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Pipelines 2012: Innovations in Design, Construction, Operations, and Maintenance

Doing More with Less ASCE 2012

Failure Risk of Bar-Wrapped Pipe with Broken Bars and Corroded


Cylinder
Ali Alavinasab1, Muthu Chandrasekaran2, Edward Padewski III3
1

Pure Technologies, 3322 State Route 22 West, Suite 902, Building 9, Branchburg, NJ 08876;
PH (908) 526-6600; FAX (908) 526-9900; email: ali.alavinasab@puretechltd.com
2
Pure Technologies, 8920 State Route 108, Suite D Columbia, MD 21045; PH (443) 766-7873;
FAX (443) 766-7877; email: Muthu.Chandrasekaran@puretechltd.com
3
Pure Technologies, 3322 State Route 22 West, Suite 902, Building 9, Branchburg, NJ 08876;
PH (908) 526-6600; FAX (908) 526-9900; email: ed.padewski@puretechltd.com

ABSTRACT
Bar-wrapped pipe (BWP) commonly used in pressure pipelines due to its reliability,
cost effectiveness and durability. Failure of BWP can occur as a result of long term
leakage and subsequent corrosion or as a result of leakage and deterioration of the
reinforcing bars over time. The failure can also be the direct result of a transient pressure
or other sudden catastrophic events.
The consequence of failure may result in a significant disruption of operation and service
for a water utility without any warning. This is a concern because assessing the condition
of a damaged BWP is very challenging. In this paper, a nonlinear finite element analysis
was used to evaluate the performance of a damaged BWP.
For the structural evaluation, stresses and strains developed in the damaged BWP were
evaluated. Cracking and spalling of the mortar lining will eventually lead to the
corrosion of the steel components. In an effort to account for the steel deterioration, the
model was adjusted by reducing the thickness of the steel cylinder. This study
investigates the behavior of a deteriorating BWP under various levels of distress and
various internal pressures. The results based on a 24-inch pipe transmission main, are
used to define criteria to evaluate the performance of a damaged BWP. Based upon the
finite element results obtained in this study, suggestions for future work are presented and
discussed.

INTRODUCTION
Since 1942, concrete cylinder pipe, commonly known as bar-wrapped pipe or pretensioned pipe, has been used in pipelines due to its reliability, cost effectiveness and
durability. Typically, BWP is manufactured in standard diameters of 10 to 72 inches,
with design pressures up to 400 psi and varying external earth loads. Although BWP
resembles prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), lined cylinder type, BWP and
PCCP utilize different structural components to carry the loads. The steel cylinder in

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PCCP acts primarily as a water barrier, not a structural member. This is not the case with
BWP where the steel cylinder is one of the key structural components.
BWP is essentially a steel pipe that is stiffened with steel reinforcing bars; therefore, the
failure mechanism of BWP tends to be the same as that of a steel pipe. Unlike PCCP,
where failure typically involves a bursting of the pipe due to broken wire wraps, the
failure of BWP usually involves leaking due to a hole in the cylinder. This may be a
flowing leak or a weeping leak, depending on the condition of the concrete lining.
An electromagnetic (EM) inspection can be a successful means of performing a
condition assessment of a pipeline composed of BWP with the understanding that the EM
inspection will only provide data about the current condition of the pipeline. To evaluate
the design and the risk of failure associated with specific pipe sections, a structural
evaluation, based on a finite element analysis, can provide insight into the future
serviceability of a pipeline following an EM inspection. Increasing levels of distress can
be evaluated to determine the reliability of the pipeline as the condition deteriorates.
This type of investigation was used to inform the City of Calgary Water Department
whether or not the pipes were adequately designed and to provide data and performance
curves to assist the city in making management decisions for the 24-inch Rundle
Feedermain BWP. A structural evaluation was performed to determine if any pipe
sections were approaching one of the failure limit states, which can help prevent ruptures
similar to the one that occurred on July 14, 2011.
The performance of BWP is directly related to the condition of the rebars and the steel
cylinder in the pipes. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to predict the
failure of PCCP due to an increasing number of broken wire wraps [1-8]. Based on the
limited amount of literature available, the effects of broken rebars and corrosion in the
steel cylinder have not been thoroughly investigated for BWP as compared to that of
PCCP. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect that broken rebar and
corrosion in the steel cylinder has on the structural integrity of a distressed BWP using
three-dimensional (3D) FEA.
A 24-inch (0.61 m) BWP was considered with two (2), five (5), ten (10), fifteen (15) and
25 broken rebars for this investigation. Based on the FEA results, a risk analysis was
performed for the 24-inch Rundle Feedermain BWP located in Calgary.
MODEL FORMULATION
BWP is comprised of a welded steel cylinder that creates a watertight membrane and
helically wrapped, pre-tensioned, steel reinforcing bars wrapped around the cylinder to
provide additional strength. An internal concrete lining and external mortar coating
provide corrosion protection to the steel components. Properties of the 24-inch BWP
were obtained during site visits. Figure 1 shows the typical cross section of a BWP.

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Doing More with Less ASCE 2012

Figure 1. Cross section of a typical AWWA C303 Bar-Wrapped Pipe


Table 1 represents the field measurements of the inner and outer mortar of the Calgary
24-inch BWP.
Table 1 Field measurement of mortar coating, Calgary 24 inch BWP
Section
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
Sample 4
Inner mortar (inch)
0.863
0.523
0.606
0.507
Outer mortar (inch)
0.872
0.854
0.800
0.802
Based on the data shown in Table 1, the average thickness of the inner and outer mortar
used for the structural evaluation was 0.65 inches and 0.85 inches, respectively.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
The finite element method (FEM) is a general method of structural analysis in which
the solution of a problem in continuum mechanics is approximated by analyzing an
assemblage of finite elements which are interconnected at a finite number of nodal points
across the solution domain of the problem.

20 feet

24 inch
Figure 2. Geometry of BWP.

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As sh
hown in Figu
ure 2, the BW
WP used in the
t analysis hhas a lengthh of 20 feet (66.1 m) and aan
innerr diameter off 24 inches (0
0.61 m).
A com
mmercial fin
nite element software (A
ABAQUS)) was used foor the numerrical analysis.
It waas assumed that the interrface betweeen the rebar and the morrtar coating is perfect. A
four-n
node quadraatic shell elem
ment (S4R) was used forr modeling tthe undamagged portion oof
the pipe. This ty
ype of elemen
nt is charactterized by thhree displaceement and thhree rotationaal
degreees of freedo
om. The FE
EM model off the pipe wiith shell elem
ments is shoown in Figurre
3:

Figure 3. 3-D finite element m


model of BW
WP

Break
kage in the rebar is ofteen due to sig
gnificant corrrosion overr time. Corrrosion beginns
when
n a significan
nt amount off energy is placed
p
into thhe steel durinng its extracction from thhe
ores, placing it in
i a high-en
nergy state. Therefore, steel is therrmodynamiccally unstablle
and will
w tend to react with its
i environm
ment (e.g., ooxygen or w
water) in ordder to reach a
lowerr energy statte (Fe2O3). The
T environm
ment surrouunding the reebar and the steel cylindeer
is thee controlling factor in a corrosion
c
reaaction.
p
for
f a differeent number of broken reinforcem
ment bars annd
The FEA was performed
corresponding loss of thickneess in the steeel cylinder.. Table 2 prresents the vvalues used iin
the FEA
F
for the number
n
of continuous
c
bar
b breaks annd the percentage of thicckness lost iin
the steel
s
cylindeer. The vaalues are baased on thee assumption the mortaar coating is
deteriorating exp
posing not only
o
the rein
nforcement bbars to a coorrosive enviironment, buut
D
on
o the envirronment andd, if possiblee, external oor
the stteel cylinderr as well. Depending
foren
nsic evaluatio
on of damag
ged pipes in a particular system, thee amount of steel cylindeer
damaage can be modified
m
to better represeent the actuaal conditions.

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Pipelines 2012: Innovations in Design, Construction, Operations, and Maintenance


Doing More with Less ASCE 2012

Table 2 FEA Damage Propagation in the Calgary 24 inch BWP


No. of Continuous
Percentage of steel cylinder
Bar Breaks
thickness lost in damaged zone
0
0%
5
10 %
11
20 %
15
40 %
20
60 %
25
80 %
Material properties for the BWP were obtained using American Water Works
Association (AWWA) C304 Standard [13]. The Youngs modulus, density and
Poissons ratio used in the model are presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Material properties of PCCP based on AWWA C304 Standard
Density
Youngs modulus
Poissons ratio
(GPa) / (psi)
( kg m 3 ) / (lb/ft3)
Mortar Coating
25.1 / 3.64E6
2242.58 / 140
0.2
Steel Cylinder
206.84 / 3E7
7832.8 / 489
0.3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The nonlinear response of a BWP to internal pressure and external loading is obtained
using a FEA. Cracks occur at the mortar coating where the concrete tensile load exceeds
the concrete tensile strength. Since cracking is considered a stage of deterioration which
causes corrosion in the steel cylinder, realistic cracking models need to be developed in
order to accurately predict the load-deformation behavior.
Figure 4 demonstrates the stresses in the rebars, the steel cylinder, and the inner and outer
mortar coatings with five broken rebars and a 10% steel cylinder loss in the damaged
zone. In these figures, the color gradients indicate the calculated stress for each element
in the FEA model.
Undamaged Area
(No Broken Rebar)

Damaged Area
(Broken Rebar/Corroded Cylinder)
a) Stress in the rebar

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Outer Coating
Inner Coating
b) Stress in the coating

c)

Stress in the inner liner

Figure 4. Stresses in the 24 inch BWP with five (5) broken rebars and a 10% loss of steel
Figure 5 represents the damage in the mortar coating, caused by excessive tension, for the
Calgary 24 inch BWP.

Pipelines 2012: Innovations in Design, Construction, Operations, and Maintenance


Doing More with Less ASCE 2012

Figure 5. Tension damage in 24 inch BWP with five (5) broken rebars and a 10% loss of
steel in the damaged zone.
A risk analysis evaluates the impact of a growing number of broken rebars, and the
subsequent corrosion of the steel cylinder, on the performance of the pipe and determines
the corresponding risk of failure resulting from this damage. Failure risk is expressed in
terms of limit states that relate to serviceability (micro cracking and visible cracking),
damage, and ultimate deflection of the pipe.
The micro cracking limit state is based on the onset of cracking in the inner or outer
mortar coating. It is further defined as a 1/16-inch crack at 12 inches in length. The
visible cracking limit state is defined as a crack greater than 0.086 inches wide and 12
inches in length. The damaged limit state is based on structural cracking of the coating,
which exposes the cylinder to corrosion, and an increase in deflection of the pipe based
on Spanglers equation. The ultimate deflection limit state is based on a critical
deflection of the pipe which represents severe damage and changes in the geometry of the
pipe section.
Based on this analysis, performance curves were generated which denote the
aformentioned limit states in terms of the number of contiguous broken rebars and a
corroded steel cylinder versus the maximum deflection for different internal pressures
and a given external load.

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EXPECTED DETERIORATION OF BWP


When steel reinforcing bars break or the steel cylinder corrodes, a pipe's strength is
significantly reduced at the area of damage. The ends of the reinforcing bars retract, and
then react to the constrictive forces of friction being applied by the mortar coating. These
friction forces enable the reinforcing bars to redevelop their tension over a relatively
short distance from the point of breakage. The length of the rebar that needs to be firmly
encased in the mortar in order to redevelop the tensile strength can vary up to several feet
depending on the size of the reinforcing bar and the level of corrosion, as well as the
condition and quality of the mortar coating. The redevelopment of the tensile strength is
referred to as bond. When the coating becomes soft, cracks, or is delaminated from the
steel cylinder, the rebars bond to the mortar is reduced and the redevelopment length is
increased significantly.
Since it is not practical to understand the individual rebars bond for each pipe section, a
conservative assumption must be made for modeling purposes. The most conservative
assumption is to remove the broken rebars and reduce the thickness of the steel cylinder
in the damaged zone. This is overly conservative and unrealistic. In this scenario,
according to the structural model, the pipe would fail at the ultimate deflection limit.
When actual information of the localized damage is incorporated, the performance risk
curves predict that the ultimate strength of the pipe would occur at the ultimate deflection
curve. It is important to understand that if conditions exist in a pipe section that lead to a
thinner steel cylinder in the damaged zone than what was used for the analysis, the
models indicate that the pipe section would fail prior to reaching the curve.
If the mortar coating becomes delaminated, the rebars may not be bonded for the entire
damaged area. Also, if the mortar is under attack by aggressive soil and groundwater
conditions surrounding the pipeline, the bond will be reduced.
Based on this analysis, performance risk curves were generated which show the limit
states in terms of the number of contiguous broken rebars, the loss of the thickness of
steel cylinder steel cylinder and the different internal pressures for a given external load.
The performance risk curve for the Calgary 24-inch BWP is shown below in Figure 6.

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Figure 6. Expected deflection for BWP at various levels of deterioration


The maximum number of broken rebars and the corrosion of the steel cylinder required to
reach the limit states under operational and surge conditions for each pipe was calculated
using the FEA performance risk curves. Table 4 summarizes the FEA condition rating
based on the quantity of wire breaks.
Table 4 - FEA Condition Rating based on the Design Working
Pressures
Limit State Broken Rebars / % of cylinder thickness lost
Pressure (psi)
When Microcracking Occurs When Damage Occurs
40
0/0%
22/70%
60
0/0%
17/50%
80
0/0%
10/20%
100
0/0%
0/0%
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, the numerical FEM was used to determine the performance of BWP at
various levels of deterioration. The effects of broken rebars and corrosion in steel
cylinder of a 24-in BWP (61 cm) were investigated under combined internal pressures
and external earth loads. The results were shown for the pipe with (i) 2 broken rebars and
5% corrosion in steel cylinder, (ii) 5 broken rebars and 10% corrosion in steel cylinder,
(iii) 10 broken rebars and 20% corrosion in steel cylinder, (iv) 15 broken rebars and 40%
corrosion in steel cylinder, (v) 20 broken rebars and 60% corrosion in steel cylinder and
(vi) 25 broken rebars and 80% corrosion in steel cylinder. The results indicates the

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deflection based performance of the pipe change significantly when the level of damage
increases. Utility owners can use the proposed method to assess risk of failure of BWP
based on condition data. Broken rebars and corrosion in steel cylinder can be obtained by
physical testing, electromagnetic inspections or other testing. Based on the collected data
and the proposed performance curve, an estimation of remaining useful life in a BWP
main can be obtained.

REFERENCES
[1] Zarghamee, M. S., Eggers, D. W., Ojdrovic, R. P., and Rose, B., (2003). Risk
analysis of Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe with broken wires. Int. Conf. on Pipeline
Eng. and Construction, ASCE, Baltimore, MD, 599-609.
[2] Zarghamee, M. S., Eggers, D., and Ojdrovic, R. P., (2002). Finite element modeling
of failure of PCCP with broken wires subjected to combined loads. Beneath Our Feet:
Challengers and Solutions (CD-ROM), ASCE Press, Reston, VA.
[3] Erbay, O. O., Zarghamee, M. S., and Ojdrovic, R. P., (2007). Failure risk analysis of
lined cylinder pipes with broken wires and corroded cylinder. Int. Conf. on Pipeline
Eng. and Construction, ASCE, Boston, MA, 1-10.
[4] Xionga, H., Li, P., and Lia, Q., (2010) FE model for simulating wire-wrapping
during prestressing of an embedded prestressed concrete cylinder pipe. Simul. Model.
Prac. Theo. 18(5), 624-636.
[5] Lewis, R. A., Wheatley, M., (2003). Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipeline
Evaluation, A Toolbox Approach. Int. Conf. on Pipeline Eng. and Construction, ASCE,
Baltimore, MD, 276-285.
[6] Alavinasab,A., Padewski E., Holley, M., Jha R., Ahmadi, G., (2010). Damage
Identification Based on Vibration Response of Prestressed Concrete Pipes. ASCE
Pipelines Conf.: Climbing New Peaks to Infrastructure Reliability Renew, Rehab, and
Reinvest, Keystone, CO, 909-919.
[7]Alavinasab, A., Padewski, E., Holley, M., Jha, R., Ahmadi, G., Crack Propagation in
Prestressed Concrete Noncylinder Pipe using Finite Element Method, ASCE Pipelines
Conf.: A Sound Conduit for Sharing Solutions, Seattle, WA, 420-426.
[8]Alavinasab, A., Jha, R., Ahmadi, G., Damage Identification based on Modal
Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Pipes, ASCE Pipelines Conf.: A Sound Conduit for
Sharing Solutions, Seattle, WA, 12-23.
[9] American Water Works Association (2007), AWWA C304 Standard for Design of
Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe. Denver, CO.
[10] American Water Works Association (2009), AWWA C303 Standard for Design of
Concrete Pressure Pipe, Bar-Wrapped, Steel Cylinder Type. Denver, CO.

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