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List some Safety tips in

1) Houses
1) Sound the Alarm: Install smoke detectors on every floor of your home and
carbon monoxide detectors near sleeping areas
2) Avoid Overload: Check for overloaded extension cords
3) Paint Safe: Check walls for loose paint
4) Childproof: Check your local library or look online for complete lists of
childproofing suggestions
5) Plan Your Escape: Practice a fire escape plan with your family where you identify
two exits for every room and what to do with young children.
6) Give Your Air Heater Some Space: All air heaters should be placed at least three
feet from beds, curtains or anything flammable
7) Get Grounded: All major appliances should be grounded
8) Put Away Medications: Take medications and medical supplies out of your purse,
pockets and drawers, and put them in a cabinet with a child safety lock.
9) Keep Extinguishers Handy: Place all-purpose fire extinguishers in key locations in
your home
10) Unplug Appliances: Unplug appliances and electronics when not in use and store
them out of reach.

2) Hospitals
1) Wear slippers or shoes with non-skid soles, Hospital floors can be slippery.
2) Your hospital bed is probably higher and narrower than your bed at home.
When needed, call for help getting into or out of bed. If the side rails are up,
don't try to climb over or between them. Use your call light to get help.
3) The cot and food trolley in your room is on wheels. Don't try to use it for
support. Use your buzzer to get help.
4) Keep items within easy reach. Ask your nurse or someone else to place
glasses, phone or other needed items where you can easily get to them.
5) Don't wait until the last minute to go to the bathroom. Get up slowly and ask
for help if needed.
7) ENSURE THEY WASH TOO. Since you are part of your child's health care team,
do not be afraid to remind doctors and nurses about washing their hands before
working with you
8) Ask Questions: Under our care, never hesitate to ask questions about your
care and to express your preferences & concerns

3) kitchens

Keep Kids and Pets Out!

Wear Shoes and Safe Clothing
Don't Rush : Rushing around the kitchen will almost guarantee accidents.
Always Use Hot Pads
Stir Away From Your Body


Learn how to Use Knives

Know Your Equipment and Handle it Properly
Clean Up Spills Promptly
Know Your Limits when Lifting : Lifting a hot pot of boiling pasta is one of the most
dangerous of kitchen techniques


Watch Out for Steam

4) Furniture
1) Keep electrical cords out of reach and behind TV.
2) Close all furniture drawers to prevent or deter climbing.
3) Secure all furniture with furniture straps.
4) Toys placed on top of dressers or TVs encourage children to reach and climb.
5) There should be at least 3 feet of space between your furniture and any
space heaters
6) All electrical cords, lamps and appliances should be safely kept away from all
furniture and mattresses.
7) Open flames from candles or matches, and live cigarette butts should be kept
away from any
upholstered furniture .

The performance management considers Four responses to a behavior ( read

page 395+ 396) :


Classes of Fire
CLASS A: fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics.
CLASS B: combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and
CLASS C: Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes
and power tools.
CLASS D: combustible metals, such as magnesium,titanium, potassium and sodium.


CLASS A: 1) Keep storage and working areas free of trash.

2) Place oily rags in covered containers.
CLASS B: 1) Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined space.
2) Don't refuel gasoline-powered equipment while it's hot.
3) Store flammable liquids away from spark-producing sources.
4) Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas.

Look for old wiring

worn insulation and broken electrical fittings.
Report any hazardous condition to your supervisor.
Prevent motors from overheating by keeping them clean.
A spark from a rough-running motor can ignite the oil and dust in it.

6) Don't misuse fuses.

7) Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit.
8) Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange.
9) Unusual odors can be the first sign of fire.
10) Don't overload wall outlets.
CLASS D: 1) covering the burning metal with sand can help contain the heat and
sparks from the reaction.

How to Extinguish Fires

CLASS A: 1) cooling the material below its ignition temperature
2) soaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition.
3) Use pressurized water
4) use foam or multi-purpose (ABC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers.
5) DO NOT USE carbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical

1) removing the oxygen.

2) preventing the vapors from reaching the ignition source.
3) use Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical.
4) Use multi-purpose dry chemical
5) Use halon fire extinguishers.

CLASS C: 1) using an extinguishing agent

2) Using Carbon dioxide.
3) Using ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical

4) Use multi-purpose dry chemical

5)Use halon fire extinguishers.

CLASS D: 1) dry powder extinguishing agents

Firefighting Decision Criteria

Know department emergency procedures and evacuation routes.

Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them.
Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size.
Avoid smoky conditions.
Ensure area is evacuated.
Dont attempt to fight unless:
Alarm is sounded.
Fire is small and contained.
You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire).
Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire.

7) If in doubt, evacuate!

Definition of Occupational Disease :

Occupational disease is any disease caused due activities or environmental factors at
the workplace.

Definition of Pneumoconiosis :
A group of conditions resulting from the deposit of minerals dust in lung and the
subsequent lung tissue reaction to the dust .
what is Asbestos ?
A generic name given to a fibrous variety of six naturally occurring minerals that have
been used for decades in the development of thousands of commercial products.

Found in
insulation and fireproofing materials,
automotive brakes,
textile products,
cement and
wallboard materials.
Fibers 10 20 m length are fibro- & oncogenic Asbestos body rod shaped , 16 m wide and 10 30 m long, yellow-brown with pale center, may be
clubbed at one or both ends.

Amosite and crocidolite are the most hazardous of the asbestos minerals
because of their long persistence in the lungs of exposed people.

What are the difference between :

Risk & Hazards :
Hazard: any condition which has the potential to harm the health or cause
Risk: The probability that a hazard will actually result in an accident.
Accident & incident :

accident - Refers to the event. It is an unplanned, undesired event in a

sequence of events that causes an unintended injury, death or property
incident - is an undesired event that may cause personal harm or other

What is Perception :

Perception is a key component of human behavior.

Its the mechanism with which a person evaluates input from the external
environment, which, in turns, determines his behavioral response.

What are the Steps of Risk Management

1) Hazard Identification (through experience, checklists, asking operators, etc.)
2) Risk Assessment (quantifying the risk utilizing tools such as PHA, FTA, FMEA,
HAZOP, assessing accident statistics, etc.)
3) Risk Control (covered in coming slides)
4) Risk Monitoring (continuous monitoring of hazards and the risk involved)

What are the Four Approaches in Risk Control (MCQs , case and determine ):

The Enforcement Approach

The Psychological Approach
The Engineering Approach
The Analytical Approach

Safety Culture :
1) Everyone feels responsible for safety and does something about it on a daily
2) People go beyond the call of duty to identify unsafe conditions and at-risk
behaviors, and they intervene to correct them.

3) Safe work practices are supported intermittently with rewarding feedback from
both peers and managers.
4) People actively care continuously for the safety of themselves and others.
Principles of a Safety Culture
1) From regulations to corporate responsibility.
2) From failure oriented to achievement oriented.
3) From outcome focused to behavior focused.
4) From top-down control to bottom-up involvement.
5) From rugged individualism to interdependent teamwork.
6) From a staged to a systems approach
7) From fault finding to fact finding
8) From reactive to proactive
9) From quick fix to continuous improvement
10)From priority to value

Lost Time Injuries (LTI's)

It is the number of injuries that resulted in work time loss.
Frequency Rate (FR)
It identifies the number of injuries experienced or expected in a
period where one million person hours of exposure occurs.
# of LTI's X 1,000,000
FR = -----------------------------------Total person hours worked

Average Time Lost Rate ( ATLR )

This rate indicates the severity of injuries
# of days lost
ATLR = ------------------# of LTI's

Incidence Rate (IR)

This rate calculates, in percentage terms, the number of LTI's experienced by

the work group.
# of LTI's X 100
IR = -----------------------------# of workers exposed

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