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49 Aufrufe8 SeitenDescribes experiments to optimize posiztion and shape of VG

May 26, 2015

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Describes experiments to optimize posiztion and shape of VG

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49 Aufrufe

Describes experiments to optimize posiztion and shape of VG

© All Rights Reserved

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A. Cunha, E. Caetano, P. Ribeiro, G. Mller (eds.)

ISSN: 2311-9020; ISBN: 978-972-752-165-4

around a NACA 0015 profile

H. Tebbiche1, M.S. Boutoudj1, 2

Dpartement de Gnie Mcanique, Facult du Gnie de la Construction, Universit Mouloud Mammeri, 15 000

Tizi-Ouzou, Algrie

2

Laboratoire dEnergtique, Mcanique et Matriaux LEMM ; Universit Mouloud Mammeri, 15 000 Tizi-Ouzou, Algrie

Emails: tebbichehocine@yahoo.fr, boutoudj_ms@yahoo.fr

1

ABSTRACT: This study concerns the flow control using a new vortex generators (VGs) shape with counter-rotating vortices,

obtained by modifying a configuration already investigated. The experiments were performed in order to determine the VGs

answer when they were placed at 10% from the leading edge on the suction face of an airfoil Naca 0015 to improve the lift and

drag coefficients. An optimized geometry form is given in this paper by using the experimental designs method. The

aerodynamic measurements were accomplished in wind tunnel for several Reynolds numbers. The obtained results are analyzed

according to several parameters such as the VG height, the aperture, the space between the same VG pair and the additional

factor. A three-dimensional controlled flow pressure field was also displayed at different velocities, attack angles and taking into

account the additional element effect. The results show a profit brought by the passive devices estimated at about 14% in relative

lift increase and 16% of drag decrease.

KEY WORDS: Vortex Generators (VGs); Airfoil; Lift; Drag; Design of Experiments (DoE); Pressure coefficient.

1

INTRODUCTION

the airfoil performance in terms of lift and drag coefficient is

of great importance for the aircraft industries. Since the

introduction of the boundary-layer concept by Prandtl, there

has been a constant challenge faced by scientists and

engineers to minimize its adverse effects and control it to

advantage.

Flow separation control, by means of passive devices, is

today the less expensive and the fastest solution to implement.

Vortex Generators [1, 2] have been rigorously investigated

and also used in practice with a various degree of success.

Passive VGs are simple use and known to bring momentum in

the boundary layer which leads to the delay or suppression of

the flow separation [3]. Several parametric investigations have

been conducted on the VGs by a number of researchers [4-6].

The configurations studied in this present investigation are

of the same form as the ones used by Lin [6]; the only

difference is in the c element addition (figure 4). The reply of

these vortex generators on the Naca 0015 profiles upper

surface resulted in improvement of the aerodynamic

coefficients in terms of lift increase and drag reduction.

Traditionally, a researcher conducts experiments

sequentially by varying parameter one after the other. This

method gives results but it is time consuming and requires a

large number of experiments. The data analysis method used

allows collecting, summarizing and presenting data in order to

obtain maximum information for further experiments. To

conduct a planned experimental research, the methodology of

experimental design is used [7] in order to have the optimized

configuration.

More and more authors are interested in the use of these

experimental designs in order to perform their tests in various

areas. Zeng and al [8] analyzed by numerical method using

experimental design the influence of various parameters on

exchanger with Vortex Generators fins. The parameters of

vortex generator fin-and-tube heat exchangers were optimized

using the Taguchi method [9].

A development of models which allows surface quality

determination of mechanical parts obtained through turning

processes was carried out by Puertas Arbizu and al [10] using

experimental designs, in particular the response surface

methodology.

Lundstedt and al [11] present a tutorial which aims to give a

simple and easily understandable introduction to experimental

design and optimization. The screening methods described in

their paper are factorial and fractional factorial designs. This

has been carried out in an efficient way and without having to

perform a large number of experiments.

The aim of the present paper is to provide an optimized

geometry for vortex generators with counter-rotating vortices

by using a full factorial design based on the principal form

already used by other authors in particular those reported

recently [6]. Various velocities of the flow were tested in wind

tunnel in order to determine the Reynolds number effect on

the control parameters. The results are analyzed in several

parameters such as the VG height, the aperture, the space

between the same VG pair and the additional factor effect.

A comparative study is also made between the proposed

optimal vortex generators geometry and the same one without

element c. The aim of the addition is to determine the utility in

improvement of the aerodynamic performances, and moreover

the state of the controlled flow is explored through the

measurement of three dimensional pressure field.

2

2.1

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Wind tunnel and acquisition system

subsonic wind tunnel. The tunnel is one meter long with a

3219

strain gauge balance to measure the lift and drag coefficients.

The data acquisition is obtained with a Pulse software

developed by Brel & Kjr for Sound and Vibration

Measurement, after adapting this device to the balances

transducer (Strain gauges). Each test is repeated three times

and averaged. The time of acquisition is 60 s with a 500 Hz

frequency.

The speed and the static pressure distribution along the

airfoil were measured respectively using a Pitot tube and a

differential manometer connected via capillary tubes.

2.2

Airfoil

length 154 mm and spanwise length 200 mm). The model is

equipped with fourteen pressure taps in the longitudinal

direction; the locations of the pressure taps and the VGs

position from the leading edge are illustrated more explicitly

in figure 7.

Figure 1 shows the experimental setup with the airfoil

assembled in the wind tunnel.

Where:

1 : Displacement thickness (m), 2 : momentum thickness

(m), U : Freestream velocity (m/s), u : velocity component

tangential to the surface (m/s).

These quantities (2 and 3) were determined by integration

up to the tangential speed maximum value of the calculated

profile [12].

The dimensionless coordinate normal to the airfoil y + is

similar to local Reynolds number, often used in CFD to

describe how coarse or fine a mesh is for a particular flow.

The non-dimensional wall parameter is defined as:

y+ =

yU C f 2

(4)

Where:

y : Normal distance to the profile (m), C f : Skin friction

coefficient, : Kinematic viscosity (m2s-1).

By assimilating the airfoil to a flat plate, the skin friction

coefficient can be estimated from the following empiric

relation [13]:

C f 2 0.037ReL0.2

(5)

The measured forces (lift and drag) are respectively linked

to the aerodynamics coefficients by:

CL =

measurement:

- statement of the wall static pressure,

- drag and lift forces.

GLOBAL SETTINGS

The use of shape factor (H12) informs us about the state of the

boundary layer. It allows the determination of the turbulent

laminar transition as well as precise positioning from the

location of turbulent boundary layer separation; its expression

is given by:

H12 =

1

2

(1)

(2)

u

u

1

dy

U U

0

2 =

3220

Cd =

U 2 S

(6)

(3)

Fx

1 U 2 S

2

(7)

With:

Fx : Drag force (N), Fy : Lift force (N), : Volumic weight

(Kg/m3), S : Surface profile (m2).

The pressure coefficient Cp is provided by the expression:

Cp =

P P0

2

2 U

(8)

With:

P : Wall static pressure,

P0 : Upstream reference pressure.

4

With:

u

1 = 1

dy

U

0

And

Fy

was analyzed with incompressible steady Reynolds Averaged

Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations approximated by finite

volume method. The calculation was conducted at Reynolds

number equals to 2.6 105. The turbulence was approached by

the k SST model and required maintaining the

neighboring adimensional distance from the wall at y + 2.5 .

dimensionless form of VGs factor by using boundary layer

thickness ( ) .

Figure 2 illustrates the evolution of the shape factor versus

the chord length X/L. According to the state of the boundary

layer, the H12 factor takes a characteristic value for each

position along the chord. The separated flow to the upper

surface is characterized by the shape factor increase which

exceeds H12 = 2.3 [14] at X/L = 0.4 to the chord.

2.8

2.6

H12

2.4

2.2

2

1.8

1.6

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

The boundary layer global characteristics deduced from the

velocity profile corresponding to the VGs height position are

shown in the following table:

Table 1. Boundary layer characteristics, =13, CFD.

X/L

0.187

U (ms1)

(m)

1 104 (m)

2 104 (m)

H12

24.84

0.010

9.906

5.080

1.95

influence of several parameters (or factors) on a given

phenomenon. Based on this information, it will be possible to

determine the behavior of the studied system in the various

possible configurations, and thus to optimize the answer. To

reach this result, the experimental designs technique proposes

a strategy of tests having a principal characteristic to minimize

the tests number to be realized [7].

The aim of this work is to provide an optimized geometry

for vortex generators with counter-rotating vortices by using

the experimental designs based on the principal form already

used by some authors in particular Lin [6] who proposed a

complete review on the recent contributions on the subject [2].

Several authors [4, 16] did a detailed study of the flow around

VGs inspired from his vortex generators type. These VGs are

plates of triangular shape, placed normal to the suction surface

and at a lateral angle to the flow.

The configurations studied in this present investigation are

of the same form than that used by Lin [6]; the only difference

is in the addition of the element c as shows in figure 4. The

various parameters of the geometry to be optimized are given

as follows:

l : Vortex generators length,

b : Distance between two passive devices,

a : Space between the same VG,

h : Vortex generator height,

c : Vortex generator additional element,

: Vortex generator aperture angle.

overlaying the evolution of both numerical and experimental

data (figure 3). It is supposed that the slight difference

between the two results is caused by the airfoils guard-plates

effect which do not exist in the idealistic case considered in

the numerical simulation.

-5

-4

are used. The other parameters such as the ratios l / h and

b / c are maintained constant (l/h =2.6, b/c = 3).

Level of each factor is shown in the following table, where

level 1 and level 2 represents respectively the low and high

values.

Cp

-3

-2

-1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Code

A

B

C

D

=13, Experimental data, - - CFD.

5

5.1

DESIGNS

Formalization of the problem

research has encouraged the engineers and researchers to

employ the statistical methods. The experimental designs have

for main goal obtaining the maximum information at lower

5.2

Factor

a/

c/

h/

Level 1

0.55

0.30

0.35

30

Level 2

0.70

0.45

0.55

48

Units

()

variation levels justifies making sixteen experiments (2k=16).

In the framework of this comparative study, we limit the

number of VGs pairs to six. The lift coefficient was selected

as objective function.

3221

Level 1:-1

Level 2:+1

Exp. no.

Exp. no.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Variables

A

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

B

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

C

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

D

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

factor levels for each test.

5.3

above (figure 1) at Reynolds number of 2.6 105. The obtained

results for the references state (without vortex generators)

indicate that the airfoils stall angle is observed at 15 degrees

(figure 5).

1.2

1.1

CL

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

The experimental response chosen corresponds to an

incidence in post-stall (16 degrees) for best understanding the

factors effects in improvement of the aerodynamic coefficient

CL and deducing the most influential parameters.

3222

5.4

B

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

C

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

D

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Answer

YCL

0.8699

1.0479

1.1267

1.0846

1.1668

1.1810

1.2113

1.2370

1.0220

1.0693

0.9416

1.1439

1.1259

1.1157

1.1198

1.1457

matrix given by this expression [17]:

E=

Tests procedure

0.5

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Variables

A

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

1 t

X y

N

(9)

With:

E: Effect-vector,

N: Number of experiments,

Xt: The transposed matrix of the effects calculation,

y: Response-vector.

By calculating the effects values of principal factors and

interactions, it is possible to make a relative factors study with

respect to their influence to the response. Thus, simply, by the

effects examination, the factors can be classified according to

their capacity to vary the studied answer. This study is often

translated graphically, by histograms. The Paretos law is a

simple mean to classify the phenomenon [18]. In this case,

34.78% of causes represent 80% of effects; the Pareto law can

be used [19] with precaution.

The Pareto diagram is used here to identify the relative

importance of the different factors in order to focus on some

key cases that have the greatest impact, rather than getting lost

in the treatment of a variety causes that have less effect. To

solve the problem with maximum efficiency, we will act on

80% of the effects, so it was deemed necessary to take into

account only the influence of the following elements (C, A, B,

ABD, BD, ABCD, CD, AC and D) and neglect the rest.

Graphical analysis highlighted the importance of the C-factor,

represented by the vortex generators height, which means the

most influential factor with a contribution ratio of 22%.

Following the analysis of the results (Table 4), the C-values

taken on +1 (h = 0.55) perform better than those on -1

(h = 0.35) . Moreover, the sixteen configurations tested

have confirmed the great role of the C-factor.

With a single contribution of 10%, the factor A is also

considered a major element. Several researchers have

justifies the interesting position in the following ranking.

Thirdly, there is the B-Factor with a contribution of 9% which

is not negligible. So adding this item to the basic triangular

configuration [1, 2, 4, 5] is very beneficial for the control

through a passive device. A great interest is given to this

factor; moreover; a comparative study will be devoted in order

to detect its efficiency.

Another equally important finding is covered on D-factor.

Treated alone; it has practically no effect but it may interact

with the other factors. Then, the combined contribution (ABD,

BD, CD and D) operates on 39% of the significant effects.

0.07

100%

0.06

0.05

70%

0.04

60%

0.03

50%

0.02

40%

0.01

30%

ABD BD ABCD CD

AC

AB

6.2.1

80%

Cumulated ratio

Effects contribution

6.2

90%

20%

The lift and drag coefficients resulting from the flow around

the airfoil without vortex generators versus the incidence

angle (uncorrected for wind tunnel blockage) are shown in

figure 8 at two Reynolds numbers. We observe that at low

incidence both CL and Cd evolutions have a linear behavior.

Its also noted that the progressive incidence increase causes

a sudden drop in the lift related to a profile stall. This fall is

accompanied by an expansion of the induced drag caused by

the fluid separation.

1.4

6

6.1

a/

0.70

c/

0.45

h/

0.55

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

CL

Cd

1.2

CL,Cd

classification of the factors and interactions as well as their

contribution rates. A more comprehensive interpretation of the

test results will be undertaken in the following sections.

The comparison made between the results from baseline and

those obtained after the control by experimental designs gives

the optimized geometrical parameters of the vortex generators

summarized in the following table:

Factors

Levels

10

15

20

10

15

20

30

Re=1.58 105, right: Re=2.6 105).

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Position of the vortex generators

leading edge (figure 7); the measurements of the aerodynamic

forces were performed for several incidences. When the flow

is not controlled, separation is two-dimensional [21]; only one

measurement of the pressure fields is sufficient to obtain the

pressure distribution around the profile. On the other hand,

when control intervenes, the flow will be three-dimensional.

A complete sweeping of span Z is necessary and was

possible by relocating the VGs along the Z axis (figure 14).

numbers of 1.58 105 and 2.6 105 are respectively 13 and 15

degrees. The flow is more resistant to the stall at high

Reynolds number.

The pressure distribution on upper and lower airfoil surfaces

is, as well known, no longer the same. The Cp values become

more and more negative as the attack angle increases till

(=13, =15) respectively (Re=1.58 105, Re=2.6 105) when

a sudden increase occurs. This is due to the flow separation on

the upper surface.

Figure 9 represents the pressure distribution along the

chord. This figure shows that the flow carried at lofty

Reynolds number is strongly accelerating just after the leading

edge where a depression peak is observed. On the other hand,

with regard to the other value, one notices the formation of a

plate which is characteristic in the unhooking profile.

3223

0.5

-5

Re=1.58x105

Re=2.6x105

-4

Baseline

VG Control

0.45

0.4

0.35

-3

Cd

Cp

0.3

-2

0.25

0.2

-1

0.15

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

generators ability to change the natural flow on the upper

surface of the airfoil. Figure 10 shows the lift coefficient

without and with the control geometry given in table 5. For

both speeds studied, lift increase is noticed. At Reynolds

number equal to 1.58 105, the control effect on the lift

coefficient is less effective than the case when Reynolds

equals 2.6 105. One can see a relative lift increase of 14% in

the case (B) and only 5% for the case (A). The results also

show an improvement in the stall angle of two degrees for the

two cases.

The analysis of the drag curves (figure 11) reveals more

efficiency of the vortex generators on the drag reduction at

low velocity flow. The drag decrease Cd is about 16% at low

10

15

20

10

15

20

Re=1.58 105, (D): Re=2.6 105.

Comparative

contribution

study

of

the

added

B-factor

generators geometry and the same one without the factor B in

order to determine its influence in the improvement of the

aerodynamic performances. About 2% of lift increase is

noticed in figure 12 when the VGs are equipped with the

factor B for the incidences smaller than the stall angle. Figure

13 indicates an increase of about 3% at the maximum lift.

1.3

1.2

Baseline

VGs with factor "B"

VGs without factor "B"

1.1

1

CL

aerodynamic coefficients

(D)

6.2.3

6.2.2

(C)

0.1

0.05

0

0.9

0.8

Reynolds number (C) and 11% for the high speed (D).

However, the C L C d ratio is increased by 28.3% for

0.7

0.6

15 degrees.

[Re=1.58x105]

0.5

0

10

15

20

1.3

Baseline

VG Control

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.2

0.9

1.1

0.8

1

CL

CL

0.7

(A)

0.6

0.5

0

Baseline

VGs with factor "B"

VGs without factor "B"

0.9

0.8

(B)

0.7

10

15

20

10

15

20

Re=1.58 105, (B): Re=2.6 105.

0.6

[Re=2.60x105]

0.5

0

10

15

20

When the control is applied, the flow becomes threedimensional, different from the two-dimensional one without

3224

study the VGs impact on the pressure evolution.

The following curves show this pressure field on the upper

airfoil surface. The measurements were performed at five

pressure taps locations along the Z space (figure14). Curve

smoothing was carried out by interpolation to find the

intermediates values by using MATLAB software.

-2

Z/h

-1

0

1

distribution of the wall pressure on the upper profile surface.

A strong depression is observed in the spacing defined by the

factor A (figure 15-a). The control highlights the presence of a

vortices pair which extends to a very large distance from the

leading edge. The flow is not only affected downstream of the

vortex generators as shown in the iso-values distribution

(figures: 16-a. 16-b) but also upstream of VGs. The created

vortices may thus accelerate the fluid and create a low

pressure zone. This energy supply revitalizes the previously

separated boundary layer and delays the stall angle.

b) Case without factor B:

2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

a)

-3.74

-2 -3.48

-3.22

-2.97

-2.71-2.19

-1.68

Z/h

Z/h

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

-0.9

-2.45

-1.93

-2.71

-3.22

-2.97

-3.48

-3.74

0.3

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.3

0.4

-2.01

-3.14-2.58

-3.42

-1.45

-1.17

-2

-1.73

-2.86-2.3

2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

-1.45

0.5

X/L

0.6

-0.889 -0.326

0.7

0.8

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

-3.42

-1.64

-3.12

-2.83-2.23

-0.461

-0.757

-1.35

0

1

0

1

-4.01

-1

-0.607

-1

-3.99

0.5

X/L

-0.845

Re=1.58 105, =15.

Z/h

-3.7

-1.37

-0.585

-0.383

Re=1.58 105, =15.

-2

-1.11

-2.41 -1.89

-1.42

Z/h

-3.19

-2.93

-3.71 -3.45

2

0

0

1

-1.16 -0.642

-1

-3.45

-3.19

-2.93

-1

-1.63

-2.67

-2.15

-3.71

-2

-2.83

-3.12

-2.53

-3.42

-4.01 -4.3 -3.71

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

-1.35

-1.94

0.4

0.5

X/L

0.6

-1.05

0.7

0.8

-0.461

0.9

Re=2.6 105, =16.

Re=2.6 105, =16.

3225

two different velocities and two attack angles in the case

without the factor B. Compared with the optimized shape; we

notice an asymmetrical distribution of the pressure field. This

can be also seen in the iso-values representations.

On the other hand, the boundary layer reenergized process

is more efficient in the presence of the factor B in terms of the

pressure field distribution and lift/drag ratio enhancement

(figures 12 and 13).

7

CONCLUSION

relating to the control of aerodynamic unhooking by setting up

an optimization step of the vortex generators shape parameters

by the means of the experimental designs. The obtained

results highlighted the importance of the C-factor represented

by the vortex generators height which is the most influential

factor with a contribution ratio of 22%. The optimized VGs

geometry showed an improvement of 14% relative lift

compared to CL max and 16% of drag reduction.

The Reynolds number effect was also performed; it shows

that the flow at high velocity is more effective in increasing

the Lift/Drag ratio.

Comparative efficiency of the studied VGs highlighted a

significant improvement on the flow control when the vortex

generators are equipped with factor B. This result is

confirmed by the three-dimensional representation of the

pressure field as well as the iso-values curves.

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