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KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN, MASLP, MSC PSYCHOLOGY

SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

An overview of Disabilities,
common characteristics,
and helpful hints- for
teachers

A disorder in one or more basic psychological processes involved


in understanding or in using language, spoken or written,
which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical
calculations.

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

IDEA definition of specific learning


disability:

Perceptual disabilities
Brain injury
Minimal brain dysfunction
Dyslexia
Developmental aphasia

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Learning disabilities include

Visual
Hearing
Motor disabilities
Mental retardation
Emotional disturbance
Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Learning disabilities do not include:

Learning disabilities are not

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Synonymous with low achievers


Mild disabilities, and they are life-long
Fixable and short term

Student learns a skill in a different way or at a


different pace
Student has difficulty processing information in
particular ways
Student has difficulty storing information either
short term or long term
Student has difficulty in the perception of
information (letter or number reversal)
Student has difficulty perceiving social situations
(sees them differently)

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Some characteristics of children


with learning disabilities

Learn about the child and the learning disability


Use multiple learning styles and multiple forms of communicating
instructions
Avoid lengthy directions
Use strategies to help students remember
Break down tasks into smaller steps
Provide additional time for schoolwork and tests
Allow the student with reading problems to use textbooks on tape or
similar devices
Allow the student with listening difficulties to borrow notes or use a tape
recorder
Allow the student with writing difficulties to use a computer with spell
check, grammar checks, or speech recognition
Teach organizational and study skills

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What a teacher can do for students


with learning disabilities

Speech or language disability


defined:

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Communication disorder, like stuttering, impaired articulation,


language learning impairment, voice impairment, aphasia,
dysarthria, mental retardation

Mispronouncing syllables or whole words


Voice disorder, including abnormal pits, loudness or voice
quality
Fluency disorder, pauses, hesitations, repetitions
Stutter
Reluctance to speak
Language learning disability

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of speech or
language disability

Work closely with speech therapist


Minimize the pressure to perform verbally and
reduce students anxiety
Use nonverbal listening skills such as eye contact
and facial expressions
Let the student finish talking
Dont finish the students sentences
Do not allow other students to make fun of the
student
Provide positive feedback for all communication
efforts

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for speech


and language disorders

Inability to learn or maintain satisfactory interpersonal


relationships that can not be explained otherwise
Inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal
circumstances
Mood of unhappiness or depression
Develops physical symptoms or fears associated with
personal or school problems
Schizophrenia
Does not apply to students who are maladjusted, unless
they have an emotional disturbance.

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Emotional disturbance defined

Set clear limits so student knows what is expected


Provide posted rules/expectations and teach the student
what they mean and provide reminders
Follow the students behavioral intervention plan (IEP)
Develop a non-verbal cueing system to assist the student
Provide assigned seating
Start each day newdont hold grudges

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with Emotional
disturbances
Provide positive recognition for appropriate behavior

Autism defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Developmental disability that affects verbal and nonverbal


communication and social interaction before age 3.

Student may have a range in degree of


intellectual functioning and any adverse effect
on educational performance
Significant communication/language/
interpersonal skill deficits
Self stimulate (rocking, hitting self)
Inappropriate emotions
Becomes upset with routine or environmental
changes
Becomes frustrated when over-stimulated

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of students with


autism

Prepare the child for change in environment or routine


Avoid too much stimulation and a high noise level
Break down directions into very small steps
Provide multiple opportunities for appropriate repetitive
movements

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with autism

Having limited strength, vitality or alertness due to chronic or


acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit
disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes,
epilepsy, heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning,
leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Other Health impairments defined

Difficulty staying on task or paying attention to


important aspect for a long period of time
Impulsive
Need to move around frequently
Easily distracted
Problems breathing
Easily infected
Energetic
Difficulty paying attention when not feeling well

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of students with


other health impairments:

Provide many opportunities for movement


Keep lecture and written activities short
Use visuals during teaching centered activities
Provide fidgets (ball, paperclip)
Provide positive reinforcement
Provide organizers away from desk for items student is not
currently using
Use timers
Use highlighters to color code instructions and key parts of
assignments

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with other health
impairments

Learn about the health disability


Follow physicians instructions regarding level of activity
Work with school dietician regarding dietary restrictions
Watch for changes in behavior or unusual lethargy

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do regarding


other health impairments

Mental retardation defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Sub-average general intellectual functioning with deficits in


adaptive behavior

Characteristics of students with


mental retardation

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Student learns at a slower rate


Student will have difficulty grasping abstract concepts
Student may not remember directions he or she is given

Provide new information at a slower rate


Provide concrete directions
Repeat directions as much as possible
Provide reinforcement for rote material learned

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with mental retardation

Traumatic brain injury

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

An acquired injury caused by physical force resulting in total or


partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment

Reduced stamina
Seizures/headaches
Hearing/vision problems
Easily confused
Mood swings and problems with social skills

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of students with


traumatic brain injury

Talk with administrator/parent to find the extent of


the injury
Avoid an unstructured daily routine
Keep directions simple and concrete
Plan ahead for specific activities
Be clear on rules and review them frequently
Document any unusual circumstances of changes in
behavior

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with traumatic brain
injuries

Hearing impairment defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Impairment of hearing severe enough to adversely affect a


childs educational performance, whether permanent or
fluctuating

Uses gestures
Hearing aides
Sign language
May write on paper or refuse to write on paper if feels
inadequate
Isolation due to communication barriers
Unintentional noises

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of a student who is


hearing impaired

Minimize background noise


Face the student when giving instruction
Use an overhead or power point so you can face
the class while instructing
Teachers mouth should be fully visible when
speaking
Stand in areas without bright backlighting
Maximize visual and tactile access
Use advance organizers

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for a


student who is hearing impaired

Deafness defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Hearing impairment so severe that student can not process


linguistic information through hearing, with or without
amplification

Student may talk very loudly


Student may feel isolated due to communication barriers
Student may use gestures
Student may use an interpreter

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of deafness

Address the child, not the interpreter


Increase wait time during lecture
Meet regularly with the interpreter to assess the
communication services
Learn a few signs for vocabulary frequently used in the
classroom

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for a


student who is deaf

Visual impairment defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Includes blindness, but can include partial or complete


blindness
Some visual impairments may be corrected with glasses

Provide extra time to complete a task


Provide verbal descriptions
Help implement an IEP team decision to provide services necessary
Provide assistance in the students orientation to the classroom and
around the building
Talk about where things are
Dont lead the student; teacher hand at students elbow may be
enough
Remind sighted students/adults to identify themselves by name
Describe objects when referring to them
Dont leave student standing or waiting along in an open space
Do not move things in classroom without notifying student

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with visual impairments

Deaf-blindness defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Hearing and visual impairments


Cause communication and other developmental/educational
needs

Demonstrates serious impairments and growing


diversity of impairments
Significant medical complications
Self-stimulating behaviors (rocking)
Easily aroused (frustration, self-abusive,
aggressive, withdrawn)
Lack of responsiveness
Own interests and signaling methods
Vulnerable to stress

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of students with


deaf-blindness

Teach systematically what non-impaired students learn


Increase the length of time to master daily classroom
objectives
Establish sensitivity and awareness
Mutual attention
Respond to students signals
Keep classroom emotions positive

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students who are deaf-blind

Orthopedic impairment
defined

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Clubfoot, absence of an appendage


Polio-myelitis, bone tuberculosis
Cerebral palsy, amputations, fractures or burns

Unable to coordinate body movement


Muscles may weaken and degenerate
Nerve control and lack of feeling
Painful movement

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Characteristics of students with


orthopedic impairments

Avoid barriers in the classroom


Plan accommodations ahead of time
Provide extra time for movement and transitions
Treat student with respect
Provide assistance as needed
Monitor safety and health
Meet with building administrator regarding
specific medical emergency plan

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

What the teacher can do for


students with orthopedic
impairments

Multiple disabilities defined


Combination of disabilities

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Teacher should try to find out as much as possible about the


multiple disabilities

General words of advice


Stay informed of changes

Talk with parents and let them know of any academic or


behavioral changes in their student in response to any
changes in medication

KUNNAMPALLIL GEJO JOHN

Changes in medication
Behavioral changes
Academic changes