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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Chair of Timber Structures


and Building Construction

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Flisa, Norwegen
Chair of Timber Structures
and Building Construction

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Bridge over river Saalach Bavaria - Salzburg, 70m span

Chair of Timber Structures


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Rules given in EC5 part 2 are supplements and should be added


to the rules given in EC5 part 1

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and Building Construction

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 1 General

1 Timber
2 Concrete
3 Fastener

Example of grooved connection

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 1 General

a)

b)
2

1
2
3
4

Nail or screw
c)
d)
Pre-stressing bar or tendon
Glue-line between glued laminated members
Glue-line between laminations in glued laminated members

Figure 1.2 Examples of deck plates made of laminations


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 1 General
Rectangular prestressed deck

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 1 General

Example of cross-laminated deck plate

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 1 General
Ruderting

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 2 Basis of design

k mod R k
Rd
M

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 2 Basis of design


1. Timber and wood-based materials
normal verification
solid timber
glued laminated timber
LVL, plywood, OSB
fatigue verification
2.

Connections
normal verification
fatigue verification

M = 1,3
M = 1,25
M = 1,2
M = 1,0
M = 1,3
M = 1,0

3.

Steel used in composite members

M = 1,15

4.

Concrete used in composite members

M = 1,5

5.

Shear connectors between composite members


normal verification
fatigue verification

6.Pre-stressing steel elements


Chair of Timber Structures
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M = 1,25
M = 1,0
M = 1,15
11

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 3 Material properties

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability

Section 4 Durability
4.1 Timber
(1)The effect of precipitation,
wind and solar should be taken into account
4.2 Resistance to corrosion
4.3 Protection of timber decks from water by sealing

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 4 Durability

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Alternatives?

Chemical treatment

Roof = constructive protection

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability
Constructive protection

Bridge in Eching

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability

Constructive
protection

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability
South-west-side, roof to small?

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability

Chemical treatment
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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 4 Durability
Theoretical costs for bridges (Ablserichtlinien):
Timber bridges: theoretical time of duration
cost per year
actual :
New proposal:
protected bridges
unprotected bridges

50 years

2%
1,0 %
1,8 %

To compare:
Steel bridges:

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Theoretical time of duration


costs per year

100 years
0,8 %

19

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability

Timber protection:
Essential task
Documentation in drawings and documents

Part of structural calculation!!

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 4 Durability

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 4 Durability

DN 1074 Dauerhaftigkeit
Anhang A (informativ)

Empfehlungen zur Dauerhaftigkeit von Holz und Holzwerkstoffen

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 4 Durability

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Sonne, Regen
DIN 1074

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 4 Durability

Dauerhaftigkeit

Architekt: Dietrich, Tragwerksplanung: Sues, Staller, Schmitt


Prfung: Albrecht/Kreuzinger
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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis


5.1 Laminated deck plates
5.1.1 General
(1) The analysis of timber deck plates should
be based upon:
- the orthotropic plate theory;
- modelling the deck plate by a grid
- a simplified method according to 5.1.3
C

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

0
90

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

Table 5.1 System properties of laminated deck plates

Type of deck
plate
Nail-laminated
Stress-laminated
sawn sawn
planed planed
Glued-laminated

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E90,mean/E0, mean

G0,mean/E0,mean

G90,mean/G0,mean

0,06

0,05

0,015
0,020
0,030

0,06
0,06
0,06

0,08
0,10
0,15

27

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

5.1.2 Concentrated vertical loads

1900

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis


5.1.3 Simplified analysis

bef = bw,middle + a

bef

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

Radlast 120 kN

Brcke Ruderting, Grossmann


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 6 Ultimate limit states

Section 6 Ultimate limit states


Eurocode 5.1, EN 1995-1-1 !
6.1 Deck plates
6.1.1 System strength

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 6 Ultimate limit states


Eurocode 5-1-1, System factor

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 6 Ultimate
limit states

b ef =

Mmax,beam

Mbeam

mmax,plate

mplate
mmax,plate

Mmax,beam
y
2

a)

b)
2

c)

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d)

b ef
n=
blam
35

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 6 Ultimate limit states


6.1.2 Stress-laminated deck plates

F v ,Ed d p ,min h
p,min = 0,35

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N
mm 2

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 6 Ultimate limit states


d
1

2d

A 1 = min30t
1,2m

?l11

Joints of lamellas

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1 lamella
2 joint
3 prestress element
37

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Chair of Timber Structures


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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Bridge across railway, Oslo


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Rectangular
prestressed deck plate

Oslo

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 8 Connections

Not for bridges:

Nails (withdrawal)
staples
Nail plates

1
2
3

Timber-concrete composites
1 concrete
2 Additional layer
3 timber
FEd = 0,1 Fv,ED

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 8 Connections

Timber concrete - composite


2

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FEd = 0,1 Fv,ED


42

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

(3) A fatigue verification is required if the ratio given by expression (A.1) is greater than:
For members in compression perpendicular or parallel to grain: 0,6
For members in bending or tension: 0,2
For members in shear: 0,15
For joints with dowels: 0,4
For joints with nails: 0,1
Other joints: 0,15

where:

d,max d,min
fk

d,max d,min
fk
M,fat

(A.1)

M,fat
d,max

is the numerically largest design stress from the fatigue loading;

d,min

is the numerically smallest design stress from the fatigue loading;

fk

is the relevant characteristic strength;

M,fat

is the material partial factor.

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

(1) A simplified fatigue load model is built up of reduced loads (effects of actions) compared to the static
loading models. The load model should give the maximum and minimum stresses in the actual structural
members.
(2) The fatigue loading from traffic should be obtained from the project specification in conjunction with
EN 1991-2.
(3) The number of constant amplitude stress cycles per year, Nobs, should either be taken from table 4.5 of
EN 1991-2 or, if more detailed information about the actual traffic is available, be taken as:

N obs = 365 nADT tL


where:

Nobs = 365 n ADT t L

(A.2)

Nobs

is the number of constant amplitude stress cycles per year;

nADT

is the expected annual average daily traffic over the lifetime of the structure; the value of nADT
should not be taken less than 1000;

is the expected fraction of observed heavy lorries passing over the bridge, see EN 1991-2 clause
4.6 (e.g. = 0,1);

tL

is the design service life of the structure expressed in years according to EN 1990:2002 (e.g. 100
years).

A.2 Fatigue loading


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

d,max ffat,d = k fat


(4) The value of kfat should be taken as:

kfat = 1

1 R
log ( N obs ) 0
a (b R )

k fat

where:
R = d,min d,max

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

fk
M,fat

(A.5)
1R
log( NOBS )
= 1
a (b R )

with 1 = R = 1;

(A.6)

d,min

is the numerically smallest design stress from the fatigue loading;

d,max

is the numerically largest design stress from the fatigue loading;

Nobs

is the number of constant amplitude stress cycles as defined above;

is a factor based on the damage consequence for the actual structural component;

a, b

are coefficients representing the type of fatigue action according to table A.1.

The factor should be taken as:


Substantial consequences: = 3

A.3 Fatigue verification

Without substantial consequences: = 1


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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Table A.1 Values of coefficients a and b


a

Timber members in
- compression, perpendicular or parallel to grain
- bending and tension
- shear

2,0
9,5
6,7

9,0
1,1
1,3

connections with
- dowels with d = 12 mm
- nails

6,0
6,9

2,0
1,2

The values for dowels are mainly based on tests on 12 mm tight-fitting dowels.
Significantly larger diameter dowels or non-fitting bolts may have less favourable fatigue
properties.

k fat

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1R
= 1
log( NOBS )
a (b R )
46

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

d ,max k fat

M , fat

Dauerfestigkeit

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fk

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

fk

d k mod f k
d k mod M

Dauerstandfestigkeit

47

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification

ULS

Fatigue

Lastmodell Ermdung,

d ,max k fat

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

=1

fk

M , fat

Lastmodell Tragsicherheit,

d k mod

fk

Art der Beanspruchung:


Biegung, Schub, Verbindungsmittel
Schwellen, Wechsel R
Anzahl Nobs
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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification


Timber members shear

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Schub

1
0,9
0,8

kfat

0,7

R=0,5

0,6
0,5

R=0
R=-0,5

0,4

R=-1

0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0

logN

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification


Radlast

= +..

k , fat =

k , L1 1,5

k mod f v, k
1,3

= -..

k , L1
2

f v ,k
2 2,17

k fat f v ,k

k fat
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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

= 0,23
2 2,17
50

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Deflections
Vibrations

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Construction part Action


Main system

Characteristic
traffic load

Beams, plates
and trusses
A/400 to A/500

Pedestrian load
and
A/200 to A/400
Low traffic load

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


Deflections / Vibrations

F (t)

System
values
Systemwerte:
M
M mass
Masse[t]
t
Steifigkeit[kN/m]
kN/m
KK stiffness
Dmpfung [kN/(m/s)]
kN/(m/s)
RR attenuation

M
R

w (t)

G Mg
g
g
wg = =
=
=
2
K
K

(2 f )2

f=

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K
= 2 f
M

wg
54

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


frequency

f=

5
0,8 A / X

5
0,8 / X

10

1
A

X = 300

Span

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

w (x , t ) = w 0 (x ) sin t

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w (t ) = w 0 sin t

56

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

m = 1780 kg/m; l = 67,7 m; wg = 8,8 cm

f=

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0,8 w g (in cm )

5
0,8 8,8

= 1,9 Hz
57

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

F(t ) = G sin 2 f s t

M
K

nz
a
on
s
Re a = G 1
1
M 2

K
= fE
M

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


1 Person

avert ,1

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1
200
=

=
M 2 M B

60

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7

Schrittfrequenz fS

Frequency of steps
5
4
Laufen L
3
2,5
2
Gehen 1

Gehen 2

Frequency of bridge
1

Brckenfrequenz fE

0,2
Gehen 2 ; fS = fE/2
0,4
Gehen 1 ; fS = fE

1,3
Laufen L ; fL = fE

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Annex B (informative) Vibrations caused by pedestrians


B.1 General
(1) The rules given in this annex apply to timber bridges with
simply supported beams or truss
systems excited by pedestrians.
NOTE: Corresponding rules will be found in future versions of
EN 1991-2.

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Schwingung

F (t)

F = F0 sin t
M = 60 t

M
R

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kN
R = 16,7
ms
w (t) D = 0,01
K = 12530 kN m

67

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

M = 120.000 kg
Damping: D=0,01

a<0,7 m/s2

200
m
a vert,1 =
= 0,17 2
120000 0,01
s
m
a vert,13 = 0,23 0,17 13 = 0,51 2
s
a vert,voll = 0,23 0,17 l b 0,6

m
= 0,23 0,17 67,7 3,24 0,6 = 5,14 2
s
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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


F

MD
KD
M

R
(D)

RD
M

R
(D)

F = F0 sin t
M = 60 t
R = 16,7

MD = 3,4 t

kN
ms

D = 0,01
K = 12530 kN m
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R = 12,5
D = 0,13
K = 636
69

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


60

1
1
=
= 50
2 D 2 0,01

deflection

50
40

Effect of damper

30
20
10
0
0,0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5

Frequency of impact
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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


Dmpferprotokoll, Gerb

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Connection:

a 1
2
FD = GD 1
1 + (2DD )
g 2DD

The calculation:
GD = MD x g = 3,2 t x 9,81 m/s2 = 32 kN
a = 0,7 m/s2 limit of acceleration of the bridge movement
DD = 0,1 value of damping

0,7
1

2
FD = 34 1
1 + (2 0,1) = 34 (1 0,07 4,81) = 34 (1 0,34 ) kN

9,81 2 0,1

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Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Bridge: 120 t
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Damper: 3,2 t
73

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Section 7 Serviceability limit states


Pedestrian bridge: f < 5 Hz
Design of damper!

MD = 0,05 Mbridge, vibrating

Design the place for the damper!


Fixing: 2 x GD
Use Bridge
Measure
Observe
Decide

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Bridge in Karlsfeld near Munich

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Damper was designed


75

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Horizontal vibrations!

Milleniums bridge - London

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Einmassenschwinger

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Zweimassenschwinger

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EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges

Eurocodes - Background & Applications


18th 20th of February 2008, Brussels

Section 7 Serviceability limit states

Thank you very much


for your attention!
Vielen Dank frs Zuhren !

Chair of Timber Structures


and Building Construction

79