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Letter No.

230/Tech/2008

Dtd.22.09.08

From
P.K.PATTANAIK
Dy. Manager (Elect.)
E&MR Divn. BURLA
OPTCL, Sambalpur-768017
Email ppk110 @ rediffmail.com
ppk110@yahoo.co.in

Contacts
Ph. (0663)-2430514,2430512(O)
- 2431232 (R )
FAX- (0663)- 2430160 (O )
Mobile - 09437209480

To,
The Editor, Electrical India
311-312, Raikar Chambers
Govandi ( East ),
MUMBAI-400088

Sub:- Article for publication in ELECTRICAL INDIA Journal


Sir,
Please find enclosed here with the article titled CONSERVATION OF
ELECTRICAL ENERGY ASPECTS AND PROSPECTS for publication of the
same in ELECTRICAL INDIA Journal with other relevant documents.
Receipt of the letter with enclosures may kindly be acknowledged on the Fax(0663)-2430160 or e-mail to the above address.
Thanking You
Yours faithfully

P.K.pattanaik

To,
The Editor, Electrical India
311-312, Raikar Chambers
Govandi ( East ),
MUMBAI-400088

Sub: - Regarding the Declaration in respect of the Article CONSERVATION OF


ELECTRICAL ENERGY ASPECTS AND PROSPECTS

1. We confirm that this article is original and has not been earlier published in any
journal/magazine or any other publication in India. The article has also not been
presented in any seminar/ conference held in India.
2. We confirm that this article has not been sent by me to any other
journal/magazine/publication for publishing the same.
3. We confirm that I am responsible for Correctness of data/experimental results
presented, Opinions expressed in the article, and Infringement, if any, of
copyrights/ ownership rights.
4. We are aware, that ELECTRICAL INDIA journal publishes articles on good
faith basis. Hence I will be solely responsible for contents, violation of any law
in the contents or actions arising from contents or illustrations.

P. K.PATTANAIK.

CONSERVATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY


ASPECTS AND PROSPECTS
Biswajit Nayak
Asst. Manager
OHPC, Chiplima Power House,

BURLA-768017
1. Introduction: At the outset let us discuss the concept,
the meaning, the definition and the idea of the
conservation of energy. Many a times common
people think that the conservation of energy is
something like to save or to reserve the available
energy for future by reducing the energy
consumption or by the suppression of the
demand.
Energy Conservation should be
considered as the wise and efficient use of the
available energy for achieving maximum
activities with productive work and profitability.
Thus conservation does not mean the curtailment
in energy-use at the expense of industrial and
economic growth. It means the efficient
utilization of energy resources ensuring the same
level of economic and industrial activity with
less inputs of energy. Energy efficiency is
achieved when energy intensity in a specific
product, process or area of production or
consumption is reduced without affecting output,
consumption or comfort levels
Energy Conservation has become the
catch word of every body, starting from the
Government bureaucrats, technocrats to even
general public. All concerns are thinking about
the conservation of energy but only a few are
conscious about the same. The whole gamut of
energy related problems of Economic and Social
Infrastructure of our societies now demands and
deserves
urgent,
cogent
and
incisive
consideration and attention for the improvisation

P.K.Pattanaik

Deputy Manager
OPTCL, E&MR Division,
BURLA-768017
of the present practice of the consumption of
energy, especially the Electrical energy. Under
such circumstances, although the Government is
expected to take measures to increase
generation,
the
consumers
also
owe
responsibility to utilize the energy conservatively
and most judiciously. The optimum use of
electrical energy not only results in cash savings,
but also improves the economy of the country
substantially. Thus there is urgent need for
Energy Management and Control, which
ultimately concludes with the practice of Energy
Conservation.

2.WHYENERGY CONSERVATION?

Reduction in Natural Resources


Rise of Energy Demand
National Policy for Energy Security
Environmental Issues
Conscious for Quality Life
Sustainable Development
Postpone zero availability date of
Energy Sources
For Future Generation

3. ELECTRICITY USED FOR

Motion (motors consume 70%)


Lighting
HVAC (heating, vent. Air condition.)
Processes
Power management
IT equipment
Agriculture
Others

3.1 Consumption Table


Sl
1

Category
Industrial

Domestic and
Commercial

% Consumption
62

22

Loads
Electrical Drives
Industrial heating and welding
Space heating and Air Conditioning
Compressors
Electrical lighting
Process
Auxiliary Consumption

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.

Lighting, fans, pumps, refrigerators, kitchen appliances,


washing machines, water heaters,
TV/Entertainment, Computers, AC, Room heaters,
Inverters
Energy gizzers- heaters, ac

2.
3.
3

Agricultural

12

1.
2.

Motors, Pumps
Light Loads

4 Others
4
Some of the major areas of conservation practices have been discussed in this chapter below.
4.

ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM

LIGHTING

of the possible aspects have been explained


below.

Lighting source is the basic need for every


body to think about any development related to
production generation. Because an adequate
amount of lighting system can increase the
productivity of labour, improve the quality of the
work and product and reduce the work stoppages
due to in reduction of accidents. In India we
consume 18 % of the total energy generation for
lighting as compared to the developed countries
it is of 5%. So the result is not welcome for the
concept of conservation electrical; energy. Some
4.1 Light Source
Sl Lamp

Rating
( watts)

Incandescent Lamp
25-1500
Halogen
300/500/1000
Fluorescent
20/40/80
High pressure Mercury 80/1000
Vapour ( HPMV)
5 High pressure Sodium 70-400
Vapour ( HPSV)
6 Low pressure Sodium 18-180
Vapour ( LPSV)
7 Compact fluorescent Lamp 5/9/11/18/36
(CFL)
In comparison CFL (Compact fluorescent
Lamp) is low consumption and high efficient
source among all. So the same can be chosen as
1
2
3
4

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Choice of Correct Lighting Sources (


Rating in Watts )
Efficient use of Lighting Output (
Lumens / Watt )
Energy effective lighting schemes
Corrective Methods for lighting
Control.
Proper Maintenance of the lighting
schemes.
Awareness among the consumers.

Lumen out
put /watt

Colour
rendering Index

9-20
17-22
50-80
44-60

100
100
65-85
45

Av. flux out put


through life of the
lamp ( lumens)
200- 28350
5000- 21000
900- 6000
3200- 58000

83-118

25-65

5800-46500

100-180

25

17750-32000

67-75

85

330-2675

the most economical light source among all. But


for some special applications like common

working floor, auditorium, gathering places etc..


the use of this lighting may not be proper choice.

4.2 CONTROL OF LIGHTING


The switching of lightings can be controlled by
the three following ways.
i.
Manual
ii.
Automatic
iii.
Dimming Control
4.2.1 Manual Control
Proper awareness is needed to control
the lightings by manual practice. The switching
of the lightings is done as per the requirement of
the source. To maintain the energy efficiency,
switching schedule can be framed to the
available lightings in the system.

high value for and a PF close to unity are


desired for efficient overall operation in a
plant
Squirrel cage motors are normally more
efficient than slip-ring motors, and higherspeed motors are normally more efficient
than lower-speed motors
Efficiency is function of motor temperature.
Totally-enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motors
are more efficient than screen-protected
drip-proof (SPDP) motors
Motor efficiency increases with the rated
capacity
5.1 Power Factor

4.2.2 Automatic Control


For outdoor lighting like street light,
Area lights in factory and offices the use of
photo-cell controlled switches are best suitable
to control the system. The switches are
automatically made ON as the sun sets and
darkness prevails and made OFF in the morning
as sun rises.
Clock switches are used for the
control of the lightings in large dining hall of the
canteen, parking area, where the lightings are
required for the specified time period.
Automatic Control through Limit
switches and Relay is also another method of
controlling of the lightings. This switch can be
fitted in the door of the room/hall and becomes
ON, when door is opened and becomes OFF for
the closure of the door.
4.2.3 Dimming Control
Sometimes incandescent lamps may be
invariable used in selective places. Dimmer
controls for these lights will save energy, if we
operate the dimmers for the minimum required
illumination.

5. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
Induction motors are the most
commonly used prime mover for various
equipments in industrial applications

Two important attributes relating to


efficiency of electricity use by A.C.
Induction motors are efficiency () and
power factor (PF)

As the load on the motor is reduced, the


magnitude of the active current reduces.
However, there is not a corresponding reduction
in the magnetizing current, with the result that
the motor power factor reduces, or gets worse,
with a reduction in applied

5.2 Motor Losses


Range of losses in Induction motors

Range

1 10 HP
10 50 HP
50 200 HP
200 1500 HP
1500 HP & above

Energy Loss at Full


Load (%)
14.0 35
9.0 15
6.0 12
4.0 7.0
2.3 4.0

The % losses indicated are for 3000 rpm motors,


and 1500 rpm motors in brackets.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Core Loss : approx 18% (22%) of total loss


at full load
Stator and Rotor Resistance I2R Loss:
approx 42% (56%) of total loss at full Load
Friction and Windage Loss approx 30%
(11%) of total loss at full load
Stray Load Loss: approx 10 %( 11%) of
total loss at full load

5.3 ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS


Improvements include the use of lower-loss
silicon steel, a longer core (to increase
active material), thicker wires (to reduce
resistance), thinner laminations, smaller
air gap between stator and rotor, copper
instead of aluminum bars in the rotor,
superior bearings and a smaller fan, etc
lower operating temperatures and noise
levels, greater ability to accelerate higherinertia loads, and are less affected by supply
voltage fluctuations
5.3.1 Stator and Rotor I2R Losses
suitable selection of copper conductor size
decreasing the magnetizing component of
current by lowering the operating flux
density and possible shortening of air gap
Rotor I2R losses depends on rotor
conductors and the rotor slip
Starting performance tend to limit the
amount by which rotor I2R losses can be
reduced to favor efficiency (as starting
torque is proportional to rotor resistance)
operation closer to synchronous speed
reduce rotor I2R losses
5.3.2 Core Losses
Due to hysterisis effect and eddy current
Hysterisis losses reduced by reducing flux
density

reduced by utilizing low-loss grade of


silicon steel laminations and by suitable
increase in the core length of stator and rotor
Eddy current losses generated by circulating
current within the core steel laminations
reduced by using thinner laminations
Friction and Windage Losses
results from bearing friction, windage and
circulating air through the motor
(independent of load )
use of smaller fan
Stray Load-Losses
caused by leakage flux induced by load
currents in the laminations (imperfections
related to slotting and saturation effects
results in high freq. Currents in rotor bars)
reduced by careful selection of slot numbers,
tooth/slot geometry and air gap
the costs of energy-efficient motors are
higher than those of standard motors
economically ill-suited cases to energyefficient motors
highly intermittent duty or special torque
applications such as hoists and cranes,
traction drives, punch presses, machine
tools, and centrifuges
energy, efficient designs of multi-speed
motors are generally not available
energy-efficient motors not available for
many special applications, e.g. for flameproof operation in oil-field or fire pumps or
for very low speed applications (below 750
rpm)
most energy-efficient motors produced
today are designed only for continuous duty
cycle operation

5.3.3 Technical aspects of Energy Efficient


Motors
Energy-efficient motors last longer, and
may require less maintenance. At lower
temperatures, bearing grease lasts longer;
required time between re-greasing increases.
Lower temperatures translate to long lasting
insulation. Generally, motor life doubles for
each 10C reduction in operating
temperature.
Electrical power problems, especially poor
incoming power quality can affect the
operation of energy-efficient motors.
Speed control is crucial in some
applications. In poly-phase induction
motors, slip is a measure of motor winding
losses. The lower the slip, the higher the
efficiency. Less slippage in energy efficient

motors results in speeds about 1% faster


than in standard counterparts.
Starting torque for efficient motors may be
lower than for standard motors. Facility
managers should be careful when applying
efficient motors to high torque applications.

5.3.4 Reference standards


The following standards are widely
used for efficiency testing of motors at
manufacturers test facilities and laboratories

extended as damage to windings and bearings is


reduced.
5.3.6.1 Advantages of Soft Start
- Less mechanical stress
- Improved power factor
- Lower maximum demand
- Less mechanical maintenance
5.3.7 Speed Control of Motors

Traditionally, DC motors are used for


variable speed applications

wide range of output speeds can be


obtained

restricted to a few low speed, low-tomedium power applications like


machine tools and rolling mills
because of problems with mechanical
commutation at large sizes

restricted for use only in clean, nonhazardous areas because of the risk of
sparking at the brushes

DC motors are also expensive relative


to AC motors

Both AC synchronous and induction


motors are suitable for variable speed
control

IEC 600 34-2: 1996 Rotating electrical


machines- Part-2
IEC 600 34-2: Proposed draft document
dated August 2003
IEEE Standard 112-1996: IEEE Test
procedure for poly phase induction motors
and generators
IS 4889: 1968 (reaffirmed 1996): Methods
of determination of efficiency of rotating
electrical machines
IS 4029: 1967 (Fifth Reprint 1984): Guide
for testing Three phase induction motors
IS 325: 1996: Three Phase induction motorsSpecification

5.3.5 Optimize Transmission Efficiency


Transmission equipment including
shafts, belts, chains, and gears should be
properly installed and maintained. When
possible, use flat belts in place of V-belts.
Helical gears are more efficient than worm gears;
use worm gears only with motors under 10 hp.
As far as possible it is better to have a direct
drive thus avoiding losses in transmission
system.

Induction motors are more popular,


because of their ruggedness and lower
maintenance requirements, they are
inexpensive (half or less of the cost of
a DC motor) and also provide a high
power to weight ratio (about twice
that of a DC motor)

5.3.7.1 Motor Speed Control Systems

5.3.6 Soft Starter


Soft starter provides a reliable and
economical solution to starting problems by
delivering a controlled release of power to the
motor, thereby providing smooth, step less
acceleration and deceleration. Motor life will be

Multi-speed motors

Motors can be wound such that two


speeds, in the ratio of 2:1, can be
obtained

Motors can also be wound with two


separate windings, each giving 2
operating speeds, for a total of four
speeds

Limited speed control (two or four


fixed speeds instead of continuously
variable speed)

Lower efficiency than single-speed


motors

Adjustable Frequency AC Drives


Commonly called inverters
Designed to operate standard induction
motors
Converts the 50 Hz incoming power to
a variable frequency and variable
voltage. The variable frequency is the
actual requirement, which will control
the motor speed
Three major types of inverters
Current Source Inverters (CSI), Voltage
Source Inverters (VSI), and Pulse
Width Modulated Inverters (PWM)

Direct Current Drives (DC)


Consists of a DC motor and a controller
Speed of the motor is directly
proportional to the applied voltage
Controller is a phase controlled bridge
rectifier with logic circuits to control
the DC voltage delivered to the motor
armature

Wound Rotor AC Motor Drives (Slip


Ring Induction Motors)
Controller places variable resistors in
series with the rotor windings
Torque
performance
of
motor
controlled by using these variable resistors
Wound rotor motors are most common
in the range of 300 hp and above ratings

5.3.8 Type of loads


The characteristics of the load are
particularly important
Load refers essentially to the torque
output and corresponding speed
required
Constant torque loads - the output
power requirement may vary with the
speed of operation but the torque does
not vary

Conveyors, rotary kilns, and constantdisplacement pumps


Variable torque loads - the torque
required varies with the speed of operation

Centrifugal pumps and fans (torque varies as


the square of the speed)
Constant power loads - the torque
requirements typically change inversely with
speed
5.3.9 Application of Variable speed drives
Loads ideal for VSD application:
Variable Torque (centrifugal pumps, fans etc.)

These loads, torque increase with square of the


speed and are usually associated with centrifugal
fan and pump loads, where, in theory, the
horsepower requirement varies as the cube of the
speed change. These applications usually have
the greatest opportunities for energy savings as
well as improved control. Loads requiring
careful VSD application: Constant Torque loads
(Positive
displacement
air
compressors,
conveyors, crushers etc)
Constant-torque loads require the same
torque regardless of speed. Although constanttorque loads are suitable for VSDs, operation of
these loads at low rpm will be limited, and the
VSD must be carefully sized to ensure adequate
starting torque. Power is proportional to speed
6.

ENERGY SAVINGS OPPORTUNITIES


Cold Insulation
Building Envelop
Building Heat Loads
Process Heat Loads Minimization
Flow optimization and Heat transfer
area increase to accept higher temperature
coolant
Avoiding wastages like heat gains, loss
of chilled water, idle flows
Frequent cleaning / de-scaling of all
heat exchangers

6.1 Energy savings in lighting System


Maximize sunlight use through use of
transparent roof sheets, north light roof, etc
Replacements of lamps by more energy
efficient lamps, with due consideration to
luminaries, color rendering index, lux level
as well as expected life comparison
Replace conventional magnetic ballasts by
more energy efficient ballasts, with due
consideration to life and power factor apart
from watt loss
Select interior colors for light reflection
Modify layout for optimum lighting
Providing individual / group controls for
lighting for energy efficiency such as
On / off type voltage regulation type
(for luminance control)
Group control switches / units
Occupancy sensors
Photocell controls
Timer operated controls
Pager operated controls
Computerized lighting control programs
Install input voltage regulators / controllers
for energy efficiency as well as longer life

expectancy for lamps where higher voltages,


fluctuations are expected
Replace energy efficient displays like LEDs
in place of lamp type displays in control
panels / instrumentation areas, etc

6.2 Energy conservation in fans


Match fan capacity to demand
Avoid unnecessary demand
Reduce pressure drops
Drive system
Replace with energy efficient fans
Regular preventive maintenance
6.3 Energy Conservation in Pumping Systems
Operate pumps near best efficiency point.
Modify pumping system and pumps losses
to minimize throttling.
Adapt to wide load variation with variable
speed drives or sequenced control of
multiple units.
Use booster pumps for small loads requiring
higher pressures.
Avoid cooling water re-circulation in DG
sets, air compressors, refrigeration systems,
cooling towers feed water pumps, condenser
pumps and process pumps.
7.

ENERGY AUDIT
Systematic study of energy utilization in an
organization to effect saving
Audit: a methodical examination & review

7.1 Energy Audit Steps


Find how & where energy used or converted
Identify Energy Saving Opportunities
(ESO)
Economic/technical practicability of ESO
Estimate cost & profitability potential for
implementing ESO
Establish continuous monitoring for major
energy using systems

7.2 Elements of EA
Historical review of energy records- base
line
Walk through of plant- identify energy using
components, energy flow, wastes
Detail definition of required data
Enumeration of ESO
Estimate saving potential of each ESO
7.3 Enumerating ESO
Identify most significant source of energy
loss
Prepare checklist of conservation ideas for
plant/process/ application
Update checklist from lit., manuf, for diff.
Situation
7.4 Evaluation of ESO
Review each ESO-Quantity of saving
potential
Use most attractive choice for detailed
evaluation
Cite energy saving and economic factors
separately
8. Conclusion: - Conservation of Energy has
become the essential factor for the next upcoming generation and the Government should
interfere and intervene to adopt the conservation
act seriously to the entire power utility group and
the power consumers.
Energy Conservation Act should be
acted by the Government of India to set up a
Nodal Energy Conservation Organization for coordination of energy conservation activities and
for regulation of design, consumption pattern in
power intensive industries. The large consumers
should be motivated to save energy and Audit to
be made compulsory for these industries. Mobile
units are to be established by the Government to
undertake Energy audit of medium and small
scale industries

COMMON TABLE FOR DIAGNOSIS


System Problem

Common Causes

Possible Effects

Solutions

Voltage imbalances
Among the three
phases

Improper transformer taps


settings, Single-phase loads not
balanced among phases, poor
connections, bad conductors,
transformer grounds or faults

Motor vibration, premature


motor failure
A 5% imbalance causes a
40% increase in motor
losses

Balance loads
among phases.

Voltage deviations
from rated voltages
(Too low or high)

Improper transformer
settings,
Incorrect selection of
motors.

Over-voltages in motors
reduce efficiency,
power factor and
equipment life

Correct transformer
settings, motor ratings
and motor input
voltages

Poor connections in
distribution or at
connected loads.

Loose bus bar connections,


loose cable connections,
corroded connections, and
poor crimps, loose or worn

Produces heat, causes


failure at connection site,
leads to voltage drops and
voltage imbalances

Use Infra Red camera


to locate hot-spots
and correct.

Undersized
conductors.

Facilities expanding beyond


original designs, poor power
factors

Voltage drop and


energy waste.

Reduce the load by


conservation load
scheduling.

Insulation leakage

Degradation over time due


to extreme temperatures,
abrasion, moisture,

May leak to ground or


to another phase.
Variable energy waste.

Replace
conductors,
insulators

Low Power Factor

Inductive loads such as


motors, transformers, and
lighting ballasts
Non-linear loads, such as most

Reduces current-carrying
capacity of wiring, voltage
regulation effectiveness,
and equipment life.

Add capacitors to
counteract reactive
loads.

Harmonics (nonsinusoidal voltage


and/or current wave
forms)

Office-electronics, UPSs, variable


frequency drives, high intensity
discharge lighting and electronic
and core-coil ballasts.

Over-heating of neutral
conductors, motors,
transformers, switch gear.
Voltage drop, low power
factors, reduced capacity.

Take care with


equipment selection
and isolate sensitive
electronics from noisy
circuits.

Er P.K.Pattanaik, email ID :- ppk110@rediffmail.com is presently working with


OPTCL as Deputy. Manager (Elect) in E & MR Division, Burla , Sambalpur- Orissa
and associated with the Protection and Control schemes of Electrical systems.
He is having 18 years of technical experience in Designing, Testing and
Commissioning of Protection Control and operational Schemes, project
Implementation, co-ordination, operations & maintenance of Electrical Equipments at
various LT/ HT/ EHT level Grid Sub- Stations. He has also published at about 30
technical papers in different national/international seminars/journals.
Hobby: - To develop the Techno- Economical Protection and Control Schemes for the EHT
Equipments.

Er. Biswajit Nayak, email ID :- er.bnayak1@gmail.com Completed BE (Electrical


Engg.) from Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, M. Tech (Power Electronics & Drives) from Kalinga Institute
of Indusrtial Technology, Bhubaneswar. Worked as Lecturer at Krupajal Engineering College,
Bhubaneswar and there after joined Orissa Hydro power Corporation Ltd. as Asst Manager (Electrical).