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IITJEE 31 YEARS

- Rotational Mechanics Questions
- Chapter - 14_Electrostatics
- Electrostatics
- Chapter - 8_Simple Harmonic Motion
- IIT Permutations and Combinations
- Ray Optics Notes
- Etoos 1st Brain Busters Ques Ans
- Chapter - 13_Current Electricity
- Chapter - 6_Rotation
- Newtons Laws of Motion2 -2
- Motion-Genius Physics
- Current Electricity
- Chapter - 12_Optics
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- WorkPower Energy Notes1
- 01 Thermodynamic Process Theory21
- Kinematics Theory
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FILL IN THE BLANKS

1.

2.

One mole of a monoatomic ideal gas is mixed with one mole of a diatomic ideal gas. The molar specific heat of the

mixture at constant volume is .....

(1984, 2M)

The variation of temperature of a material as heat is given to it at constant rate as shown in the figure. The material

is in solid state at the point O. The state of the material at the point P is ....

(1985, 2M)

C

T

A P

B

Heat added

During an experiment an ideal gas is found to obey an additional law P2V = constant. The gas is initially at a

temperature T and volume V. When it expands to a volume 2V, the temperature becomes ....

(1987, 2M)

4. 300 g of water at 25C is added to 100 g of ice at 0C. The final temperature of the mixture is ....C (1989, 2M)

5. The earth receives at its surface radiation from the sun at the rate of 1400 Wm2. The distance of the centre of the

sun from the surface of the earth is 1.5 1011 m and the radius of the sun is 7 108 m. Treating the sun as a black

body, it follows from the above data that its surface temperature is ....K.

(1989, 2M)

6. A solid copper sphere (density and specific heat c) of radius r at an initial temperature 200 K is suspended inside

a chamber whose walls are at almost 0 K. The time required for the temperature of the sphere to drop to 100 K is

......

(1991, 2M)

7. A point source of heat of power P is placed at the centre of a spherical shell of mean radius R. The material of the

shell has thermal conductivity K. If the temperature difference between the outer and inner surface of the shell is

not to exceed T, the thickness of the shell should not be less than.

(1991, 1M)

8. A substance of mass M kg requires a power input of P watts to remain in the molten state at its melting point. When

the power source is turned off, the simple completely solidifies in time t seconds. The latent heat of fusion of the

substances is ....

(1992, 1M)

9. A container of volume 1 m3 is divided into two equal parts by a partition. One part has an ideal gas at 300 K and

the other part is vacuum. The whole system is thermally isolated from the surroundings.When the partition is

removed, the gas expands to occupy the whole volume. Its temperature will now be .....

(1993; 1M)

10. An ideal gas with pressure P, volume V and temperature T is expanded isothermally to a volume 2V and a final

pressure P1. If the same gas is expanded adiabatically to a volume 2V, the final pressure is Pa. The ratio of the specific

3.

Pa

is .....

P1

(1994, 2M)

11. Two metal cubes A and B of a same size are arranged as shown in figure. The extreme

ends of the combination are maintained at the indicated temperatures. The arrangement

is thermally insulated. The coefficients of thermal conductivity of A and B are 300

W/mC and 200 W/mC, respectively. After steady state is reached the temperature of

the interface will be .......

(1996, 2M)

100C

12. A ring shaped tube contains two ideals gases with equal masses and relative molar masses

M1 = 32 and M2 = 28. The gases are separated by one fixed partition and another movable

stopper S which can move freely without friction inside the ring. The angle as shown in

the figure is .... degrees.

(1997, 2M)

B 0C

T

M2

M1

144

13. A gas thermometer is used as a standard thermometer for measurement of temperature. When the gas container of

the thermometer is immersed in water at its triple point 273.16 K, the pressure in the gas thermometer reads 3.0

104N/m2. When the gas container of the same thermometer is immersed in another system the gas pressure reads

3.5 104N/m2. The temperature of this system is therefore......C.

(1997, 1M)

14. Earth receives 1400 W/m2 of solar power. If all the solar energy falling on a lens of area 0.2 m2 is focussed onto

a block of ice of mass 280g, the time taken to melt the ice will be .... minutes. (Latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.3

105 J/kg)

(1997, 2M)

TRUE FALSE

1.

2.

The root mean square speeds of the molecules of different ideal gases, maintained at the same temperature are the

same.

(1981; 2M)

The volume V versus temperature T graphs for a certain amount of a perfect gas at two pressure p 1 and p 2 are as

shown in figure. It follows from the graphs that p 1 is greater than p 2 .

(1982; 2M)

V

P1

P2

3.

4.

Two different gases at the same temperature have equal root mean square velocities.

(1982; 2M)

The curves A and B in the figure shown P-V graphs for an isothermal and an adiabatic process for an ideal gas.

The isothermal process is represeented by the curve A.

(1985; 3M)

P

A

B

V

5.

6.

7.

The root mean square (rms) speed of oxgen molecules (O2 ) at a certain temperaure T (degree absolute) is V. If the

temperature is doubled and oxygen gas dissociates into atomc oxygen, the rms speed remains unchanged.

(1987; 2M)

At a given temperature, the specific heat of a ideal gas at constant pressure is always greater than its specific heat

at constant volume.

(1987; 2M)

Two spheres of the same material have radii 1 m and 4 m temperature 4000 K and 2000 K respectively. The energy

radiated per second by the first sphere is greater than that by the second.

(1988; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

2.

of a certain diatomic gas is found to be 1930 m/s. The

gas is :

(1984; 2M)

(a) H2

(b) F2

(c) O2

(d) Cl2

3.

2 moles of an ideal diatomic gas at constant pressure

from 30C to 35C. The amount of heat required (in

calories) to raise the temperature of the same gas

through the same range (30C to 35C) at constant

volume is :

(1985; 2M)

(a) 30

(b) 50

(c) 70

(d) 90

1. An ideal monoatomic gas is taken round the cycle

ABCDA as shown in the P-V diagram (see figure). The

work done during the cycle is :

(1983; 1M)

P

2P, V

B

(a) PV

(c)

1

PV

2

P, V

2P, 2V

C

P, 2V

D

V

(b) 2PV

(d) zero

145

4.

5.

6.

7.

in a calorimeter of water equivalent 0.02 kg at 15C till

the temperature of the calorimeter and its contents

rises to 80C. The mass of the steam condensed in kg

is :

(1986; 2M)

(a) 0.130

(b) 0.065

(c) 0.260

(d) 0.135

If one mole of a monoatomic gas ( = 5/3) is mixed with

one mole of a diamonic gas ( = 7/5), the value of

for the mixture is :

(1988; 2M)

(a) 1.40

(b) 1.50

(c) 1.53

(d) 3.07

A cylinder of radius R made of a material of thermal

conductivity K1 is surrounded by a cylindrical shell of

inner radius R and outer radus 2R made of a material

of thermal conductivity K2 . The two ends of the

combined system are maintained at two different

temperatures. There is no loss of heat across the

cylindrical surface and the system is in steady state.

The effective thermal conductivity of the system is :

(1988; 2M)

(a) K1 + K2

(b) K1 K2 /(K1 + K2 )

(c) (K1 + 3K 2 )/4

(d) (3K1 + K2 )/4

When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant

pressure the fraction of the heat energy supplied

which increases the internal energy of the gas is :

(1990; 2M)

2

(a)

5

(c)

8.

3

7

3

(b)

5

(d)

5

7

temperature T and contain gases which obey the

Maxwellian distribuion of velocities. Vessel A contains

only O2 , B only N2 and C a mixture of equal\quantities

of O2 and N2. If the average speed of the O2 molecules

in vessel A is v1 , that of the N2 molecules in vessel B

is v2 , the average speed of the O2 molecules in vessel

C is :

(1992; 2M)

(a) (v1 + v2 )/2

(b) v1

(c) (v1 v2 )1/2

(d)

3kT / M

where M is the mass of an oxygen molecules.

9.

from the same metal form the sides of an isosceles

triangle ABC, right angled at B. The points A and B are

maintained at temperature T and

( 2 )T

respectively.

T is :

(1995; 2M)

1

(a)

3

(b)

2( 21)

(c)

1

21

(d)

2 +1

1

2 +1

material and have got identical surface finish. The

mass of S 1 is thrice that of S 2 . Both the spheres are

heated to the same high temperature and placed in the

same room having lower temperature but are thermally

insultated from each other. The ratio of the initial rate

of cooling of S 1 to that S 2 is :

(1996; 2M)

(a)

(c)

1

3

3

1

1

(b)

3

1/3

1

(d)

3

K to 480 K. If at 120 K the root mean square velocity

of the gas molecules is v, at 480 K it becomes :

(1996; 2M)

(a) 4 v

(b) 2 v

(c) v/2

(d) v/4

12. The average translational KE and the rms speed of

molecules in a sample of oxygen gas at 300 K are

6.21 10 2 1 J and 484 m/s respectively. The

corresponding values at 600 K are nearly (assuming

ideal gas behaviour) :

(1997; 1M)

(a) 12.42 1021 J, 968 m/s

(b) 8.78 1021 J, 684 m/s

(c) 6.21 1021 J, 968 m/s

(d) 12.42 1021 J, 684 m/s

13. The intensity of radiation emitted by the sun has its

maximum value at a wavelength of 510 nm and that

emitted by the north star has the maximum value at 350

nm. If these starts behave like blackbodies, then the

ratio of the surface temperature of the sun and the

north star is :

(1997; 1M)

(a) 1.46

(b) 0.69

(c) 1.21

(d) 0.83

14. The average translational kinetic energy of O2 (molar

mass 32) molecules at a particular temperature is 0.048

eV. The translational kinetic energy of N2 (molar mass

28) molecules in eV at the same temperature is :

(1997; 1M)

(a) 0.0015

(b) 0.003

(c) 0.048

(d) 0.768

146

and two moles of nitrogen at 300 K. The ratio of the

average rotational kinetic energy per O2 molecules to

per N2 molecule is :

(1998; 2M)

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 1 : 2

(c) 2 : 1

(d) depends on the moment of inertia of the two

molecules

18. Two identical containers A and B with frictionless

pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same

temperature and the same volume V. The mass of the

gas in A is mA and that in B is mB . the gas in each

cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally to the

same final volume 2V. The changes in the pressure in

A and B are found to be P and 1.5 P respectively.

Then :

(1998; 2M)

(a) 4 mA = 9 mB

(b) 2 mA = 3 mB

(c) 3 mA = 2 mB

(d) 9 mA = 4 mB

19. Two cylinders A and B fitted with pistons contain

equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K. The

piston of A is free to move, while that of B is held fixed.

The same rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30 K,

then the rise in temperature of the gas in B is :

(1998; 2M)

(a) 30 K

(b) 18 K

(c) 50 K

(d) 42 K

(a)

( 2 / 7)

(b)

(1/7 )

(c)

( 3 ) /5

(d)

( 6 ) /5

moles of argon at temperature T. Neglecting all

vibrational modes, the total internal energy of the

system is:

(1999; 2M)

(a) 4 RT

(b) 15 RT

(c) 9 RT

(d) 11 RT

23. A monoatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1, is

enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston.

The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to a

temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly. If L1

and L2 are the lengths of the gas column before and

after expansion respectively, then T1 /T2 is given by:

(2000; 2M)

(a) (L1 /L2 )2/3

(b) (L1 /L2 )

(c) (L2 /L1 )

(d) (L2 /L1 )2/3

24. The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black

bodies at temperatures T1, T2 and T3 respectively are as

shown. Their temperature are such that : (2000; 2M)

I

T3

T2

T1

(c) T2 > T3 > T1

(d) T3 > T2 > T1

to steam at 100C. Which of the following curves

represents the phenomena qualitatively? (2000; 2M)

Temp.

450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were halved and

the temperature doubled, the power radiated in watt

would be :

(1997; 1M)

(a) 225

(b) 450

(c) 900

(d) 1800

that in helium gas, at 300 K is :

(1999; 2M)

Temp.

a temperature T. The pressure of the gas is P. An

identical vessels containing one mole of the gas (molar

mass 4) at a temperature 2T has a pressure of :

(1997; 1M)

(a) P/8

(b) P

(c) 2P

(d) 8 P

(a)

(b)

Heat supplied

Temp.

(c)

(d)

Heat supplied

147

Heat supplied

Temp.

of radiation emitted by this object with wavelength

between 499 nm and 500 nm is U1, between 999 nm and

1000 nm is U2 and between 1499 nm and 1500 nm is U3.

The Wien constant, b = 2.88 106 nm-K. Then:

(2003; 2M)

(a) U1 = 0

(b) U3 = 0

(c) U1 > U2

(d) U2 > U1

Heat supplied

expands from volume V1 to V2 in three diferent ways,

the work done by the gas is W1 if the process is purely

isothermal W2 if purely isobaric and W3 if purely

adiabatic, then :

(2000; 2M)

(a) W2 > W1 > W3

(b) W2 > W3 > W1

(c) W1 > W2 > W3

(d) W1 > W3 > W2

27. An ideal gas is initially at temperature T and volume

V. Its volume is increased by V due to an increase

in temperature T, pressure remaining constant. The

quantity = V/VT varies with temperature as :

(2000; 2M)

(a)

T+T

T+ T

(c)

T+T

(a) He and O2

(c) He and Ar

m1

m2

m1

(c) m

2

T+T

(b) O2 and He

(d) O2 and N2

V ( m3 )

A

1

2

P (N/m)

(2002; 2M)

variation of = dV / dP with P for an ideal gas at

V

consant temperature

(2002; 2M)

m2

m1

(a)

m2

(d) m

1

(b)

P

90C

same material and having

the same cross-section

have been joined as

shown in the figure. Each

rod is of the same length.

The left and right ends

1

2

(a) 5 J

(b) 10 J

(c) 15 J

(d) 20 J

(b)

10

masses m1 and m2 respectively are enclosed in separate

containers kept at the same temperature. The ratio of

the speed of sound in gas 1 to the gas 2 is given by

:

(2000; 2M)

(a)

volume will increase

pressure will remain constant

temperature will increase

during adiabatic processes

are shown in the figure.

Plots 1 and 2 should

correspond respectively

to :

(2001; 2M)

(d)

T

the

the

the

the

taken through the

cyclie A B C

A, as shown in

the figure. If the net

heat supplied to the

gas in the cycle is

5 J, the work done

(b)

T

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(c)

0C

(d)

P

90C

of junction of the three rods will be : (2001; 2M)

(a) 45C

(b) 60C

(c) 30C

(d) 20C

30. In a given process of an ideal gas, dW = 0 and

dQ < 0. Then for the gas :

(2001; S)

into a furnace. It is observed that :

(2002; 2M)

(a) Initially it is the darkest body and at later times the

brightest

(b) it is the darkest body at all times

(c) it cannot be distinguished at all times

(d) initially it is the darkest body and at later times it

cannot be distinguished

148

diagram, represents the

variation of temperature (T)

of the bodies, x and y

having same surface area,

with time (t) due to the

emission of radiation. find

the correct relation between

the emissivity and

bodies :

(a) Ex > Ey and a x

(b) Ex < Ey and a x

(c) Ex > Ey and a x

(d) Ex < Ey and a x

y

x

(c)

(d)

B

C

V

(2003; 2M)

< ay

> ay

> ay

< ay

steel, having initial length l1 and l2 are connected

together to form a single rod of length l1 + l2. The

coefficients of linear expansion for aluminium and steel

are a and s respectively. If the length of each rod is

increased by the same amount when their temperature

l1

are raised by tC, then find the ratio l + l .

1 2

B

V

20C in an insulating vessel having a negligible heat

capacity. Calculate the final mass of water remaining in

the container. It is given that the specific heats of

water and ice are 1 kcal/kg/C and 0.5 kcal/kg/C while

the latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 kcal/kg :

(2003; 2M)

(a) 7 kg

(b) 6 kg

(c) 4 kg

(d) 2 kg

39. Liquid oxygen at 50 K is heated to 300 K at constant

pressure of 1 atm. The rate of heating is constant.

Which of the following graphs represent the variation

of temperature with time?

(2004; 2M)

Temp.

Temp.

(2000; 2M)

s

(a)

a

(c)

a

(b)

s

s

( + s )

(d)

(a)

Time (b)

Time

( + s )

Temp.

Temp.

figure, where AC is an adiabatic process, find the

corresponding P-V diagram :

(2003; 2M)

(c)

P

Time

(d)

Time

V2 and then compressed to original volume V 1

adiabatically. Initial pressure is P1 and final pressure is

P3. The total work done is W. Then :

(2004; 2M)

(a) P3 > P2 , W > 0 (b) P3 > P2 , W < 0

(c) P3 > P1 , W > 0 (d) P3 = P1 , W = 0

C

T

independently to two vessels, one containing water at

100C and the other containing ice at 0C. In the

second case, the rods are joined end to end and

connected to the same vessels. Let q 1 and q 2 g/s be

the rate of melting of ice in the two cases respectively.

(a)

(b)

B

C

V

The ratio q1 is :

q2

149

(2004; 2M)

1

(a)

2

(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

(b)

1

4

1

(d)

1

4

m respectively are coated with carbon black on their

outer surfaces. The wavelengths corresponding to

maximum intensit are 300 nm, 400 nm, and 500 nm,

respectively. The power radiated by them are QA : QB

and QC respectively :

(2004; 2M)

(a) QA is maximum (b) QB is maximum

(c) QC is maximum (d) QA = QB = QC

43. Water of volume 2 L in a containder is heated with a

coil of 1 kW at 27C. The lid of the containder is open

and energy dissipates at rate of 160 J/s. In how much

time temperature will rise from 27C to 77C?

(Given specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ/kg] :

(2005; 2M)

(a) 8 min 20 s

(b) 6 min 2 s

(c) 7 min

(d) 14 min

44. In which of the following process, convection does

not take place primarily?

(2005; 2M)

(a) Sea and land breeze

(b) Boiling of water

(c) Warming of glass of bulb due to filament

(d) Heating air around a furnace

e = 0.6 is kept inside a spherical black body. What will

be the maximum energy radiated by body(2005; 2M)

(a) 0.60 AT4

(b) 0.80 AT4

4

(c) 1.00 AT

(d) 0.40 AT4

48. An ideal gas is expanding such that pT = constant.

The coefficient of volume expansion of the gas is

(2008; 3M)

(a) 1/T

(b) 2/T

(c) 3/T

(d) 4/T

49. Two rods of different materials having coefficients of

thermal expansion1 , 2 and Young's moduli Y1 , Y2

respectively are fixed between two rigid massive walls.

The rods are heated such that they undergo the same

increase in temperature. There is no bending of the

rods. If 1 : 2 = 2 : 3, the thermal stresses developed

in the two rods are equal provided Y1 : Y2 is equal to

:

(1989; 2M)

(a) 2 : 3

(b) 1 : 1

(c) 3 : 2

(d) 4 : 9

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

More than one options are correct?

1.

(1989; 2M)

(a) the change in internal energy in a constant

pressure process from temperature T1 and T2 is

equal to nC V (T2 T1 ), where CV is the molar heat

capacity at constant volume and n the number of

moles of the gas.

(b) the change in internal energy of the gas and work

done by the gas are equal in magnitude in an

adiabatic process

(c) the internal energy does not change in an

isothermal process

(d) no heat is added or removed in an adiabatic

process

2.

volume V) to the state B (pressure P/2, volume 2V)

along a straight line path in the P-V diagram. Select the

correct statements from the following : (1993; 2M)

(a) The work done by the gas in the process A to B

exceeds the work that would be done by it if the

system were taken from A to B along an isotherm

(b) In the T-V diagram, the path AB becomes a part of

a parabola

tungsten lamp and welding are as a function of its

wavelength is shown in figure. Which of the following

option is the correct match?

(2005; 2M)

E1

T3

T2

T1

l

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Sun-T1 ,

Sun-T2 ,

Sun-T3 ,

Sun-T1 ,

tungsten

tungsten

tungsten

tungsten

filament-T2 ,

filament-T1 ,

filament-T2 ,

filament-T3 ,

welding

welding

welding

welding

From 98.5C to 99.5C at 760 mm of Hg

From 13.5C to 14.5 at 76 mm of Hg

From 3.5C to 4.5C at 76 mm of Hg

are-T3

are-T3

are-T1

are-T2

raise temperature of 1 g of water by 1C and it is

defined under which of the following conditions?

(2000; 2M)

150

a hperbola

(d) In going from A to B, the temperature T of the gas

first increase to a maximum value and then decrease

3.

4.

5.

and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface area of the

two bodies are the same. The two bodies emit total

radiant power at the same rate. The wavelength B

corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in the

radiation from B shifted from the wavelength

corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in the

radiation from A by 1.00 m. If the temperature of A is

5802 K :

(1994; 2M)

(a) the temperature of B is 1934 K

(b) B = 1.5 m

(c) the temperature of B is 11604 K

(d) the temperature of B is 2901 K

From the following statements concerning ideal gas at

any given temperature T, select the correct one (s) :

(1995; 2M)

(a) The coefficient of volume expansion at constant

pressure is the same for all ideal gases

(b) The average translational kinetic energy per

molecule of oxygen gas is 3 kT, k being Boltzmann

constant

(c) The mean-free path of molecules increases with

increase in the pressure

(d) In a gaseous mixture, the average translational

kinetic energy of the molecules of each component

is different.

8.

2vrms

T0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

9.

Black

Black

Black

Black

by it

body will absorb less radiation

body emit more energy

body emit energy equal to energy absorbed

a gas at constant volume and constant pressure,

respectively. Then

(2009; M)

(a) CP - CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for

a monoatomic ideal gas

(b) CP + CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for

a monoatomic ideal gas

(c) CP / CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for

a monoatomic ideal gas

(d) CP . CV is large for a diatomic ideal gas than for

a monoatomic ideal gas

10. The figure shows the P-V plot of an ideal gas taken

through a cycle ABCDA. The part ABC is a semi-circle

and CDA is half of an ellipse. Then,

(2009; M)

(c) v mp < v < vrms

(d) the average kinetic energy of a molecule is

one of copper and the other of brass. The coefficients

of linear expansion of the two metals are C and B. On

heating, the temperature of the strip goes up by T

and the strip bends to form an arc of radius of

curvature R. Then R is :

(1999; 3M)

(a) proportional to T

(b) inversley proportional to T

(c) proportional to | B C|

(d) inversely proportional to | B C|

A black body of temperature T is inside chamber of

temperature T0. Now the closed chamber is slightly

opened to sun such that temperature of black body (T)

and chamber (T0) remains constant :

(2006, 3M)

root mean square sepeed and most probable speed of

the molecules in an ideal monoatomic gas at asbolute

temperature T. The mass of a molecule is m. Then :

(a) no molecule can have a speed greater than

6.

7.

3 2

mv p

4

atmospheric pressure :

(1998; 2M)

(a) positive work is done by the ice-water system on

the atmosphere

(b) positive work is done on ice-water system by the

atmosphere

(c) the internal energy of the ice-water increase

(d) the internal energy of the ice-water system

decreases

151

1

0

C

1

(b) heat flows out of the gas during the path

BC D

(c) work done during the path B C is zero

(d) positive work is done by the gas in the cycle

ABCDA

expands pushing the partition until the final pressure

in both chambers become 243 P0 /32. Determine (I) the

final temperature of the gas in each chamber and (ii)

the work done by the gas in the right chamber.

(1984; 8M)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1.

Assuming that 25 per cent of the heat is absorbed by

the obstacle, find the velocity of the bullet if its initial

temperature is 27C.

(1981; 3M)

(Melting point of lead = 327C, specific heat of lead =

0.03 cal/gC, latent heat of fusion of lead = 6 cal/g, J

= 4.2 J /cal).

2.

performed with a constant mass of an ideal gas Show

the same process on a P-V diagram.

(1981; 4M)

(In the figure, CA is parallel to the V-axis and BC is

parallel to the T-axis).

V

V2

V1

T2

3.

gas is compressed adiabatically. The initial pressure

and volume of the gas are 105 N/m2 and 6 L respectively.

The final volume of the gas is 2 L Molar specific heat

of the gas at constant volume is 3R/2.

(1982; 8M)

4.

sphere of the same material of inner raidus r and outer

radius R are heated to the same temperature and

allowed to cool in the same environment. Which of

them starts cooling faster?

(1982; 2M)

5.

6.

narrow tube and are filled with a gas at 0C and a

pressure of 76 cm of mercury. One of the bulbs is then

placed in melting ice and the other is placed in a water

bath maintained at 62C. What is the new value of the

pressure inside the bulbs? The volume of the connecting

tube is negligible.

(1985; 6M)

8.

137 m2 to maintain a temperature of + 20C inside it,

when the outside temperature is 10C. The walls have

three different layers materials. The innermost layer is

of wood of thickness 2.5 cm, the middle layer is of

cement of thickness 1.0 cm and the outermost layer is

of brick of thickness 25.0 cm. Find the power of the

electric heater. Assume that there is no heat loss

through the floor and the ceiling. The thermal

conductivities of wood, cement and brick are 0.125, 1.5

and 1.0 W/m/C respectively.

(1986; 8M)

9.

ends. It lies horizontally, the middle 5 cm containing

mercury and the two equal ends containing air at the

same pressure P. When the tube is held at an angle of

60 with the vertical direction, the length of the air

column above and below the mercury column are 46

cm and 44.5 cm respectively. Calculate the pressure P

in centimeters of mercury. (The temperature of the

systm is kept at 30C).

(1986; 6M)

A

T1

7.

pressure is enclosed in a vessel. (i) Assuming the

molecules to be moving with vrms , find the number of

collisions per second which the molecules make with

one square metre area of the vessel wall. (ii) The vessel

is now thermally insulated and moved with a constant

speed v0 . It is then suddenly stopped. the process

results in a rise of the temperature of the gas by 1C.

Calculate the speed v0 .

(1983; 8M)

5R

. The gas is kept in a closed vessel of

2

volume 0.0083m3 , at a temperature of 300 K and a

The rectangular box shown in figure has a partition

pressure of 16 106 N/m2 . An amount of 2.49 104 J

which can slide without friction along the legth of the

of heat energy is supplied to the gas. Calculate the final

box. Initially each of the two chambers of the box has

temperature and pressure of the gas.

(1987; 7M)

one mole of a monoatomic ideal gas ( = 5/3) at a 11. Two moles of helium gas ( = 5/3) are initially at

pressure P0 , volume V0 and temperature T0 . The

temperature 27C and occupy a volume of 20 L. The

chamber on the left is slowly heated by an electric

gas is first expanded at constant pressure until the

heater. The walls of the box and the partition are

volume is doubled. Then it undergoes an adiabatic

thermally insulated. Heat loss through the lead wires

change until the temperature returns to its initial value.

(1988; 6M)

152

CP =

(ii) What are the final volume and pressure of the

gas?

(iii) What is the work done by the gas?

12. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by

a spring loaded piston of cross-section 8.0103 m2 .

Initially the gas is at 300 K and occupies a volume of

2.4 103 m3 and the spring is in its relaxed (unstretched,

uncompressed) state. The gas is heated by a small

electric heater until the piston moves out slowly by

0.1 m. Calculate the final temperature of the gas and

the heat supplied (in joules) by the heater. the force

constant of the spring is 8000 N/m, and the

atmospherics pressure 1.0 105 Nm2 . The cylinder

and the piston are thermally insulated. The piston is

massless and there is no friction between the piston

and the cylinder. Neglect heat loss through the lead

wires of the heater. The heat capacity of the heater coil

is negligible. Assume the spring to be massless.

(1989; 8M)

Open atmosphere

Heater

Rigid

support

2atm

1atm

D

300K

C

T

400K

(b) The net work done.

(c) The net change in internal energy

16. A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m and area of cross

section 0.04 m2 is placed coaxially on a thin metal disc

of mass 9.4 kg and of the same cross-section. The

upper face of the cylinder is maintained at a constant

temperature of 400 K and the initial temperature of the

disc is 300 K. If the thermal conductivity of the material

of the cylinder is 10 W/mK and the specific heat

capacity of the material of the disc is 600 J/kg-K, how

long will it take for the temperature of the disc to

increase to 350 K? Assume, for purposes of calculation,

the thermal conductivity of the disc to be very high

and the system to be thermally insulated except for the

upper face of the cylinder.

(1992; 8M)

17. One mole of a monoatomic ideal gas is taken through

the cycle shown in figure.

(1993; 4 + 4 + 2M)

P

temperature T is allowed to expanded adiabatically

until its volume becomes 5.66V while its temperature

falls to T/2.

(1990; 7M)

(i) How many degrees of freedom do gas molecules

have?

(ii) Obtain the work done by the gas during the

expansion as a function of the initial pressure P

and volume V.

7

R) at pressure,

2

PA and temperature TA is isothermally expanded to

twice its initial volume. Finally gas is compressed at

constant volume to its original pressure PA .

(1991; 4 + 4M)

(a) Sketch P-V and P-T diagrams for the complete

process.

(b) Calculate the net work done by the gas, and net

heat supplied to the gas during the complete

process.

15. Two moles of helium gas undergo a cyclic process as

shown in figure. Assuming the gas to be ideal, calculate

the following quantities in this process. (1992; 8M)

C

V

A B : adiabatic expansion

B C : cooling at constant volume

C D : adiabatic compression

D A : heating at constant volume.

The pressure and temperature at A, B etc. are denoted

by PA, TA, PB, TB etc. respectively. Given that TA = 1000

K, PB = (2/3) PA and PC = (1/3)P A, calculate the

following quantities.

(a) The work done by the gas in the process A B.

(b) The heat lost by the gas in the process B C.

(c) The temperature TD.

(Given : (2/3)2/5 = 0.85]

process through four steps. he amounts of heat

involved in these steps are Q1 = 5960J, Q2 = 5585J,

Q3 = 2980 J and Q4 = 3645 J respectively. The

153

2200 J, W2 = 825 J, W3 = 11000 and W4 respectively.

(a) Find the value of W4 .

(b) What is the efficiency of the cycle?

(1994; 6M)

19. A closed container of volume 0.2 m3 contains a mixture

of neon and argon gases, at a temperature of 27C and

pressure of 1 105 Nm2 . The total mass of the mixture

is 28 g. If the molar masses of neon and argon are 20

and 40g mol1 respectively. Find the masses of the

individual gases in the container assuming them to be

ideal (Universal gas constant R = 8.314 J/mol-K).

(1994; 6M)

columns connected by horizontal sections. The height

of two central columns B and C are 49 cm each. The

two outer columns A and D are open to the atmosphere.

A and C are maintained at a temperature of 95C while

the columns B and D are maintained a 5C. The height

of the liquid in A and D measured from the base line

are 52.8 cm and 51 cm respecively. Determine the

coefficient of thermal expansion of the liquid.

(1997; 5M)

D

5C

consists of one gram mole of gas A with ( = Cp /Cv

= 5/3) and another gas B with = 7/5 at a certain

temperature T. The gram molecular weights of the

gases A and B are 4 and 32 respectively. The gases A

and B do not react with each other and are assumed

to be ideal. The gaeous mixture follows the equation

PV19/13 =K in adiabatic process.

(2002; 5M)

(a) Find the number of gram moles of the gas B in the

gaseous mixture.

(b) Compute the speed of sound in the gaseous

mixture at 300 K.

(c) If T is raised by 1 K from 300 K, find the percentage

change is the speed of sound in the gaseous

mixture.

(d) The mixture is compressed adiabatically to 1/5 of

its initial volume V. Find the change in its adiabatic

compressibility in terms of the given quantities.

21. At 27C, two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas occupy

a volume V. The gas expands adiabatically to a volume

2V Calculate :

(1996; 5M)

(a) the final temperature of the gas,

(b) change in its internal energy

(c) the work done by the gas during this process

95C

B

5C

C

95C

thermally from outside consists of two glass sheets

each of area 1m2 and thickness 0.01 m separated by a

0.05 m thick stagnant air space. In the steady state, the

room-glass inter face and the glass-outdoor interface

are at constant temperature of 27C and 0C

respectively. Calculate the rate of heat flow through

the window pane. Also find the temperatures of other

interfaces. Given the conductivities of glass and air as

0.8 and 0.08 Wm 1 K1 respectively.

(1997C; 5M)

26. A sample of 2 kg monoatomic helium (assumed ideal)

is taken through the process ABC and another sample

of 2 kg of the same gas is taken through the process

ADC (see fig.) Given molecular mass of helium = 4.

(1997C; 5M)

24C to 90C by adding steam to it. Calculate the mass

of the steam required for this purpose. (1996; 2M)

23. One mole of a diatomic ideal gas ( = 1.4) is taken

through a cyclic process starting from point A. The

process A B is an adiabatic compression. B C is

isobaric expansion, C D an adiabatic expansion and

D A is isochoric.

The volume ratio are VA / VB = 16and VC/VD = 2 and the

temperature at A is TA = 300 K. Calculate the

temperature of the gas at the points B and D and find

the efficiency of the cycle.

(1997; 5M)

154

(10N/m)

10

5

10

C

D

20

states A, B, C and D?

(ii) Is there any way of telling afterwards which sample

of helium went through the process ABC and

which went through the process ADC? Write Yes

or No.

and ADC?

2P1

the cyclic process ABCA as shown in figure. Calculate:

(1998;8M)

P1

3P0

T1

P0

V0

(b) the heat absorbed or released by the gas in each

of the processes.

Give answers in terms of the gas constant R.

2V0

2T1

(b) the heat rejected by the gas in the path CA and the

heat absorbed by the gas in the path AB.

(c) the nest heat absorbed by the gas in the path BC.

(d) the maximum temperature attained by the gas

during the cycle.

28. A solid body X of heat capacity C is kept in an

atmosphere whose temperature is TA = 300 K. At time

t = 0, the temperature of X is T0 = 400 K. It cools

according to Newton's law of cooling. At time t1 its

temperature is found to be 350 K.

At the time (t1 ) the body X is connected to a large box

Y at atmospheric temperature TA through a conducting

rod of length L, cross sectional area A and thermal

conductivity. K. The heat capacity of Y is so large that

any variation in its temperature may be neglected. The

cross sectional area A of the connecting rod is small

compared to the surface area of X. Find the temperature

of X at time t = 3t1 .

(1998; 8M)

29. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas initially at

pressure P1 and volume V1 undergo an adiabatic

compression until its volume is V2. Then the gas is

given heat Q at constant volume V2 . (1999; 10M)

(a) Sketch the complete process on a P-V diagram.

(b) Find the total work done by the gas, the total

change in internal energy and the final temperature

of the gas.

[Give your answer in terms of P1, V1, V2, Q and R]

30. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas is taken through

a cycle ABCA as shown in the P-T diagram. During the

process AB, pressure and temperature of the gas vary

such that PT = constant. If T = 300 K, calculate

(2000; 10M)

isolated container which is at 227C. The specific heat

S of the container varies with temperature T according

to the empirical relation S = A + BT, where A = 100 cal/

kg-K and B = 2 102 cal/kg-K2 . If the final temperature

of the container is 27C, determine the mass of the

container. (Latent heat of fusion for water = 8 104 cal/

kg, specific heat of water = 103 cal/kg-K).

(2001; 5M)

32. A monoatomic ideal gas of two moles is taken through

a cyclic process starting from A as shown in the figure.

VB

VD

The volume ratios are V = 2 and V = 4. If the

A

A

temperature TA at A is 27C.

VD

V

VB

VA

B

A

TA

T TB

Calculate :

(2001; 10M)

(a) the temperature of the gas at point B.

(b) heat absorbed or released by the gas in each

process,

(c) the total work done by the gas during the complete

cycle.

Express your answer in terms of the gas constant R.

33. A 5 m long cylindrical steel wire with radius 2 103

m is suspended vertically from a rigid support and

carries a bob of mass 100 kg at the other end. If the

bob gets snapped, calculate the change in temperature

of the wire ignoring losses. (For the steel wire :

Young's modulus = 2.1 1011 Pa; Density -= 7860 kg/

m3 ; Specific heat = 420 J/kg-K)

(2001; 5M)

155

weight 4) at a pressure of 100 N/m2 . During an

observaion time of 1 s, an atom travelling with the root

mean square speed parallel to one of the edges of the

cube, was found to make 500 hits with a particular wall,

without any collision with other atoms. Take

in a bath containing a liquid of coefficient of volume

expansion l . When the temperature is raised by T,

the depth upto which the cube is submerged in the

liquid remains the same. Find the relation between s

and l showing all the steps.

(2004; 2M)

25

J/mol-K and k = 1.381023 J/K. (2002; 5M)

3

(a) Evaluate the temperature of the gas.

(b) Evalulate the average kinetic energy per atom.

(c) Evalulate the total mass of helium gas in the box.

A is kept in a furnace of temperature T1 . The other end

of the rod is kept at a temperature T2 . The thermal

conductivity of the material of the rod is K and

emissivity of the rod is e. It is given that T2 = Ts + T,

where T < < Ts , Ts being the temperature of the

surroundings. If T (T1 Ts ), find the proportionally

constant. Consider that heat is lost only by radiation

at the end where the temperature of the rod is T2 .

(2004; 4M)

R =

molar mass M moving with as speed v0 is suddenly

stopped. Find the increment in gas temperature as a

result of stopping the box.

(2003; 2M)

Ts

by a disc having emissivity 0.6 and conductivity 0.167

Wm1 K1 and thickness 1 cm. The temperture is

maintained by circulating oil as shown : (a) Find the

radiation loss to the surroundings in J/m2 s if temperature

of the upper surface of disc is 127C and temperature

of surroundings is 27C. (b) Also find the temperature

of the circulating oil. Neglect the heat loss due to

convection.

Insulated

Furnance

T1

Oil in

17

10 8 Wm2 K4 ]

3

(2003; 4M)

diatomic gas at temperature 300 K. The cross-sectional

area of the cylinder is 1m2 . Initially the height of the

piston above the base of the cylinder is 1 m. The

temperature is now raised to 400 K at constant pressure.

Find the new height of the piston above the base of

the cylinder. If the piston is now brought back to its

original height without any heat loss, find the new

equilibrium temperature of the gas. You can leave the

answer in fraction.

(2004; 2M)

1m

L

Insulated

and at initial temperature 20C is given a heat of

20000J. Find the following :

(2005; 6M)

(a) change in temperature,

(b) work done and

(c) change in internal energy.

(Given : Specific heat 400 J/kg/C, coefficient of cubical

expansion, = 9 105/C, density = 9000 kg/m3.

atmospheric pressure = 105N/m2)

Oil out

[Given : =

T2

kg of ice at 253 K are mixed. Find the final temperature

of the mixture (in kelvin).

(2006; 6M)

Given, Lfusion = 80 cal/g = 336 J/g.

Lvaporization = 540 cal/g = 2268 J/g.

S ice = 2100 J/kg, K = 0.5 cal/gK

and S water = 4200 J/kg, K = 1 cal/gK.

42. A metal rod AB of length 10x has its one end A in ice

at 0C and the other end B in water at 100C. If a point

P on the rod is maintained at 400C, then it is found

that equal amounts of water and ice evaporate and

melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation of

water is 540 cal/g and latent heat of melting of ice is

80 cal/g. If the point P is at a distance of x from the

ice end A, find the value of . [Neglect any heat loss

to the surrounding.]

43. A thin rod of negligible mass and area of cross section

4 106 m2 , suspended vertically from one end, has a

length of 0.5 m at 100C. The rod is cooled to 0C, but

156

lower end. Find (i) this mass and (ii) the energy stored

in the rod, given for the rod. Young's modulus = 1011

N/m2 , Coefficient of linear expansion 105 k1 and g =

10 m/s 2 .

(1997C; 5M)

1.

distance 2L from the top. The pressure in the cylinder

will then be :

P0

(a) P0

(b)

2

P0 Mg

P0 Mg

+

(c)

(d)

2 R2

2 R2

2.

hole at the top is sealed. The piston is then released,

to a position where it can stay in equilibrium. In this

conditions, the distance of the piston from the

top is:

(2007; 4M)

1.

statement II (reasons).

Statement-I : The total translation kinetic energy of all

the molecules of a given mass of an ideal gas is 1.5

times the product of its pressure and its volume. A

fixed thermally

(2007; 4M)

Because :

Statement II : The molecules of a gas collide with each

other and the velocities of the molecules change due

to the collision.

(a) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statementII is a correct explanation for statement -I

(b) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statementII is NOT a correct explanation for statement -I

(c) Statement-I is true, statement-II is false

(d) Statement-I is false, statement-II is true

2P0 R 2

(2L )

(a) 2

R P0 + Mg

3.

COMPREHENSION

Passage

A

fixed

thermally

conducting cylinder has a

radius R and height L0. The

cylinder is open at its

bottom and has a small

hole at its top. A piston of

mass M is held at a

distance L from the top

surface, as shown in the

2R

P0 R2 Mg

(2 L)

(b)

2

R P0

P0 R 2

(2L )

P0 R2 + Mg

R 2 P Mg

(2

L

)

(c)

(d)

2

R P0

The piston is taken completely

out of the cylinder. The hole at

the top is sealed. A water tank

is brought below the cylinder

and put in a position so that the

L0

water surface in the tank is at

H

the same level as the top of the

cylinder as shown in the figure.

The density of the water is . In equlibrium, the height

H of the water column in the cylinder satisfies :

(2007; 4M)

(a) g (L0 H)2 + P0 (L0 H) + L0P0 = 0

(b) g (L0 H)2 P0 (L0 H) L0P0 = 0

(c) g (L0 H)2 + P0 (L0 H) L0P0 = 0

(d) g (L0 H)2 P0 (L0 H) + L0P0 = 0

L0

Piston

ANSWERS

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. 2R

3.

4. 0C

2T

10. 0.628

11. 60C

13. 46.68C

14. 5.5

5.

5803

6.

12. 192

TRUE/FALSE

1. F

4. T

6. T

2. F

4. F

7. F

3.

5.

F

F

157

1.71 rc

7.

4KTR2

P

8.

Pt

M

1.

(2006; 6M)

P

J

30

20

10

10

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

3

20 V ( m )

Column I

Process J K

Process K L

Process L M

Process M J

Column II

(p)

(q)

(r)

(s)

Q>

W<

W>

Q<

0

0

0

0

2.

Column 1 gives some devices and Column II gives some processes on which the functioning of these devices

depend. Match the devices in Column I with the processes in Column II.

(2007; 6M)

Column I

Column II

(A) Bimetallic strip

(p) Radiation from a hot body.

(B) Steam engine

(q) Energy conversion

(C) Incandescent lamp

(r) Melting

(D) Electric fuse

(s) Thermal expansion of solids

3.

Column I contains a list of processes involvin expransion of an ideal gas. Match this with Column II describing

the thermodynamic change during this process. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate bubbles of the

4 4 matrix given in the ORS

(2008; 7M)

Column I

Column II

(A) An inuslated container has two chambers

(p) The temperature of the gas decreases

separated by a valve. Chamber I contains an

ideal gas and the Chamber II has vaacuum.

The valve is opened.

(B)

original volume such that its pressure p

(C)

Real monoatomic gas expands to twice its

orginal

constant

(r)

V 4/ 3

An ideal monoatomic gas expands such that its

(s)

pressure p and volume V follows the behaviour

shown in the graph

(D)

1

V2

158

1.

8.

15.

22.

29.

36.

42.

49.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(b)

(c)

(b)

(c)

2. (a)

9. (b)

16. (d)

23.(d)

30. (a)

37. (c)

43. (a)

3.

10.

17.

24.

31.

37.

44.

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(b)

None

(c)

4. (d)

11. (b)

18. (c)

25. (a)

32. (a)

38. (b)

45. (c)

5. (b)

12. (d)

19. (d)

26. (a)

33. (a)

39. (c)

46. (a)

6.

13.

20.

27.

34.

40.

47.

(c)

(b)

(d)

(c)

(a)

(c)

7.

14.

21.

28.

35.

41.

48.

(d)

(c)

(d)

(b)

(c)

(c)

()

1. (a, b, c, d)

7. (b, d)

10. (b, d)

2. (a, b, d)

3.

8. (a, b, c, d) 9.

(a, b)

(b, d)

4. (a, c)

5. (c, d)

6. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1. 12.96 m/s

2.

3. 972 J

4. Hollow sphere

5. (i) 1.96 1027 /s (ii) 36 m/s

6. (i) T1 = 12.94 T0 . T2 = 2.25 T0 (ii) 1.875 RT0

7. 83.75 cm of Hg

8. 9000 W 9. 75.4 cm of Hg

6

2

10. 675K, 3.6 10 N/m

11. (i) (ii) 113 L, 0.44 105 N/m2 (iii) 12459 J

12. 800 K, 720 J

13. (i) f = 5 (ii) W = 1.23 PV

14. (b) 0.58 RTA . 0.58 RTA

15. (a) 1152 J (b) 1152 J (c) zero

16. 166.32 s

17. (a) 1869.75 J (b) 5297.6 J (c) 500 K 18. (a) 765 J (b) 10.82%

19. Mass of neon = 4.074g, mass of argon = 23.926 g

20. (a) 2 mol (b) 401 m/s (c) 0.167% (d) 8.27 105 V

21. (a) 189 K (b) 2767 J (c) 2767 J 22. 12 g

23. TB = 909K, TD = 791.4 K, 61.4% 24. 6.7 105 /C

25. 41.6 W, 26.48C, 0.52C

26. (i) TA =120.34 K, TB =240.68 K, TC=481.36 K, TD =240.68 K (ii) No (ii) QABC=3.25 106 J, QADC=2.75 106 J

27. (a) P0 V0

25 P0V0

5

P0V0

(b) P0V0 , 3P0 V0 (c)

(d)

8 R

2

2

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

V 2 / 3

V

3

3

1

1

1

=

PV

1

1

= PV

(ii) Utotal 2

1 1 V

V2

2

2

0.495 kg

(a) 600 K (b) 1500 R, 831.6 R, 900 R, 831.6 (R) (c) 600 R

4.568 103 C

(a) 160 K (b) 3.312 1021 J (c) 0.3 g

35. T =

37.

2 K 4 t j

Mv02

3R

4

m, 448.8 K

3

38. l = 2,

K

39. Proportional constant =

4eLTs3 + K

159

2/3

2/3

V

Q PV

1 + Q (iii) T

=

+ 11 1

Final

3R 2 R V2

41. 273 K

43. (i) 40 kg (ii) 0.1 J

1. A-s, B-q, C-p, r, D-q, s 2. A-s, B-q, C-p, q, D-q, r

3. A-q, B-p, r, C-p, s, D-q, s

1. (b)

COMPREHENSION

1. (a)

2. (d)

3.

(c)

SOLUTIONS

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1.

3

2

CV =

5

R

2

CV =

2.

3.

become (Surface area of sphere having radius =

distance of the earth and sun)

n1CV1 + n2 CV 2

n1 + n2

= =

3

5

R + 1 R

2

2 = 2R

2

4

It value is given 1400 T

melting at constant temperature.

at P the solid and its liquid both will co-exist.

= constant

RT

Puting, P =

, we have

V

T

= constant

V

4.

6.

5.

2 1 / 4

= 5803 K

dT

mc

= AT4

dt

or

0 dt =

or

t =

1.59 1011

7 108

Q = (T 4 O ) A = T 4 A

which is responsible for decrease in temp by dT

2 times.

or

1400 r 2

T=

2

R

1400

=

5. 67 10 8

R2

= 1400

r2

1/ 4

VP2

or

T 4 4R 2

4r 2

Whole ice will not melt and the temperature

remains at 0C. (finally)

(Treating it as a black body)

This heat received by unit area of earth per sec will

160

mc

A

100

200 T

dt

mc 1

1

3A (100)3 (200)3

7mc

7mc 106

106 =

3 8 A

24A

is same

4

3

6

7 r (c) 10

3

t=

3 8 5.67 10 8 4r 2

= 1.71 rc

7.

sphere Power of source = Rate of heat flow

P= H =

temperaturedifference

T

=

1 t

thermalresistance

K 4R 2

t=

9.

L=

1.

t = 3.3 10 2 s =

t = 5 .5 min

330

min

60

V =

3RT

1

V

at same temp.

M

M

rms speeds.

100

k

2

100

2 5

1 = B =

=1+ =

kA 3

3 3

2.

Slope of V - T graph

dV nR 1

=

dT

P

P

3

100 = 60

5

movable partition is same. P1 = P2

n1R T

n2 RT

=

V1

V2

TRUE/FALSE

0

100

11. In series H is same l / k A = l / k A

B

A

0. 2m 2

m2

= 280 Js 1

This heat will melt the ice in t sec

(280 Js 1 ) (t s) = mL

= (280 103 ) (3.3 105 J kg 1 )

U = Q W = 0

8

8

(360 ) = ( 360 ) = 192

8+ 7

15

= 1400

Temperature is unchanged.

PV = constant

Under adiabtic conditons

PVT = constant where = 1.67

1.67

(Pa ) (2V)

= PV1.67 Pa = P/(2)1.67

Therefore, the ratio Pa /Pi = (2/21.67) = 0.628

Pt

M

free space no work is done by it or on it

W = 0 , Q = 0

3.5 104

T2 = 273.16)

4 K

3 10

= 318.68k

or temperature at given pressure will be

(318.68 273)C or 45.68C

P.t = M.L.

= Angle V2 towards

or

8.

Therefore,

TP

or

T2 /T1 = P2 /P1

or

T2 = T1 (P2 /P1 )

4kR2T

P

V2

V

V

M

32 8

= 1 or 2 = 1 =

=

M 1 M 2 V1 M 2 28 7

3.

n1V2 = n2V1

4.

mass

m

=

Now number of moles =

and m

molecular mass M

161

3RT

M

So, vrms not only depends on T but also on M.

vrms =

slope for adiabatic process = P as > 1

adiabatic process has larger slope than that of

isothermal process.

A represents isothermal process and B represents

adiabatic process.

540

= 0.135 kg.

T

M

When oxygen gas dissociates into atomic oxygen its

atomic mass M will remain half. Temperature is doubled.

So, from Eq. (1) vrms will become two times.

or

6.

7.

vrms

Cp CV = R > 0

5.

CP > CV

( E / t )1 4R12 T14

=

( E / t ) 2 4R22 T24

1.

2.

6.

4.

CV 2 =

5

7

R 2 =

2

5

12 3

= = 1.5.

8 2

parallel to each other.

H =

1 2

l

KA

2R

3 8.31 300

M

=

= =

5

5

( Q ) P = 70 = 50 cal.

7

7

3

5

CV1 = R1 =

2

3

M = 2 10 3 kg = 2g

or the gas is H2 .

(a)

( Q ) V =

CV1 +CV2

n1 = n2 = 1

H = H1 + H 2 , and

3RT

M

Room temperature T = 300 K

3.

1CV1 +2CV2

CP

=

CV

vrms =

1930 =

n1CV1 + n2CV2

and

P-V graph of this process

= (2P P) (2V V)

= PV

n11CV1 + n2 2CV2

1 4

= = 1

4 2

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)

n1CV1 + n2CV2

5 3 7 5

+

= 3 2 5 2,

3 5

+

2 2

= T 4

E / t = AT 4

n1CP1 + n2CP2

mixture =

Energy (per sec per unit area) radiated by a black body

cw

L

3RT

M

vrms =

5.

ms = (mw + weq )

1 2

k eff (2 R) 2

l

1 2

2

K1R 2 + 1

K 2 ( 4R 2 R 2 )

l

l

K eff =

7.

K1 + 3 K 2

4

U

nCV T CV 1

f = Q = nC T = C =

P

P

calorimeter

ms L = ( mw + weq ) cw

162

or

f=

(d)

5

7

(as =

)

7

5

8.

temperature and molecular mass of gas (mass of

molecule)

8kT

m

But all three vessels are at same temperature.

1/3

1 2 /3 1

(3) =

3

3

Vav =

Vav

11.

vrms T

When temperature is increased from 120 K to 480 K

(i.e. four times), the root mean square speed will

i.e.,

1

and hence average speed of O 2

9.

become

conductor during steady state flow.

C

B

( 2 T)

A

(T)

or

T TC

T T 2

= C

T TC = 2TC 2T

l

l 2

dQ

dT

= mc

= eA(T 4 T04 )

dt

dt

Tsun

Tnorthstar

1

m

= =

( m) north star

( m ) sun

350

= 0. 69

510

is same

nR

T1

P1

T

= V

= 1 T2 = 2T1 gives

P2 nR T

T2

2

V

P2 = 2P1

4 3

3m

r r =

3

4

2

T=

2

Therefore, if temperature is same, translational kinetic

energyh of O2 and N2 both will be equal.

e

A (T 4 T04 )

( dT / dt) 1 3mc 1

=

e

(dT / dt) 2

A2 (T 4 T04 )

mc

m=

2 times

TC

3

=

T

1+ 2

1/3

But

mT = constant

temperature fall

i.e.

= 12.42 1021 J

T TB

= KA C

lCB

TC (1 + 2 ) = 3T

3RT

M

For TB ( 2T ) > T A (T )

T T

KA A C

l AC

2

B loses heat to A

As K is same as well as A then heat flowing from

or

12. vrms =

l 2

3RT

M

vrms =

( dT / dt) 1

A

1 r

1 m

= 1 = 1 = 1

(dT / dt) 2 3 A2 3 r2

3 m2

2 /3

1

times.

4

Temperature is doubled, therefore, T4 becomes 16

halved, hence, surface area will becomes

163

is maximum

1

times. New power = (450) (16) = 1800 W.

4

U 2 is maximum

U 2 > U1 is correct.

E

1

kT . Since, both the gases are diatomic

2

and at same temperature (300 K), both will have the

same number of rotational degree of freedom i.e. two.

Therefore both the gases will have the same average

rotational kineic energy per molecules

freedom =

U3

U2

PA

1

2

18. P = 1.5 = 3

B

nA 2

=

nB 3

But n =

As

m

M

CP

dT A

dTB =

CV

= (dTA )

[ = 14 (diatomic)] [dTA = 30 K]

= (1.4) (30K)

dTB = 42K

RT

M

V =

VN 2

VHe

7

/ 28

5

=

5/ 4

3

734

( 3)

=

5 5 28

5

Hence, U = U O2 + U Ar

5

3

= 2 RT + 4 RT = 11RT

2

2

TV1 = constant

or

T1V1 1

= T2V2 1

b 2.88 10 6 nm K

=

T

2880 K

= 1000 nm

7

and Helium is monoatomic

5

U = n RT

2

= 5 for O2 and 3 for Ar

m =

m

U3

T is given by

corresponding to maximum energy radition is

5

.

3

mA n A 2

=

=

mB nB 3 for same gas.

constant pressure

dQA = nC P dTA

...(1)

B is held fixed, therefore, heat will be supplied at

constant volume.

dQB = nC V dTB

...(2)

But dQA = dQB (given)

nC P dTA = nC V dTB

1499

1500

489

500

RT

RT

nA

nA

V

2V = 2

RT

RT 3

nB

nB

V

2V

999

1000

U1

= 2 1 kT or kT

2

Thus, ratio will be 1 : 1.

T1 V2

=

T2 V1

5

3

AL2

=

AL1

(5/3)1

164

2/3

L2

=

L1

temperatures we have

is

m T = constant = Wien's constant b

Here, m is the minimum wavelength corresponding to

maximum intensity I.

v1

=

v2

m2

m1

Thermal resistance of all the three rods is equal. Rate

of heat flow through AB + Rate of heat flow through

CB = Rate of heat flow through BD

90C

A

1

T

From the figure (m )1 < (m )3 < (m )2

Therefore,

T1 > T3 > T2

m

or

involves change of phase twice and during each change

of phase the temp remains constant (when energy is

supplied is used to do work against intermolecular

forces) and also the rise of temperature should be there

hence only Ist graph is found to be correct.

C

90C

90 90

0

+

=

R

R

R

Here R = Thermal resistance

3 = 180

or

= 60C

diagram) in three different processes will be as shown:

P

0C

But U = Q W U < 0 if Q < 0 and

W = 0

i.e. U decreases and hence T decreases.

1

3

V1

V2

5

7

He > O2

As

3

5

or Ar

Area under the graph gives the work done by the gas.

(Area)2 > (Area)1 > (Area)3

W2 > W1 > W3

V

nRT

V nR

=

27. =

and V =

VT

P

T

P

than that of diatomic gas.

2 should be He and 1 should be O2

32. For cyclic process U = 0

P

nR 1

=

nRT P T

S.T. = [Constant] rectangular hyperbola.

(c)

Hence =

28. v =

RT

M

v=

M = Nm

R KB

=

R = K B N

M

m

or N 2

W AB + W BC + WCA = Q = 5. 0 J

( 2 1)10 + O + WCA = 5

WCA = 5 J

is B =

k BT

but for monoatomic gases at same

m

V P

=P

V

Hence =

165

V

1

= P = 1

VP P

Q = Q1 Q2 = 0.8 105 cal will melt a mass m of the

ice, where

(a)

34. According to Kirchoffs law of radiation All good

absorbers are good emitters.

Being best absorber, a black body is also best

emitter.

Initially it appears darkest as it absorbs maximum

but finally when it reaches to the temperature of

furnace it emits maximum and appears brightest.

same phase. Then, phase change (liquid to gas) will

take place. During which temperature will remain

constant. After that temperature of oxygen in gaseous

state will further increase.

Hence, the correct option is (c).

dT

35. Rate of cooling

emissivity (e)

dt

From the graph,

dT

dT

> dt

y

dt x

ex > ey

more than the slope of isothermal process. The

corresponding P-V graph for the two processes as

shown in figure.

absorbers are goods emitters also)

ax > ay

Hence, the correc answer is (c).

Note : Emissivity is a pure ratio (dimensionless) while

the emissive power has a unit J/s or watt.

L

36. = L

0

La = L1 at ,

P3

Ls = L 2 s t

P1

La = L s

L1 a = L 2 s

L1 s

=

L2 a

1+

Q 0.8 105

=

= 1 kg

L 80 103

So, the temperature of the mixture will be 0C, mass of

water in it is 5 + 1 = 6 kg and mass of ice is 2 1 =

1 kg.

m=

L2

=1 + a

L1

s

V1

L1

s

=

L1 + L 2 a + s

BC isobaric process

AB isothermal process

In P-V diagrams slopeAC > SlopeAB and Slope BC

should be zero.

Also (A C and A B both should be the

rectangular hyperbola)

Option (b) may appear correct but temperature at

B is less then that at C shows that volume at B should

be less than volume at C which is not so.

none is correct.

V2

WAB = positive (as volume is increasing)

and WBC = negative (as volume is decreasing) plus,

|WBC| > |WAB |, as area under P-V graph gives the work

done.

Hence, WAB + WBC = W < 0

From the graph itself, it is clear that P3 > P1 .

Hence, the correct option is (c).

Note : At point B, slope of adiabatic (process BC) is

greater than the slope of isothermal (process AB).

41. In Ist case Rods are in parallel q =

dm l dQ

=

dt

L dt

+

=

lL

lL

l

Finally they are connected in series.

q1 =

fall from 20C to 0C is

Q1 = mc = (5) (103 ) (20 0) = 105 cal

when 2 kg ice at 20C comes to a temperature of 0C,

it takes an energy

Q2 = mc = (2) (500) (20) = 0.2 105 cal

166

q2 =

KA(100 0)

2lL

dv 2nRT

=

dT

k

(b)

q1 4

=

q2 1

Given

dV

2

=

VdT T

=Y

1 = 2

Y1 2 3

Y1 1 = Y2 2 or Y = = 2

2

1

1

m Now these two are combined.

A

2

Hence Power Q 4 or Q 4

m

m

QA : QB : QC =

(2) ( 4) ( 6)

:

:

(3) 4 ( 4) 4 (5) 4

QB is maximum.

1.

its temperature U = nCV T for all processes

(b) U + W = Q = 0 for an adiabatic process

U = W

( m s )

840 t

840 t = 2 4.2 103 50

or t = 500 sec. = 8 min 20 sec.

All options are correct.

2.

radiation. (Primarily)

A1 > A2

T3 > T2 > T1

As m3 < m2 < m1

A1

T3 corresponds sun

T2 corresponds filament

temperature of water from 14.5C to 15.5C at 760 mm

of Hg.

47. 0.6AT 4 (emitted) + 0.4AT 4 (reflected)

A2

Given process

V

Isothermal process

(b) In the given process P-V equation will be of a

straight line with negative slope and positive 9ntercept

i.e., P = V + (Here and are positive constant)

PV = V2 + V

nRT = V2 + V

1

V 2 + V

...(1)

nR

This is an equation of parabola in T and V.

(c)

48. pT = k

(d)

k

p=

now PV = nRT gives

T

nRT 2

V=

k

167

T=

dT

= 0 = 2V

dV

V=

B

2

d 2T

Now,

Vav =

= 2 = ve

dV

i.e., T has some maximum value.

Now,

T PV

and

(PA)A = (PV)B

TA = TB

We conclude that temperature are same at A and B and

temperature has a maximum value. Therefore, in going

from A to B, T will first increase to a maximum value

and then decrease.

3.

and V rms =

8RT

8kT

=

M

m

3RT

=

M

3kT

m

F(v)

emit same power

1/ 4

e AT A4 A = eB TB4 A

T A eB

=

TB e A

1/ 4

T A 81

=

TB 1

= 3 or TB =

can have speeds to a very large value and some

molecules can have speeds slightly greater than

zero.

T A 5802

=

= 1934 K

3

3

Now, mB mA = 1 m and mB TB = b = mA T A

mA = mB

The average KE =

TB 1

= m

TA 3 B

Now PV = nRT V =

1 3 2

3

2

m Vmp = mV mp

2 2

4

Option (c) and (d) are correct.

6.

slab at 273 K. Therefore, negative work is done by icewater system on the atmosphere or positive work is

done on the ice water system by the atmosphere.

Hence, option (b) is correct. Secondly heat is absorbed

during melting (i.e dQ is positive) and as we have

seen, work done by ice-water system is negative (dW

is negative). Therefore, from first law of thermodynamics

dU = dQ dW

change in internal energy of ice-water system, dU will

be positive or internal energy will increase.

7.

Length after heating will be :

V

=

VT

nRT

P

nR

dV dT

dV

1

dT or =

=

=

P

V

T

VdT T

depends upon T.

dV =

3

K BT

2

(c) As the pressure increases, volume decreases for

1

1 3kT

2

mV rms

= m

2

2

m

1

3

mB mB = 1 m gives mB = = 1. 5 m

or

3

2

Option (a) and (b)

4.

P

(d) As average translational RE for each component is

B

C

d

3

k BT hence it is same for all gases in a given mixture.

2

5.

Vmp =

2RT

=

M

V mp V ap V rms

2kT

m

168

lB = l0 (1 + B T) = (R + d)

lC = l0 (1 + CT) = R

and

Positive WD ( D A B) is greater than negative

1 + BT

R+d

=

R

1+ C T

WD ( B C D )

Hence in the complete cycle net work done is positive.

Option (d) is correct.

d

= 1 + (B C) T

R

[From binomial expansion]

1+

R=

or R

8.

9.

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1.

3 1 2

mv = ms + mL

4 2

1

( B C ) T

(8s + 8L )

3

Substituting the value, we have

1

1

and | |

T

B

C

or

radiation and hence emit more energy (as T is

constant) Also for T constant both should be equal

option (a), (b) and (d) are correct.

CV =

5

7

R and C P = R for diatomic gas

2

2

CV =

3

5

R and C P = R for monoatomic gas

2

2

=

C P .CV =

3

= 12.96m/s

2.

V

= constant (Slope) V T

T

It is an isobaric process. (Expansion)

B C is an isochoric process

C A is an isothermal process. (Compression)

Using above conditions that P-V diagrams can be

drawn as follows

A B

7

= 1.4 for diatomic gas

5

5

= 1.67 for monoatomic gas

3

3.

35

= 8.75 for diatomic gas

4

Pi Vi Pf V f

W =

1

15

= 3.75 for monoatomic gas

4

Option (b) and (d) are correct.

=

CV =

hyperbola (-ve slope decreasing) and process

A B is ve slope increasing

Option (a) is wrong.

Q = U + W shows that Q < O as WBCD < 0

v=

v =

= 4 for monoatomic gas

C P / CV = =

Work done during the path A B C is area of

semi circle (positive WD ( A B ) > negative

WD ( B C )]

Net WD is positive

169

3

5

5

R C P = R and =

2

2

3

V

Pf = Pi i

V

f

W=

5/ 3

= 10 5 6 = 6.24 10 5

2

10 5 6 10 3 6.25 105 2 10 3

5

1

3

3

[ 6 12. 5] 10 2

2

= 150 [ 6 .5 ]

= 972 J

=

4.

dQ

= eAT 4 will be same for both as e A and T

dt

are same

Further

dT dQ

dT

1

=

But mc

dt

dt

dt

m

For same outer radium and material, the mass of

hollow sphere is less

its rate of cooling will be more

it cools down faster than the solid sphere

5.

or

T1 + T2 =

5/3

1 dp

= Pressure

A dt

P

1. 01 10 5

27

=

= 1. 96 10 / sec.

32

2mv rms

483 .4

2

6.02 10 26

7.

1

mgasv02

2

if temperature difference is created thus to keep

pressure same, some gas (say x mole) moves from hot

bulb to cold bulb.

Initially we have 76 V = nR 273

and finally ( n + x) R 273 = PV = (n x) R 335

5

R

2

T

= v02

3

1(32 10 )

2 1

or

T = 1C

v0 =

6.

5

2 8.31

2

1000

32

v0 = 36 m/s

Applying

n+x =

or

x=

335

(n x )

273

62

n

608

P ( n + x)

x

62

=

=1+ =1+

76

n

n

608

P = 83 .75 cm of Hg

8.

PV

= constant for both the chambers.

T

V1 =

Also,

243P0

=

=

=

(Here,

P

)

T0

T1

T2

32

15/3

3

= (1) R (T0 = 2.25T0 )

2

= 1.875 RT0

nCV T =

...(1)

T0

243 P0

=

T

2

32P0

Solving this equation, we get

T2 = 2.25 T0

From Eq. (1),

T1 = 12.94 T0

(ii) Work done by the gas in right chamber (Q = 0,

adiabatic process)

W = U

= nC V (Ti Tf )

i.e. + 2m vrms

entire KE is used as thermal energy to raise temp of

gas

243

T

16 0

right chamber,

particletothewallis

[ mvrms ( mv rms )]

n=

16

243 (T1 + T2 ) = T0

or

32 T2

V2 =

V0

243 T0

V1 + V2 = 2V0

and

cement and brick. All the resistance are in series.

Hence,

20C

32 T1

V0

243 T0

R1

R2

R = R1 + R2 + R3

170

R3

10C

l

+

+

(as R =

)

0.125 137 1.5 137

1.0 137

KA

= 0.33 102 C/W

Rate of heat transfer

2.49 10 4

Q

= 300 +

T f = Ti +

PV 5

n(C p R )

R R

RT 2

= 300 +

temperaturedifference

dQ

=

thermalresistance

dt

Pi

675

6

Hence Pf = T T f = 1.6 10 300

i

30

=

W

0.33102

= 9000 W

Power of heater should be 9000 W

9.

P

5 cm

(a)

5cm

P1

cm

44. 5

AB process is isobaric

VT

P = constant

i.e if V is doubled, T also becomes two times.

TA = 300 K TB = 600 K

VA = 20 L VB = 40 L

m

46 c

P2

30

PA =

(b)

horizontal lower end compresses to 44.5 and upper

end expands to 46.

But total length remains unchanged We have

( 2 x + 5) cm = ( 44 .5 + 5 + 46 )cm

x = 45 .25cm

If equilibrium (in tilted tube) after isothermal process

PV = PV below lower surface of mercury

P2 A 44.5 = P A x = P A 45 .25

Now, above the upper surface of mercury

P1 A 46 = P A x = P A 45. 25

46 5

3

5/3

600

or

300

5/31

2.49 105

=

Pc

2.49 105

=

Pc

2/3

300

Pc = (2.49 105)

600

Pc = 0.44 105 N/m2

Similarly, using PVr = constant we can find that

Vc = 113 L

The corresponding P-V graph is shown below

5

P ( 10)N/m

0.44

44. 5

46 5 44.5

P2 =

= 75.4 cm of Hg

45.25

3 45 .25

P = 75 .4 cm of Hg

P=

20

(iii)

20 10 3

= 2.49 105 N /m2

Process BC is adiabatic. So, applying TP1 = constant

2.49

44.5 5

P2 P2

=

46

2

(2)(8.31)(300)

=

5/2

P2 44. 5 = P1 46

Also comparing pressures in cm of mercury in titled

tube we get

P2 = P1 + 5 sin 30

P2 =

nRT A

VA

1. 5 5

P2 =

46 2

Pf = 3 .6 10 6

both sides of mercury column are equal.

x

2. 49 10 4 300

3

= 675 K

6

3

2

1. 6 10 8. 3 10

W = 0 Q = U = nCV T

171

40

113

V (L)

= (2.49 105 ) (40 20) 103 = 4980 J

WBC = U = nC V (TB TC)

= 1.4 (diatomic)

2

PG f A = Patm + Kx

PG f = Patm +

f =

Vi

Using Pf = Pi

Vf

(ii)

W=

FGas

TiV f

Kx

=

Patm +

Now T f = Ti

PiVi

PiVi

A

Pf V f

V + 0.1xA

Kx

= i

1 +

Ti

Vi

APatm

1

( Pt Vt Pf V f )

1

1

[ PV 0.09 5.66V ]

1.4 1

10

[1 0.51]PV

4

4.9

= 1. 225 = 1. 23 J

4

Fspring

0.1 8 10

= 1 +

2.4 10 3

we get Pf = 0.09 P

Kx

A

Fatm

2

= 5 degree of freedom

1. 4 1

Pi Patm

14. (i) The P-V and P-T diagram are shown below

8000 0.1

1 +

8 10 3 1 10 5 300

P

PA

PA

1

= 1 + (1 + 1)300

3

PA

2

= 800 K

PA

2

VA

1

Q = nCV T + PV + KX 2

2

PV

TR

10 5 2.4 10 3 3

R[800 300 ]

300 R

2

VA =

nRT A 3RT A

=

PA

PA

= nRT A log e

VB

+ nR(TC T A ) + 0

VA

T

V

( 1) ln = ln

T

V

ln (T / T )

ln 2

=

= 0. 4

ln (V / V ) ln(5.66)

UAB = 0

The total work done W = WAB + WBC + WCA

2

Number of degrees of freedom f = 1

( 1) =

TA

1

, V is doubled. Therefore, P will remain half.

V

Further,

TA

2

(PV)C =

1

+ 10 5[3.2 2.4] 10 3 + 8000 ( 0.1) 2

2

= 600 + 80 + 40

= 720 J

13. (i)

( PV ) A

TA

TC =

2

2

(ii) Process A-B : T = constant

1

3

2

R T + PV + KX

2

2

2VA

2V A

T

+ 3R A T A

VA

2

3

= 2.08RTA RTA = 0.58RTA = Qnet = 0. 58RTA

2

15. (a)

172

A B is an isobaric process

dQ = dU + PdV

A

B

U = 0 for thus Q = W

PB

Hence QBC = nRTBC ln

PC

2

= 2(8.31)400 ln

1

1

and QDA = 2(8.31)( 300 ) ln = 3455 J

2

WAB =

QT = 0 + 4607 3455 = 1152 J .

(b)

process)

U is state function U = 0 (for cyclic

process)

8.31

(850 1000 )

5

1

3

or

WAB = 1869.75J

(b) B -C is an isochoric process (V = constant)

TB

P

= B

TC

PC

the temperature of disc.

mdisc Sdisc

350 k

300 k

ddisc

dt

TC = 425K

3

Therefore, QBC = nC V T = (1) R ( TC TB )

2

dt

0

m S L

400 300 0.4(600 ) 0.4

t = D D C ln

ln 2

=

KC A

10(( 0.04)

400 350

t = 166 . 32 sec.

3

= (8.31)(425850)

2

QBC = 5297.6 J

Therefore, heat lost in the process BC is 5297.6J.

(c) C-D and A-B are adiabtic process. Therefore,

2

1

PA , PC = PA

3

3

PC1 TC

CP 5

Number of moles, n = 1, = C = 3 R (monoatomic)

V

(a) A B is an adiabatic process therefore

PA1 TA

PC

(1/3) PA

TB =

850K

TC =

PB

(2/3) PA

( 400 disc

Q

= = Kcylinder A

Lcylinder

t

d D

KC A

=

400 D M D S D LC

PB1 TB

15/3

5/3

P

T t

C = D

PD TC

...(1)

...(2)

TB = TA

PB

3

= (1000)

2

1

PD

TD

T t

P

PA1 TA = PB1 TB A = B

PB TA

1

PA

R

(TB TA )

1

(c)

2/5

3

2

= (1000)

= (1000)

2

3

TB = (1000) (0.85)

TB = 850 K

PC PA

T T 1

= D B

PD PB

TC TA

2/5

...(3)

Therefore,

173

PC TC

P

T

and A = A

=

PB TB

PD TD

PC PA

TC TA

=

PD PB

TBTD

The internal energy of the mixture = internal energy of

gas A + internal energy of gas B.

...(4)

T DT B

T T

C A

TC TA

1

TB TD

(n A + n B )

or

(425)(1000)

TC TA

TD =

=

K

850

TB

or

TD = 500K

mixture

R

R

T = n A 1 T + nB 1 T

A

B

1

Note : For mixture we can directly use the formula

n

n1

n

+ 2

mixutre 1 = 1 1 2 1

(b) Molecular weight of the mixture will be given by

W 4 = ( Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 ) (W1 + W2 + W3 )

n M + nBM B

M = A A

nA + nB

= 765 J

(b)

1+n

1

n

=

+

(19/13)1 (5/3)1 (7/5)1

function

W = Q

nRT

1

....(1)

Since, the mixture obeys the law PV19/13 = constant

(in adiabatic process)

Therefore, mixture = 19/13 (PV Y = constant)

Substituting the values in Eq. (1) we have

TC TA

=1

TDTB

U=

Therefore,

TC TA

=

TB TD

TC T A

T T

D B

or

Since,

M = 22.67

Speed of sound in a gas is given by

WD

100 %

Efficiency = Q

(absorbed)

RT

M

Therefore, in the mixture of the gas

v=

=

100%

5960 + 3645

= 10.82%

v=

(19 / 13)(8.31)(300 )

22 .67 10 3

v = 401m/s

m)gm argon gas.

(c)

T

v = KT1/2 ...(2)

M

28 m

Mixture has

moles of neon and

moles

20

40

or

of argon

dv 1

1/2

= KT

dT 2

dT

dv = K

2 T

M 28 m RT

+

20

40 V

Net pressure P =

m 28 m RT

+

20

40 V

5

i.e. 1 10 =

1 7 8.31 300

1

= m +

20

40

10 0.02

28 m = 23 .936 gm argon is present in the mixture

dv K dT

= .

v

v 2 T

K

=

v

174

1

T

1 dT

T 2 T

(From Eq. 2)

1 dT

=

2 T

m/s

1 dT

dv

100 =

2 T

v

W = O ( 2767 )

100

1 1

=

100

2 300

= 0.167

Therefore, percentage change in speed is 0.167%

ms [L + S (100 90 )] = 100 [90 24 ]

1

(d) Compressibility =

= (say)

Bulkmodulus

ms =

dP

Badi = P B =

dV

/ V

1

1

1

=

and 'adi =

P

P ' P (5)

adi =

[PV = constant]

[

PV

(5)]

Given : TA = 300 K, n = 1, = 1.4, VA /VB = 16 and VC/

VB = 2

Let VB = V0 and PB = P0

Then, VC = 2V0 and VA = 16V0

Temperature at B :

Proces A-B is adiabatic.

Hence,

1 1

= 'adi adi =

1

P 5

19

1 13

=

1 5

19

(1

+

2)(8.31)(300)

13

19

= mixture = 13

= 8.27 105 V

V

TD = TC C

VD

T2 = T1 (V1 /V2 ) 1

= 300 (V / 2V ) (5 / 31)

300

= 189 K

( 4)1/ 3

3

U = nCV T = n R (T F Ti )

2

1.41

2

= (1818)

16

Networkdoneinthecycle

100

Heatabsorbedinthecycle

or =

3

8.31(189 300 )

2

U = 2767 J

W = Q U but process is adiabatic

= 2

(c)

TD = 791.4 K

Efficiency of cycle :

Efficiency of cycle (in percentage) is defined s

T2189 K

(b)

TAVA 1 = TBVB 1

VA

or

TB = TA

VB

= (300) (16)1.41

TB = 909 K

Temperature at D :

B C is an isobaric process (P = constant)

T V, VC = 2VB

TC = 1818 K

Now, the process C-D is adiabatic.

Therefore,

1

V

nRT

1 P

( nA + nB ) RT 5

V

21. (a)

100 1 66

6600

=

= 12 g

540 + 1 10

550

WTotal

100

Q+ ve

Q

Q+ve Q ve

100 = 1 1 100

Q+ve

Q2

...(1)

and Q2 = Positive heat in the cycle (heat absorbed)

In the cycle

Q = 0

175

these layers of glass air and glass

5

QDA = nC V T = (1) R (T A TD )

2

(CV =

5

R for a diatomic gas)

2

5

8.31(300791.4)

2

= 10208.8J

=

or

QDA

27 1

2

O

KG A = 1

K AA = 2

KG A

lG

lA

lG

l A kG

1 + 2 = 27 C and 1 2 = 2 l k

G A

51 2 = 27 i.e. 2 =

Also H =

27

= 0. 53C

51

2 K G A 27 0. 8

=

1

lG

51 0. 01

= 42. 35 J S1 = 42.35 W

26. Number of gram moles of He,

A

B

P0

m

2 103

=

= 500

M

4

(i) VA = 10m3 : (i) PA = 5 104 N/m2

n=

C

D

V0

2V0

16V0

or

equilibrium, there should be no net horizontal

displacement of liquid in arm BC.

PB . A PC A = 0 or PB = PC

P0 + hA 95 g hB 5 g = P0 + hD s g hc 95 g

0

1 + (95)

0

1 + (5)

101 .8 (1 + 5 ) = 100 (1 + 95 g )

= 2 10 4 C 1

=

nR

(500)(8.31)

(10)(10 104 )

TB =

K

(500)(8.31)

TB = 240.68 K

VC = 20m3 , PC = 10 104 N/m2

TC

( 20)(10 10 4 )

K

(500 (8.31)

or

TC = 481.36 K

and VD = 20m3 , PD = 5 104 N/m2

( hA + hC ) 95 = (hB + hD ) 5

(52 .8 + 49)

TA =

or

TA = 120.34K

Similarly, VB = 10m3 , PB = 10 104 N/m2

m

m

0

24. Density of liquid b = V = V (1 + t ) = (1 + t )

0

0

= (51 + 49 )

1 = 50 2

and 1 = 26 .47C

10208.8

= 1

100

26438.3

= 61.4%

or

5 0. 8

= 2

1 0.08

7

Q BC = (8.3)(1818 909 ) J

2

or

QBC = 26438.3 J

Therefore, substituting Q1 = 10208.8 J and Q2 = 26438.3J

in Eq. (1), we ge

TD =

(20)(5 104 )

K

(500)(8.31)

or

TD = 240.68 K

(ii) No, it is not possible to tell afterwards which sample

went through the process ABC or ADC. But during the

process if we note down the work done in both the

processes, then the process which require more work

goes through process ABC.

(iii) In the process ABC

3

dU + nC V T = n R (TC TA )

2

176

3

= (500) 8.31(481.36120.34) J

2

U = 2.25 106 J

and W = Area under BC = (20 10) (10) 104 J

= 106 J

QABC = U +W = (2.25 106 + 106 )J

QA B C = 3.25 106 J

In the process ADC, dU will be same (because it

depends on initial and final temperatures only)

dW = Area under AD

= (20 10) (5 104 )J

= 0.5 106 J

QADC = U +W = (2.25 106 + 0.5 106 )J

QA B C = 2.75 106 J

dQCA =

5

5

( P0 V0 2 P0 V0 ) = P0 V0

2

2

5

PV

2 v 0

(ii) Heat absorbed in path AB : (process is isocharic)

dQAB = CV dT

= CV (Tf Ti )

Therefore, heat rejected in the process CA is

Pf V f PV

= CV

i i

R

R

Work done by the ga.s

CV

(P V Pi Vi )

R f f

3

(P V Pi Vi )

2 f f

3

(3P0 V0 P0 V0 )

2

dQAB = 3P0 V0

Heat absorbed in the process AB is 3P0 V0 .

(c) Let dQBC be the heat absorbed in the process BC :

Total heat absorbed.

dQ = dQCA + dQAB + dQBC

=

3P0

P0

V0

2

2V0

P0V0

dQ = dQBC +

2

Change in internal energy, dU = 0

dQ = dW

1

(base) (height)

2

1

= (2V0 V 0 )(3P0 P0 )

2

W = P0 V0

(b) Number of moles n = 1 and gas is monoatomic,

therefore

CV =

3

5

R and CP = R

2

2

CV 3

C

5

= and P =

R

2

R

2

(i) Heat rejected in path CA : (process is isobaric)

dQCA = Cp dT = Cp (Tf Ti )

CP

P f V f PiVi

R

dQBC =

P0V0

2

P0V0

2

between B and C. Line BC is a straight line. Therefore,

P-V equation for the process BC can be written as :

P = mV + c (y = mx + c)

2P0

Here, m = V and c = 5P0

0

Pf V f PV

i i

= CP

R

R

P0V0

dQBC +

= P0 V0

2

2P

P = 0 V + 5P0

V0

2P 2

PV = 0 V + 5P0 V

V0

177

2KAt1

= 2 ln 2 +

CL

2P0 2

V + 5P0 V

RT =

V0

or

T=

For T to be maximum,

5P0

V=

1

2P0 2

V

5P0V

R

V0

2KAt1

T 300

ln 2

4 =

CL

50

...(1)

T2 300

4 = e 2KAt1 / CL

50

dT

=0

dV

T2 = 300 +

4P0

.V = 0

V0

29. (a)

5V0

4

P V diagram

is given as shown in figure.

(b) (i)work is done only in the adiabatic process AB

not in isochoric process BC

5V0

(on line BC), temperature of the gas is

4

maximum. From Eq. (1) this maximum temperature will

be :

i.e., at V =

Tmax

Tmax

C

B

P2

3

1

5V 2 P 5V

= 5P0 0 0 0

R

4 V0 4

P1

25 P0V0

8 R

V2

radiation

350

400

ln

dT

= k (T T A )

dt

t1

dt

= k dt

(T 300 )

0

(350 300 )

= kt1

( 400 300 )

t1 =

AS P2 = P1

1

ln 2

k

dT

kA

= k (T T A ) +

(T T A )

dt

CL

(Here K is thermal conductivity of the rod, A its area

of cross section whereas L is its length and c-thermal

capacity of solid body)

350

ln

P1V1 P2V 2

+0

5

1

3

V1r

V2r

V1 r1

3

= P1V1 1

2

V2

as well as radiation.

T2

V1

WTotal = W AB + W BC =

50 2KAt1 / CL

e

Kelvin

4

(ii)

U AB = W =

V

3

P1V1 1

2

V

2

r 1

3t1

dt

KA

= k +

dt

T TA

CL

(isochoric)

t1

T2 300

KA

= 2K +

t1

350 300

CL

U BC = Q

U T = U AB + U BC =

178

V

3

P1V1 1

2

V

2

r 1

1 + Q

R

(iii) 2 ( r 1) (TC T A ) = nCV T

= U T =

V

3

P1V1 1

2

V2

r 1

1 + Q

i.e.,

TC = T A +

[( 5 / 3) 1] 3

2R

V1

V2

P1V1 P1V1

+

2R

2R

TC =

V

P V 1

2 1 1 V 2

P1V1 V1

2 R V 2

2/3

2/3

PAV A

2R

r 1

1 + Q

P1V1 Q

+

2 R 3R

Q

3R

V

and

WAB

VB

VA

VB

VA

=

PdV

.

dV

= 2 [PB VB PA VA ]

= 2 [nRTB nRTA ]

= 2nR [T1 2T1 ]

= (2) (2) (R) [300 600]

= 1200 R

Work done on the gas in the process AB is 1200 R.

(b) Heat absorbed/released in different processes.

Since, the gas is monoatomic

2P1

P1

2T1

PC

PA

(melting and after it)

27 + 273

mc

SdT = m

ice

[L + SW ( 300 273 ) ]

227 +273

300

mc

( A + BT )dT = 0.1[8 10

+ 10 3 27 = 10.7 10 3

500

300

BT 2

mc AT +

= 10700

2 500

2 10 2

mc 100 ( 300 500 ) +

300 2 500 2 = 10700

2

mc =

T1

QCA =831.6 r (absorbed)

5

3

5

R and CP = R and =

3

2

2

B

C =

2P1

= nR(2T1 ) ln

P1

= 2 K VB VA

= 2 KVB KVA

Therefore, CV =

1

2

5

5

= (2) R (TC TB) = 2 R (2T 1 T1 )

2

2

= (5R) (600 300)

QBC = 1500 R (absorbed)

Process C A : Process is isothermal.

U = 0

x=

R

5

1

1 1

3

2

C = 3.5 R

QAB = nCT

=(2) (3.5R) (300 600)

or

QAB = 2100 R

Process B C : Process is isobaric.

QBC = nCpT

During the process A B

PT = constant or P2 V = constant = K (say)

R

R

+

1 1 x

10700

200 100 + 800 200 10

mc = 0.495 kg

179

107

216

32. Given :

Number of moles n = 2

Processs D A : T = constant

VA

VD

V

4V0

C

VB

= 2 and

VA

B VD = 4

VA

2V0

V0

V0

4V0

A

TA

TB

3

5

R and CP = R

(Monatomic)

2

2

TA = 27C = 300 K

Let VA = V0 and VB = 2V0 and VD = VC = 4V0

(a) Process A B :

CV =

TB VB

V T T = T

A

A

1

=600 R in

4

QDA = 831.6 R (released)

(c) In the complete cycle : dU = 0

Therefore, from conservation of energy

Wnet = QAB + QBC + QCD + QDA

Wnet = 1500 R + 831.6R 900 R 831.6R

or

Wnet = Wtotal = 600R

33. When the bob gets snapped, the elastic potential

energy stored in the wire is used to raise the

temperature of this wire.

V

TB = TA B = (300) (2) = 600 K

VA

TB = 600 K

(b) Process A B :

V TP = constant

QAB = nC P dT = nC P (TB TA )

QBC

1

=

ms

1 Mg / r 2

Y

2

QAB

Process B C :

T

=constant dU = 0

ms = U =

5

= (2) R (600300)

2

= 1500 R (absorbed)

VC

=WBC = nRTB ln V

B

1 stress2

2 Y

Volume

)2 r 2l

M 2 g2

1

2

2 4 r l

2

( r l) s 2 r Y

(100 ) 2 (10 ) 2

2

22

7860 420 2 10 3

7

)4 2.1 1011

= 4. 568 10 3C

34. Between two collisions the particle goes to opposite

wall and comes back and hence it covers a distance

4V0

=(2)(R) (600) ln

V0

times per second = 500

=(1200 R) ln (2)

=(1200 R) (0.693)

or

QBC

=831.6 R (absorbed)

Processs C D : V = constant

QCD = nC V dT = nC V (TD TC)

3 RT

10 6 4 10 3

= = 1000 T =

M

3 ( 25 / 3)

3

= n R (TA TB )

2

T = 160 K

(b) Average KE per atom

3

= (2) R (300600)

2

3

3

kT = (1.38 10 23 ) (160)

2

2

= 3.312 10 23 J

180

vms

2L

(c)

m = no. of moles molecular mass

=nM

0

V = V0 (1 + T ) and = (1 + T )

PV

100 1

M =

4 = 0 .3 g

25

RT

=

(

160

)

3

weight v in L g

But depth upto which the cube is immersed is given

same

of the gas

36. (a)

m 3

1 2

mv0 = nCV T = R T

2

M 2

T =

Mv02

3R

Q

= eA(T 4 T 04 )

lid is

t

Q

17

= 0.6 10 8 400 4 300 4 A

t

3

= ( 595W / m 2 ) A

(b) This heat radiated per second must pass through

the lid via conduction

KA

( i 127 )

t

595 595 10

Qi 127 =

=

K

0.167

= 127 + 35.6

= 162 .6C

= 35 .6

4

400

T

m= m

h 2 = h1 2 = (1.0)

3

300

T1

[as

K

T

4

3

(T1 T2 ) = T S 4

= 4T S T

el

TS

1.41

K

[T1T S T ] = 4T33T

el

T = K (T1 T S ) / 4e[T S3 + K

K

hence k = 4eLT 3 + K

S

0 .4

= 448.8K

T

<< 1

TS

T f V f 1 = TiVi 1

4

= 400

3

K

T

(T1 T2 ) = T S4 1 +

1

el

TS

For adiabatic process,

2 = 2 S

T

= TS4 1 + 4

1

T S

h

i

= (400)

h

f

(1 + 2 S T ) = (1 + L T )

V2 T2

Ah2 T2

=

=

or

V1 T1

Ah1 T1

A

=

= eA (TS + T ) 4 T S4

or

T T2

4

4

KA 1

= eA(T2 T S )

l

V

T f = Ti i

Vf

AhL L = Ah

39. The heat radiated through one end of the rod must be

equal to the heat which conducts to this end through

the rod

= 595 A

2

we have Q = ms T

20,000 = 1 400T

181

T = 50C

expansion due to which work is done against

atmospheric pressure.

W = P V = PV T

change in length due to suspension of load is

l2 =

1

5

= 10 5

9 10 (50)

a 10 3

W = 0.05 J

(c) Change in its internal energy

U = Q W

or

= 20,000 0.05 J

U = 19999 .95 J

41. Heat required to melt entire ice = mc t + m, L

= 450 0.5 (273 253) + 450 80

= 4500 + 36000

= 40500 cal.

Heat liberated if entire steam cools to ice point

2

( l )

substituting the values

P (400C)

H1 =

(10 ) x

100C water

1.

...(3)

2

KA( 400 0)

KA(400 100 )

; H2 =

?x

(10 ? ) x

per unit time.

...(i)

KA( 300 )

= m(540 )

(10 ? ) x

...(ii)

3

nRT for n moles

2

3

PV (as PV = nRT )

2

Statement I is true.

=

KA( 400 )

= m( 80)

?x

1 AY

2 L

H2

...(2)

1 4 106 1011

(0.5 103 ) 2

U = 2

0.5

= 0.1 J

and H2 amount of heat flows per unit time from P to

B.

(4 10 6 )(1011 )

l2 = (1.25 105 )M

l1 + l2 = 0

(1.25 105 )M = (0.5 103 )

U=

= 27000 + 5000

= 32000 cal.

As the steam can not provide enough heat entire

ice will not milt

H1

( M )(10)(0.5)

0.5 103

kg

M =

5

1.25 10

or

M = 40 kg

(ii) Energy stored :

At 0C the natural length of the wire is less than its

actual length; but since a mass is attached at its lower

end, an elastic potential energy is stored in it. This is

given by

= ms L sw + ms Cw

0C ice

( Mg) l

AY

Statement 2:

When molecules of gas collide there is

exchange of momentum

velocity changes

statement 2 is true

But statement 2 is not the correct explanation of

statement 1.

option (b) is best option

4(10 ? )

4

=

? =9

3?

27

l1 = l

= (0.5) (105 ) (0 100)

l1 = 0.5 103 m

...(1)

Negative sign implies that length is decreasing. Now

1.

182

W = 0 V constant

P T and P T

2

P(N/m)

Q > 0

D ( q)( s )

30

COMPREHENSION

20

10

K

10

20

1.

(a)

2.

Force exerted by the gas inside in downward direction

+ weight of piston

= force exerted by atmosphere.

3

V(m)

Process K L isobaric

V T but V T U > O and W > 0

PA + mg = P0 A

Q > O

Process L M isochoric W = O

k Q > 0

Process M J

V hence W < 0

2P0 L

L

2P0 L

mg

= P0 +

L

A

But ( PV ) J < ( PV ) M

2.

P=

or

2 P0 L

mg

P0 +

R 2

U < O

Q < O

(a)

equal at same height of water

than other A (s )

(b)

TJ < T M

L =

p0 R 2

L =

2L

2

( mg + P0 R

Q = U + W

3.

P1 = P2

other B (q)

(c)

heated C (q)

(d)

melts first at high currents d (r)

1

3.

(a)

or removed then

W = 0 U = 0 U constant

(b)

PV 2 = constant

(c)

(d)

nRTV = const.

1

1

or T

T

V

V T B ( p)( r )

U < 0

V

pV 4 / 3 = const. nRTV 1/ 3 = K

V T C ( p)( s)

Pressure and volume both are increasing

183

P0 + g ( L0 H ) = P

Initially air inside cylinder was at atmospheric

pressure

P0 L0 A = P( L 0 H ) A

P0 L0

L0 H

P=

P0 + g ( L0 H ) =

P0 ( L 0 H ) + g ( L 0 H ) 2 P0 L 0 = 0

P0 L0

(L0 H )

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