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Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis
Syntagmatic relationship is a relationship that an
item relates with other items that occur with it. It
has a horizontal position, and it is a chain
relationship. Syntagmatic relationship is the basic
concept of the analytical method, Immediate
Constituent Analysis.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis
Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC) is a procedure
in grammatical analysis dealing with major divisions
made within a syntactic construction, at any level
phrase, clause, and sentence. The division can be
further analyzed into lower level of immediate
constituents and continues until irreducible
constituents (ultimate constituents) are reached.
There are three ways of representing an IC analysis; a
three diagram, square brackets, a Chinese box.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis
Immediate constituent = a term used to refer to
major divisions or layers within a syntactic
construction at any level

Binary cut

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis
Binary cuts is the method in doing immediate
constituents analysis in structural grammar by
breaking down the constructions or constituents into
two parts until the ultimate constituents are reached.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis
Ultimate constituent is an irreducible grammatical
unit, which is the fnal product of IC analysis after
the breaking down of each higher-level constituent.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC cut


Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC) is a procedure
in grammatical analysis dealing with major divisions
made within a syntactic construction, at any level
phrase, clause, and sentence. The division can be
further analyzed into lower level of immediate
constituents and continues until irreducible
constituents (ultimate constituents) are reached.
There are three ways of representing an IC analysis; a
tree diagram, square brackets, a Chinese box.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC cut


Constituent is any item or string of items in a
construction that have a relationship to each other. It
can be a word, a phrase, a clause, but not a sentence.
Construction is any string of items in a sentence
which have a relationship to each other. It can be a
phrase, a clause, and a sentence, but not a single
word.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC cut


How is a constituent different from a construction?
Constituents

Constructions

It includes word level

It does not include word


level

We cannot have a sentence


in a constituent

We can have a sentence in


a construction

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC cut


How can we consider the immediate constituent
within a constituent or a construction?
1. How it occurs / With what constituent (s) it
occurs
COMPONENTS

2. How it relates to other constituents in the


same level
RELATIONSHIPS

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC cut


Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC) is a procedure
in grammatical analysis dealing with major divisions
made within a syntactic construction, at any level
phrase, clause, and sentence. The division can be
further analyzed into lower level of immediate
constituents and continues until irreducible
constituents (ultimate constituents) are reached.
There are three ways of representing an IC analysis; a
tree diagram, square brackets, a Chinese box.

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC tree diagram


James went to the park.
S

node

NP
N

VP

NP = N
PP

5 NODES

NP = D N
VP = V PP
PP = P NP

NP

ULTIMATE CONSTITUENTS
D
James

went to

the

N
park

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC tree diagram


James went to the park.
S

Sentence construction

NP
N

VP

Constituent level 1

PP

Constituent level 2
NP

Constituent level 3
D
James

went to

the

N
park

Ultimate constituent

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC square brackets


Sentence construction
Constituent level 1
Constituent level 2

James

went to the park.


Constituent level 3
Ultimate constituent

Structural Grammar

Syntactic Analysis IC Chinese box


James went to the park.
Constituent level 3
Constituent level 2
Constituent level 1
Sentence construction

NP

D
P
V

N
NP
PP

VP

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