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Main article: Culture of Malaysia

See also: Tourism in Malaysia, Cuisine of Malaysia, and Music of Malaysia

A cook making a murtabak, a type of pancake filled with eggs, small chunks of meat and
onions, in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multilingual society. The population is 28

million.[5] Figures from 2007 show the population consisting of 62% Bumiputeras
(including Indigenous people), 24% Chinese, 8% Indians, with other minorities along
with foreigners (mostly semi-skilled workers) (Dept of Stats. Malaysia). Ethnic tensions
have been volatile in recent months in tandem with the rising temperature of the political
scenario in the country.[83]

The Malays, who form the largest community, are defined as Muslims in the Constitution
of Malaysia. The Malays play a dominant role politically and are included in a grouping
identified as bumiputra. Their native language is Malay (Bahasa Melaysia), which is the
national language of the country.[84] However, English is also widely spoken in major
towns and cities across the country.

People of Indian origin in Kuala Lumpur.

In the past, Malays wrote in Sanskrit or using Sanskrit-based alphabets[citation needed]. After
the 15th century, Jawi (a script based on Arabic) became popular.[citation needed] Over time,
romanised script overtook Sanskrit and Jawi as the dominant script. This was largely due
to the influence of the colonial education system, which taught children in roman writing
rather than in Arabic script.[citation needed]

The largest non-Malay indigenous tribe is the Iban of Sarawak, who number over
600,000. Some Iban still live in traditional jungle villages in long houses along the
Rajang and Lupar rivers and their tributaries, although many have moved to the cities.
The Bidayuhs, numbering around 170,000, are concentrated in the southwestern part of
Sarawak. The largest indigenous tribe in Sabah is the Kadazan. They are largely Christian
subsistence farmers. The 140,000 Orang Asli, or aboriginal peoples, comprise a number
of different ethnic communities living in peninsular Malaysia. Traditionally nomadic
hunter/gatherers and agriculturalists, many have been sedentarised and partially absorbed
into modern Malaysia.

The Chinese population in Malaysia are mostly Buddhist (of Mahayana sect) or Taoist,
although some of the younger generations are choosing Christianity as their religion. The
Chinese community in Malaysia speak a variety of Chinese dialects including Mandarin
Chinese, Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, and Teochew. A large majority of Chinese in
Malaysia, especially those from the larger cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya,
Ipoh, Klang and Penang speak decent English as well. There has also been an increasing
number of the present generation Chinese who consider English as their first language.
The Chinese have historically been dominant in the Malaysian business and commerce

The Indians in Malaysia are mainly Hindu Tamils from southern India whose native
language is Tamil. There are also other Indian communities which are Telugu-,
Malayalam- or Hindi-speaking, living mainly in the larger towns on the west coast of the
peninsula. Many middle- to upper-middle class Indians in Malaysia speak English as a
first language. A 200,000-strong Tamil Muslim community also thrives as an
independent subcultural group. There are also Tamil Christian communities in major
cities and towns. Most Indians originally migrated from India as traders, teachers or other
skilled workers. A larger number were also part of the forced migrations from India by
the British during colonial times to work in the plantation industry.[85][86] There is also a
sizable Punjabi-Sikh community in Malaysia of over 100,000. The Sikhs migrated to
Malaya to work as police, soldiers and jagas (security guards).

Penang Rojak in Malaysia.

Eurasians, Cambodians, Vietnamese, Thais, Bugis, Javanese and indigenous tribes make
up the remaining population. A small number of Eurasians, of mixed Portuguese and
Malay descent, speak a Portuguese-based creole, called Papiá Kristang. There are also
Eurasians of mixed Filipino and Spanish descent, mostly in Sabah. Descended from
immigrants from the Philippines, some speak Chavacano, the only Spanish-based creole
language in Asia. Cambodians and Vietnamese are mostly Buddhists (Cambodians of
Theravada sect and Vietnamese, Mahayana sect). Thai Malaysians have been populating
a big part of the northern peninsular states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Perak, Kelantan and
Terengganu. Besides speaking Thai, most of them are Buddhists, celebrate Songkran
(Water festival) and can speak Hokkien, but some of them are Muslim and speak the
Kelantanese Malay Dialect. Bugis and Javanese make up a part of the population in
Johore. In addition, there have been many foreigners and expatriates who have made
Malaysia their second home, also contributing to Malaysia's population.

Chinese and Islamic forms heavily influence Malaysian traditional music. The music is
based largely around the gendang (drum), but includes other percussion instruments
(some made of shells); the rebab, a bowed string instrument; the serunai, a double-reed
oboe-like instrument; flutes, and trumpets. The country has a strong tradition of dance
and dance dramas, some of Thai, Indian and Portuguese origin. In recent years, dikir
barat has grown in popularity, and the government has begun to promote it as a national
cultural icon.[87]

Malaysia encompasses certain art forms with neighbouring Indonesia, including wayang
kulit (shadow puppet theatre), silat (a stylised martial art) and craft techniques such as
weaving and metallurgy.[citation needed]


Main article: Public holidays in Malaysia

Typical festive fare during Hari Raya Puasa or Hari Raya Haji (clockwise from bottom
left): beef soup, ketupat (compressed rice cubes), beef rendang and sayur lodeh.

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some
holidays are federal gazetted public holidays and some are public holidays observed by
individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, but
are not public holidays.

The most celebrated holiday is the "Hari Kebangsaan" (Independence Day), otherwise
known as "Merdeka" (Freedom), on 31 August commemorating the independence of the
Federation of Malaya in 1957, while Malaysia Day is only celebrated in the state of
Sabah on 16 September to commemorate the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Hari
Merdeka, as well as Labour Day (1 May), the King's birthday (first Saturday of June) and
some other festivals are federal gazetted public holidays.

Muslims in Malaysia celebrate Muslim holidays. The most celebrated festival, Hari Raya
Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri) is the Malay translation of Eid al-Fitr. It is
generally a festival honoured by the Muslims worldwide marking the end of Ramadan,
the fasting month. The sight of the new moon determines the end of Ramadan. This
determines the new month, therefore the end of the fasting month. In addition to Hari
Raya Puasa, they also celebrate Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, the
translation of Eid ul-Adha), Awal Muharram (Islamic New Year) and Maulidur Rasul
(Birthday of the Prophet).

Chinese in Malaysia typically celebrate festivals that are observed by Chinese around the
world. Chinese New Year is the most celebrated among the festivals which lasts for
fifteen days and ends with Chap Goh Mei (十五瞑). Other festivals celebrated by
Chinese are the Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn
Festival. In addition to traditional Chinese festivals, Buddhists Chinese also celebrate

The majority of Indians in Malaysia are Hindus and they celebrate Diwali/Deepavali, the
festival of light, while Thaipusam is a celebration which pilgrims from all over the
country flock to Batu Caves. Apart from the Hindus, Sikhs celebrate the Vaisakhi, the
Sikh New Year.

Other festivals such as Good Friday (East Malaysia only), Christmas, Hari Gawai of the
Ibans (Dayaks), Pesta Menuai (Pesta Kaamatan) of the Kadazan-Dusuns are also
celebrated in Malaysia.

Despite most of the festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group,
all Malaysians celebrate the festivities together, regardless of their background. For years
when the Hari Raya Puasa and Chinese New Year coincided, a portmanteau Kongsi Raya
was coined, which is a combination of Gong Xi Fa Cai (a greeting used on the Chinese
New Year) and Hari Raya (which could also mean "celebrating together" in Malay.
Similarly, the portmanteau Deepa Raya was coined when Hari Raya Puasa and Deepavali

Regulation of sexual activities among the Muslim population is strict, with laws
prohibiting unmarried couples from occupying a secluded area or a confined space, to
prevent suspicion of acts considered immoral.[88]