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15 Ansichten20 SeitenInfluence

May 26, 2015

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Influence

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15 Ansichten20 SeitenInfluence

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c World Scientic Publishing Company

DOI: 10.1142/S0219519413500322

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

PARAMETERS ON FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR

OF DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATES

(DCP): EXPERIMENT AND FINITE

ELEMENT ANALYSIS

SADREDDIN BAHARNEZHAD*

Department of Materials Engineering

Islamic Azad University South Tehran

Tehran 11369, Iran

baharnezhad.edu@engineer.com

HASSAN FARHANGI

School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

University of Tehran

Tehran 11369, Iran

ALI AMMARI ALLAHYARI

School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

University of Tehran, Tehran 11369, Iran

Revised 7 November 2012

Accepted 11 November 2012

Published 24 December 2012

This work aimed to study the eect of various geometric parameters on bending behavior in

orthopedic dynamic compression plates (DCPs) in order to achieve suitable criteria in an

optimum design of these plates. Modeling, simulation, and analysis were performed through

the nite element software of ABAQUS. In order to verify the model, four-point bending tests

on several actual plates were conducted. In addition, the classical beam theory was applied for

the theoretical estimation of the maximum tensile stress in the outer ber and the longitudinal

stresses of plates. Finite element analysis (FEA) results indicated relatively good conformity

with the empirical results and those of beam theory. Based on the results, the distance of the

holes from the plate edge was observed to be the most eective parameters on exural behavior. It was also found that the exural properties are maximized at a unique distance between

the outside edge of the hole and the edge of the plate.

Keywords: Dynamic compression plate (DCP); nite element analysis (FEA); stress; exural

behavior; beam theory.

*Corresponding

author.

1350032-1

S. Baharnezhad et al.

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

1. Introduction

Recently, bone fracture xations have been widely used to stabilize and treat the

fractured bone. One of the more common devices is the dynamic compression plate

(DCP) which is used for the treatment of simple bone fractures. These plates are

attached to the bone using a series of screws. The interaction between the plate and

screws introduces a critical compressive force which accelerates healing. Generally,

the approval and verication of the plates to be implanted in the body should be based

on the provision of adequate strength and stiness.1 One of the pioneers who performed extensive tests on the stiness and strength of bone fracture xations was

Lindahl.24 Laurence et al.,5 also studied extensively several fracture plates and

examined the eects of exural and torsion loads on them. Since the existence of the

inherent exural loads on the body structure can severely aect the plates function,

and because surgeons usually bend and deform the plates before implanting them in

the desired location to achieve a good connection between the plate and bone, this

type of loading gains more importance. In fact, determining the strength and stiness

of the plates as well as the factors aecting them, helps engineers design more ecient

plates. Recent researches on dierent designs of orthopedic plates have been mainly

followed by two approaches including rst, the production of new materials and

second, the application of new analytical methods for an optimal design. For instance,

Koo et al.,6 designed a nite element model to simulate the stiness of xation in case

of a Dynax plate in arbitrary congurations and under pressure with twisting threeand four-point bending, and concluded that a proper modeling of nite element

analysis (FEA) will provide useful information about the strength of some of the

congurations to stabilize the position of broken bone sand treat the fracture. Saidpour also used FEA to investigate and compare the mechanical performances of

various six-hole composites and steel plates under bending and torsion loading conditions. He also determined the regions with the greatest stress concentrations and

optimized the design of the plate by reducing the width around the two central holes.7

In the present study, the performance of the DCPs in four-point bending test

conditions were investigated by using FEA, beam theory, and experimental

methods in order to determine the eective geometry and design parameters on

their exural behavior.

Analytical methods used in describing the details of the precise shaping of metals,

their behavior, and the applied boundary conditions are imperfect and their

relative data are unrepeatable. In other words, presenting an accurate solution for

the problem of shaping metals is very dicult and sometimes impossible since a

precise solution must satisfy all the equations of both equilibrium and compatibility.

Although the theory of plasticity, the slip line eld theory, the upper bound

method, the slab method, and other similar methods to review the processes for

1350032-2

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

shaping metals yield good results, their disadvantages include the limited use in the

case of specic forms in addition to the fact that the particular equivalents must be

written for each model and the results of the same specic form should be obtained.

Numerical methods are used for the analysis of complex processes of shaping

metals. Hence, the nite element method is one of the most widely used numerical

methods. Currently, FEA as an invaluable implant designing tool allows researchers

to study the quality and parameters of many complex mechanical phenomena as

well as the eects of various design factors such as size, shape, position, elastic

modulus, implanting conditions by surveying the plots of internal stressstrain,

and other parameters such as the main stresses and von Misses and Tresca yield

criteria. A good estimate of the applied loads is another important factor in

designing an implant.7,8 Various software packages are presented in the eld of the

nite element method and the ABAQUS software was applied in this paper due to

its high capability and accuracy in either plastic and nonlinear analyses in order to

model and simulate the three-dimensional four-point bending process. Because the

four-point bending process can be considered as a static process, the standard

method is used for simulation analysis.

2.1. Modeling

To draw the geometric model of the plates and holes, the ABAQUS/CAE software,

which is a subset of the ABAQUS software, was applied. Samples were modeled in

both actual conventional dimensions and other hypothetical dimensions in order to

make comparisons.

The applied nite element models were the three-dimensional models of the

plates with eight holes and the four-point bending tests were simulated under the

ISO 9585 standard procedure by applying the appropriate boundary conditions and

external load. The dimensional details of the basic broad and narrow eight-hole

plates used in the simulation are presented in Table 1. As mentioned, these details

have been considered in accordance with the actual conventional plates. The elastic

and plastic properties of plates were taken to be equal to the 316-L stainless steel

medical grade (Tables 2(a) and 2(b)). These plates were assumed to have isotropic

properties. Considering these criteria, the model was created following an iterative

process of mesh generation and mesh renement (Fig. 1).

The ABAQUS/STANDARD was used for three-dimensional analysis. The bulk

of the models were meshed by using the solid 20-noded hexahedral elements

(C3D20R) for the broad and narrow models with standard dimensions,and the

10-noded tetrahedral elements (C3D10M) for the broad models with the symmetric

hole arrangement. The locations of loading were meshed by using the 15-noded

quadratic triangular prism elements (C3D15) and the 10-noded tetrahedral elements

(3D10M). All elements were used by quadratic shape functions and a reduced

(2 2 3) integration scheme. In actual fact, these elements were opted to avert the

1350032-3

S. Baharnezhad et al.

Table 1. The dimensional details of the simulated standard broad and narrow basic eight-hole models,

all numbers are in mm.

Type of plate

Broad

Narrow

Thickness

Width

Length

Width of hole

Length of hole

Distance between

two central holes

4.5

3.5

16

12

135

135

5.8

5.8

8.5

8.5

17

17

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

element analysis with respect to the 316-L

medical grade. (a) General and elastic

properties and (b) plastic properties.9

(a)

Youngs Modulus (GPa)

Poissons ratio

200

0.28

(b)

Plastic stress (MPa)

800

850

960

Plastic strain

0

0.125

0.250

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. The part of partitioned and meshed models with two hole arrangement. (a) Asymmetric and

(b) symmetric.

shear locking in bending, which is common in rst order.10 Table 3 shows the type

and number of elements used in the simulation of the three types of eight-hole plates.

The input comprised the discretized mesh with elemental properties determining

the boundary conditions and loading history. The output of this program in addition

1350032-4

Table 3. Type and number of elements applied in the simulation of plates.

Bulk elements

Load positions

elements

Standard broada

Symmetric broadb

Standard narrowc

C3D20R

C3D10M

C3D20R

C3D15

3D10M

C3D15

Total number

of elements

Total number

of nodes

8,288

11,636

6,128

42,515

19,462

29,552

Dimensions in accordance with Table 1, a broad plate with the asymmetric hole arrangement.

Dimensions in accordance with Table 1, a broad plate but with the symmetric hole arrangement.

c

Dimensions in accordance with Table 1, a narrow plate with the symmetric hole arrangement.

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

to nodal displacements presented the state of stress at any location of the model. In

the regions with high stress gradients and in the locations of applied loads, ner

meshes and suitable partitions were required to achieve the accurate solutions. Mesh

renement is the process of systematically increasing the mesh density in these

regions to produce a more accurate stress contour plot where the greatest stress

gradient takes place in the models. Preliminary model solutions were used to

identify regions with high discretization error. From these initial results, it was

apparent that the most important regions for mesh renement were in the regions

adjacent to the screw holes and the locations of applied loads, thus a ne second

mesh was generated to achieve an acceptable level of numerical accuracy.

2.2. Loading

The models were loaded with two strips of uniform pressure and applying of

appropriate constraints. Also, the locations of these loads and constraints were

dened according to the ISO 9585 standard procedure.11 The ABAQUS/standard

automatically increases the load applied to each increment. Thus, the solution of

nonlinear problems (like in this study) is not so complicated and only the rst

increment size must be correctly dened at each step. To achieve convergence at

every increment, the software performs iterations are highly dependent on the

degree of nonlinearity of a system. As the default, if convergence is not achieved

subsequent to sixteen iterations at each step, the operation is stopped and a new

step size that is 25% higher than the previous one will be solved again. Figure 2(a)

shows the loading and the corresponding constraints.

2.3. Validation of the model

2.3.1. Final deformation in four-point bending

Based on empirical experiments, it was noticed that when a plate is placed under

four-point bending test (according to ISO 9585), it bends in the middle exactly along

the distance between two central holes. Figure 2(b) shows a schematic conguration

of this exure. The bent form can be divided into three segments of 1, 2 and 3,

among which the middle segment (segment 2) is at as shown in Fig. 3. In

1350032-5

S. Baharnezhad et al.

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 2. Typical set-up of a four-point bending test according to the ISO 9585 standard. (a) Typical

simulated eight-hole broad model with its corresponding constraints and two bar loading bars and

(b) schematic conguration for the exure test of actual plates.

simulation, if the strain hardening properties are considered, the middle segment of

the model will completely atten (not arc-shaped) and the nal deformed shape

(Fig. 4(a)) will look similar to the actual pattern as shown in Fig. 3, while if only the

linear properties are dened, the middle segment will be arc-shaped and dier from

the real pattern (Fig. 4(b)).

2.3.2. Yield criteria

The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was used to evaluate the yield condition of the

plates. In the case of most materials in an isotropic hardening plasticity theory, the

PEEQ is dened as Eq. (1):

r

2 pl

d" : d"pl

1

3

and is the total accumulation of plastic strain to dene the size of yield surface,

where d"pl is the plastic strain rate. If the PEEQ, which is a scalar variable, is

1350032-6

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

Fig. 3. Actual deformation of a typical broad eight-hole plate after a four-point bending test with three

marked segments (1, 2 and 3).

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. Final bent model in four-point bending test under the ISO 9585 procedure by considering

(a) strain hardening properties and (b) only linear properties.

positive, it means that the material has yielded. In fact, even if the nal form of the

model output le is similar to the one expected, simulation should be such that the

output le of maximum equivalent plastic strain must not become zero.10 Figure 5

shows the similar PEEQ developed in a broad eight-hole plate. The regions surrounding two middle holes have been identied as critical due to their relatively

large plastic deformation. It should be considered that there is no plastic deformation in the other regions during bending.

1350032-7

Empirically speaking and according to the ISO 9585 standard procedure, some

conventional standard eight-hole plates were tested under the four-point bending

test under ISO 9585 conditions, and their respective loaddeection curves were

compared with a curve obtained from a simulated model of similar geometry and

properties (with regards to Tables 1 and 2). As a sample that is shown in Fig. 6, the

empirical test and FEA have excellent conformity with each other.

8

7

6

Load(KN)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

S. Baharnezhad et al.

5

4

3

2

FEA

offset line (ISO 9585)

1

0

0

Defllection(mm)

Fig. 6. Comparison of loaddeection curves of a typical eight-hole plate obtained from the FEA and

four-point bending test in accordance to ISO 9585.

1350032-8

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

between the beam theory and FEA

Generally, there are two ways that beam bending problems are typically solved:

analytically using statics (e.g., beam theory), and computationally using the nite

element method. Regarding simplifying the assumptions of the classical beam theory such as homogenous and isotropic material and the actual plates geometry that

are three-dimensional, the beam theory cannot predict the exural phenomenon

with high accuracy, therefore, the beam theory and the simulation results were

compared to determine deviations from each other. On the other hand, although the

results of simulation can have more accuracy than the classical beam theory, it

should follow a general pattern similar to those of the beam theory. Considering

Figs. 7(a)7(c), it was found that the adjacent regions of the two central holes in

these plates are the regions with the highest stress concentration during bending

loading. Using the classical beam theory, the maximum tensile stress in the outer

surface of a four-point bending model was obtained from Eq. (2),12

3pa

;

bt2

where p is the maximum load, b is the width of the plate, t is plate thickness, and a is

the distance between the inner and outer rollers in the four-point bending set. As

(a)

Fig. 7. Three-dimensional deformed eight-hole models with dierent hole arrangement and Mises stress

distribution with regards to Tables 1 and 3. (a) An actual standard broad plate, (b) a symmetric broad

plate and (c) an actual standard narrow plate.

1350032-9

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

S. Baharnezhad et al.

(b)

(c)

Fig. 7. (Continued )

shown in Fig. 8, the maximum tensile stress obtained from simulation is relatively

consistent with beam theory results. Therefore, if the graph of tensile stresses

(longitudinal stress of plate or 3 ) versus the outer span length is plotted using

both the beam theory and FEA as shown in Fig. 9, it can be seen that there are two

peaks (A and B) in the graph obtained from FEA that are located in the adjacent

regions to the two central holes, indicating two regions with the greatest stress

1350032-10

1115

1000

938.5

800

Beam theory

600

FEA

400

200

Fig. 8. Comparison between the maximum tensile stresses on the outer surface of plate derived from

FEA and beam theory.

1400

1200

Tensile stress (MPa)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

1200

1000

FEA

800

FEA

Beam Theory

600

400

Beam Theory

200

0

0

20

40

60

80

L (mm)

Fig. 9. Graph of tensile stresses 3 versus the longitudinal distance of the plate.

concentrations. This graph also exhibited a relatively good conformity with the

beam theory pattern.

3.2. Eect of dierent geometrical parameters on the exural

behavior of the models

Since studying of the eects of geometry and design parameters on the bending

performance of the plates was not empirically possible, these plates were modeled

and simulated under the terms of a four-point bending load where by its eects were

investigated. The parameters studied and the range of their changes have been

selected by deriving inspiration from the actual plates (more than 20 plates from

various prominent manufacturers). The basic model is equivalent to a broad plate

1350032-11

S. Baharnezhad et al.

with a thickness of 4 mm, a width of 16 mm, the distance between two central holes

of 17 mm, and the distance between holes and edge of 3 mm.

To examine the eect of this parameter, two similar models of only dierent

thicknesses were simulated (4 and 4.5 mm). The obtained loaddeection curves

(Fig. 10(a)) and the maximum Mises stresses (Fig. 10(b)) showed that as the thickness

increases, this curve undergoes an upward shift and there would be a subsequent

increase in bending strength and stiness. Naturally, the increase in the thickness of

the plates should be avoided during both phases of design and manufacturing as

much as possible due to the problems arising from stress shielding,which is one of

the most common problems encountered in the treatment of fractured bones.1315

Considering Fig. 11, it was found that all components of shear stresses of the thicker

model are greater than the thinner one, and typically in these plates, the component

of shear stress S13 is larger than the two other components.

3.2.2. Eect of the distance between two central holes

To examine the eect of this parameter, two similar models of only dierent distances between the two middle holes were simulated (15 and 17 mm). The obtained

loaddeection curves (Fig. 12(a)) and the maximum Mises stresses (Fig. 12(b))

showed that a variation of up to 2 mm in this parameter would lead to no signicant

dierence in bending strength and stiness of the two models. As Fig. 13 shows, it is

obvious that the principal stresses in the transverse component of plates (S11) are

several times larger than the other two components (S22 and S33), although these

values did not show much dierence between these two models.

1400

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

t=4.5mm

t=4mm

1000

9000

Load(N)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

1200

1291

1041

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

t=4.5 mm

Deflection(m)

(a)

t=4 mm

(b)

Fig. 10. Comparison of two models with dierent thicknes. (a) Loaddeection curves. (b) Maximum

Mises stresses.

1350032-12

600

18%

37%

400

25%

t=4.5mm

t=4mm

300

200

100

0

S12

S13

S23

Fig. 11. Comparison of the typical shear stresses in two models with two dierent thicknesses.

1400

1290

1290

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

mid-dist=17mm

1000

mid-dist=15mm

0

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

8000

Load(N)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

Shear stress(Mpa)

500

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Mid-dist=17 mm

Deflection(m)

(a)

Mid-dist=15 mm

(b)

Fig. 12. Comparison of two models with dierent distances of the two central holes. (a) Loaddeection

curves. (b) Maximum Mises stresses.

To examine the eect of this parameter, two similar models of only dierent hole

sizes were simulated. In the two-dimensional mode, the geometry of the hole does

not look like an ellipse, but in the meantime, it consists of two elliptical halves

placed on the two ends of a rectangle (Fig. 1). The width of the holes in the rst

model is 5.8 mm (exactly similar to that of the common original eight-hole plates)

and it is 4.8 mm in the case of the second model. Figure 14(a) shows that if the hole

1350032-13

S. Baharnezhad et al.

900

3%

800

700

Stress(Mpa)

600

500

mid-dist=17mm

mid-dist=15mm

400

300

5%

200

0.7%

0

s22

s11

s33

Fig. 13. Typical principal Mises stresses for two models with dierent distances of the two central holes.

S11 is the component of principal stress through the plate width.

1400

9000

1290

1152

1200

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

Original holes

1000

Smaller holes

8000

Load(N)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

100

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0

Original holes

Deflection(m)

(a)

Smaller holes

(b)

Fig. 14. Comparison of two models with dierent hole sizes. (a) Loaddeection curves. (b) Maximum

Mises stresses.

size is reduced, the loaddeection curve shifts higher and the exural strength and

stiness would increase due to its larger cross-section in bending. The maximum

Mises stresses are also reduced (Fig. 14(b)).

3.2.4. Eect of the arrangement of holes

In this section, two similar models, where only symmetric and asymmetric hole

arrangement dier, the shapes of conventional narrow and broad plates were

simulated, respectively. Figure 15(a) shows that the sample with a symmetric hole

1350032-14

1400

Maximum Mises stress(Mpa)

9000

8000

7000

Load(N)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

Broad

1000

Narrow

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

0

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

1290

1172

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Broad

Deflection(m)

(a)

Narrow

(b)

Fig. 15. Comparison of two models with symmetric (narrow) and asymmetric (broad) hole arrangement.

(a) Loaddeection curves. (b) Maximum Mises stresses.

arrangement (narrow plate) has a higher curve than an asymmetric sample (broad

plate); in other words, narrow samples present higher bending strength and stiness

than the broad ones. Considering Fig. 15(b), it is clear that the sample with an

asymmetric hole arrangement has a larger maximum Mises stress than a symmetric

one. Generally, in the asymmetric samples, only the lowest distance from the middle

holes to the edge of plate endure the highest stress concentrations, while for the

symmetric samples, the stress concentrations in these two sides are also the same

since both of the distances between the edges of the plate and middle holes are equal

to each other.

3.2.5. Eect of width

Here, two similar models of only dierent widths (15 and 16 mm) were simulated.

The obtained result indicated that the greater the width is, the higher the

bending strength and stiness (Fig. 16(a)) and the lower the maximum Mises stress

(Fig. 16(b)).

3.2.6. Eect of the distance between holes and edge of plate

In this section, four similar models with only dierence in the distance between the

holes and the edge of the plate were simulated. Practically, because these distances,

similar to those in the real plates, are small, there was no need to study more

models. For the rst model, the distance between the outside edge of the hole to the

edge of the plate was 3 mm (the holes were far from the central axis of the model),

while it was 4 mm for the second (the holes were closer to the central axis of the

model), 4.5 mm for the third, and 5.1 mm in the case of the last (the centers of holes

placed on the central axis of the model). Comparing the loaddeection curves of

1350032-15

S. Baharnezhad et al.

1200

1058

9000

Maximum Mises stress(Mpa)

8000

7000

Load(N)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

w=15mm

800

600

400

200

w=16mm

0

0

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

Deflection(m)

0.002

0.0025

W=15 mm

(a)

W=16 mm

(b)

Fig. 16. Comparison of two models with dierent widths. (a) Loaddeection curves. (b) Maximum

Mises stresses.

both the initial and ultimate models presented in Fig. 17(a), it is found that if the

holes in the model are initially more distant from the edges of plates, the load will be

greater and the model would have better bending properties. However, on the other

hand, considering Fig. 17(b) and curves AD, especially curve B, it is important to

note that the curve of loaddeection would not always ascend due to the

approximation of the holes toward the central axis of the model and a symmetrical

hole arrangement since this curve and consequently the exural properties will

be maximized at a point along this distance (3 to 5.1 mm). Thus, in identical

9000

9000

8000

8000

7000

7000

6000

6000

Load(N)

Load(N)

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

1000

1041

1000

5000

4000

3000

5000

4000

edge=3 mm

3000

2000

edge=3mm

2000

1000

edge=4mm

1000

edge=5.1 mm

(symm)

edge= 4 mm

edge=4.5 mm

0

0

0.002

0 .0 04

Deflection(m)

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

Deflection(m)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 17. Comparison of loaddeection curves and maximum Mises stresses for several similar models

with only a dierence in the distance between the holes and plate edge. (a) Two models, (b) four models

and (c) maximum Mises stresses.

1350032-16

1400

1290

1220

1200

1195

1040

1000

800

Edge=3 mm

Edge=4 mm

600

Edge=5.1 mm

Edge=4.5 mm

400

200

0

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

5.1

4.5

(c)

Fig. 17. (Continued )

plate with the asymmetric hole arrangement can ultimately provide the maximum

exural strength even greater than a plate with asymmetric hole arrangement. This

optimized distance between the outside edge of the hole and the edge of the plate

was concluded to be 4 mm in the case of these models. In fact, it seems that among

all geometry and design factors considered, this factor has the most important

inuence on the bending behavior of plates. Also, according to Fig. 17(c), it is clear

that on a model with a lower loaddeection curve, the maximum Mises stress is

greater than the model with an higher curve.

3.2.7. The eect of changing more than one parameter and an all-inclusive

comparison of geometry and design elements

Thus far, the eects of individual parameters on loaddeection were studied

separately. As will be explained in the next section, the simultaneous changing

eects of more than one parameter plays an important role. Here, the range of

variables selected were also the same previous quantities and they were in such way

that can be practically duplicated and implemented in the manufacture of the actual

plates.

As can be seen in Fig. 18, by increasing the thickness and decreasing the distance

between two central holes simultaneously, the exural properties slightly are

increased. Also, by increasing the thickness and decreasing the width of the model

concurrently, a slight decrease in exural properties can be seen. In the designing

process of orthopedic plates by increasing the thickness, the eects of stress

shielding should always be considered as a crucial limitation. Eventually, if the

distance between two central holes also decreases while the distance between holes

and the edge of the plate is considered optimal (i.e., 4 mm), the exural properties

will be slightly higher than when the optimized edge distance only is applied.

1350032-17

S. Baharnezhad et al.

9000

greater thk

8000

optimized

edge

dist=4mm

optimized

edge

dist&

shorter

mid-dist

7000

symm hole

smaller hole

6000

Load(N)

edge dist=

4.5 mm

smaller width

basic model-broad

(asymm)

shorter mid-dist

greater thk

5000

4000

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

3000

2000

1000

0

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

Deflection(m)

Fig. 18. Comparison of changing the geometry and design parameters, both one and more than one

parameter all together.

According to all obtained results, it can be generally said that among all the

geometrical factors discussed, the distance between the outside edge of the holes and

the edge of the plate, thickness, hole size, and width of the plates have the greatest

impact on bending behavior of plates, respectively.

4. Conclusions

Although as the thickness and width of the plates increase, the exural properties

also increase, the eect of thickness is much greater than that of the width. Of

course, the design limitations arising from stress shielding and the relevant bone size

should also be accounted for, and increasing the thickness is not necessarily a safe

way to increase the exural strength. The smaller the hole size, the higher the

bending strength and stiness will be; however, it should also be noted that a hole

could be designed so small to the extent that there is no limitation on the manufacturing of a thinner plate screw with weaker mechanical properties.

As the simulation results showed, the highest concentration of stress in the fourpoint bending test is accumulated in the distances between the two central holes and

the edge of the plate, hence the hole drilling technique by CNC machine is of

particular importance.

FEA results had excellent conformity with those of the empirical exure, and

also had the relative conformity with the classical beam theory in predicting both

the maximum tensile stresses in the outer ber and longitudinal stresses of plates.

1350032-18

by Mr Mladenko Kajtaz on 07/23/13. For personal use only.

Among all geometric parameters considered, the distance between the hole edge

to the edge of the plate and the degree of symmetry or asymmetry of the hole

arrangement were found to be the most important factors in determining the exural

behavior of plates. The signicant point is that by shifting the location of holes

toward the central axis of the plate and approaching a more symmetric hole

arrangement, but even though the exural strength would increase in the rst place

so that it becomes maximum at a special point along this distance, after that point,

the exure strength would decrease. This optimized point was found to be 4 mm for a

broad eight-hole plate. The results also demonstrated that the impact of applying

this optimal distance on exural properties is approximately equal to the impact of

increasing the thickness size to 0.5 mm. It was also observed that next to this parameter, the thickness, hole size, and width of the plates have the greatest impact on

the exural behavior of plates. While a single variation of up to 2 mm in the distance

between the two central holes would have no signicant eect, by decreasing this

parameter in conjunction with considering the optimum distance between the hole

edge to the edge of the plate, a slight increase in mechanical properties was seen.

Even though a slight impact in changing more than one parameter on the curves

of loaddeection rather than changing only one parameter was observed, results

showed that by concurrently applying the optimum distance between the hole edge

to the edge of the plate and reducing the distance between two central holes, sized

2 mm, the maximum exural properties can be obtained.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Pooyandegan Pezeshki Pardis Company for

their nancial support and cooperation.

References

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3. Lindahl O, Rigidity of immobilization of oblique fractures, Acta Orthop Scand

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4. Lindahl O, The rigidity of fracture immobilization with plates, Acta Orthop Scand

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5. Laurence M, Feeman MA, Swanson SA, Engineering considerations in the internal

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1350032-19

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S. Baharnezhad et al.

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pp. 2231, 2003.

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plates, 1990.

12. Kuhn H, Medlin D, ASM Handbook: Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, Bending

Strength Tests, ASM International, Vol. 8, 10th ed., Ohio, pp. 132136, 1990.

13. Terjesen T, Apalset K, The inuence of dierent degrees of stiness of xation plates on

experimental bone healing, J Orthop Res 6:293299, 1988.

14. Hente R, Cordey J, Perren SM, In vivo measurement of bending stiness in fracture

healing, Biomed Eng Online 2:8, 2003.

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properties to stress shielding near the tibial component of total knee replacements,

J Biomech 40:14101416, 2007.

1350032-20

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