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PMIDOWN STATDA IS VI IP DP TI PG LID AB -

25231490
NLM
In-Process
20140918
2044-6055 (Electronic)
4
9
2014
Estimating the risk of cardiovascular disease using an obese-years metric.
e005629
10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005629 [doi]
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between obese-years and the risk of
cardiovascular disease (CVD). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETT

ING:
Boston, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 5036 participants of the Framingham Heart Study
were
examined. METHODS: Obese-years was calculated by multiplying for each part
icipant
the number of body mass index (BMI) units above 29 kg/m(2) by the number o
f years
lived at that BMI during approximately 50 years of follow-up. The associat
ion
between obese-years and CVD was analysed using time-dependent Cox regressi
on
adjusted for potential confounders and compared with other models using th
e
Akaike information criterion (AIC). The lowest AIC indicated better fit. P
RIMARY
OUTCOME CVD RESULTS: The median cumulative obese-years was 24 (range 2-556
obese-years). During 138,918 person-years of follow-up, 2753 (55%) partici
pants
were diagnosed with CVD. The incidence rates and adjusted HR (AHR) for CVD
increased with an increase in the number of obese-years. AHR for the categ
ories
1-24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9 and >/=75 obese-years were, respectively, 1.31 (9
5% CI
1.15 to 1.48), 1.37 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.65), 1.62 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.99) and
1.80
(95% CI 1.54 to 2.10) compared with those who were never obese (ie, had ze
ro
obese-years). The effect of obese-years was stronger in males than females
. For
every 10 unit increase in obese-years, the AHR of CVD increased by 6% (95%
CI 4%
to 8%) for males and 3% (95% CI 2% to 4%) for females. The AIC was lowest
for the
model containing obese-years compared with models containing either the le
vel of
BMI or the duration of obesity alone. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates
that
obese-years metric conceptually captures the cumulative damage of obesity
on body
systems, and is found to provide slightly more precise estimation of the r
isk of
CVD than the level or duration of obesity alone.
CI - Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (wher
e not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi


AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Biostatistics and Population Health, Faculty of Public Healt
h,
University Muhammadiyah Aceh, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia Department of
Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventi
ve
Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Amin, Fauzi Ali
AU - Amin FA
AD - Department of Public Health Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universit
y
Muhammadiyah Aceh, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes
AU - Stoelwinder J
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Healt
h and
Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Tanamas, Stephanie K
AU - Tanamas SK
AD - Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Wolfe, Rory
AU - Wolfe R
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Healt
h and
Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
FAU - Barendregt, Jan
AU - Barendregt J
AD - School of Population Health, University Queensland, Herston, Queensland,
Australia.
FAU - Peeters, Anna
AU - Peeters A
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Healt
h and
Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Bak
er IDI
Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
DEP - 20140917
PL - England
TA - BMJ Open
JT - BMJ open
JID - 101552874
SB - IM
PMC - PMC4166414
OID - NLM: PMC4166414
OTO - NOTNLM
OT - EPIDEMIOLOGY
OT - NUTRITION & DIETETICS
OT - PUBLIC HEALTH
OT - VASCULAR MEDICINE
EDAT- 2014/09/19 06:00
MHDA- 2014/09/19 06:00
CRDT- 2014/09/19 06:00
AID - bmjopen-2014-005629 [pii]
AID - 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005629 [doi]
PST - epublish
SO - BMJ Open. 2014 Sep 17;4(9):e005629. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005629.

PMID- 24097936
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
DA - 20131007
IS - 1941-2479 (Electronic)
IS - 1010-5395 (Linking)
DP - 2013 Oct 4
TI - Health Systems and Noncommunicable Diseases in the Asia-Pacific Region: A
Review
of the Published Literature.
AB - Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countr
ies of
the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In lowand
middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally
characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable serv
ice
delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review wer
e to
identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD
programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottle
necks
impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of
the
Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published betw
een
1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information o
n basic
characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outco
me was
extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventi
ons and
bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health sy
stems
building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlen
ecks in
the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, heal
th
information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Stu
dies,
however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality
was
generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in
the
Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation.
FAU - Mannava, Priya
AU - Mannava P
AD - 1University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
FAU - James, Chris
AU - James C
FAU - Dodd, Rebecca
AU - Dodd R
FAU - Annear, Peter Leslie
AU - Annear PL
LA - ENG
PT - JOURNAL ARTICLE
DEP - 20131004
TA - Asia Pac J Public Health

JT - Asia-Pacific journal of public health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium f


or
Public Health
JID - 8708538
OTO - NOTNLM
OT - Asia-Pacific region
OT - cancer
OT - cardiovascular disease
OT - chronic respiratory disease
OT - diabetes
OT - health system
OT - noncommunicable disease
EDAT- 2013/10/08 06:00
MHDA- 2013/10/08 06:00
CRDT- 2013/10/08 06:00
AID - 1010539513500336 [pii]
AID - 10.1177/1010539513500336 [doi]
PST - aheadofprint
SO - Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013 Oct 4.
PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMIS IS VI IP DP TI -

22887349
NLM
MEDLINE
20120813
20130107
1099-1751 (Electronic)
0749-6753 (Linking)
27
3
2012 Jul-Sep
How much does it cost to achieve coverage targets for primary healthcare
services? A costing model from Aceh, Indonesia.
PG - 226-45
LID - 10.1002/hpm.2099 [doi]
AB - Despite significant investment in improving service infrastructure and tra
ining
of staff, public primary healthcare services in low-income and middle-inco
me
countries tend to perform poorly in reaching coverage targets. One of the
factors
identified in Aceh, Indonesia was the lack of operational funds for servic
e
provision. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and transpa
rent
costing tool that enables health planners to calculate the unit costs of
providing basic health services to estimate additional budgets required to
deliver services in accordance with national targets. The tool was develop
ed
using a standard economic approach that linked the input activities to ach
ieving
six national priority programs at primary healthcare level: health promoti
on,
sanitation and environment health, maternal and child health and family pl
anning,
nutrition, immunization and communicable diseases control, and treatment o
f
common illness. Costing was focused on costs of delivery of the programs t
hat
need to be funded by local government budgets. The costing tool consisting
of 16

linked Microsoft Excel worksheets was developed and tested in several dist
ricts
enabled the calculation of the unit costs of delivering of the six nationa
l
priority programs per coverage target of each program (such as unit costs
of
delivering of maternal and child health program per pregnant mother). This
costing tool can be used by health planners to estimate additional money r
equired
to achieve a certain level of coverage of programs, and it can be adjusted
for
different costs and program delivery parameters in different settings.
CI - Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Biostatistics and Population Health, Faculty of Public Healt
h,
University Muhammadiyah Aceh, Indonesia. Asnawi_Abdullah@yahoo.com
FAU - Hort, Krishna
AU - Hort K
FAU - Abidin, Azwar Zaenal
AU - Abidin AZ
FAU - Amin, Fadilah M
AU - Amin FM
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL - England
TA - Int J Health Plann Manage
JT - The International journal of health planning and management
JID - 8605825
SB - H
MH - Delivery of Health Care/economics/organization & administration
MH - *Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data
MH - Humans
MH - Indonesia
MH - Insurance Coverage/*economics/statistics & numerical data
MH - Insurance, Health/economics/statistics & numerical data
MH - Models, Econometric
MH - Primary Health Care/*economics/organization & administration/statistics &
numerical data
EDAT- 2012/08/14 06:00
MHDA- 2013/01/08 06:00
CRDT- 2012/08/14 06:00
AID - 10.1002/hpm.2099 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO - Int J Health Plann Manage. 2012 Jul-Sep;27(3):226-45. doi: 10.1002/hpm.209
9.
PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMIS IS VI IP DP TI -

22759723
NLM
MEDLINE
20120716
20120917
1476-6256 (Electronic)
0002-9262 (Linking)
176
2
2012 Jul 15
Epidemiologic merit of obese-years, the combination of degree and duration

of
obesity.
PG - 99-107
LID - 10.1093/aje/kwr522 [doi]
AB - This study aims to test the effect of combining the degree and the duratio
n of
obesity into a single variable-obese-years-and to examine whether obese-ye
ars is
a better predictor of the risk of diabetes than simply body mass index (BM
I) or
duration of obesity. Of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study,
5,036
participants were followed up every 2 years for up to 48 years (from 1948)
. The
variable, obese-years, was defined by multiplying for each participant the
number
of BMI units above 30 kg/m(2) by the number of years lived at that BMI.
Associations with diabetes were analyzed by using time-dependent Cox propo
rtional
hazards regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The incidenc
e of
type-2 diabetes increased as the number of obese-years increased, with adj
usted
hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.09) per additional
10
obese-years. The dose-response relation between diabetes incidence and
obese-years varied by sex and smoking status. The Akaike Information Crite
rion
was lowest in the model containing obese-years compared with models contai
ning
either the degree or duration of obesity alone. A construct of obese-years
is
strongly associated with risk of diabetes and could be a better indicator
of the
health risks associated with increasing body weight than BMI or duration o
f
obesity alone.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Biostatistics and Population Health, Faculty of Public Healt
h,
University Muhammadiyah Aceh, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Asnawi_Abdullah@yahoo
.com
FAU - Wolfe, Rory
AU - Wolfe R
FAU - Mannan, Haider
AU - Mannan H
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes U
AU - Stoelwinder JU
FAU - Stevenson, Christopher
AU - Stevenson C
FAU - Peeters, Anna
AU - Peeters A
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20120628
PL - United States
TA - Am J Epidemiol
JT - American journal of epidemiology

JID - 7910653
SB - IM
MH - Adult
MH - Age of Onset
MH - *Body Mass Index
MH - Cohort Studies
MH - Comorbidity
MH - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology
MH - Female
MH - Follow-Up Studies
MH - Humans
MH - Incidence
MH - Male
MH - Middle Aged
MH - Models, Statistical
MH - Obesity/classification/*diagnosis/*epidemiology
MH - Risk Assessment
MH - Risk Factors
MH - Sex Distribution
MH - Weight Gain
EDAT- 2012/07/05 06:00
MHDA- 2012/09/18 06:00
CRDT- 2012/07/05 06:00
PHST- 2012/06/28 [aheadofprint]
AID - kwr522 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/aje/kwr522 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO - Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jul 15;176(2):99-107. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr522. Epub 2
012 Jun
28.
PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMIS IS VI IP DP TI PG
LID
AB
tor

21357186
NLM
MEDLINE
20110817
20120125
1464-3685 (Electronic)
0300-5771 (Linking)
40
4
2011 Aug
The number of years lived with obesity and the risk of all-cause and
cause-specific mortality.
- 985-96
- 10.1093/ije/dyr018 [doi]
- BACKGROUND: The role of the duration of obesity as an independent risk fac
for
mortality has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse

the
association between the duration of obesity and the risk of mortality. MET
HODS: A
total of 5036 participants (aged 28-62 years) of the Framingham Cohort Stu
dy were
followed up every 2 years from 1948 for up to 48 years. The association be
tween
obesity duration and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was analysed u
sing
time-dependent Cox models adjusted for body mass index. The role of biolog
ical
intermediates and chronic diseases was also explored. RESULTS: The adjuste

d
hazard ratio (HR) for mortality increased as the number of years lived wit
h
obesity increased. For those who were obese for 1-4.9, 5-14.9, 15-24.9 and
>/= 25
years of the study follow-up period, adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality
were
1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.79], 1.94 (95% CI 1.71-2.20), 2.
25 (95%
CI 1.89-2.67) and 2.52 (95% CI 2.08-3.06), respectively, compared with tho
se who
were never obese. A dose-response relation between years of duration of ob
esity
was also clear for all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer and other-cause morta
lity.
For every additional 2 years of obesity, the HRs for all-cause, cardiovasc
ular
disease, cancer and other-cause mortality were 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07), 1.
07 (95%
CI 1.05-1.08), 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.05-1.11), respec
tively.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of years lived with obesity is directly associated
with
the risk of mortality. This needs to be taken into account when estimating
its
burden on mortality.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Healt
h and
Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Asnawi_Abdullah@yahoo.com
FAU - Wolfe, Rory
AU - Wolfe R
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes U
AU - Stoelwinder JU
FAU - de Courten, Maximilian
AU - de Courten M
FAU - Stevenson, Christopher
AU - Stevenson C
FAU - Walls, Helen L
AU - Walls HL
FAU - Peeters, Anna
AU - Peeters A
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20110227
PL - England
TA - Int J Epidemiol
JT - International journal of epidemiology
JID - 7802871
SB - IM
CIN - Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;40(4):996-7. PMID: 21471021
MH - Adult
MH - Cardiovascular Diseases/complications/mortality
MH - Cause of Death
MH - Cohort Studies
MH - Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
MH - Female

MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH EDATMHDACRDTPHSTAID AID PST SO Feb

Humans
Male
Massachusetts/epidemiology
Middle Aged
Neoplasms/complications/mortality
Obesity/complications/*mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk Factors
Time Factors
Young Adult
2011/03/02 06:00
2012/01/26 06:00
2011/03/02 06:00
2011/02/27 [aheadofprint]
dyr018 [pii]
10.1093/ije/dyr018 [doi]
ppublish
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;40(4):985-96. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr018. Epub 2011
27.

PMID- 20587115
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA - 20110107
DCOM- 20110211
IS - 1475-2727 (Electronic)
IS - 1368-9800 (Linking)
VI - 14
IP - 1
DP - 2011 Jan
TI - The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
PG - 119-26
LID - 10.1017/S1368980010001813 [doi]
AB - OBJECTIVE: The evidence for the association between obesity and the risk o
f type
2 diabetes has been derived mainly from the analysis of the degree of obes
ity.
The role of the duration of obesity as an independent risk has not been fu
lly
explored. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associ
ation
between the duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN:
Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS), follo
w-up
from 1948 to 1998. SUBJECTS: A total of 1256 FHS participants who were fre
e from
type 2 diabetes at baseline, but were obese on at least two consecutive of
the
study's twenty-four biennial examinations, were included. Type 2 diabetes
status
was collected throughout the 48 years of follow-up of the study. The relat
ionship
between duration of obesity and type 2 diabetes was analysed using time-de
pendent
Cox models, adjusting for a number of covariates. RESULTS: The unadjusted
hazard
ratio (HR) for the risk of type 2 diabetes for men was 1.13 (95 % CI 1.09,
1.17)
and for women was 1.12 (95 % CI 1.08, 1.16) per additional 2-year increase

in the
duration of obesity. Adjustment for sociodemographic variables, family his
tory of
diabetes, health behaviour and physical activity made little difference to
these
HR. For women the evidence of a dose-response relationship was less clear
than
for men, particularly for women with an older age at obesity onset. CONCLU
SIONS:
The duration of obesity is a relevant risk factor for type 2 diabetes,
independent of the degree of BMI.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monas
h
University, Victoria, Australia. Asnawi.Abdullah@med.monash.edu.au
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes
AU - Stoelwinder J
FAU - Shortreed, Susan
AU - Shortreed S
FAU - Wolfe, Rory
AU - Wolfe R
FAU - Stevenson, Christopher
AU - Stevenson C
FAU - Walls, Helen
AU - Walls H
FAU - de Courten, Maximilian
AU - de Courten M
FAU - Peeters, Anna
AU - Peeters A
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20100629
PL - England
TA - Public Health Nutr
JT - Public health nutrition
JID - 9808463
SB - IM
MH - Adult
MH - Aged
MH - Aged, 80 and over
MH - Body Mass Index
MH - Cohort Studies
MH - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology/etiology
MH - Female
MH - Follow-Up Studies
MH - Humans
MH - Male
MH - Middle Aged
MH - Obesity/complications/*epidemiology/pathology
MH - Proportional Hazards Models
MH - Prospective Studies
MH - Risk Factors
MH - Severity of Illness Index
MH - Time Factors
MH - United States/epidemiology
EDAT- 2010/07/01 06:00
MHDA- 2011/02/12 06:00
CRDT- 2010/07/01 06:00

PHSTAID AID PST SO Epub

2010/06/29 [aheadofprint]
S1368980010001813 [pii]
10.1017/S1368980010001813 [doi]
ppublish
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jan;14(1):119-26. doi: 10.1017/S1368980010001813.
2010 Jun 29.

PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMLR IS IS VI IP DP TI PG LID AB er

20559295
NLM
MEDLINE
20101228
20110504
20120813
1930-739X (Electronic)
1930-7381 (Linking)
19
1
2011 Jan
Comparing trends in BMI and waist circumference.
216-9
10.1038/oby.2010.149 [doi]
The nature of excess body weight may be changing over time to one of great
central adiposity. The aim of this study is to determine whether BMI and w

aist
circumference (WC) are increasing proportionately among population subgrou
ps and
the range of bodyweight, and to examine the public health implications of
the
findings. Our data are from two cross-sectional surveys (the US National H
ealth
and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) in 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and
2005-2006), from which we have used samples of 15,349 and 4,176 participan
ts aged
>/=20 years. Between 1988-1994 and 2005-2006 BMI increased by an average o
f 1.8
kg/m(2) and WC by 4.7 cm (adjusted for sex, age, race-ethnicity, and educa
tion).
The increase in WC was more than could be attributed simply to increases i
n BMI.
This independent increase in WC (of on average, 0.9 cm) was consistent acr
oss the
different BMI categories, sexes, education levels, and race-ethnicity grou
ps. It
occurred in younger but not older age groups. Overall in each BMI category
, the
prevalence of low-risk WC decreased and the prevalence of increased-risk o
r
substantially increased-risk WC increased. These results suggest that the
adverse
health consequences associated with obesity may be increasingly underestim
ated by
trends in BMI alone. Since WC is closely linked to adverse cardiovascular
outcomes, it is important to know the prevailing trends in both of these
parameters.
FAU - Walls, Helen L
AU - Walls HL
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alf
red

FAU AU FAU AU FAU AU FAU AU FAU AU FAU AU LA PT PT DEP PL TA JT JID SB MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH EDATMHDACRDTPHSTAID AID PST SO Epub

Hospital, Victoria, Australia. helen.walls@med.monash.edu.au


Stevenson, Christopher E
Stevenson CE
Mannan, Haider R
Mannan HR
Abdullah, Asnawi
Abdullah A
Reid, Christopher M
Reid CM
McNeil, John J
McNeil JJ
Peeters, Anna
Peeters A
eng
Comparative Study
Journal Article
20100617
United States
Obesity (Silver Spring)
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
101264860
IM
Adult
*Body Mass Index
Body Weights and Measures/*trends
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine/trends
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity/*diagnosis/*epidemiology
Prevalence
Waist Circumference/*physiology
Young Adult
2010/06/19 06:00
2011/05/05 06:00
2010/06/19 06:00
2010/06/17 [aheadofprint]
oby2010149 [pii]
10.1038/oby.2010.149 [doi]
ppublish
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jan;19(1):216-9. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.149.
2010 Jun 17.

PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMIS IS VI IP DP TI f

20493574
NLM
MEDLINE
20100810
20101123
1872-8227 (Electronic)
0168-8227 (Linking)
89
3
2010 Sep
The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk o
diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

PG - 309-19
LID - 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.04.012 [doi]
AB - The objectives of this meta-analysis were to examine the magnitude of the
relative risk (RR) of developing type 2 diabetes for overweight and obese
populations, compared to those with normal weight, and to determine causes
of the
variation in RR between various cohort studies. The magnitude of the RR wa
s
analyzed by combining 18 prospective cohort studies that matched defined
criteria. The variance in RR between studies was explored. The overall RR
of
diabetes for obese persons compared to those with normal weight was 7.19,
95% CI:
5.74, 9.00 and for overweight was 2.99, 95% CI: 2.42, 3.72. The variation
in RR
among studies was explored and it was found that the effect of heterogenei
ty was
highly related with sample size, method of assessment of body mass index (
BMI)
and method of ascertainment of type 2 diabetes. By combining only cohort s
tudies
with more than 400 cases of incident diabetes (>median), adjusted by at le
ast
three main confounding variables (age, family history of type 2 diabetes,
physical activity), measured BMI, and diabetes determined by clinical diag
nosis,
the RR was 7.28, 95% CI: 6.47, 8.28 for obesity and 2.92, 95% CI: 2.57, 3.
32 for
overweight.
CI - Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Healt
h and
Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia.
Asnawi.Abdullah@med.monash.edu.au
FAU - Peeters, Anna
AU - Peeters A
FAU - de Courten, Maximilian
AU - de Courten M
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes
AU - Stoelwinder J
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Meta-Analysis
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20100520
PL - Ireland
TA - Diabetes Res Clin Pract
JT - Diabetes research and clinical practice
JID - 8508335
SB - IM
MH - Adolescent
MH - Adult
MH - Aged
MH - Aged, 80 and over
MH - Body Mass Index
MH - Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology/etiology
MH - Female
MH - Humans

MH MH MH MH MH MH EDATMHDACRDTPHSTPHSTPHSTPHSTAID AID PST SO -

Male
Middle Aged
Obesity/complications/*epidemiology
Overweight/complications/*epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Young Adult
2010/05/25 06:00
2010/12/14 06:00
2010/05/25 06:00
2009/09/28 [received]
2010/04/09 [revised]
2010/04/15 [accepted]
2010/05/20 [aheadofprint]
S0168-8227(10)00194-4 [pii]
10.1016/j.diabres.2010.04.012 [doi]
ppublish
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Sep;89(3):309-19. doi:
10.1016/j.diabres.2010.04.012. Epub 2010 May 20.

PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMIS IS VI IP DP TI ict

18700274
NLM
MEDLINE
20080813
20080923
1710-2774 (Print)
1710-2774 (Linking)
11
2
2008
Decentralization and health resource allocation: a case study at the distr

level in Indonesia.
PG - 117-25
AB - Health resource allocation has been an issue of political debate in many h
ealth
systems. However, the debate has tended to concentrate on vertical allocat
ion
from the national to regional level. Allocation within regions or institut
ions
has been largely ignored. This study was conducted to contribute analysis
to this
gap. The objective was to investigate health resource allocation within Di
strict
Health Offices (DHOs) and to compare the trends and patterns of several bu
dget
categories before and after decentralization. The study was conducted in t
hree
districts in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Six fiscal year bud
gets,
two before decentralization and four after, were studied. Data was collect
ed from
the Local Government Planning Office and DHOs. Results indicated that in t
he
first year of implementing a decentralization policy, the local government
budget
rose sharply, particularly in the wealthiest district. In contrast, in rel
atively
poor districts the budget was only boosted slightly. Increasing total loca
l
government budgets had a positive impact on increasing the health budget.

The
absolute amount of health budgets increased significantly, but by percenta
ge did
not change very much. Budgets for several projects and budget items increa
sed
significantly, but others, such as health promotion, monitoring and evalua
tion,
and public-goods-related activities, decreased. This study concluded that
decentralization in Indonesia had made a positive impact on district gover
nment
fiscal capacity and had affected DHO budgets positively. However, an imbal
anced
budget allocation between projects and budget items was obvious, and this
needs
FAU AU FAU AU LA PT PL TA JT JID SB MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH EDATMHDACRDTPST SO PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMLR IS VI IP DP TI ict

serious attention from policy makers. Otherwise, decentralization will not


significantly improve the health system in Indonesia.
Abdullah, Asnawi
Abdullah A
Stoelwinder, Johannes
Stoelwinder J
eng
Journal Article
Canada
Healthc Q
Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.)
101208192
H
Health Care Rationing/economics/*organization & administration
Humans
Indonesia
*Local Government
Organizational Case Studies
*Politics
Private Sector
Public Sector
2008/08/14 09:00
2008/09/24 09:00
2008/08/14 09:00
ppublish
Healthc Q. 2008;11(2):117-25.
18567948
NLM
MEDLINE
20080623
20080729
20100114
1718-3340 (Electronic)
9
4
2007 Dec
Decentralization and health resource allocation: a case study at the distr

level in Indonesia.
PG - 5-16
AB - Health resource allocation has been an issue of political debate in many h
ealth
systems. However, the debate has tended to concentrate on vertical allocat
ion
from the national to regional level. Allocation within regions or institut

ions
has been largely ignored. This study was conducted to contribute analysis
to this
gap. The objective was to investigate health resource allocation within Di
strict
Health Offices (DHOs) and to compare the trends and patterns of several bu
dget
categories before and after decentralization. The study was conducted in t
hree
districts in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Six fiscal year bud
gets,
two before decentralization and four after, were studied. Data was collect
ed from
the Local Government Planning Office and DHOs. Results indicated that in t
he
first year of implementing a decentralization policy, the local government
budget
rose sharply, particularly in the wealthiest district. In contrast, in rel
atively
poor districts the budget was only boosted slightly. Increasing total loca
l
government budgets had a positive impact on increasing the health budget.
The
absolute amount of health budgets increased significantly, but by percenta
ge did
not change very much. Budgets for several projects and budget items increa
sed
significantly, but others, such as health promotion, monitoring and evalua
tion,
and public-goods-related activities, decreased. This study concluded that
decentralization in Indonesia had made a positive impact on district gover
nment
fiscal capacity and had affected DHO budgets positively. However, an imbal
anced
budget allocation between projects and budget items was obvious, and this
needs
serious attention from policy makers. Otherwise, decentralization will not
significantly improve the health system in Indonesia.
FAU - Abdullah, Asnawi
AU - Abdullah A
AD - Department Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbou
rne,
Australia. Asnawi.Abdullah@med.monash.edu.au
FAU - Stoelwinder, Johannes
AU - Stoelwinder J
LA - eng
PT - Journal Article
PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL - Canada
TA - World Health Popul
JT - World health & population
JID - 101307691
SB - IM
MH - Budgets/*trends
MH - Delivery of Health Care/economics/trends
MH - Financing, Government/economics/*trends
MH - Health Care Rationing/*trends
MH - Humans
MH - Indonesia
MH - Regional Health Planning/economics/*trends

EDATMHDACRDTPST SO -

2008/06/24 09:00
2008/07/30 09:00
2008/06/24 09:00
ppublish
World Health Popul. 2007 Dec;9(4):5-16.