pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same
temperature and the same volume V. The mass of the
gas in A is mA and that in B is mB . the gas in each
cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally to the
same final volume 2V. The changes in the pressure in
A and B are found to be P and 1.5 P respectively.
Then :
(1998; 2M)
(a) 4 mA = 9 mB
(b) 2 mA = 3 mB
(c) 3 mA = 2 mB
(d) 9 mA = 4 mB
19. Two cylinders A and B fitted with pistons contain
equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K. The
piston of A is free to move, while that of B is held fixed.
The same rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30 K,
then the rise in temperature of the gas in B is :
(1998; 2M)
(a) 30 K
(b) 18 K
(c) 50 K
(d) 42 K

(a)

( 2 / 7)

(b)

(1/7 )

(c)

( 3 ) /5

(d)

( 6 ) /5

## 22. A gas mixture consists of 2 moles of oxygen and 4

moles of argon at temperature T. Neglecting all
vibrational modes, the total internal energy of the
system is:
(1999; 2M)
(a) 4 RT
(b) 15 RT
(c) 9 RT
(d) 11 RT
23. A monoatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1, is
enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston.
The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to a
temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly. If L1
and L2 are the lengths of the gas column before and
after expansion respectively, then T1 /T2 is given by:
(2000; 2M)
(a) (L1 /L2 )2/3
(b) (L1 /L2 )
(c) (L2 /L1 )
(d) (L2 /L1 )2/3
24. The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black
bodies at temperatures T1, T2 and T3 respectively are as
shown. Their temperature are such that : (2000; 2M)
I

T3
T2

T1

(c) T2 > T3 > T1

(d) T3 > T2 > T1

## 25. A block of ice at 10C is slowly heated and converted

to steam at 100C. Which of the following curves
represents the phenomena qualitatively? (2000; 2M)

Temp.

## 16. A spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm radiates

450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were halved and
the temperature doubled, the power radiated in watt
would be :
(1997; 1M)
(a) 225
(b) 450
(c) 900
(d) 1800

## 21. The ratio of the speeds of sound in nitrogen gas to

that in helium gas, at 300 K is :
(1999; 2M)

Temp.

## 15. A vessel contains 1 mole of O2 gas (molar mass 32) at

a temperature T. The pressure of the gas is P. An
identical vessels containing one mole of the gas (molar
mass 4) at a temperature 2T has a pressure of :
(1997; 1M)
(a) P/8
(b) P
(c) 2P
(d) 8 P

(a)

(b)
Heat supplied

Temp.

(c)

(d)
Heat supplied

147

Heat supplied

Temp.

## 20. A black body is at a temperature of 2880 K. The energy

of radiation emitted by this object with wavelength
between 499 nm and 500 nm is U1, between 999 nm and
1000 nm is U2 and between 1499 nm and 1500 nm is U3.
The Wien constant, b = 2.88 106 nm-K. Then:
(2003; 2M)
(a) U1 = 0
(b) U3 = 0
(c) U1 > U2
(d) U2 > U1

Heat supplied

## 26. Starting with the same initial conditions, an ideal gas

expands from volume V1 to V2 in three diferent ways,
the work done by the gas is W1 if the process is purely
isothermal W2 if purely isobaric and W3 if purely
(2000; 2M)
(a) W2 > W1 > W3
(b) W2 > W3 > W1
(c) W1 > W2 > W3
(d) W1 > W3 > W2
27. An ideal gas is initially at temperature T and volume
V. Its volume is increased by V due to an increase
in temperature T, pressure remaining constant. The
quantity = V/VT varies with temperature as :
(2000; 2M)

(a)
T+T

T+ T

(c)
T+T

(a) He and O2
(c) He and Ar

m1
m2

m1
(c) m
2

T+T

(b) O2 and He
(d) O2 and N2

V ( m3 )
A
1

2
P (N/m)

(2002; 2M)

## 33. Which of the following graphs correctly represent the

variation of = dV / dP with P for an ideal gas at
V
consant temperature

(2002; 2M)

m2
m1

(a)

m2
(d) m
1

(b)
P

90C

## 29. Three rods made of the

same material and having
the same cross-section
have been joined as
shown in the figure. Each
rod is of the same length.
The left and right ends

1
2

(a) 5 J
(b) 10 J
(c) 15 J
(d) 20 J

(b)

10

## 28. Two monoatomic ideal gases 1 and 2 of molecular

masses m1 and m2 respectively are enclosed in separate
containers kept at the same temperature. The ratio of
the speed of sound in gas 1 to the gas 2 is given by
:
(2000; 2M)
(a)

## temperature will decrease

volume will increase
pressure will remain constant
temperature will increase

## 31. P-V plots for two gases

are shown in the figure.
Plots 1 and 2 should
correspond respectively
to :
(2001; 2M)

(d)
T

the
the
the
the

## 32. An ideal gas is

taken through the
cyclie A B C
A, as shown in
the figure. If the net
heat supplied to the
gas in the cycle is
5 J, the work done

(b)
T

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(c)

0C

(d)
P

90C

## are kept at 0C and 90C respectively. The temperature

of junction of the three rods will be : (2001; 2M)
(a) 45C
(b) 60C
(c) 30C
(d) 20C
30. In a given process of an ideal gas, dW = 0 and
dQ < 0. Then for the gas :
(2001; S)

## 34. An ideal block body at room temperature is thrown

into a furnace. It is observed that :
(2002; 2M)
(a) Initially it is the darkest body and at later times the
brightest
(b) it is the darkest body at all times
(c) it cannot be distinguished at all times
(d) initially it is the darkest body and at later times it
cannot be distinguished
148

## 35. The graph, shown in the

diagram, represents the
variation of temperature (T)
of the bodies, x and y
having same surface area,
with time (t) due to the
emission of radiation. find
the correct relation between
the emissivity and
bodies :
(a) Ex > Ey and a x
(b) Ex < Ey and a x
(c) Ex > Ey and a x
(d) Ex < Ey and a x

y
x
(c)

(d)
B

C
V

(2003; 2M)
< ay
> ay
> ay
< ay

## 36. Two rods one of aluminium and the other made of

steel, having initial length l1 and l2 are connected
together to form a single rod of length l1 + l2. The
coefficients of linear expansion for aluminium and steel
are a and s respectively. If the length of each rod is
increased by the same amount when their temperature

l1
are raised by tC, then find the ratio l + l .
1 2

B
V

## 38. 2 kg of ice at 20C is mixed with 5 kg of water at

20C in an insulating vessel having a negligible heat
capacity. Calculate the final mass of water remaining in
the container. It is given that the specific heats of
water and ice are 1 kcal/kg/C and 0.5 kcal/kg/C while
the latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 kcal/kg :
(2003; 2M)
(a) 7 kg
(b) 6 kg
(c) 4 kg
(d) 2 kg
39. Liquid oxygen at 50 K is heated to 300 K at constant
pressure of 1 atm. The rate of heating is constant.
Which of the following graphs represent the variation
of temperature with time?
(2004; 2M)
Temp.

Temp.

(2000; 2M)

s
(a)
a
(c)

a
(b)
s
s

( + s )

(d)

(a)

Time (b)

Time

( + s )
Temp.

Temp.

## 37. The P-T diagram for an ideal gas is shown in the

figure, where AC is an adiabatic process, find the
corresponding P-V diagram :
(2003; 2M)
(c)
P

Time

(d)

Time

## 40. An ideal gas expands isothermally from a volume V1 to

V2 and then compressed to original volume V 1
adiabatically. Initial pressure is P1 and final pressure is
P3. The total work done is W. Then :
(2004; 2M)
(a) P3 > P2 , W > 0 (b) P3 > P2 , W < 0
(c) P3 > P1 , W > 0 (d) P3 = P1 , W = 0

C
T

## 41. Two identical conducting rods are first connected

independently to two vessels, one containing water at
100C and the other containing ice at 0C. In the
second case, the rods are joined end to end and
connected to the same vessels. Let q 1 and q 2 g/s be
the rate of melting of ice in the two cases respectively.

(a)

(b)
B

C
V

The ratio q1 is :
q2

149

(2004; 2M)

1
(a)
2
(c)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

2
(b)
1

4
1

(d)

1
4

## 42. Three discs, A, B and C having radii 2 m, 4 m and 6

m respectively are coated with carbon black on their
outer surfaces. The wavelengths corresponding to
maximum intensit are 300 nm, 400 nm, and 500 nm,
respectively. The power radiated by them are QA : QB
and QC respectively :
(2004; 2M)
(a) QA is maximum (b) QB is maximum
(c) QC is maximum (d) QA = QB = QC
43. Water of volume 2 L in a containder is heated with a
coil of 1 kW at 27C. The lid of the containder is open
and energy dissipates at rate of 160 J/s. In how much
time temperature will rise from 27C to 77C?
(Given specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ/kg] :
(2005; 2M)
(a) 8 min 20 s
(b) 6 min 2 s
(c) 7 min
(d) 14 min
44. In which of the following process, convection does
not take place primarily?
(2005; 2M)
(a) Sea and land breeze
(b) Boiling of water
(c) Warming of glass of bulb due to filament
(d) Heating air around a furnace

## 47. A body with area A and temperature T and emissivity

e = 0.6 is kept inside a spherical black body. What will
be the maximum energy radiated by body(2005; 2M)
(a) 0.60 AT4
(b) 0.80 AT4
4
(c) 1.00 AT
(d) 0.40 AT4
48. An ideal gas is expanding such that pT = constant.
The coefficient of volume expansion of the gas is
(2008; 3M)
(a) 1/T
(b) 2/T
(c) 3/T
(d) 4/T
49. Two rods of different materials having coefficients of
thermal expansion1 , 2 and Young's moduli Y1 , Y2
respectively are fixed between two rigid massive walls.
The rods are heated such that they undergo the same
increase in temperature. There is no bending of the
rods. If 1 : 2 = 2 : 3, the thermal stresses developed
in the two rods are equal provided Y1 : Y2 is equal to
:
(1989; 2M)
(a) 2 : 3
(b) 1 : 1
(c) 3 : 2
(d) 4 : 9

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct?
1.

## For an ideal gas :

(1989; 2M)
(a) the change in internal energy in a constant
pressure process from temperature T1 and T2 is
equal to nC V (T2 T1 ), where CV is the molar heat
capacity at constant volume and n the number of
moles of the gas.
(b) the change in internal energy of the gas and work
done by the gas are equal in magnitude in an
(c) the internal energy does not change in an
isothermal process
(d) no heat is added or removed in an adiabatic
process

2.

## An ideal gas is taken from the state A (pressure P,

volume V) to the state B (pressure P/2, volume 2V)
along a straight line path in the P-V diagram. Select the
correct statements from the following : (1993; 2M)
(a) The work done by the gas in the process A to B
exceeds the work that would be done by it if the
system were taken from A to B along an isotherm
(b) In the T-V diagram, the path AB becomes a part of
a parabola

## 45. Variation of radiant energy emitted by sun, filament of

tungsten lamp and welding are as a function of its
wavelength is shown in figure. Which of the following
option is the correct match?
(2005; 2M)

E1
T3
T2
T1
l
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Sun-T1 ,
Sun-T2 ,
Sun-T3 ,
Sun-T1 ,

tungsten
tungsten
tungsten
tungsten

filament-T2 ,
filament-T1 ,
filament-T2 ,
filament-T3 ,

welding
welding
welding
welding

## From1 14.5C to 15.5C at 760 mm of Hg

From 98.5C to 99.5C at 760 mm of Hg
From 13.5C to 14.5 at 76 mm of Hg
From 3.5C to 4.5C at 76 mm of Hg

are-T3
are-T3
are-T1
are-T2

## 46. Calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to

raise temperature of 1 g of water by 1C and it is
defined under which of the following conditions?
(2000; 2M)
150

## (c) In the P-T diagram, the path AB becomes a part of

a hperbola
(d) In going from A to B, the temperature T of the gas
first increase to a maximum value and then decrease
3.

4.

5.

## Two bodies A and B have thermal emissivities of 0.01

and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface area of the
two bodies are the same. The two bodies emit total
radiant power at the same rate. The wavelength B
corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in the
radiation from B shifted from the wavelength
corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in the
radiation from A by 1.00 m. If the temperature of A is
5802 K :
(1994; 2M)
(a) the temperature of B is 1934 K
(b) B = 1.5 m
(c) the temperature of B is 11604 K
(d) the temperature of B is 2901 K
From the following statements concerning ideal gas at
any given temperature T, select the correct one (s) :
(1995; 2M)
(a) The coefficient of volume expansion at constant
pressure is the same for all ideal gases
(b) The average translational kinetic energy per
molecule of oxygen gas is 3 kT, k being Boltzmann
constant
(c) The mean-free path of molecules increases with
increase in the pressure
(d) In a gaseous mixture, the average translational
kinetic energy of the molecules of each component
is different.

8.

2vrms

T0

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
9.

Black
Black
Black
Black
by it

## body will absorb more radiation

body will absorb less radiation
body emit more energy
body emit energy equal to energy absorbed

## CV and CP denote the molar specific heat capacities of

a gas at constant volume and constant pressure,
respectively. Then
(2009; M)
(a) CP - CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for
a monoatomic ideal gas
(b) CP + CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for
a monoatomic ideal gas
(c) CP / CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for
a monoatomic ideal gas
(d) CP . CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for
a monoatomic ideal gas

10. The figure shows the P-V plot of an ideal gas taken
through a cycle ABCDA. The part ABC is a semi-circle
and CDA is half of an ellipse. Then,
(2009; M)

## (b) no molecule can have speed less vp / 2

(c) v mp < v < vrms
(d) the average kinetic energy of a molecule is

## A bimetallic strip is formed out of two identical strips

one of copper and the other of brass. The coefficients
of linear expansion of the two metals are C and B. On
heating, the temperature of the strip goes up by T
and the strip bends to form an arc of radius of
curvature R. Then R is :
(1999; 3M)
(a) proportional to T
(b) inversley proportional to T
(c) proportional to | B C|
(d) inversely proportional to | B C|
A black body of temperature T is inside chamber of
temperature T0. Now the closed chamber is slightly
opened to sun such that temperature of black body (T)
and chamber (T0) remains constant :
(2006, 3M)

## Let v , vrms and vp respectively denote the mean speed,

root mean square sepeed and most probable speed of
the molecules in an ideal monoatomic gas at asbolute
temperature T. The mass of a molecule is m. Then :
(a) no molecule can have a speed greater than

6.

7.

3 2
mv p
4

## During the melting of a slab of ice at 273 K at

atmospheric pressure :
(1998; 2M)
(a) positive work is done by the ice-water system on
the atmosphere
(b) positive work is done on ice-water system by the
atmosphere
(c) the internal energy of the ice-water increase
(d) the internal energy of the ice-water system
decreases

151

1
0

C
1

## (a) the process during the path A B is isothermal

(b) heat flows out of the gas during the path
BC D
(c) work done during the path B C is zero
(d) positive work is done by the gas in the cycle
ABCDA

## of the heater is negligible. The gas in the left chmaber

expands pushing the partition until the final pressure
in both chambers become 243 P0 /32. Determine (I) the
final temperature of the gas in each chamber and (ii)
the work done by the gas in the right chamber.
(1984; 8M)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

## A lead bullet just melts when stopped by an obstacle.

Assuming that 25 per cent of the heat is absorbed by
the obstacle, find the velocity of the bullet if its initial
temperature is 27C.
(1981; 3M)
(Melting point of lead = 327C, specific heat of lead =
0.03 cal/gC, latent heat of fusion of lead = 6 cal/g, J
= 4.2 J /cal).

2.

## A cyclie process ABCA shown in the V-T diagram is

performed with a constant mass of an ideal gas Show
the same process on a P-V diagram.
(1981; 4M)
(In the figure, CA is parallel to the V-axis and BC is
parallel to the T-axis).
V
V2

V1

T2

3.

## Calculate the work done when one mole of a perfect

gas is compressed adiabatically. The initial pressure
and volume of the gas are 105 N/m2 and 6 L respectively.
The final volume of the gas is 2 L Molar specific heat
of the gas at constant volume is 3R/2.
(1982; 8M)

4.

## A solid sphere of copper of radius R and a hollow

sphere of the same material of inner raidus r and outer
radius R are heated to the same temperature and
allowed to cool in the same environment. Which of
them starts cooling faster?
(1982; 2M)

5.

6.

## Two glass bulbs of equal volume are connected by a

narrow tube and are filled with a gas at 0C and a
pressure of 76 cm of mercury. One of the bulbs is then
placed in melting ice and the other is placed in a water
bath maintained at 62C. What is the new value of the
pressure inside the bulbs? The volume of the connecting
tube is negligible.
(1985; 6M)

8.

## An electric heater is used in a room of total wall area

137 m2 to maintain a temperature of + 20C inside it,
when the outside temperature is 10C. The walls have
three different layers materials. The innermost layer is
of wood of thickness 2.5 cm, the middle layer is of
cement of thickness 1.0 cm and the outermost layer is
of brick of thickness 25.0 cm. Find the power of the
electric heater. Assume that there is no heat loss
through the floor and the ceiling. The thermal
conductivities of wood, cement and brick are 0.125, 1.5
and 1.0 W/m/C respectively.
(1986; 8M)

9.

## A thin tube of uniform cross-section is sealed at both

ends. It lies horizontally, the middle 5 cm containing
mercury and the two equal ends containing air at the
same pressure P. When the tube is held at an angle of
60 with the vertical direction, the length of the air
column above and below the mercury column are 46
cm and 44.5 cm respectively. Calculate the pressure P
in centimeters of mercury. (The temperature of the
systm is kept at 30C).
(1986; 6M)

A
T1

7.

## One gram mole of oxygen at 27C and one atmospheric

pressure is enclosed in a vessel. (i) Assuming the
molecules to be moving with vrms , find the number of
collisions per second which the molecules make with
one square metre area of the vessel wall. (ii) The vessel
is now thermally insulated and moved with a constant
speed v0 . It is then suddenly stopped. the process
results in a rise of the temperature of the gas by 1C.
Calculate the speed v0 .
(1983; 8M)

## 10. An ideal gas has a specific heat at constant pressure

5R
. The gas is kept in a closed vessel of
2
volume 0.0083m3 , at a temperature of 300 K and a
The rectangular box shown in figure has a partition
pressure of 16 106 N/m2 . An amount of 2.49 104 J
which can slide without friction along the legth of the
of heat energy is supplied to the gas. Calculate the final
box. Initially each of the two chambers of the box has
temperature and pressure of the gas.
(1987; 7M)
one mole of a monoatomic ideal gas ( = 5/3) at a 11. Two moles of helium gas ( = 5/3) are initially at
pressure P0 , volume V0 and temperature T0 . The
temperature 27C and occupy a volume of 20 L. The
chamber on the left is slowly heated by an electric
gas is first expanded at constant pressure until the
heater. The walls of the box and the partition are
volume is doubled. Then it undergoes an adiabatic
thermally insulated. Heat loss through the lead wires
change until the temperature returns to its initial value.
(1988; 6M)
152
CP =

## (i) Sketch the process on a P-V diagram.

(ii) What are the final volume and pressure of the
gas?
(iii) What is the work done by the gas?
12. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by
a spring loaded piston of cross-section 8.0103 m2 .
Initially the gas is at 300 K and occupies a volume of
2.4 103 m3 and the spring is in its relaxed (unstretched,
uncompressed) state. The gas is heated by a small
electric heater until the piston moves out slowly by
0.1 m. Calculate the final temperature of the gas and
the heat supplied (in joules) by the heater. the force
constant of the spring is 8000 N/m, and the
atmospherics pressure 1.0 105 Nm2 . The cylinder
and the piston are thermally insulated. The piston is
massless and there is no friction between the piston
and the cylinder. Neglect heat loss through the lead
wires of the heater. The heat capacity of the heater coil
is negligible. Assume the spring to be massless.
(1989; 8M)
Open atmosphere
Heater

Rigid
support

2atm

1atm

D
300K

C
T

400K

## (a) The net change in the heat energy.

(b) The net work done.
(c) The net change in internal energy
16. A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m and area of cross
section 0.04 m2 is placed coaxially on a thin metal disc
of mass 9.4 kg and of the same cross-section. The
upper face of the cylinder is maintained at a constant
temperature of 400 K and the initial temperature of the
disc is 300 K. If the thermal conductivity of the material
of the cylinder is 10 W/mK and the specific heat
capacity of the material of the disc is 600 J/kg-K, how
long will it take for the temperature of the disc to
increase to 350 K? Assume, for purposes of calculation,
the thermal conductivity of the disc to be very high
and the system to be thermally insulated except for the
upper face of the cylinder.
(1992; 8M)
17. One mole of a monoatomic ideal gas is taken through
the cycle shown in figure.
(1993; 4 + 4 + 2M)
P

## 13. An ideal gas having initial pressure P, volume V and

temperature T is allowed to expanded adiabatically
until its volume becomes 5.66V while its temperature
falls to T/2.
(1990; 7M)
(i) How many degrees of freedom do gas molecules
have?
(ii) Obtain the work done by the gas during the
expansion as a function of the initial pressure P
and volume V.

7
R) at pressure,
2
PA and temperature TA is isothermally expanded to
twice its initial volume. Finally gas is compressed at
constant volume to its original pressure PA .
(1991; 4 + 4M)
(a) Sketch P-V and P-T diagrams for the complete
process.
(b) Calculate the net work done by the gas, and net
heat supplied to the gas during the complete
process.
15. Two moles of helium gas undergo a cyclic process as
shown in figure. Assuming the gas to be ideal, calculate
the following quantities in this process. (1992; 8M)

C
V

A B : adiabatic expansion
B C : cooling at constant volume
C D : adiabatic compression
D A : heating at constant volume.
The pressure and temperature at A, B etc. are denoted
by PA, TA, PB, TB etc. respectively. Given that TA = 1000
K, PB = (2/3) PA and PC = (1/3)P A, calculate the
following quantities.
(a) The work done by the gas in the process A B.
(b) The heat lost by the gas in the process B C.
(c) The temperature TD.
(Given : (2/3)2/5 = 0.85]

## 18. An ideal gas is taken through a cyclic thermodynamic

process through four steps. he amounts of heat
involved in these steps are Q1 = 5960J, Q2 = 5585J,
Q3 = 2980 J and Q4 = 3645 J respectively. The

153

## corresponding quantities of work involved and W1 =

2200 J, W2 = 825 J, W3 = 11000 and W4 respectively.
(a) Find the value of W4 .
(b) What is the efficiency of the cycle?
(1994; 6M)
19. A closed container of volume 0.2 m3 contains a mixture
of neon and argon gases, at a temperature of 27C and
pressure of 1 105 Nm2 . The total mass of the mixture
is 28 g. If the molar masses of neon and argon are 20
and 40g mol1 respectively. Find the masses of the
individual gases in the container assuming them to be
ideal (Universal gas constant R = 8.314 J/mol-K).
(1994; 6M)

## 24. The apparatus shown in figure consists of four glass

columns connected by horizontal sections. The height
of two central columns B and C are 49 cm each. The
two outer columns A and D are open to the atmosphere.
A and C are maintained at a temperature of 95C while
the columns B and D are maintained a 5C. The height
of the liquid in A and D measured from the base line
are 52.8 cm and 51 cm respecively. Determine the
coefficient of thermal expansion of the liquid.
(1997; 5M)

D
5C

## 20. A gaseous mixture enclosd in a vessel of volume V

consists of one gram mole of gas A with ( = Cp /Cv
= 5/3) and another gas B with = 7/5 at a certain
temperature T. The gram molecular weights of the
gases A and B are 4 and 32 respectively. The gases A
and B do not react with each other and are assumed
to be ideal. The gaeous mixture follows the equation
PV19/13 =K in adiabatic process.
(2002; 5M)
(a) Find the number of gram moles of the gas B in the
gaseous mixture.
(b) Compute the speed of sound in the gaseous
mixture at 300 K.
(c) If T is raised by 1 K from 300 K, find the percentage
change is the speed of sound in the gaseous
mixture.
(d) The mixture is compressed adiabatically to 1/5 of
its initial volume V. Find the change in its adiabatic
compressibility in terms of the given quantities.
21. At 27C, two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas occupy
a volume V. The gas expands adiabatically to a volume
2V Calculate :
(1996; 5M)
(a) the final temperature of the gas,
(b) change in its internal energy
(c) the work done by the gas during this process

95C
B
5C

C
95C

## 25. A double-pane window used for insulating a room

thermally from outside consists of two glass sheets
each of area 1m2 and thickness 0.01 m separated by a
0.05 m thick stagnant air space. In the steady state, the
room-glass inter face and the glass-outdoor interface
are at constant temperature of 27C and 0C
respectively. Calculate the rate of heat flow through
the window pane. Also find the temperatures of other
interfaces. Given the conductivities of glass and air as
0.8 and 0.08 Wm 1 K1 respectively.
(1997C; 5M)
26. A sample of 2 kg monoatomic helium (assumed ideal)
is taken through the process ABC and another sample
of 2 kg of the same gas is taken through the process
ADC (see fig.) Given molecular mass of helium = 4.
(1997C; 5M)

## 22. The temperature of 100 g of water is to be raised from

24C to 90C by adding steam to it. Calculate the mass
of the steam required for this purpose. (1996; 2M)
23. One mole of a diatomic ideal gas ( = 1.4) is taken
through a cyclic process starting from point A. The
process A B is an adiabatic compression. B C is
isobaric expansion, C D an adiabatic expansion and
D A is isochoric.
The volume ratio are VA / VB = 16and VC/VD = 2 and the
temperature at A is TA = 300 K. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the points B and D and find
the efficiency of the cycle.
(1997; 5M)
154

(10N/m)
10
5

10

C
D

20

## (i) What is the temperature of helium in each of the

states A, B, C and D?
(ii) Is there any way of telling afterwards which sample
of helium went through the process ABC and
which went through the process ADC? Write Yes
or No.

2P1

## 27. One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas is taken round

the cyclic process ABCA as shown in figure. Calculate:
(1998;8M)

P1

3P0

T1

P0

V0

## (a) The work done on the gas in the process AB and

(b) the heat absorbed or released by the gas in each
of the processes.
Give answers in terms of the gas constant R.

2V0

2T1

## (a) the work done by the gas.

(b) the heat rejected by the gas in the path CA and the
heat absorbed by the gas in the path AB.
(c) the nest heat absorbed by the gas in the path BC.
(d) the maximum temperature attained by the gas
during the cycle.
28. A solid body X of heat capacity C is kept in an
atmosphere whose temperature is TA = 300 K. At time
t = 0, the temperature of X is T0 = 400 K. It cools
according to Newton's law of cooling. At time t1 its
temperature is found to be 350 K.
At the time (t1 ) the body X is connected to a large box
Y at atmospheric temperature TA through a conducting
rod of length L, cross sectional area A and thermal
conductivity. K. The heat capacity of Y is so large that
any variation in its temperature may be neglected. The
cross sectional area A of the connecting rod is small
compared to the surface area of X. Find the temperature
of X at time t = 3t1 .
(1998; 8M)
29. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas initially at
pressure P1 and volume V1 undergo an adiabatic
compression until its volume is V2. Then the gas is
given heat Q at constant volume V2 . (1999; 10M)
(a) Sketch the complete process on a P-V diagram.
(b) Find the total work done by the gas, the total
change in internal energy and the final temperature
of the gas.
[Give your answer in terms of P1, V1, V2, Q and R]
30. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas is taken through
a cycle ABCA as shown in the P-T diagram. During the
process AB, pressure and temperature of the gas vary
such that PT = constant. If T = 300 K, calculate
(2000; 10M)

## 31. An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0C is placed in an

isolated container which is at 227C. The specific heat
S of the container varies with temperature T according
to the empirical relation S = A + BT, where A = 100 cal/
kg-K and B = 2 102 cal/kg-K2 . If the final temperature
of the container is 27C, determine the mass of the
container. (Latent heat of fusion for water = 8 104 cal/
kg, specific heat of water = 103 cal/kg-K).
(2001; 5M)
32. A monoatomic ideal gas of two moles is taken through
a cyclic process starting from A as shown in the figure.

VB
VD
The volume ratios are V = 2 and V = 4. If the
A
A
temperature TA at A is 27C.
VD

V
VB
VA

B
A
TA

T TB

Calculate :
(2001; 10M)
(a) the temperature of the gas at point B.
(b) heat absorbed or released by the gas in each
process,
(c) the total work done by the gas during the complete
cycle.
Express your answer in terms of the gas constant R.
33. A 5 m long cylindrical steel wire with radius 2 103
m is suspended vertically from a rigid support and
carries a bob of mass 100 kg at the other end. If the
bob gets snapped, calculate the change in temperature
of the wire ignoring losses. (For the steel wire :
Young's modulus = 2.1 1011 Pa; Density -= 7860 kg/
m3 ; Specific heat = 420 J/kg-K)
(2001; 5M)

155

## 34. A cubical box of side 1 m contains helium gas (atomic

weight 4) at a pressure of 100 N/m2 . During an
observaion time of 1 s, an atom travelling with the root
mean square speed parallel to one of the edges of the
cube, was found to make 500 hits with a particular wall,
without any collision with other atoms. Take

## 38. A cube of coefficient of linear expansion s is floating

in a bath containing a liquid of coefficient of volume
expansion l . When the temperature is raised by T,
the depth upto which the cube is submerged in the
liquid remains the same. Find the relation between s
and l showing all the steps.
(2004; 2M)

25
J/mol-K and k = 1.381023 J/K. (2002; 5M)
3
(a) Evaluate the temperature of the gas.
(b) Evalulate the average kinetic energy per atom.
(c) Evalulate the total mass of helium gas in the box.

## 39. One end of a rod of length L and cross-sectional area

A is kept in a furnace of temperature T1 . The other end
of the rod is kept at a temperature T2 . The thermal
conductivity of the material of the rod is K and
emissivity of the rod is e. It is given that T2 = Ts + T,
where T < < Ts , Ts being the temperature of the
surroundings. If T (T1 Ts ), find the proportionally
constant. Consider that heat is lost only by radiation
at the end where the temperature of the rod is T2 .
(2004; 4M)

R =

## 35. An insulated box containing a monoatomic gas of

molar mass M moving with as speed v0 is suddenly
stopped. Find the increment in gas temperature as a
result of stopping the box.
(2003; 2M)

Ts

## 36. The top of an insulated cylindrical container is covered

by a disc having emissivity 0.6 and conductivity 0.167
Wm1 K1 and thickness 1 cm. The temperture is
maintained by circulating oil as shown : (a) Find the
radiation loss to the surroundings in J/m2 s if temperature
of the upper surface of disc is 127C and temperature
of surroundings is 27C. (b) Also find the temperature
of the circulating oil. Neglect the heat loss due to
convection.

Insulated
Furnance
T1

Oil in

17
10 8 Wm2 K4 ]
3

(2003; 4M)

## 37. The piston cylinder arrangement shown contains a

diatomic gas at temperature 300 K. The cross-sectional
area of the cylinder is 1m2 . Initially the height of the
piston above the base of the cylinder is 1 m. The
temperature is now raised to 400 K at constant pressure.
Find the new height of the piston above the base of
the cylinder. If the piston is now brought back to its
original height without any heat loss, find the new
equilibrium temperature of the gas. You can leave the
(2004; 2M)

1m

L
Insulated

## 40. A metal of mass 1 kg at constant atmospheric pressure

and at initial temperature 20C is given a heat of
20000J. Find the following :
(2005; 6M)
(a) change in temperature,
(b) work done and
(c) change in internal energy.
(Given : Specific heat 400 J/kg/C, coefficient of cubical
expansion, = 9 105/C, density = 9000 kg/m3.
atmospheric pressure = 105N/m2)

Oil out

[Given : =

T2

## 41. In an insulated vessel, 0.05 kg steam at 373 K and 0.45

kg of ice at 253 K are mixed. Find the final temperature
of the mixture (in kelvin).
(2006; 6M)
Given, Lfusion = 80 cal/g = 336 J/g.
Lvaporization = 540 cal/g = 2268 J/g.
S ice = 2100 J/kg, K = 0.5 cal/gK
and S water = 4200 J/kg, K = 1 cal/gK.
42. A metal rod AB of length 10x has its one end A in ice
at 0C and the other end B in water at 100C. If a point
P on the rod is maintained at 400C, then it is found
that equal amounts of water and ice evaporate and
melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation of
water is 540 cal/g and latent heat of melting of ice is
80 cal/g. If the point P is at a distance of x from the
ice end A, find the value of . [Neglect any heat loss
to the surrounding.]
43. A thin rod of negligible mass and area of cross section
4 106 m2 , suspended vertically from one end, has a
length of 0.5 m at 100C. The rod is cooled to 0C, but

156

## prevented from contracting by attaching a mass at the

lower end. Find (i) this mass and (ii) the energy stored
in the rod, given for the rod. Young's modulus = 1011
N/m2 , Coefficient of linear expansion 105 k1 and g =
10 m/s 2 .
(1997C; 5M)

1.

## The piston is now pulled out slowly and held at a

distance 2L from the top. The pressure in the cylinder
will then be :
P0
(a) P0
(b)
2
P0 Mg
P0 Mg
+

(c)
(d)
2 R2
2 R2

2.

## While the piston is at a distance 2L from the top, the

hole at the top is sealed. The piston is then released,
to a position where it can stay in equilibrium. In this
conditions, the distance of the piston from the
top is:
(2007; 4M)

1.

## This section contains, statement I (assertion) and

statement II (reasons).
Statement-I : The total translation kinetic energy of all
the molecules of a given mass of an ideal gas is 1.5
times the product of its pressure and its volume. A
fixed thermally
(2007; 4M)
Because :
Statement II : The molecules of a gas collide with each
other and the velocities of the molecules change due
to the collision.
(a) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statementII is a correct explanation for statement -I
(b) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statementII is NOT a correct explanation for statement -I
(c) Statement-I is true, statement-II is false
(d) Statement-I is false, statement-II is true

2P0 R 2
(2L )
(a) 2

R P0 + Mg

3.

COMPREHENSION
Passage
A
fixed
thermally
conducting cylinder has a
radius R and height L0. The
cylinder is open at its
bottom and has a small
hole at its top. A piston of
mass M is held at a
distance L from the top
surface, as shown in the

2R

P0 R2 Mg
(2 L)
(b)
2

R P0

P0 R 2

(2L )
P0 R2 + Mg
R 2 P Mg

(2
L
)

(c)
(d)
2

R P0
The piston is taken completely
out of the cylinder. The hole at
the top is sealed. A water tank
is brought below the cylinder
and put in a position so that the
L0
water surface in the tank is at
H
the same level as the top of the
cylinder as shown in the figure.
The density of the water is . In equlibrium, the height
H of the water column in the cylinder satisfies :
(2007; 4M)
(a) g (L0 H)2 + P0 (L0 H) + L0P0 = 0
(b) g (L0 H)2 P0 (L0 H) L0P0 = 0
(c) g (L0 H)2 + P0 (L0 H) L0P0 = 0
(d) g (L0 H)2 P0 (L0 H) + L0P0 = 0

L0

Piston

FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. 2R

3.

4. 0C

2T

10. 0.628
11. 60C
13. 46.68C
14. 5.5

5.

5803

6.

12. 192

TRUE/FALSE
1. F
4. T
6. T

2. F
4. F
7. F

3.
5.

F
F
157

1.71 rc

7.

4KTR2
P

8.

Pt
M

1.

## Match the following for the given process

(2006; 6M)

P
J

30

20
10

10

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

3
20 V ( m )

Column I
Process J K
Process K L
Process L M
Process M J

Column II
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)

Q>
W<
W>
Q<

0
0
0
0

2.

Column 1 gives some devices and Column II gives some processes on which the functioning of these devices
depend. Match the devices in Column I with the processes in Column II.
(2007; 6M)
Column I
Column II
(A) Bimetallic strip
(p) Radiation from a hot body.
(B) Steam engine
(q) Energy conversion
(C) Incandescent lamp
(r) Melting
(D) Electric fuse
(s) Thermal expansion of solids

3.

Column I contains a list of processes involvin expransion of an ideal gas. Match this with Column II describing
the thermodynamic change during this process. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate bubbles of the
4 4 matrix given in the ORS
(2008; 7M)
Column I
Column II
(A) An inuslated container has two chambers
(p) The temperature of the gas decreases
separated by a valve. Chamber I contains an
ideal gas and the Chamber II has vaacuum.
The valve is opened.

(B)

## An ideal monoatomic gas expands to twice its

original volume such that its pressure p

(C)

## where V is the volume of the gas.

Real monoatomic gas expands to twice its

orginal

constant
(r)

## , where V is its volume

V 4/ 3
An ideal monoatomic gas expands such that its
(s)
pressure p and volume V follows the behaviour
shown in the graph

(D)

1
V2

158

1.
8.
15.
22.
29.
36.
42.
49.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(c)

2. (a)
9. (b)
16. (d)
23.(d)
30. (a)
37. (c)
43. (a)

3.
10.
17.
24.
31.
37.
44.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
None
(c)

4. (d)
11. (b)
18. (c)
25. (a)
32. (a)
38. (b)
45. (c)

5. (b)
12. (d)
19. (d)
26. (a)
33. (a)
39. (c)
46. (a)

6.
13.
20.
27.
34.
40.
47.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(c)

7.
14.
21.
28.
35.
41.
48.

(d)
(c)
(d)
(b)
(c)
(c)
()

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (a, b, c, d)
7. (b, d)
10. (b, d)

2. (a, b, d)
3.
8. (a, b, c, d) 9.

(a, b)
(b, d)

4. (a, c)

5. (c, d)

6. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. 12.96 m/s
2.
3. 972 J
4. Hollow sphere
5. (i) 1.96 1027 /s (ii) 36 m/s
6. (i) T1 = 12.94 T0 . T2 = 2.25 T0 (ii) 1.875 RT0
7. 83.75 cm of Hg
8. 9000 W 9. 75.4 cm of Hg
6
2
10. 675K, 3.6 10 N/m
11. (i) (ii) 113 L, 0.44 105 N/m2 (iii) 12459 J
12. 800 K, 720 J
13. (i) f = 5 (ii) W = 1.23 PV
14. (b) 0.58 RTA . 0.58 RTA
15. (a) 1152 J (b) 1152 J (c) zero
16. 166.32 s
17. (a) 1869.75 J (b) 5297.6 J (c) 500 K 18. (a) 765 J (b) 10.82%
19. Mass of neon = 4.074g, mass of argon = 23.926 g
20. (a) 2 mol (b) 401 m/s (c) 0.167% (d) 8.27 105 V
21. (a) 189 K (b) 2767 J (c) 2767 J 22. 12 g
23. TB = 909K, TD = 791.4 K, 61.4% 24. 6.7 105 /C
25. 41.6 W, 26.48C, 0.52C
26. (i) TA =120.34 K, TB =240.68 K, TC=481.36 K, TD =240.68 K (ii) No (ii) QABC=3.25 106 J, QADC=2.75 106 J
27. (a) P0 V0

25 P0V0
5
P0V0
(b) P0V0 , 3P0 V0 (c)
(d)
8 R
2
2

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

V 2 / 3
V
3
3
1

1
1
=
PV
1
1
= PV
(ii) Utotal 2
1 1 V

V2
2
2

## (a) 1200 R (b) QAR = 2100R, QBC = 1500R, QCA = 831.6R

0.495 kg
(a) 600 K (b) 1500 R, 831.6 R, 900 R, 831.6 (R) (c) 600 R
4.568 103 C
(a) 160 K (b) 3.312 1021 J (c) 0.3 g

35. T =

37.

2 K 4 t j

Mv02
3R

## 36. 595 W/m2 (b) 162.6C

4
m, 448.8 K
3

38. l = 2,

K
39. Proportional constant =

4eLTs3 + K
159

2/3

2/3
V
Q PV
1 + Q (iii) T
=
+ 11 1
Final

3R 2 R V2

## 40. (a) 50C (b) 0.05 J (c) 19999.95 J

41. 273 K
43. (i) 40 kg (ii) 0.1 J

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. A-s, B-q, C-p, r, D-q, s 2. A-s, B-q, C-p, q, D-q, r
3. A-q, B-p, r, C-p, s, D-q, s

## ASSERATION AND REASON

1. (b)

COMPREHENSION
1. (a)

2. (d)

3.

(c)

SOLUTIONS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.

3
2

CV =

5
R
2

CV =
2.

3.

## T 4 (surface area of sum)

become (Surface area of sphere having radius =
distance of the earth and sun)

n1CV1 + n2 CV 2
n1 + n2

= =

3
5
R + 1 R
2
2 = 2R
2

4
It value is given 1400 T

## O A the material remains solid but A B it starts

melting at constant temperature.
at P the solid and its liquid both will co-exist.

= constant
RT
Puting, P =
, we have
V

T
= constant
V

4.

6.

5.

2 1 / 4

= 5803 K

dT
mc
= AT4
dt

or

0 dt =

or

t =

## But cooling water from 25C to 0C provides Q = ms

1.59 1011

7 108

Q = (T 4 O ) A = T 4 A
which is responsible for decrease in temp by dT

2 times.

or

1400 r 2
T=
2
R

1400
=
5. 67 10 8

R2
= 1400
r2

1/ 4

VP2

or

T 4 4R 2
4r 2

## Q = 300 1 ( 25 0) = 7500 cal.

Whole ice will not melt and the temperature
remains at 0C. (finally)

## Heat radiated by the sun per sec. unit area is T 4

(Treating it as a black body)
This heat received by unit area of earth per sec will

160

mc
A

100

200 T

dt

mc 1
1

3A (100)3 (200)3

7mc
7mc 106
106 =
3 8 A
24A

## Substituting the value

is same

4
3
6
7 r (c) 10
3

t=
3 8 5.67 10 8 4r 2
= 1.71 rc
7.

## Heat generated per second must be radiated out of the

sphere Power of source = Rate of heat flow
P= H =

temperaturedifference
T
=
1 t
thermalresistance
K 4R 2

t=

9.

L=

1.

t = 3.3 10 2 s =

t = 5 .5 min

330
min
60

V =

3RT
1
V
at same temp.
M
M

## For gases of diff. moleculer mass, we have different

rms speeds.

100
k
2
100
2 5
1 = B =
=1+ =

kA 3

3 3

2.

Slope of V - T graph

dV nR 1
=

dT
P
P

3
100 = 60
5

## 12. Equilibrium will be achieved only if P at both sides of

movable partition is same. P1 = P2

n1R T
n2 RT
=
V1
V2

TRUE/FALSE

0
100
11. In series H is same l / k A = l / k A
B
A

0. 2m 2
m2
= 280 Js 1
This heat will melt the ice in t sec

(280 Js 1 ) (t s) = mL
= (280 103 ) (3.3 105 J kg 1 )

U = Q W = 0

8
8
(360 ) = ( 360 ) = 192
8+ 7
15

= 1400

## average KE of particles remains unchanged

Temperature is unchanged.

PV = constant

## (P1 ) (2V) = PV Pi = P/2

PVT = constant where = 1.67
1.67
(Pa ) (2V)
= PV1.67 Pa = P/(2)1.67
Therefore, the ratio Pa /Pi = (2/21.67) = 0.628

Pt
M

## As the system is an ideal gas which expands against

free space no work is done by it or on it

W = 0 , Q = 0

3.5 104

T2 = 273.16)
4 K
3 10
= 318.68k
or temperature at given pressure will be
(318.68 273)C or 45.68C

## Heat lost = Heat required

P.t = M.L.

= Angle V2 towards

or

8.

## 13. The gas thermometer works at constant volume.

Therefore,
TP
or
T2 /T1 = P2 /P1
or
T2 = T1 (P2 /P1 )

4kR2T
P

V2
V
V
M
32 8
= 1 or 2 = 1 =
=
M 1 M 2 V1 M 2 28 7

3.

n1V2 = n2V1
4.

mass
m
=
Now number of moles =
and m
molecular mass M
161

3RT
M
So, vrms not only depends on T but also on M.
vrms =

## Slope of PV graph for isothermal process = P and

slope for adiabatic process = P as > 1
adiabatic process has larger slope than that of

isothermal process.
A represents isothermal process and B represents

## (1. 1+ 0.02) 103 1 (80 15)

540
= 0.135 kg.

T
M
When oxygen gas dissociates into atomic oxygen its
atomic mass M will remain half. Temperature is doubled.
So, from Eq. (1) vrms will become two times.
or

6.
7.

vrms

Cp CV = R > 0

5.

CP > CV

( E / t )1 4R12 T14
=

( E / t ) 2 4R22 T24

1.

2.

6.

4.

CV 2 =

5
7
R 2 =
2
5

12 3
= = 1.5.
8 2

## In this case these two coaxial cylindrical layers are

parallel to each other.

H =

1 2
l

KA

2R

3 8.31 300
M

=
= =

## (Q)V = nCV T (Q) P C P 7

5
5
( Q ) P = 70 = 50 cal.
7
7

3
5
CV1 = R1 =
2
3

M = 2 10 3 kg = 2g
or the gas is H2 .

(a)

( Q ) V =

CV1 +CV2

n1 = n2 = 1

H = H1 + H 2 , and

3RT
M
Room temperature T = 300 K

3.

1CV1 +2CV2

CP
=
CV

vrms =

1930 =

n1CV1 + n2CV2

and

## Work done in cyclic process = area surrounded by

P-V graph of this process
= (2P P) (2V V)
= PV

n11CV1 + n2 2CV2

1 4
= = 1
4 2

## They radiate same heat.

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)

n1CV1 + n2CV2

5 3 7 5
+
= 3 2 5 2,
3 5
+
2 2

= T 4
E / t = AT 4

n1CP1 + n2CP2

mixture =

## According to the Stefan's law

Energy (per sec per unit area) radiated by a black body

cw
L

3RT
M

vrms =

5.

ms = (mw + weq )

1 2
k eff (2 R) 2
l
1 2
2
K1R 2 + 1
K 2 ( 4R 2 R 2 )
l
l

K eff =
7.

K1 + 3 K 2
4

## The desired fraction is :

U
nCV T CV 1
f = Q = nC T = C =
P
P

## Heat given by steam = Heat required by water and

calorimeter

ms L = ( mw + weq ) cw
162

or

f=

(d)

5
7
(as =
)
7
5

8.

## Average speed of molecules depends only on absolute

temperature and molecular mass of gas (mass of
molecule)

8kT
m
But all three vessels are at same temperature.

1/3

1 2 /3 1
(3) =
3
3

Vav =

Vav

11.

vrms T
When temperature is increased from 120 K to 480 K
(i.e. four times), the root mean square speed will
i.e.,

1
and hence average speed of O 2

9.

become

## The heat lost = heat gained by each portion of a

conductor during steady state flow.
C

B
( 2 T)

A
(T)

or

T TC

T T 2
= C
T TC = 2TC 2T
l
l 2

dQ
dT
= mc
= eA(T 4 T04 )
dt
dt

Tsun
Tnorthstar

1
m

= =

( m) north star
( m ) sun

350
= 0. 69
510

## 15. In this case V is same in both vessels as well as n = 1

is same

nR
T1
P1
T
= V
= 1 T2 = 2T1 gives
P2 nR T
T2
2
V
P2 = 2P1

4 3
3m

r r =
3
4

2

T=

## molecule is 3 kT which depends on temperature only.

2
Therefore, if temperature is same, translational kinetic
energyh of O2 and N2 both will be equal.

e
A (T 4 T04 )
( dT / dt) 1 3mc 1
=
e
(dT / dt) 2
A2 (T 4 T04 )
mc
m=

2 times

TC
3
=
T
1+ 2

1/3

But

mT = constant

temperature fall
i.e.

= 12.42 1021 J

T TB
= KA C

lCB

TC (1 + 2 ) = 3T

3RT
M

## i.e. v rms (at 600 K ) = 2 ( 484 ) = 684 m/s and KE (600)

For TB ( 2T ) > T A (T )

T T
KA A C
l AC

## and KE becomes 2 times KE = KT

2

B loses heat to A

## C provides heat to B by equal amount

As K is same as well as A then heat flowing from

or

12. vrms =

l 2

3RT
M

vrms =

( dT / dt) 1
A
1 r
1 m
= 1 = 1 = 1
(dT / dt) 2 3 A2 3 r2
3 m2

2 /3

1
times.
4
Temperature is doubled, therefore, T4 becomes 16
halved, hence, surface area will becomes

163

is maximum

1
times. New power = (450) (16) = 1800 W.
4

U 2 is maximum
U 2 > U1 is correct.
E

## 17. Average kinetic energy per molecules per degree of

1
kT . Since, both the gases are diatomic
2
and at same temperature (300 K), both will have the
same number of rotational degree of freedom i.e. two.
Therefore both the gases will have the same average
rotational kineic energy per molecules
freedom =

U3

U2

PA
1
2
18. P = 1.5 = 3
B

## T is kept same (isothermal)

nA 2
=
nB 3

But n =

As

m
M

CP
dT A
dTB =
CV
= (dTA )
[ = 14 (diatomic)] [dTA = 30 K]
= (1.4) (30K)
dTB = 42K

RT
M

V =

VN 2
VHe

## Energy value corresponding to this wavelength

7
/ 28
5
=
5/ 4
3

734
( 3)
=
5 5 28
5

Hence, U = U O2 + U Ar

5
3

= 2 RT + 4 RT = 11RT
2
2

TV1 = constant
or

T1V1 1

= T2V2 1

## For a monoatomic gas, =

b 2.88 10 6 nm K
=
T
2880 K
= 1000 nm

7
and Helium is monoatomic
5

U = n RT
2

## where f = degree of freedom.

= 5 for O2 and 3 for Ar

m =
m

U3

T is given by

## 20. From Wien's lawm T = b it is clear that the wavelength

corresponding to maximum energy radition is

5
.
3

mA n A 2
=
=
mB nB 3 for same gas.

## 19. A is free to move, therefore, heat will be supplied at

constant pressure

dQA = nC P dTA
...(1)
B is held fixed, therefore, heat will be supplied at
constant volume.

dQB = nC V dTB
...(2)
But dQA = dQB (given)

nC P dTA = nC V dTB

1499
1500

489
500

## 21. Nitrogen is diatomic =

RT
RT
nA
nA
V
2V = 2
RT
RT 3
nB
nB
V
2V

999
1000

U1

= 2 1 kT or kT
2
Thus, ratio will be 1 : 1.

T1 V2
=
T2 V1

5
3

AL2
=

AL1

(5/3)1

## (A = Area of cross section of piston)

164

2/3

L2
=

L1

temperatures we have

## 24. Wien's displacement law for a perfectly black body

is
m T = constant = Wien's constant b
Here, m is the minimum wavelength corresponding to
maximum intensity I.

v1
=
v2

m2
m1

## 29. Let be the temperature of the junction (say B).

Thermal resistance of all the three rods is equal. Rate
of heat flow through AB + Rate of heat flow through
CB = Rate of heat flow through BD
90C
A

1
T
From the figure (m )1 < (m )3 < (m )2
Therefore,
T1 > T3 > T2
m

or

## 25. The Process of converting 10C ice into 100C steam

involves change of phase twice and during each change
of phase the temp remains constant (when energy is
supplied is used to do work against intermolecular
forces) and also the rise of temperature should be there
hence only Ist graph is found to be correct.

C
90C

90 90
0
+
=
R
R
R
Here R = Thermal resistance

3 = 180
or
= 60C

## 26. The corresponding P-V graphs (also called indicaor

diagram) in three different processes will be as shown:
P

0C

## 30. For an ideal gas U T

But U = Q W U < 0 if Q < 0 and

W = 0
i.e. U decreases and hence T decreases.

1
3

## 31. For P-V graphs, slope = P

V1

V2

5
7
He > O2
As
3
5

or Ar

Area under the graph gives the work done by the gas.
(Area)2 > (Area)1 > (Area)3

W2 > W1 > W3

V
nRT
V nR

=
27. =
and V =
VT
P
T
P

## Slope of P-V graph of monoatomic gas is greater

than that of diatomic gas.
2 should be He and 1 should be O2
32. For cyclic process U = 0

P
nR 1

=
nRT P T
S.T. = [Constant] rectangular hyperbola.
(c)

Hence =

28. v =

RT
M
v=

M = Nm
R KB
=

R = K B N
M
m

or N 2

W AB + W BC + WCA = Q = 5. 0 J

( 2 1)10 + O + WCA = 5

WCA = 5 J

## 33. During isothermal process the bulk modulus of a gas

is B =

k BT
but for monoatomic gases at same
m

V P
=P
V

Hence =
165

V
1
= P = 1
VP P

## The remaining heat

Q = Q1 Q2 = 0.8 105 cal will melt a mass m of the
ice, where

## Which is the equation of rectangular hyperbola

(a)
34. According to Kirchoffs law of radiation All good
absorbers are good emitters.
Being best absorber, a black body is also best
emitter.
Initially it appears darkest as it absorbs maximum
but finally when it reaches to the temperature of
furnace it emits maximum and appears brightest.

## 39. Temperature of liquid oxygen will first increase in the

same phase. Then, phase change (liquid to gas) will
take place. During which temperature will remain
constant. After that temperature of oxygen in gaseous
state will further increase.
Hence, the correct option is (c).

dT
35. Rate of cooling
emissivity (e)
dt
From the graph,
dT
dT

> dt

y
dt x

ex > ey

## 40. Slope of adiabatic process at a given state (P, V, T) is

more than the slope of isothermal process. The
corresponding P-V graph for the two processes as
shown in figure.

## Further emissivity (e) absorptive power (a) (good

absorbers are goods emitters also)

ax > ay
Hence, the correc answer is (c).
Note : Emissivity is a pure ratio (dimensionless) while
the emissive power has a unit J/s or watt.

L
36. = L
0

La = L1 at ,

P3

Ls = L 2 s t

P1

La = L s

L1 a = L 2 s

L1 s
=
L2 a

1+

Q 0.8 105
=
= 1 kg
L 80 103
So, the temperature of the mixture will be 0C, mass of
water in it is 5 + 1 = 6 kg and mass of ice is 2 1 =
1 kg.
m=

L2

=1 + a
L1
s
V1

L1
s
=
L1 + L 2 a + s

## 37. AC adiabatic process

BC isobaric process
AB isothermal process
In P-V diagrams slopeAC > SlopeAB and Slope BC
should be zero.
Also (A C and A B both should be the
rectangular hyperbola)
Option (b) may appear correct but temperature at
B is less then that at C shows that volume at B should
be less than volume at C which is not so.
none is correct.

V2

## In the graph, AB is isothermal and BC is adiabatic.

WAB = positive (as volume is increasing)
and WBC = negative (as volume is decreasing) plus,
|WBC| > |WAB |, as area under P-V graph gives the work
done.
Hence, WAB + WBC = W < 0
From the graph itself, it is clear that P3 > P1 .
Hence, the correct option is (c).
Note : At point B, slope of adiabatic (process BC) is
greater than the slope of isothermal (process AB).
41. In Ist case Rods are in parallel q =

dm l dQ
=
dt
L dt

## KA(100 0) KA(100 0) 2KA(100 )

+
=
lL
lL
l
Finally they are connected in series.

q1 =

## 38. Heat released by 5 kg of water when its temperature

fall from 20C to 0C is
Q1 = mc = (5) (103 ) (20 0) = 105 cal
when 2 kg ice at 20C comes to a temperature of 0C,
it takes an energy
Q2 = mc = (2) (500) (20) = 0.2 105 cal

166

q2 =

KA(100 0)
2lL

dv 2nRT
=
dT
k
(b)

q1 4
=
q2 1

Given

## according to Weins law mT = constant

dV
2
=
VdT T

=Y
1 = 2

Y1 2 3
Y1 1 = Y2 2 or Y = = 2
2
1

1
m Now these two are combined.

A
2
Hence Power Q 4 or Q 4
m
m

QA : QB : QC =

(2) ( 4) ( 6)
:
:
(3) 4 ( 4) 4 (5) 4

QB is maximum.

1.

## (a) Internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on

its temperature U = nCV T for all processes
(b) U + W = Q = 0 for an adiabatic process

U = W

( m s )

## Net heat gained by water in t sec = (1000 160)t =

840 t
840 t = 2 4.2 103 50
or t = 500 sec. = 8 min 20 sec.

## (d) Q = 0 Q = constant for adiabatic process

All options are correct.
2.

A1 > A2

## 45. According to Weins law m .T = constant

T3 > T2 > T1

As m3 < m2 < m1
A1

T3 corresponds sun
T2 corresponds filament

## 46. Calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of water from 14.5C to 15.5C at 760 mm
of Hg.
47. 0.6AT 4 (emitted) + 0.4AT 4 (reflected)

A2

Given process

## T1 corresponds welding arc.

V
Isothermal process

## Wgiven process > Wisothermal process

(b) In the given process P-V equation will be of a
straight line with negative slope and positive 9ntercept
i.e., P = V + (Here and are positive constant)

PV = V2 + V

nRT = V2 + V

1
V 2 + V
...(1)
nR
This is an equation of parabola in T and V.

## = 1. 00AT 4 will be max. energy radiated

(c)
48. pT = k

(d)

k
p=
now PV = nRT gives
T

nRT 2
V=
k
167

T=

dT
= 0 = 2V
dV
V=

B
2

d 2T

Now,

Vav =

= 2 = ve

dV
i.e., T has some maximum value.
Now,
T PV
and
(PA)A = (PV)B

TA = TB
We conclude that temperature are same at A and B and
temperature has a maximum value. Therefore, in going
from A to B, T will first increase to a maximum value
and then decrease.
3.

and V rms =

8RT
8kT
=
M
m
3RT
=
M

3kT
m

F(v)

## As the bodies have same outer surface area and the

emit same power
1/ 4

e AT A4 A = eB TB4 A

T A eB
=

TB e A

1/ 4

T A 81
=
TB 1

= 3 or TB =

## As it is evident from the graph that few molecules

can have speeds to a very large value and some
molecules can have speeds slightly greater than
zero.

T A 5802
=
= 1934 K
3
3

Now, mB mA = 1 m and mB TB = b = mA T A

mA = mB

The average KE =

TB 1
= m
TA 3 B

## (a) Coefficient of volumetric expansion is

Now PV = nRT V =

1 3 2
3
2
m Vmp = mV mp
2 2
4
Option (c) and (d) are correct.
6.

## There is a decrease in volume during melting of an ice

slab at 273 K. Therefore, negative work is done by icewater system on the atmosphere or positive work is
done on the ice water system by the atmosphere.
Hence, option (b) is correct. Secondly heat is absorbed
during melting (i.e dQ is positive) and as we have
seen, work done by ice-water system is negative (dW
is negative). Therefore, from first law of thermodynamics
dU = dQ dW
change in internal energy of ice-water system, dU will
be positive or internal energy will increase.

7.

## Let l0 be the initial length of each strip before heating.

Length after heating will be :

V
=
VT

nRT
P

nR
dV dT
dV
1
dT or =
=

=
P
V
T
VdT T
depends upon T.
dV =

3
K BT
2
(c) As the pressure increases, volume decreases for

1
1 3kT
2
mV rms
= m
2
2
m

1
3
mB mB = 1 m gives mB = = 1. 5 m
or
3
2
Option (a) and (b)

4.

P

## Mean free path decreases.

(d) As average translational RE for each component is

B
C
d

3
k BT hence it is same for all gases in a given mixture.
2

5.

Vmp =

2RT
=
M

V mp V ap V rms

2kT
m
168

lB = l0 (1 + B T) = (R + d)
lC = l0 (1 + CT) = R

and

## Option (c) is wrong.

Positive WD ( D A B) is greater than negative

1 + BT
R+d

=
R
1+ C T

WD ( B C D )
Hence in the complete cycle net work done is positive.
Option (d) is correct.

d
= 1 + (B C) T
R
[From binomial expansion]
1+

R=

or R
8.

9.

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

3 1 2
mv = ms + mL
4 2

1
( B C ) T

(8s + 8L )
3
Substituting the value, we have

1
1
and | |
T
B
C

or

## The chamber is opened Black body will absorb more

radiation and hence emit more energy (as T is
constant) Also for T constant both should be equal
option (a), (b) and (d) are correct.

## C P CV = R for all gases

CV =

5
7
R and C P = R for diatomic gas
2
2

CV =

3
5
R and C P = R for monoatomic gas
2
2

=
C P .CV =

## (8 0.03 4.2 300) + (8 6 4.2)

3
= 12.96m/s

2.

V
= constant (Slope) V T
T
It is an isobaric process. (Expansion)
B C is an isochoric process
C A is an isothermal process. (Compression)
Using above conditions that P-V diagrams can be
drawn as follows
A B

7
= 1.4 for diatomic gas
5

5
= 1.67 for monoatomic gas
3

3.

35
= 8.75 for diatomic gas
4

## During adiabatic process

Pi Vi Pf V f
W =
1

15
= 3.75 for monoatomic gas
4
Option (b) and (d) are correct.
=

CV =

## 10. As the graph of an isothermal process is rectangular

hyperbola (-ve slope decreasing) and process
A B is ve slope increasing
Option (a) is wrong.
Q = U + W shows that Q < O as WBCD < 0

v=

v =

## C P + CV = 6 for diatomic gas

= 4 for monoatomic gas

C P / CV = =

## Option (b) is correct

Work done during the path A B C is area of
semi circle (positive WD ( A B ) > negative
WD ( B C )]
Net WD is positive

169

3
5
5
R C P = R and =
2
2
3

V
Pf = Pi i
V
f

W=

5/ 3

= 10 5 6 = 6.24 10 5
2

10 5 6 10 3 6.25 105 2 10 3
5
1
3

3
[ 6 12. 5] 10 2
2
= 150 [ 6 .5 ]
= 972 J
=

4.

dQ
= eAT 4 will be same for both as e A and T
dt
are same

Further

dT dQ
dT
1
=

But mc
dt
dt
dt
m
For same outer radium and material, the mass of
hollow sphere is less
its rate of cooling will be more
it cools down faster than the solid sphere
5.

or

T1 + T2 =

5/3

1 dp
= Pressure
A dt

## of gas becomes P = n( 2mv rms )

P
1. 01 10 5
27
=
= 1. 96 10 / sec.
32
2mv rms
483 .4
2
6.02 10 26

7.

1
mgasv02
2

## As the bulbs are connected by using a tube

if temperature difference is created thus to keep
pressure same, some gas (say x mole) moves from hot
bulb to cold bulb.
Initially we have 76 V = nR 273
and finally ( n + x) R 273 = PV = (n x) R 335

5
R
2
T
= v02
3
1(32 10 )
2 1

or

T = 1C

v0 =

6.

5
2 8.31
2
1000
32

v0 = 36 m/s

Applying

n+x =

or

x=

335
(n x )
273

62
n
608

P ( n + x)
x
62
=
=1+ =1+
76
n
n
608
P = 83 .75 cm of Hg

8.

PV
= constant for both the chambers.
T

V1 =

Also,

## P0V0 PV1 PV2

243P0
=
=
=
(Here,
P
)
T0
T1
T2
32

15/3

3
= (1) R (T0 = 2.25T0 )
2
= 1.875 RT0

## (b) When the gas filled vessel, moving with speed

nCV T =

...(1)

T0
243 P0

=

T
2
32P0
Solving this equation, we get
T2 = 2.25 T0
From Eq. (1),
T1 = 12.94 T0
(ii) Work done by the gas in right chamber (Q = 0,
W = U
= nC V (Ti Tf )

i.e. + 2m vrms

## v0 is suddenly stopped (adiabatic process) then

entire KE is used as thermal energy to raise temp of
gas

243
T
16 0

## Applying the P-T equation of adiabatic process to the

right chamber,

particletothewallis
[ mvrms ( mv rms )]

n=

16
243 (T1 + T2 ) = T0

or

32 T2
V2 =
V0
243 T0
V1 + V2 = 2V0

and

## Let R1 , R2 and R3 be the thermal resistance of wood,

cement and brick. All the resistance are in series.
Hence,

20C

32 T1
V0
243 T0

R1

R2

R = R1 + R2 + R3
170

R3

10C

## 2.5 10 2 1.0 102 25 102

l
+
+
(as R =
)
0.125 137 1.5 137
1.0 137
KA
= 0.33 102 C/W
Rate of heat transfer

2.49 10 4
Q
= 300 +
T f = Ti +
PV 5

n(C p R )
R R
RT 2

= 300 +

temperaturedifference
dQ
=
thermalresistance
dt

Pi
675
6
Hence Pf = T T f = 1.6 10 300
i

30
=

W
0.33102
= 9000 W
Power of heater should be 9000 W
9.

P
5 cm
(a)

5cm

P1

cm
44. 5

## 11. PV diagram is shown below

AB process is isobaric

VT
P = constant
i.e if V is doubled, T also becomes two times.
TA = 300 K TB = 600 K
VA = 20 L VB = 40 L

m
46 c

P2

30

PA =

(b)

## Now the tube is tilted at an angle of 30 with the

horizontal lower end compresses to 44.5 and upper
end expands to 46.
But total length remains unchanged We have
( 2 x + 5) cm = ( 44 .5 + 5 + 46 )cm

x = 45 .25cm
If equilibrium (in tilted tube) after isothermal process
PV = PV below lower surface of mercury
P2 A 44.5 = P A x = P A 45 .25
Now, above the upper surface of mercury
P1 A 46 = P A x = P A 45. 25

46 5
3

5/3

600
or

300

5/31

2.49 105
=

Pc

2.49 105
=

Pc

2/3

300
Pc = (2.49 105)

600
Pc = 0.44 105 N/m2
Similarly, using PVr = constant we can find that
Vc = 113 L
The corresponding P-V graph is shown below
5

P ( 10)N/m

0.44

44. 5
46 5 44.5
P2 =
= 75.4 cm of Hg
45.25
3 45 .25
P = 75 .4 cm of Hg
P=

20

(iii)

## 10. As the volume of gas remains same

20 10 3
= 2.49 105 N /m2
Process BC is adiabatic. So, applying TP1 = constant

2.49

44.5 5
P2 P2
=
46
2

(2)(8.31)(300)
=

5/2

P2 44. 5 = P1 46
Also comparing pressures in cm of mercury in titled
tube we get
P2 = P1 + 5 sin 30

P2 =

nRT A
VA

1. 5 5
P2 =

46 2

Pf = 3 .6 10 6

## When tube is horizontal the lengths of air columns at

both sides of mercury column are equal.
x

2. 49 10 4 300
3
= 675 K
6
3
2
1. 6 10 8. 3 10

W = 0 Q = U = nCV T
171

40

113

V (L)

## WAB = Area under P-V graph

= (2.49 105 ) (40 20) 103 = 4980 J
WBC = U = nC V (TB TC)

= 1.4 (diatomic)

2

## 12. The piston will finally be in equilibrium

PG f A = Patm + Kx

PG f = Patm +

f =

Vi
Using Pf = Pi
Vf

(ii)

W=

FGas

## (for adiabatic process)

TiV f
Kx
=
Patm +

Now T f = Ti
PiVi
PiVi
A
Pf V f

V + 0.1xA
Kx
= i
1 +
Ti
Vi

APatm

1
( Pt Vt Pf V f )
1

1
[ PV 0.09 5.66V ]
1.4 1

10
[1 0.51]PV
4

4.9
= 1. 225 = 1. 23 J
4

Fspring

0.1 8 10
= 1 +
2.4 10 3

we get Pf = 0.09 P

Kx
A
Fatm

2
= 5 degree of freedom
1. 4 1

Pi Patm
14. (i) The P-V and P-T diagram are shown below

8000 0.1
1 +
8 10 3 1 10 5 300

P
PA

PA

1
= 1 + (1 + 1)300
3
PA
2

= 800 K

PA
2

## Heat Supplied by heater Q = U + W + U spring

VA

1
Q = nCV T + PV + KX 2
2
PV
TR

10 5 2.4 10 3 3
R[800 300 ]
300 R
2

VA =

nRT A 3RT A
=
PA
PA

= nRT A log e

VB
+ nR(TC T A ) + 0
VA

## = 2.3. 3 3RT A log10

T
V
( 1) ln = ln
T
V
ln (T / T )
ln 2
=
= 0. 4
ln (V / V ) ln(5.66)

UAB = 0
The total work done W = WAB + WBC + WCA

2
Number of degrees of freedom f = 1

( 1) =

TA

1
, V is doubled. Therefore, P will remain half.
V

Further,

## now T V ( 1) = TV 1 (for adiabatic process)

TA
2

(PV)C =

1
+ 10 5[3.2 2.4] 10 3 + 8000 ( 0.1) 2
2
= 600 + 80 + 40
= 720 J

13. (i)

( PV ) A
TA
TC =
2
2
(ii) Process A-B : T = constant

1
3
2
R T + PV + KX
2
2

2VA

2V A
T

+ 3R A T A
VA
2

3
= 2.08RTA RTA = 0.58RTA = Qnet = 0. 58RTA
2
15. (a)
172

A B is an isobaric process

dQ = dU + PdV

A
B

## B C and D A are isothermal processes

U = 0 for thus Q = W

PB
Hence QBC = nRTBC ln
PC

2
= 2(8.31)400 ln
1

1
and QDA = 2(8.31)( 300 ) ln = 3455 J
2

WAB =

## QT = QAB + QBC + QCD + QDA

QT = 0 + 4607 3455 = 1152 J .

(b)

## Net WD = Q = 1152 J ( U = 0 for cyclic

process)
U is state function U = 0 (for cyclic
process)

8.31
(850 1000 )
5
1
3
or
WAB = 1869.75J
(b) B -C is an isochoric process (V = constant)

TB
P
= B
TC
PC

## 16. The heat flowing from cylinder to disc will increase

the temperature of disc.

mdisc Sdisc
350 k

300 k

ddisc
dt

TC = 425K

3
Therefore, QBC = nC V T = (1) R ( TC TB )
2

dt
0

m S L
400 300 0.4(600 ) 0.4
t = D D C ln
ln 2
=
KC A
10(( 0.04)
400 350

t = 166 . 32 sec.

## 17. Given TA = 1009 K, PB =

3
= (8.31)(425850)
2
QBC = 5297.6 J
Therefore, heat lost in the process BC is 5297.6J.
(c) C-D and A-B are adiabtic process. Therefore,

2
1
PA , PC = PA
3
3

PC1 TC

CP 5
Number of moles, n = 1, = C = 3 R (monoatomic)
V
(a) A B is an adiabatic process therefore

PA1 TA

PC
(1/3) PA
TB =
850K
TC =
PB
(2/3) PA

( 400 disc
Q
= = Kcylinder A
Lcylinder
t

d D
KC A
=
400 D M D S D LC

PB1 TB

15/3
5/3

P
T t
C = D
PD TC

...(1)

...(2)

## Multiplying Eqs. (1) and (2), we get

TB = TA

PB

3
= (1000)
2

1
PD
TD

T t
P
PA1 TA = PB1 TB A = B
PB TA

1
PA

R
(TB TA )
1

(c)

2/5

3
2
= (1000)
= (1000)
2
3
TB = (1000) (0.85)
TB = 850 K

PC PA
T T 1
= D B
PD PB
TC TA
2/5

...(3)

Therefore,

173

PC TC
P
T
and A = A
=
PB TB
PD TD

PC PA
TC TA
=
PD PB
TBTD

## Let the number of moles of gas B be n B = n

The internal energy of the mixture = internal energy of
gas A + internal energy of gas B.

...(4)

## From Eqs. (3) and (4), we have

T DT B

T T
C A

TC TA
1

TB TD

(n A + n B )

or

(425)(1000)
TC TA
TD =
=
K
850
TB

or

TD = 500K

mixture

R
R
T = n A 1 T + nB 1 T
A
B
1

## Solving this, we get n = 2

Note : For mixture we can directly use the formula

n
n1
n
+ 2
mixutre 1 = 1 1 2 1
(b) Molecular weight of the mixture will be given by

W 4 = ( Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 ) (W1 + W2 + W3 )

n M + nBM B
M = A A
nA + nB

## = (5960 5585 2980 + 3645 ) ( 2200 825 1100 )

= 765 J
(b)

1+n
1
n
=
+
(19/13)1 (5/3)1 (7/5)1

## 18. (a) In a cyclic-process U = 0 as U is a state

function

W = Q

nRT
1

....(1)
Since, the mixture obeys the law PV19/13 = constant
Therefore, mixture = 19/13 (PV Y = constant)
Substituting the values in Eq. (1) we have

TC TA
=1
TDTB

U=

Therefore,

TC TA

=
TB TD

TC T A

T T
D B

or

Since,

M = 22.67
Speed of sound in a gas is given by

WD
100 %
Efficiency = Q
(absorbed)

RT
M
Therefore, in the mixture of the gas
v=

## 2200 825 1100 + 765

=
100%
5960 + 3645

= 10.82%

v=

(19 / 13)(8.31)(300 )

22 .67 10 3
v = 401m/s

## 19. If mixture contains m gm neon then it will have (28

m)gm argon gas.

(c)

T
v = KT1/2 ...(2)

M
28 m
Mixture has
moles of neon and
moles
20
40

or

of argon

dv 1
1/2
= KT
dT 2

dT
dv = K

2 T

M 28 m RT
+

20
40 V

Net pressure P =

m 28 m RT
+

20
40 V

5
i.e. 1 10 =

1 7 8.31 300
1
= m +
20
40

10 0.02

## m = 4.074 gm neon is present and

28 m = 23 .936 gm argon is present in the mixture

dv K dT
= .
v
v 2 T
K
=
v

174

1
T

1 dT

T 2 T

(From Eq. 2)

1 dT
=

2 T

m/s

1 dT
dv
100 =
2 T
v

W = O ( 2767 )

100

## 22. mst L + mst. SQsteam = Heat Lost by steam

1 1
=
100
2 300
= 0.167
Therefore, percentage change in speed is 0.167%

## mw Swater = Heat gained by water

ms [L + S (100 90 )] = 100 [90 24 ]

1
(d) Compressibility =
= (say)
Bulkmodulus

ms =

dP

Badi = P B =
dV
/ V

1
1
1
=
P
P ' P (5)

[PV = constant]
[

PV

(5)]

## 23. The corresponding P-V diagram is as shown

Given : TA = 300 K, n = 1, = 1.4, VA /VB = 16 and VC/
VB = 2
Let VB = V0 and PB = P0
Then, VC = 2V0 and VA = 16V0
Temperature at B :
Proces A-B is adiabatic.
Hence,

1 1
1
P 5

19

1 13
=
1 5
19
(1
+
2)(8.31)(300)

13

19

= mixture = 13

= 8.27 105 V

V
TD = TC C
VD

T2 = T1 (V1 /V2 ) 1
= 300 (V / 2V ) (5 / 31)

300
= 189 K
( 4)1/ 3

3
U = nCV T = n R (T F Ti )
2

1.41

2
= (1818)
16

Networkdoneinthecycle
100
Heatabsorbedinthecycle

or =

3
8.31(189 300 )
2
U = 2767 J
W = Q U but process is adiabatic
= 2

(c)

TD = 791.4 K
Efficiency of cycle :
Efficiency of cycle (in percentage) is defined s

T2189 K
(b)

TAVA 1 = TBVB 1

VA
or
TB = TA

VB
= (300) (16)1.41
TB = 909 K
Temperature at D :
B C is an isobaric process (P = constant)

T V, VC = 2VB

## TC = 2TB = (2) (909) K

TC = 1818 K
Now, the process C-D is adiabatic.
Therefore,

1
V
nRT
1 P
( nA + nB ) RT 5
V

21. (a)

100 1 66
6600
=
= 12 g
540 + 1 10
550

WTotal
100
Q+ ve

Q
Q+ve Q ve
100 = 1 1 100
Q+ve
Q2

...(1)

## where Q1 = Negative heat in the cycle (heat released)

and Q2 = Positive heat in the cycle (heat absorbed)
In the cycle

Q = 0

175

## 25. As the heat flows, through series combination of

these layers of glass air and glass

5
QDA = nC V T = (1) R (T A TD )
2
(CV =

5
R for a diatomic gas)
2
5
8.31(300791.4)
2
= 10208.8J
=

or

QDA

27 1
2
O
KG A = 1
K AA = 2
KG A
lG
lA
lG

l A kG
1 + 2 = 27 C and 1 2 = 2 l k
G A

51 2 = 27 i.e. 2 =

Also H =

27
= 0. 53C
51

2 K G A 27 0. 8
=

1
lG
51 0. 01

= 42. 35 J S1 = 42.35 W
26. Number of gram moles of He,

A
B

P0

m
2 103
=
= 500
M
4
(i) VA = 10m3 : (i) PA = 5 104 N/m2
n=

C
D

V0

2V0

16V0

or

## where is coefficient of volumetric expansion. In

equilibrium, there should be no net horizontal
displacement of liquid in arm BC.

PB . A PC A = 0 or PB = PC

P0 + hA 95 g hB 5 g = P0 + hD s g hc 95 g

0
1 + (95)

0
1 + (5)

101 .8 (1 + 5 ) = 100 (1 + 95 g )

= 2 10 4 C 1

## PAVA (10)(5 104 )

=
nR
(500)(8.31)

(10)(10 104 )
TB =
K
(500)(8.31)
TB = 240.68 K
VC = 20m3 , PC = 10 104 N/m2

TC

( 20)(10 10 4 )
K
(500 (8.31)

or
TC = 481.36 K
and VD = 20m3 , PD = 5 104 N/m2

( hA + hC ) 95 = (hB + hD ) 5

(52 .8 + 49)

TA =

or
TA = 120.34K
Similarly, VB = 10m3 , PB = 10 104 N/m2

m
m
0
24. Density of liquid b = V = V (1 + t ) = (1 + t )
0
0

= (51 + 49 )

1 = 50 2

and 1 = 26 .47C

10208.8
= 1
100
26438.3
= 61.4%

or

5 0. 8
= 2
1 0.08

7
Q BC = (8.3)(1818 909 ) J
2
or
QBC = 26438.3 J
Therefore, substituting Q1 = 10208.8 J and Q2 = 26438.3J
in Eq. (1), we ge

## we get same Rate of flow H1 = H 2 = H 3

TD =

(20)(5 104 )
K
(500)(8.31)

or
TD = 240.68 K
(ii) No, it is not possible to tell afterwards which sample
went through the process ABC or ADC. But during the
process if we note down the work done in both the
processes, then the process which require more work
goes through process ABC.
(iii) In the process ABC

3
dU + nC V T = n R (TC TA )
2
176

3
= (500) 8.31(481.36120.34) J
2
U = 2.25 106 J
and W = Area under BC = (20 10) (10) 104 J
= 106 J
QABC = U +W = (2.25 106 + 106 )J
QA B C = 3.25 106 J
In the process ADC, dU will be same (because it
depends on initial and final temperatures only)
dW = Area under AD
= (20 10) (5 104 )J
= 0.5 106 J
QADC = U +W = (2.25 106 + 0.5 106 )J
QA B C = 2.75 106 J

dQCA =

5
5
( P0 V0 2 P0 V0 ) = P0 V0
2
2

5
PV
2 v 0
(ii) Heat absorbed in path AB : (process is isocharic)

dQAB = CV dT
= CV (Tf Ti )
Therefore, heat rejected in the process CA is

Pf V f PV

= CV
i i
R
R

## 27. (a) ABCA is a clockwise cyclic process.

Work done by the ga.s

CV
(P V Pi Vi )
R f f

3
(P V Pi Vi )
2 f f

3
(3P0 V0 P0 V0 )
2
dQAB = 3P0 V0
Heat absorbed in the process AB is 3P0 V0 .
(c) Let dQBC be the heat absorbed in the process BC :
Total heat absorbed.
dQ = dQCA + dQAB + dQBC
=

3P0

P0

V0

## dQ = P0V0 + (3P0 V0 ) + dQBC

2

2V0

P0V0
dQ = dQBC +
2
Change in internal energy, dU = 0

dQ = dW

## W = + Area of triangle ABC

1
(base) (height)
2

1
= (2V0 V 0 )(3P0 P0 )
2
W = P0 V0
(b) Number of moles n = 1 and gas is monoatomic,
therefore
CV =

3
5
R and CP = R
2
2

CV 3
C
5
= and P =
R
2
R
2
(i) Heat rejected in path CA : (process is isobaric)

dQCA = Cp dT = Cp (Tf Ti )

CP
P f V f PiVi
R

dQBC =

P0V0
2

P0V0
2

## (d) Maximum temperature of the gas will be somewhere

between B and C. Line BC is a straight line. Therefore,
P-V equation for the process BC can be written as :
P = mV + c (y = mx + c)

2P0
Here, m = V and c = 5P0
0

Pf V f PV

i i
= CP
R
R

P0V0
dQBC +
= P0 V0
2

2P
P = 0 V + 5P0
V0

2P 2
PV = 0 V + 5P0 V
V0

177

## (PV =RT for n = 1)

2KAt1

= 2 ln 2 +
CL

2P0 2
V + 5P0 V
RT =
V0
or

T=

For T to be maximum,

5P0

V=

1
2P0 2
V
5P0V
R
V0

2KAt1
T 300

ln 2
4 =
CL
50

...(1)

T2 300
4 = e 2KAt1 / CL
50

dT
=0
dV

T2 = 300 +

4P0
.V = 0
V0

## T2 = 300 + 12.5e 2 At1 / CL Kelvin.

29. (a)

5V0
4

P V diagram
is given as shown in figure.
(b) (i)work is done only in the adiabatic process AB
not in isochoric process BC

5V0
(on line BC), temperature of the gas is
4
maximum. From Eq. (1) this maximum temperature will
be :
i.e., at V =

Tmax

Tmax

C
B

P2

3
1
5V 2 P 5V
= 5P0 0 0 0
R
4 V0 4

P1

25 P0V0
8 R

V2

## Newtons law of cooling i.e. only through the radiation.

350

400

ln

dT
= k (T T A )
dt

t1

dt
= k dt
(T 300 )
0

(350 300 )
= kt1
( 400 300 )

t1 =

AS P2 = P1

1
ln 2
k

dT
kA
= k (T T A ) +
(T T A )
dt
CL
(Here K is thermal conductivity of the rod, A its area
of cross section whereas L is its length and c-thermal
capacity of solid body)

350

ln

P1V1 P2V 2
+0
5
1
3

V1r
V2r

V1 r1
3
= P1V1 1
2
V2

as well as radiation.

T2

V1

WTotal = W AB + W BC =

50 2KAt1 / CL
e
Kelvin
4

(ii)

U AB = W =

V
3
P1V1 1
2
V
2

r 1

3t1

dt
KA

= k +
dt
T TA
CL

## As QAB = 0 (adiabatic process)

(isochoric)

t1

T2 300
KA

= 2K +
t1
350 300
CL

U BC = Q

U T = U AB + U BC =
178

V
3
P1V1 1
2
V
2

r 1

1 + Q

## In the process Pvx = constant

R
(iii) 2 ( r 1) (TC T A ) = nCV T
= U T =

V
3
P1V1 1
2
V2

r 1

1 + Q

i.e.,

TC = T A +

[( 5 / 3) 1] 3
2R
V1

V2

P1V1 P1V1
+
2R
2R

TC =

V
P V 1
2 1 1 V 2

P1V1 V1

2 R V 2

2/3

2/3

PAV A
2R

r 1

1 + Q

P1V1 Q
+
2 R 3R

Q
3R

V
and

WAB

VB

VA

VB

VA

=
PdV
.

dV

## = 2 ( PB2VB )VB ( PA2V A)V A ](K = P 2V

= 2 [PB VB PA VA ]
= 2 [nRTB nRTA ]
= 2nR [T1 2T1 ]
= (2) (2) (R) [300 600]
= 1200 R
Work done on the gas in the process AB is 1200 R.
(b) Heat absorbed/released in different processes.
Since, the gas is monoatomic

2P1

P1

2T1

PC

PA

## 31. Heat lost by container = Heat gained by ice cube

(melting and after it)
27 + 273

mc

SdT = m

ice

[L + SW ( 300 273 ) ]

227 +273
300

mc

( A + BT )dT = 0.1[8 10

+ 10 3 27 = 10.7 10 3

500

300

BT 2
mc AT +
= 10700

2 500

2 10 2
mc 100 ( 300 500 ) +
300 2 500 2 = 10700
2

mc =

T1

## = (2) (R) (600) in (2)

QCA =831.6 r (absorbed)

5
3
5
R and CP = R and =
3
2
2
B

C =

2P1
= nR(2T1 ) ln

P1

= 2 K VB VA
= 2 KVB KVA

Therefore, CV =

1
2

5
5
= (2) R (TC TB) = 2 R (2T 1 T1 )
2
2
= (5R) (600 300)
QBC = 1500 R (absorbed)
Process C A : Process is isothermal.

U = 0

x=

R
5
1
1 1
3
2

C = 3.5 R

QAB = nCT
=(2) (3.5R) (300 600)
or
QAB = 2100 R
Process B C : Process is isobaric.
QBC = nCpT

## 30. (a) Number of moles n = 2, T1 = 300 K

During the process A B
PT = constant or P2 V = constant = K (say)

R
R
+
1 1 x

10700
200 100 + 800 200 10

mc = 0.495 kg

179

107
216

32. Given :
Number of moles n = 2

## QCD = 900 R (released)

Processs D A : T = constant

VA

VD

V
4V0

C
VB
= 2 and
VA
B VD = 4
VA

2V0
V0

V0

## =(2) (R) (300) in

4V0

A
TA

TB

3
5
R and CP = R
(Monatomic)
2
2
TA = 27C = 300 K
Let VA = V0 and VB = 2V0 and VD = VC = 4V0
(a) Process A B :
CV =

TB VB
V T T = T
A
A

1
=600 R in
4
QDA = 831.6 R (released)
(c) In the complete cycle : dU = 0
Therefore, from conservation of energy
Wnet = QAB + QBC + QCD + QDA
Wnet = 1500 R + 831.6R 900 R 831.6R
or
Wnet = Wtotal = 600R
33. When the bob gets snapped, the elastic potential
energy stored in the wire is used to raise the
temperature of this wire.

V
TB = TA B = (300) (2) = 600 K
VA

TB = 600 K
(b) Process A B :
V TP = constant

QAB = nC P dT = nC P (TB TA )

QBC

1
=
ms

1 Mg / r 2

Y
2

QAB
Process B C :
T
=constant dU = 0

ms = U =

5
= (2) R (600300)
2
= 1500 R (absorbed)

VC
=WBC = nRTB ln V
B

1 stress2

2 Y

Volume

)2 r 2l

M 2 g2
1
2
2 4 r l
2
( r l) s 2 r Y

(100 ) 2 (10 ) 2
2

22
7860 420 2 10 3
7

)4 2.1 1011

= 4. 568 10 3C
34. Between two collisions the particle goes to opposite
wall and comes back and hence it covers a distance

4V0

=(2)(R) (600) ln
V0

## 2l it strikes after every ( 2l / v rms )s time

times per second = 500

=(1200 R) ln (2)
=(1200 R) (0.693)
or
QBC
=831.6 R (absorbed)
Processs C D : V = constant
QCD = nC V dT = nC V (TD TC)

## as l = 1m v rms = 2 1 500 = 1000 M/S.

3 RT
10 6 4 10 3
= = 1000 T =
M
3 ( 25 / 3)

3
= n R (TA TB )
2

T = 160 K
(b) Average KE per atom

3
= (2) R (300600)
2

3
3
kT = (1.38 10 23 ) (160)
2
2
= 3.312 10 23 J

180

vms
2L

(c)

## Mass of helium gas in the box

m = no. of moles molecular mass
=nM

0
V = V0 (1 + T ) and = (1 + T )

PV
100 1
M =
4 = 0 .3 g
25
RT

=
(
160
)

3

## In this way during floating the upthrust balances

weight v in L g
But depth upto which the cube is immersed is given
same

## 35. Decrease in kinetic energy = increase in internal energy

of the gas

36. (a)

m 3
1 2
mv0 = nCV T = R T
2
M 2
T =

Mv02
3R

## Rate of heat loss due to radiations from upper

Q
= eA(T 4 T 04 )
lid is
t

Q
17
= 0.6 10 8 400 4 300 4 A
t
3

= ( 595W / m 2 ) A
(b) This heat radiated per second must pass through
the lid via conduction
KA

( i 127 )
t

595 595 10
Qi 127 =
=
K
0.167
= 127 + 35.6
= 162 .6C

= 35 .6

4
400
T
m= m
h 2 = h1 2 = (1.0)

3
300
T1

[as

K
T
4
3
(T1 T2 ) = T S 4
= 4T S T
el
TS

1.41

K
[T1T S T ] = 4T33T
el

T = K (T1 T S ) / 4e[T S3 + K

K
hence k = 4eLT 3 + K
S

0 .4

= 448.8K

T
<< 1
TS

## Binomial theoremgives (1+ x)n = 1 + _ nx

T f V f 1 = TiVi 1

4
= 400
3

K
T
(T1 T2 ) = T S4 1 +
1
el
TS

## As there is no heat loss, process is adiabatic.

2 = 2 S

T
= TS4 1 + 4
1
T S

h
i
= (400)
h
f

(1 + 2 S T ) = (1 + L T )

V2 T2
Ah2 T2
=
=
or
V1 T1
Ah1 T1

A
=

= eA (TS + T ) 4 T S4

or

T T2
4
4
KA 1
= eA(T2 T S )
l

## 37. At constant pressure, V T.

V
T f = Ti i
Vf

AhL L = Ah

39. The heat radiated through one end of the rod must be
equal to the heat which conducts to this end through
the rod

= 595 A
2

we have Q = ms T

20,000 = 1 400T
181

T = 50C

## (b) This rise in temperature causes volumetric

expansion due to which work is done against
atmospheric pressure.
W = P V = PV T

## let M be the mass attached to the lower end. Then

change in length due to suspension of load is
l2 =

1
5
= 10 5
9 10 (50)
a 10 3

W = 0.05 J
(c) Change in its internal energy
U = Q W

or

= 20,000 0.05 J
U = 19999 .95 J
41. Heat required to melt entire ice = mc t + m, L
= 450 0.5 (273 253) + 450 80
= 4500 + 36000
= 40500 cal.
Heat liberated if entire steam cools to ice point

2
( l )

## Here, l = |l1 | =l2 = 0.5 103 m

substituting the values

P (400C)

H1 =

(10 ) x

100C water

1.

...(3)

2

KA( 400 0)
KA(400 100 )
; H2 =
?x
(10 ? ) x

## Let m be the mass of ice melting or water evaporating

per unit time.
...(i)

KA( 300 )
= m(540 )
(10 ? ) x

...(ii)

3
nRT for n moles
2

3
PV (as PV = nRT )
2
Statement I is true.
=

KA( 400 )
= m( 80)
?x

1 AY
2 L

H2

...(2)

1 4 106 1011
(0.5 103 ) 2
U = 2

0.5

= 0.1 J

## 42. LetH1 amount of heat flows per unit time from P to A

and H2 amount of heat flows per unit time from P to
B.

(4 10 6 )(1011 )

l2 = (1.25 105 )M
l1 + l2 = 0
(1.25 105 )M = (0.5 103 )

U=

= 27000 + 5000
= 32000 cal.
As the steam can not provide enough heat entire
ice will not milt

H1

( M )(10)(0.5)

0.5 103
kg

M =
5
1.25 10
or
M = 40 kg
(ii) Energy stored :
At 0C the natural length of the wire is less than its
actual length; but since a mass is attached at its lower
end, an elastic potential energy is stored in it. This is
given by

= ms L sw + ms Cw

0C ice

( Mg) l
AY

Statement 2:
When molecules of gas collide there is
exchange of momentum
velocity changes
statement 2 is true
But statement 2 is not the correct explanation of
statement 1.
option (b) is best option

4(10 ? )
4
=
? =9
3?
27

## 43. (i) The change in length due to decrease in temperature,

l1 = l
= (0.5) (105 ) (0 100)
l1 = 0.5 103 m
...(1)
Negative sign implies that length is decreasing. Now

1.

182

W = 0 V constant

P T and P T

2
P(N/m)

Q > 0
D ( q)( s )

30

COMPREHENSION
20

10

K
10

20

1.

(a)

2.

## When piston is in equilibrium

Force exerted by the gas inside in downward direction
+ weight of piston
= force exerted by atmosphere.

3
V(m)

Process K L isobaric
V T but V T U > O and W > 0

PA + mg = P0 A

## But PAL = P0 A2L

Q > O

Process L M isochoric W = O

## Q = U but P T hence U > 0

k Q > 0

Process M J

V hence W < 0

2P0 L
L

2P0 L
mg
= P0 +
L
A

But ( PV ) J < ( PV ) M

2.

P=

or

2 P0 L
mg
P0 +
R 2

U < O

Q < O

(a)

## Pressure inside and outside the cylinder should be

equal at same height of water

than other A (s )

(b)

TJ < T M

L =

p0 R 2

L =
2L
2
( mg + P0 R

Q = U + W

3.

P1 = P2

other B (q)

(c)

heated C (q)

(d)

## electric fuse protects the circuit elements if it

melts first at high currents d (r)
1

3.

(a)

## In case of free expansion if heat is neither added

or removed then
W = 0 U = 0 U constant

## A (q) and T constant

(b)

PV 2 = constant

(c)

(d)

nRTV = const.

1
1
or T
T
V
V T B ( p)( r )
U < 0
V

pV 4 / 3 = const. nRTV 1/ 3 = K
V T C ( p)( s)
Pressure and volume both are increasing

183

P0 + g ( L0 H ) = P
Initially air inside cylinder was at atmospheric
pressure

P0 L0 A = P( L 0 H ) A
P0 L0
L0 H

P=

P0 + g ( L0 H ) =

P0 ( L 0 H ) + g ( L 0 H ) 2 P0 L 0 = 0

P0 L0
(L0 H )