Sie sind auf Seite 1von 60

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK

MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF

SIAE RADIO EQUIPMENTS

- AL SERIES -

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 1 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

1 Introduction
The aim of this document is to guide the NMS planner in the design of the DCN for the
supervision of a SIAEs AL radio network.
First it will be described the AL equipment and the dedicated supervision ports that it can
provide. For each port it will be provided the description of the relevant configuration
parameters and, when applicable, the default settings that can be used.
In the next paragraphs it will be then provided some guidelines about the IP addressing of
the equipments, the usage of the serial connections available and the required bandwidth
for the supervision channels.
Finally it will be provided four case studies where it will be provided some examples of
DCN configuration.

2 General description of the AL equipment


In this paragraph it will be provided a general description of the AL equipment for the
supervision point of view.
The AL equipment supports the SNMP protocol for its remote management. The
communication with the remote management centre can be realised by means of several
communication channels. Each AL equipment can establish the following management
connections:
- Connection to a LAN by means of the supervision Ethernet port provided on the Indoor
Unit (IDU). This port can be chosen as 10baseT or 10base2, depending on planning
considerations or customer requirements and allows the equipment to be connected to
a Local Area Network.
- PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) connection on the radio port. This connection is realised
by means of a dedicated service channel embedded on the radio stream. This channel
allows each AL radio equipment to communicate with the AL on the other side of a
radio link, without affecting the tributary traffic.
- PPP connection over the serial port LCT. This port is an USB port that allows the direct
connection of a PC with the SCT management software for on-site configuration of the
equipment.
- PPP connection over the serial port RS2321. Following are listed some usage
examples of such connection:
o Remote control of the equipment by means of a MODEM and a link over the
telephone switched network.
o Daisy chain connection of IDUs.
o Transmission of the management traffic over the service channels of other
suppliers radio links.
- PPP connection over a 2Mbs tributary. This connection allows carrying the supervision
traffic over a TS (Time Slot) of a 2Mbs tributary connection of the IDU. This option can
be useful in order to reach remote and isolated SIAEs links, exploiting a TS of the
tributary traffic.

The RS232 port is not available for the AL-Compact configuration ( unit).
Issued by
GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK
MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RIGAMG/INR
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT

Approved by

Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

Document Code

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 2 di 60

INR.0225

Ver.

03

PPP connection over


the embedded 64 Kbit/s
supervision service channel

AL

Ethernet
10 Base T/10Base 2

RS232/2 Mbs
Tributary

USB

PPP connection
over RS-232 port or
2Mbit/s Tributary
To/from a 10BaseT/
10Base 2 LAN

PPP
Connection to SCT
over USB port

Figure 1
In Figure 1 is shown the AL equipment with its supervision ports and the relevant
connections. The processor of the AL equipment works like a Level 3 router on the
supervisions IP packets. It needs an IP address for each supervision port and uses a
routing table to route traffic between their ports. This means that different sub-networks
must be used in order to address AL equipments.
From the figure it can be also noted that the ports RS232 and 2Mbs are seen under the
same connection by the internal router. This means that the PPP connection can be done
alternatively over the RS232 port or over the 2Mbs ports. The connection cannot be
associated to both RS232 and 2Mbs ports at the same time.
In the next paragraph more details will be provided about the configuration of the AL
supervision ports.

2.1 Configuration parameters of the AL supervision ports


The supervision ports of the AL equipment can be configured by means of the SCT
software. The configuration window is accessible by means of the menu
EquipmentCommunication SetupPort Configuration. This window provides several
cards for the configuration of the supervision ports. These cards will be described in the
following,

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 3 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

2.1.1 IP Ethernet

Figure 2

This card allows the configuration of the Ethernet supervision port. The required
parameters are the IP Address to be assigned to the port (IP Address) and the relevant
sub-network mask (IP NetMask).
2.1.1 PPP Radio

Figure 3
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 4 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

This card allows establishing a PPP connection over the radio link, by means of an
embedded 64kbit/s supervision service channel. The required parameters are the IP
Address to be assigned to the port (IP PPP Address) and the relevant sub-network mask
(IP PPP NetMask). The field PPP Mode must be always set to Client.

2.1.2 LCT PPP

Figure 4

This port allows establishing a PPP connection over the USB port named LCT on the IDU.
This port is used to locally configure the AL by means of the SCT software (e.g., by means
of a laptop computer). The required parameters are the IP Address to be assigned to the
port (IP PPP Address) and the relevant mask (IP PPP NetMask). In the field PPP Baud
Rate can be set the transmission rate of the port. When the SCT terminal is locally
connected by means of the LCT port, it automatically receives an IP Address equal to the
LCT PPP address plus 1. For example, if LCT PPP is 10.0.1.3, the connected PC will get
the address 10.0.1.4. This address must be taken into account, in order to avoid
addresses duplication.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 5 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

2.1.3 PPP RS232/2Mbps

Figure 5

This card allows the configuration of the PPP connection that can be established,
alternatively, over the RS232 port or over one 2Mbs tributary interface. For both the
choices there are three common parameters that must be configured:
- IP PPP Address: it is IP address of the equipment serial port, for the connection with
other network elements.
- IP PPP NetMask: It is the mask for the network address.
- PPP Mode: it is the functioning mode of the PPP protocol and can be set to either
Client, Server or Automatic. When this parameter is set to Automatic, the system
automatically sets the IP PPP Address of the equipment under examination plus 1 to
the element (equipment, PC, etc.) placed at the other line end. If the Automatic setting
is not desired, the port can be always set to Client.
- Remote Access Type: It allows detecting the interface type to be used for the port
under examination. Two options can be selected:
o RS232: in this case the PPP connection will be established over the RS232
serial interface.
o 2Mbs: in this case the PPP connection will be established over one or more
16Kbit channels of a time slot relevant to one of the 2Mb/s tributaries available
for the equipment.
Depending on the Remote Access Type selected, additional configurations are
required:
o If Remote Access Type is set to RS232, the PPP communication will be taken
over the RS232 port. In this case the designer is required to define the
transmission rate of the port, making a choice in the PPP Baud Rate selector
(see Figure 5).
o If Remote Access Type is set to 2Mbs, the PPP communication will be taken
over a Time Slot of a 2Mbs tributary connection. The capacity assigned to the
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 6 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

PPP connection can be from a minimum of 16Kbit/s to the maximum capacity of


the Time Slot (4x16kbit/s = 64kbit/s). The designer is required to set the
parameters relevant to this connection, filling the following field shown in the
EOC frame:
 2Mbit Selector box: it is pointed out the number of the used tributary. The
wording No 2Mb Used points out that the system does not use any
tributary.
 Slot Selector box: it is pointed out the number of the used time slot.
 16 kbit Map box: Through this box the designer can select the 16Kbit/s
sub-channels of the TS to be used for the communication. The equipment
located at the other end of the PPP connection must be configured in the
same way. Up to four sub-channels can be selected, raising the
maximum rate of the Time Slot (64kbit/s).

Figure 6

2.2 Proxy ARP feature


As explained in Paragraph 2, the AL equipment manage the supervision traffic as a Layer
3 router and uses a routing table to route traffic between their ports. This means that it is
necessary to sub-net in order to address our equipments and a different sub-network
should be used for each connection. For example, looking at Figure 1, four different subnetworks should be used to address the four connections that can be established by the
equipment. However, this would waste a lot of IP addresses. In fact, each PPP connection
uses 2 IP addresses (one for the AL port involved in the connection and another one to
address the port at the other side of the connection). The minimum sub-network size that
can be deployed is a four IPs LAN, in which two IPs are available to address network
elements, while the other two IPs are reserved because used as sub-network address and
broadcast address. This means that to address the AL equipment, a total of 6 IP
addresses would be wasted (2 IP for each PPP connection). In order to avoid this, the AL
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 7 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

equipment has been provided with the Proxy ARP feature (RFC 1027). Proxy ARP is the
technique in which one host, usually a router, answers ARP requests intended for another
machine. By faking its identity, the router accepts responsibility for routing packets to the
real destination. To better clarify the Proxy ARP features we can consider the example of
Figure 7.

RADIO

10. 0. 1. 6/24

LAN
10.0.1.0/24

10. 0. 1 .1/24

10. 0. 1. 2/24

10. 0. 1. 4/24

LAN

LCT

RS232

Host B

Host C

10.0.1.3/24

10.0.1.5/24

Host A

Figure 7

Let us suppose that Host A (10.0.1.100/24), directly connected to the LAN cloud, needs to
send packets to Host B (10.0.1.3/24), connected to the LCT port of the AL equipment. To
reach Host B, Host A needs the MAC address (Layer 2 address) of Host B. Both these
computers belong to the sub-network 10.0.1.0/24. So, Host A believes that Host B is
directly connected to the LAN cloud and sends it an ARP request in order to know its MAC
address. This ARP request is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame with Host As MAC
Address as the source address and a broadcast as the destination address. Since ARP
request is a broadcast, it reaches all the nodes in the LAN cloud, including the ALs LAN
port, but does not reach Host B. The broadcast will not reach Host B, because routers, by
default, do not forward broadcasts. Since ALs router knows that the target address
(10.0.1.3) is on its LCT PPP connection, it will reply with its own MAC address to Host A.
The Proxy ARP reply packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame with routers MAC
address as the source address and Host As MAC address as the destination address.
The ARP replies are always unicast to the original requester. On receiving this ARP reply,
Host A updates its ARP table associating the IP address 10.0.1.3 to the ALs LAN port
MAC address. From now on Host A will forward all the packets that it wants to reach
10.0.1.3 (Host B) to this MAC address. ALs router will receive these packets and it will
forward them to Host B, since it knows how to reach Host B.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 8 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

The main advantages of Proxy ARP are the following two:


- No IP addresses are wasted to address the ALs PPP connections, because no
dedicated sub-network is requested for them.
- It simplifies the routing tables of the ALs equipments. In fact, the routing table of each
equipment should be able to address all the sub-networks deployed in the
management network. Using a single sub-network for each equipment instead of four
will save a lot of routing tables rows.
It is worth to note that Proxy ARP will act only between the ALs ports belonging to the
same sub-network. In the example of Figure 8 the radio ports IP Address belongs to subnetwork 10.0.2.0/24, while the other ports (LAN, LCT and RS232) belong to sub-network
10.0.1.0/24. In this case the Proxy ARP will work only between the ports LAN, LCT and
RS232.

RADIO

10. 0. 2. 7/24

LAN
10.0.1.0/24

10. 0. 1 .1/24

10. 0. 1. 2/24

10. 0. 1. 4/24

LAN

LCT

RS232

Host B

Host C

10.0.1.3/24

10.0.1.5/24

Figure 8

2.3 Example: Radio link addressing


Based on the considerations made previously, in this section it is shown an example of
radio links addressing.

LAN A

10B aseT

AL - 2

AL - 1

10BaseT

LAN B

Figure 9
Figure 9 shows the general principle for the equipments addressing. As already stated, the

AL works like a Layer 3 router on the management traffic. So, passing from AL-1 to AL-2 it
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 9 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

is required to pass through two different sub-networks (LAN A and LAN B). In this
example, we can suppose LAN A with sub-network address 10.0.1.0/24 and LAN B with
sub-network address 10.0.2.0/24.

Station B

Station A

AL-1

AL-2

10. 0. 1. 6/24

10. 0. 1. 7/24

RADIO

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .1/24 10. 0. 1. 2/24 10. 0. 1. 4/24


LAN

LCT

10. 0. 2 .4/24 10. 0. 2. 2/24 10. 0. 2. 1/24

RS232

RS232

LCT

LAN

LAN B
10.0.2.0/24

LAN A
10.0.1.0/24

Figure 10

One possible addressing scheme is shown in Figure 10. As can be seen, all the IP
addresses of AL-1 belong to LAN A. Proxy ARP will be active between all the ports of this
equipment. All the AL-2 addresses belong to LAN B, apart from the radio address, which
again belongs to LAN A. In this case, Proxy ARP will be active between LAN, RS232 and
LCT ports, but will not be active on the radio port.
So, we have deployed 5 IPs belonging to LAN A and 3 IPs of LAN B. However, we have to
consider two additional IP addresses for each station, to take into account the IPs
assigned to a network element if connected to the LCT port or to the RS232 port. Looking
at Figure 11, if a PC running the SCT software is connected to the LCT port it will be
automatically configured to the address 10.0.1.3/24. In addition, if a network element is
connected to the RS232 port, it will use an IP address of the network 10.0.1.0/24, for
example 10.0.1.5/24. This two addresses, 10.0.1.3/24 and 10.0.1.5/24 cannot be used by
other network elements in LAN A, in order to avoid address duplication. So, we are
busying a total number of 7 IP addresses of LAN A. For the same reason, a total number
of 5 LAN Bs IP addresses are busied for AL-2 addressing. The designer must be careful
to take into account all the IP addresses busied by the equipment. An aid to this job can
come from Table 1, where are reported the IP addresses deployed for AL-1 of Figure 10.
Filling such a table for each equipment can be useful to take into account all the IP
addresses required by the management network.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 10 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

PORT

IP ADDRESS

MASK

LAN
RADIO
LCT
RS232/2Mbs
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
Element on RS232/2Mbs

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.6
10.0.1.2
10.0.1.4
10.0.1.7
10.0.1.3
10.0.1.5

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

Table 1: IP addresses table for AL-1 equipment of Figure 10.

This addressing scheme can be used as a basic brick for the whole management network.
For example, let us consider the addition of a second radio links in daisy chain to AL-1
AL-2, as shown in Figure 11.

Station A

AL-1

LAN C: 10. 0. 3. 0/24

LAN B: 10. 0. 2. 0/24

AL-2

10. 0. 1. 6/24
RADIO

LCT

AL-3

10. 0. 1. 7/24

RS232

RADIO

10. 0. 2 .4/24 10. 0. 2. 2/24 10. 0. 2. 1/24


RS232

LCT

AL-4

10. 0. 2. 11/24

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .1/24 10. 0. 1. 2/24 10. 0. 1. 4/24


LAN

Station C

Station B

LAN A: 10. 0. 1. 0/24

RADIO

10. 0. 2 .6/24 10. 0. 2. 7/24 10. 0. 2. 9/24

LAN

LAN

LCT

10. 0. 2. 12/24

RS232

10. 0. 3 .4/24 10. 0. 3. 2/24 10. 0. 3. 1/24


RS232

LCT

LAN

Figure 11

As can be seen, 7 new LAN Bs IP addresses are used for AL-3 equipment: 4 directly
assigned to the AL-3s ports, 1 assigned to the AL-4s port and two (10.0.2.8/24 and
10.0.2.10/24) for the remote elements that can be connected to LCT and RS232 ports. In
conclusion, a total number of 12 LAN Bs IP addresses are busied for the management
network. AL-4 is addressed in the same way of AL-2. Therefore, the management network
uses 5 IP addresses of LAN C.
In the same way, other radio links can be added to the management network.

2.4 IP Unnumbered feature


As shown in the previous paragraphs, the Proxy ARP feature usage allows to simplify the
IP addressing of the AL equipments, avoiding the definition of specific sub-networks to
address the serial connections. However, a lot of IPs could be required to address the
radio equipments. For example, 7 IPs from LAN A must be used in the example of Figure
11.
IP Unnumbered is a feature available on SIAE equipments that allows saving IP addresses
on the serial connections. The IP unnumbered feature allows enabling IP processing on a
serial interface without assigning it an explicit IP address. For routing purposes this
interface is seen by the other equipments with the same IP address of the LAN port.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 11 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station A

Station C

Station B

LAN A: 10. 0. 1. 0/24

AL-1

AL-2

Unnumbered

10. 0. 1 .1/24 Unnumbered


LCT

AL-3

10.0.1.3/24

RADIO

LAN

LAN C: 10. 0. 3. 0/24

LAN B: 10. 0. 2. 0/24

1.0.0.1/8
RS232

10.0.1.2/24

1.0.0.1/8
RS232

AL-4

Unnumbered
RADIO

RADIO

Unnumbered 10. 0. 2 .1/24

10. 0. 2 .3/24 Unnumbered

LAN

LCT

10.0.2.2/24

LAN

LCT

10.0.2.5/25
RADIO

1.0.0.1/8
RS232

1.0.0.1/8

Unnumbered 10. 0. 3. 1/24


LCT

RS232

10.0.2.4/24

LAN

10.0.3.2/24

Figure 12
Figure 12 shows an example of IP addressing using the IP Unnumbered feature. As can be

seen, all the LCT ports are set to Unnumbered, while on the radio ports the Unnumbered
feature is used for AL-1 and AL-3. The radio ports of AL-2 and AL-4 have been configured
with a dedicated IP, because these two ports do not belong to the same sub-network of
their relevant LAN ports.
As a final results it can be seen, for example, that for LAN A just 3 IP addresses are used
(instead of 7 as in the example of Figure 11). Note that in Figure 12 a dummy address has
been assigned to the RS232 port. However, if the designer wants to give the possibility to
use also this port to connect the equipment with the SCT program, it will be possible to
configure also it as Unnumbered. In this case, however, it is important to note that it will
not be possible to have 2 laptops connected at the same time to both the LCT and RS232
ports, otherwise an IP duplication conflict will occur.
To set a serial port to Unnumbered is enough to click on the IP Unnumbered button
present on the relevant configuration window (see Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5). A port
set to Unnumbered can be easily recognised, because its IP address is set to 0.0.0.0.

2.5 Routing Table


As a Layer 3 router, the AL equipment uses a Routing Table to route the management
traffic through its ports (LAN, RADIO, LCT and RS232). The routing table can be
configured by means of the SCT software. The configuration window is accessible by
means of the menu EquipmentCommunication SetupRouting Table (Figure 13).
This window shows the equipment Routing Table. This table has the following 5 columns:
- Destination: is the destination network addressed by each row.
- Net Mask: Network Mask of the destination network.
- Hop: a packet will be sent to the Hop address if its destination IP address belong to the
sub-network defined by the couple Destination / Net Mask. Generally, Hop is the
address of another router (e.g., the address of an AL equipment).
- Interface: defines the ALs port through which the packet is sent to the Hop address.
- Protocol: specifies how the routing row has been inserted. Four different wording can
appear in this column:

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 12 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

o LOCAL: points out that the element has been automatically inserted by the ALs
controller. The element identifies the network and/or the interface directly
connected with the equipment.
o NETMGMT: points out that the element has been manually inserted by the user
(static element).
o OSPF: points out that the element has been automatically inserted by the OSPF
protocol (dynamic element).
o OTHER, point out all the other situations that are not comprised into one of the
previous cases.
In addition, this window allows the user to define a default gateway.

Figure 13

For the correct functioning of the router, the Routing Table must be populated of some
LOCAL rows which aims is to address the sub-networks or the PPP connections directly
connected to the ALs interfaces. As an example, in Table 2 are reported the LOCAL rows
for the AL of Figure 7.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 13 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

127.0.0.1
224.0.0.0
10.0.1.0
10.0.1.3
10.0.1.5
10.0.1.7

0.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0

127.0.0.1
10.0.1.1
10.0.1.1
10.0.1.2
10.0.1.4
10.0.1.6

LAN
LAN
LCT
RS232
RADIO

LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL
LOCAL

Default Gateway 
Table 2: LOCAL routing table rows for the AL equipment of Figure 7.

The first two rows (127.0.0.1 ., 224.0.0.0 ) are relevant to the loop-back address and
multicast traffic, required for the correct functioning of the TCP/IP protocol. The third row
addresses the Ethernet network connected to the LAN interface, while the other rows
address the three PPP connections established by the ALs controller (through LCT,
RS232 and RADIO ports).
These rows are very important, because without them the equipment cannot correctly
route the traffic. For example, if the third row would not be present, no packets could be
forwarded through the LAN port. In the same way, if the last row would not be present, no
packets could be forwarded through the RADIO port.
The ALs router generates the LOCAL rows automatically in order to address the subnetworks directly connected to its interfaces. To route packets towards remote subnetworks, other routing rows must be added. The addition of these rows can be automatic
through the OSPF protocol (dynamic route) or manual (static route).

2.6 Example: Routing Tables for a radio link


In this section an example of static Routing Table designing will be provided for the two
radio links of Figure 11.
Let us suppose that the Network Management Centre is located in Station A. So, a
computer running the SCT or NMS5UX/LX software is connected, through Station As
LAN, to the Ethernet port of AL-1. In order to reach the AL supervision network, the Default
Gateway of this computer can be set to 10.0.1.1 (IP address of AL-1s LAN port).
The AL-1 equipment is directly connected only to LAN A (10.0.1.0/24). In order to allow it
to forward packets to Station B and Station C, its Routing Table must be updated with the
static rows shown in Table 2 (where for simplicity the LOCAL rows have been omitted).
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

10.0.1.7
10.0.1.7

RADIO
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 3: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment of Figure 11.

As can be seen, any packet belonging to sub-networks 10.0.2.0/24 or 10.0.3.0/24 are


forwarded to 10.0.1.7 (RADIO address of AL-2) through the RADIO port of AL-1. However,
it can be noted that this routing table is not optimized. In fact these two rows can be
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 14 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

summarized in a single row using a Net Mask 255.255.254.0 instead of 255.255.255.0.


The optimized routing table is shown in Table 4.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0

255.255.254.0

10.0.1.7

RADIO

NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 4: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment of Figure 11 after summarization.

Summarization is a very important goal for the network management design. In fact, it
reduces the routing table complexity. Short routing tables are simpler to design, update
and configure respect to routing tables with a lot of rows.
In this simple example, there is no need to define any Default Gateway on AL-1 because
the management network remains confined to LAN A in Station A.
About the other AL equipments, the following rule is suggested for the designing of their
Routing Tables:
- Use static routes to address sub-networks that are found going from the equipment
towards the border of the network respect to the main site with the management
system.
- Use the default gateway to go back from the equipment towards the management
centre.
Applying this rule to the equipments AL-2, AL-3 and AL-4, the resulting Routing Tables are
shown in Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.2.6

LAN

NETMGMT

10.0.1.6

RADIO

Default Gateway 

Table 5: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment of Figure 11.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.2.12

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.2.1

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 6: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment of Figure 11.

Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

10.0.2.11

RADIO

Protocol

Table 7: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment of Figure 11.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 15 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

As an example of Routing Table of a network where the IP Unnumbered feature is used, in


the following the static Routing Tables for the network of Figure 12 are provided.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0

255.255.254.0

10.0.1.3

RADIO

NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 8: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment of Figure 12.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.2.3

LAN

NETMGMT

10.0.1.1

RADIO

Default Gateway 

Table 9: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment of Figure 12.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.2.5

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.2.1

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 10: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment of Figure 12.

Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

10.0.2.3

RADIO

Protocol

Table 11: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment of Figure 12.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 16 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

3 Guidelines for the IP addresses design


In this chapter some guidelines will be provided for the IP addressing design of the
management network. During this activity, the designer must answer four main questions:
1. What is the addresses range that can be deployed in the management network?
2. How many IP addresses are required for each network station (i.e., for each subnetwork)?
3. What is the network address to be assigned to each sub-network?
4. Are future network upgrading known?
Following, each one of these items is analyzed and some guidelines are provided to give
an optimal answer to these questions.
In addition, in the last section are discussed some techniques that can be used in order to
reduce the number of IP addresses deployed.

3.1 IP Addresses range for the Management Network


The first problem the designer must face is the IP addresses range to be used for the
equipments management. Basically, two scenarios can occur:
1. The customer requires that a specific address range will be used.
Typically, this occurs when the management network must be connected to a
customers LAN already existent. In this case the customer must provide to the
designer two parameters: the address range and the default gateway for the
management network.
The address range can be specified by means of an IP address and a mask. An
example can be the following range:
10.175.54.0 mask 255.255.254.0 (or 10.175.54.0/23)
This range includes all the IP addresses from 10.175.54.0 to 10.175.55.255. The
designer will subdivide this range into sub-networks in order to properly address all the
equipments.
The default gateway is required to proper interface the management LAN to the
existing customers LAN. These two LANs are typically interfaced by means of a
customers router, and the default gateway is the IP address of the routers interface
connected to the management LAN (see the example of Figure 14).

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 17 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

RADIO
NETWORK

Customer Router

LAN

Existing
Customer
LAN

AL
Equipment

MANAGEMENT

LAN
AL's Default Gateway
is equal to the IP Address
of the router's interface

Figure 14

2. The customer has no requirements about the address range.


This scenario typically occurs when the management network will remain isolated, not
connected to any other LAN. In this case the address range choice is left to the
designer. However, even if any address could be used, the designer is recommended
to deploy only private IP addresses. RFC 1918 defines the following three private
address ranges:
10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
Addresses in these ranges are defined as not routable on the Internet and are used
exclusively in a private network. Internet routers immediately discard private
addresses.
A management network in which only private addresses are deployed can be
connected to the Internet (for example to allow the customer to remotely access the
equipments through the web). In this case a translation of the private addresses to
public addresses is required. This translation process is referred to as Network
Address Translation (NAT) and is usually performed by a router or a firewall. If the
management network is deploying public addresses, the translation process will fail,
because neither a router nor a firewall will be able to distinguish between the Internet
and the private network.
In scenario 1, sometimes, the available range could be very narrow respect to the number
of radio equipments to address. In this case the designer could not have enough
addresses for the equipments and the usage of the IP Unnumbered feature is strongly
suggested. In addition, in next Section 3.5 some guidelines to save IP addresses will be
provided. If such techniques will not be enough, an additional address range must be
agreed with the customer. This problem usually does not occur in scenario 2, where the
designer has the availability of a lot of addresses.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 18 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

3.2 Sub-network designing


In the previous section 2.3 it has been described how the IP addresses must be assigned
to the radio equipments. From the examples shown there (Figure 9, Figure 10 and Figure
11), it can be seen that basically a sub-network must be assigned to each network site.
The second step in the IP Addresses design is to decide how many IP addresses must be
assigned to each sub-network. This decision depends from the number of equipments
presently deployed and from consideration about the future expansion of the network.
The minimum size of each network depends from the number of IPs required to address
the equipments deployed. For example, considering Figure 11, 7 IPs are required for
Station A, 12 IPs for Station B and 5 IPs for Station C. In the example of Figure 12, 3 IPs
are required for Station A, 5 IPs for Station B and 2 IPs for Station C. The sub-network
size can be chosen with the aid of Table 12, in which are listed the sub-networks that can
be defined with a dimension up to 4096 IPs.
Sub-Network
Dimension

Mask

Number of
Hosts IPs

4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096

255.255.255.252
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.128
255.255.255.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.240.0

2
6
14
30
62
126
254
510
1022
2046
4094

Table 12

The first column indicates the number of IPs belonging to each sub-network. Two of these
IPs, however, are reserved as Network Address and Broadcast Address. So, the real
number of IPs that can be assigned to the network elements (Hosts IPs) is equal to the
total number of IPs minus 2. This number is shown in the third column. Looking now at
Figure 11, we can see that the minimum sub-networks to be deployed are:
Station A:
16 IPs sub-network, mask = 255.255.255.240
Station B:
16 IPs sub-network, mask = 255.255.255.240
Station C:
8 IPs sub-network, mask = 255.255.255.248
Let us now suppose to implement these sub-networks to the radio links of Figure 11. An
example is shown in Table 13, where for each sub-network is indicated the Network
Address, Minimum Host Address, Maximum Host Address and the Broadcast Address.
Station
Name
Station A
Station B
Station C

Network
Address
10.0.1.0
10.0.1.16
10.0.1.32

Sub-Network
Min. Host
Mask
Address
255.255.255.240 10.0.1.1
255.255.255.240 10.0.1.17
255.255.255.248 10.0.1.33

Max. Host
Address
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.30
10.0.1.38

Broadcast
Address
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.31
10.0.1.39

Table 13

The new network layout is shown in Figure 15.


NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 19 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station A
LAN A: 10. 0. 1. 0/28

AL-1

Station B

Station C

LAN B: 10. 0. 1. 16/28

LAN C: 10. 0. 1. 32/29

AL-2

10. 0. 1. 6/28
RADIO

10. 0. 1 .1/28

LCT

RS232

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .20/28 10. 0. 1. 18/28 10. 0. 1. 17/28


RS232

LCT

AL-4

10. 0. 1. 27/28

RADIO

10. 0. 1. 2/28 10. 0. 1. 4/28

LAN

AL-3

10. 0. 1. 7/28

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .22/28 10. 0. 1. 23/28 10. 0. 1. 25/28

LAN

LAN

LCT

10. 0. 1. 28/28

RS232

10. 0. 1 .36/29 10. 0. 1. 34/29 10. 0. 1. 33/29


RS232

LCT

LAN

Figure 15

Let us now suppose the network is upgraded, by means of the addition of a new radio link
connecting Station B to a new Station D. Due to this upgrading, a new equipment is
deployed in Station B and 7 new IPs are required for its addressing from Station B subnetwork. However, only 10.0.1.29 and 10.0.1.30 still remain available. So, Station B subnetwork must be changed in a larger one (e.g., a 32 IPs sub-network) and the equipments
IP addresses of this station must be changed. In addition, also the routing tables of all the
equipments must be properly modified to take into account the new addressing scheme.
In conclusion, equipment readdressing can be very expensive, especially in large
networks. In order to reduce the probability of readdressing, any future-upgrading forecast
must be considered and taken as much as possible into account during the sub-network
sizing.
For example, in Figure 11 all the stations have been addressed with a 256 IPs sub-network
(mask 255.255.255.0). In this case it has been supposed that the customer has stated no
requirements about the IP to be used and the private range 10.0.0.0/8 has been chosen.
256 IPs will give to each sub-network a lot of available IPs for future expansions. In
addition, the range 10.0.0.0/8 can be subdivided in 65536 sub-networks of 256 IPs, which
give the possibility to address practically any real network.

3.3 Sub-Network addressing


After having decided the addresses range and the number of IPs for each station, the next
step is to give a network address to each sub-network. The main goal of sub-network
addressing is to reduce the complexity of the equipments routing tables. In fact, as stated
in Section 2.6, summarization is a very important objective for the network management
design.
In the following an example will be presented to show how network addressing can impact
the routing table complexity.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 20 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station A
LAN A: 10. 0. 1. 0/24

To Station M

To Station B

Remote RADIO:
10.0.1.28/24

Remote RADIO:
10.0.1.7/24

AL-4

AL-1

10. 0. 1. 27/24

10. 0. 1. 6/24
RADIO

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .25/24 10. 0. 1. 23/24 10. 0. 1. 22/24


RS232

LCT

10. 0. 1 .1/24

LAN

10. 0. 1. 2/24 10. 0. 1. 4/24

LAN

LCT

RS232

To Station K

To Station C

Remote RADIO:
10.0.1.21/24

Remote RADIO:
10.0.1.14/24

AL-3

AL-2

10. 0. 1. 20/24

10. 0. 1. 13/24
RADIO

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .18/24 10. 0. 1. 16/24 10. 0. 1. 15/24


RS232

LCT

10. 0. 1 .8/24

LAN

10. 0. 1. 9/24 10. 0. 1. 11/24

LAN

LCT

RS232

Figure 16

In Figure 16 is shown a networks graph, where for simplicity only the networks stations are
shown. Each connection between two stations represents a radio link. For example,
Station A is connected to other four stations. So, in station A there are four radio
equipments each one connected to one remote station, as shown in Figure 17.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 21 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station E
10. 0. 5. 0/24

Station D

Station F

10. 0. 4. 0/24

10. 0. 6. 0/24

Station H
10. 0. 8. 0/24

Station G

Station B

Station I

10. 0. 7. 0/24

10. 0. 2. 0/24

10. 0. 9. 0/24

Station C
10. 0. 3. 0/24

Station J
10. 0. 10. 0/24

Station K

Station A

10. 0. 11. 0/24

10. 0. 1. 0/24

Station L
10. 0. 12. 0/24

Station M
10. 0. 13. 0/24

Station N
10. 0. 14. 0/24

Station P
10. 0. 16. 0/24

Station O
10. 0. 15. 0/24

Figure 17

The network of Figure 16 has been addressed in a no-optimized way, starting from the top
and assigning IP network addresses to the links found turning clockwise the graph. On the
base of such addressing, the routing tables of the four equipments of Figure 17 will be as
shown in tables from Table 14 to Table 17.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.1.7

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 14: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment, deployed in Figure 16s network.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 22 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.10.0
10.0.11.0
10.0.12.0
10.0.13.0
10.0.14.0
10.0.16.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.255.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.22
10.0.1.22
10.0.1.22

LAN
RADIO
RADIO
RADIO
RADIO
LAN
LAN
LAN
LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 15: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment, deployed in Figure 16s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.11.0
10.0.12.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

10.0.1.21
10.0.1.21

RADIO
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 16: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment, deployed in Figure 16s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.13.0
10.0.14.0
10.0.16.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.255.0

10.0.1.28
10.0.1.28
10.0.1.28

RADIO
RADIO
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 17: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment, deployed in Figure 16s network.

As can be seen from these tables, several Routing Table lines are required to address the
whole network. AL-2 has the larger routing table because it acts as default gateway for the
other Station As equipments. If we connect the SCT to AL-2 (through LCT port) we will be
able to connect the whole network, because AL-2s Routing Table has all the information
required to reach any networks station. Even if we connect the SCT to AL-1 we will be
able to connect the whole network. In fact, AL-1 is provided with the Routing Tables
information required to reach the sub-network of Station B. The other sub-networks are
instead reached through the default gateway AL-2.
Figure 16 shows an example of how a no-optimized IP addressing can impact the Routing
Tables complexity. In fact, 10 routing rows are required on AL-2 to address a network of
15 radio links. In very larger network this could take to routing tables of several tenth of
rows, which could be very difficult to manage. In Figure 18 is shown the same network of
Figure 17 with an optimized IP addressing. The sub-networks deployed are the same of
Figure 17, but they are assigned in order to allow addressing the whole network with the
minimum number of routing rows.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 23 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station E
10. 0. 10. 0/24

Station D

Station F

10. 0. 9. 0/24

10. 0. 11. 0/24

Station H
10. 0. 14. 0/24

Station G

Station B

Station I

10. 0. 12. 0/24

10. 0. 16. 0/24

10. 0. 15. 0/24

Station C
10. 0. 8. 0/24

Station J
10. 0. 13. 0/24

Station K

Station A

10. 0. 2. 0/24

10. 0. 1. 0/24

Station L
10. 0. 3. 0/24

Station M
10. 0. 4. 0/24

Station N
10. 0. 5. 0/24

Station P
10. 0. 7. 0/24

Station O
10. 0. 6. 0/24

Figure 18

For example, all the sub-networks of stations from C to J can be summarized with a single
address: 10.0.8.0/21. The new Routing Tables of equipments AL-1, AL-2, AL-3 and AL-4
of Figure 17 will be as shown in tables from Table 18 to Table 21.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0

255.255.255.0

10.0.1.7

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 18: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment, deployed in Figure 18s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.22

LAN
RADIO
LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 19: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment, deployed in Figure 18s network.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 24 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0

255.255.254.0

10.0.1.21

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 20: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment, deployed in Figure 18s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.4.0

255.255.252.0

10.0.1.28

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 21: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment, deployed in Figure 18s network.

As can be seen, optimizing the IP addressing allows a remarkable reduction of the Routing
Tables complexity.
The example of Figure 18 offers the opportunity to discuss two different design solutions
that can be adopted in the main site of a network. AL-2 Routing Tables rows (Table 19)
address all the sub-networks. Any other Station As Routing Table addresses only the subnetworks reachable by means of its radio port. For example, AL-1 only addresses the subnetwork 10.0.16.0/24. If we connect the SCT to the LCT port of AL-1, we will be able to
see the sub-networks different from 10.0.16.0/24 by means of AL-2, which is the Default
Gateway. This design solution reduces the updating work in case of future network
upgrading. In fact, let us suppose that a new radio link will be added to the network, from
Station B to Station Q (Figure 19).

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 25 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station E
10. 0. 10. 0/24

Station Q

Station D

10. 0. 17. 0/24

10. 0. 9. 0/24

Station F
10. 0. 11. 0/24

New Radio Link

Station H
10. 0. 14. 0/24

Station G

Station I

10. 0. 12. 0/24

10. 0. 15. 0/24

Station B
10. 0. 16. 0/24

Station C
10. 0. 8. 0/24

Station J
10. 0. 13. 0/24

Station K

Station A

10. 0. 2. 0/24

10. 0. 1. 0/24

Station L
10. 0. 3. 0/24

Station M
10. 0. 4. 0/24

Station N
10. 0. 5. 0/24

Station P
10. 0. 7. 0/24

Station O
10. 0. 6. 0/24

Figure 19

To address this new network, an updating is required to the routing tables of AL-1 and AL2, changing the Net Mask of the Destination 10.0.16.0 from 255.255.255.0 to
255.255.254.0 (see Table 22 and Table 23).
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0

255.255.254.0

10.0.1.7

RADIO

NETMGMT

10.0.1.8

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 22: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.254.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.22

LAN
RADIO
LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 23: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 26 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

No updating is required on AL-3 and AL-4. In conclusion, the usage of an equipment as


Default Gateway in the main site has two main advantages:
- Limits the Routing Tables complexity of the main sites equipments, apart from that
which is acting as Default gateway.
- Simplify the Routing Table upgrading in case of network expansion.
The main drawback, however, is that if the Default Gateway fails we lose the possibility to
connect the whole network. For example, if AL-2 fails and we connect the SCT to AL-1s
LCT port, we will be able to connect only the sub-networks 10.0.16.0/23. To connect subnetwork 10.0.5.0/24, for example, we need to connect the SCT to the LCT port of AL-4.
To avoid this problem, an alternative design solution can be adopted for the Routing
Tables of the main sites equipments. This alternative solution does not use any equipment
as default Gateway. Each Routing Table will be filled with the information relevant to the
whole network. Choosing this design solution, the Routing Tables of AL-1, AL-2 AL-3 and
AL-4 deployed in the network of Figure 19 will become as shown in tables from Table 24 to
Table 27.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.254.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.7
10.0.1.8
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.22

RADIO
LAN
LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 24: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.14
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.22

LAN
RADIO
LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 25: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.8
10.0.1.21
10.0.1.22

LAN
LAN
RADIO
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 26: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.16.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0

255.255.254.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.1.1
10.0.1.8
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.28

LAN
LAN
LAN
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 27: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment, deployed in Figure 19s network.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 27 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

As can be seen, even if an equipment fails, we can connect the whole network (apart from
the branch reachable only by means of the failed equipments radio) attaching the SCT to
the LCT port of any main sites equipment. However, the main drawback is that in case of
network expansion, all the main sites equipment must be updated with the routing rows
relevant to the new sub-network deployed.
In general, this second design solution (no Default Gateway) is deployed when the
network is not very large (few tenth of radio links) and with little perspective of future
expansions. In large networks or network with good perspective of expansion is generally
preferred to use the first solution (usage of an equipment as Default Gateway) because
provides more flexibility.

3.4 Future upgrading of the Management Network


Usually the lifecycle of a radio network consists of an initial deployment followed from
several upgrading. Changes in the network can be due to different factors as network
expansions for the addition of new stations, doubling of radio links to increase capacity,
modification in the network layout due to propagation problems (e.g. loss of visibility
between two sites due to a new building raised after the equipment installation), etc. These
changes can require a lot of work to update the management network. To reduce this
workload the designer must perform a careful IP addressing during the networks initial
development, taking into account any information available about future networks
upgrading. Two main factors must be taken into account in this IP addressing design:
1. Size of the Sub-networks.
In Section 3.2 we have already discussed how is important to provide each subnetwork with a sufficient number of IP addresses, taking into account future
equipments that could be added in the relevant station. The designer must take into
account any information relevant to future links that can be added to the network.
Looking for example at Figure 15, if the designer knows that a new links will be added in
Station B to connect a new Station D, he must take it into account. As a consequence,
Station B sub-network must be sized with an enough number of IP address for the
present equipments (AL-2 and AL-3) plus the future equipment. So, the sub-network
must have available 12 IPs for the present equipments plus 7 IPs for the future
equipment. So, a total number of 19 IPs must be available in Station B sub-network,
which means that at least a sub-network with mask 255.255.255.224 must be
deployed.
In this example we have supposed that the designer knows what and where new future
links will be added to the network. However, often this is not the case. A lot of factor
can influence the network growth, and not all of them can be predicted. So, the
designer should try to take precautions against this. Any feedback from the customer
can be useful in this sense. Anyway, these two general principles should be taken into
account:
o If the customer has not requirements about the address range to be used,
choose for the sub-network a number of IP address quite greater than those
required to address the equipments deployed during the initial deployment. For
example, as already stated in Section 3.2, the choice of sub-networks with mask
255.255.255.0 in the private IP range 10.0.0.0 will provide up to 65536 subnetworks of 256 IPs. In this case in each sub-network can be hosted at least
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 28 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

254/7=36 equipments, which is sufficient for practically all the real networks.
Even the number of sub-networks, 65536, is a very high number sufficient to
address all the stations of any real network.
o If the customer has requirements about the address range to be used, make a
station classification giving a priority index to each site. This classification must
assign maximum priority to the main nodal sites, while minimum priority must be
given to terminal nodes with only one equipment. Once this classification has
been done, the available address range must be subdivided between the
stations giving more IPs to high priority sites and less to stations with low
priority. In fact, new radio links are often added to the network starting from main
nodal sites. About low priority sites, the sub-networks should be provided with a
number of IPs enough to add at least one new equipment. This could be a very
hard work when the available address range is very limited. The guidelines to
save IP addresses that will be provided in the next Section 3.5 will be very
useful to solve this problem.
2. Routing Table Updating
Another issue related to the future growth of a network, from the management point of
view, is the Routing Table updating required to address new sub-networks. On large
networks this task could be very time consuming. Even in this case, the collection of
information from the customer about the future growth of the network can help the
designer to make easier the network upgrading. To better understand how this can be
done, an example is provided in Figure 20.
Station C
Station B

New Links
foreseen to connect
4 6 new stations

Station A
(Main site)

Figure 20

In this simple network three links will be deployed during the initial phase. The customer
foresees to add about 4 6 new links starting form Station C.
Figure 21 shows a possible IP addressing for this network. Sub-networks 10.0.1.0/24,
10.0.2.0/24 and 10.0.3.0/24 have been assigned for the initial deployments equipments.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 29 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station C
10. 0. 3. 0/24

Future Upgrading

Station B

10. 0. 8. 0/21

10. 0. 2. 0/24

Station A
10. 0. 1. 0/24

Figure 21

In addition, the IP range 10.0.8.0/21 is reserved for the network expansion foreseen from
Station C. Starting from this plan, the Routing Tables of the equipments deployed in
stations A, B and C (see Figure 22) are shown in tables from Table 28 to Table 31.

Station A

AL-1

LAN C: 10. 0. 3. 0/24

LAN B: 10. 0. 2. 0/24

AL-2

10. 0. 1. 6/24
RADIO

AL-3

10. 0. 1. 7/24

LCT

RS232

LCT

10. 0. 2. 12/24

RADIO

10. 0. 2 .4/24 10. 0. 2. 2/24 10. 0. 2. 1/24


RS232

AL-4

10. 0. 2. 11/24

RADIO

10. 0. 1 .1/24 10. 0. 1. 2/24 10. 0. 1. 4/24


LAN

Station C

Station B

LAN A: 10. 0. 1. 0/24

RADIO

10. 0. 2 .6/24 10. 0. 2. 7/24 10. 0. 2. 9/24

LAN

LAN

LCT

RS232

10. 0. 3 .4/24 10. 0. 3. 2/24 10. 0. 3. 1/24


RS232

LCT

LAN

Figure 22

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.2.0
10.0.8.0

255.255.254.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.1.7
10.0.1.7

RADIO
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT

Default Gateway 
Table 28: static Routing Table for AL-1 equipment of Figure 22.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0
10.0.8.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.2.6
10.0.2.6

LAN
LAN

NETMGMT
NETMGMT

10.0.1.6

RADIO

Default Gateway 

Table 29: static Routing Table for AL-2 equipment of Figure 22.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.0.3.0
10.0.8.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.2.12
10.0.2.12

RADIO
RADIO

NETMGMT
NETMGMT

10.0.2.1

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 30: static Routing Table for AL-3 equipment of Figure 22.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 30 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

10.0.2.11

RADIO

Protocol

Table 31: static Routing Table for AL-4 equipment of Figure 22.

As can be seen, a row has been already inserted to address the new links (highlighted
with yellow color). When new links will be added to Station C no updating must be done to
the Routing Tables of AL-1, AL-2 and AL-3, unless more than 8 links will be added.
Such a strategy could reduce a lot of workload especially in large networks.

3.5 Guidelines to save IP addresses


As already shown in Section 2.4, the IP Unnumbered feature can be used to save IP
addresses. The guidelines provided into this section are mainly dedicated to the old
version of AL equipments that do not support this feature.
In Section 2.3 it has been shown that (without using the IP Unnumbered feature) for each
AL equipment 7 IP addresses must be taken into account. Such addresses, listed in Table
1, are split in the following way: 1 for the LAN port, 2 for the PPP radio connection, 2 for
the PPP connection over the LCT port and 2 for the PPP connection over RS-232 or
2Mbs. Taking into account that one of the two IPs used for the radio PPP connection
corresponds to the remote radio IP address, we can say that for each AL equipment 6 IPs
must be reserved. In the previous sections, all the examples have been done considering
PPP connections over LCT and RS-232/2Mbs addressed with IPs belonging to the same
sub-network of the LAN port. The LCT port is generally used to locally connect the
equipment with a lap-top running the SCT. Giving it an IP address belonging to the same
LAN ports sub-network allow connecting the whole network from each equipment. This
feature can be very useful to make tests during the installation of the radio links or during
their maintenance. About the RS-232/2Mbs port, even if not used to make a permanent
PPP connection it could be useful to give it an IP address belonging to LAN ports subnetwork, using it as an alternative to the LCT port. In fact, this allows the equipment to be
locally connected by means of a lap-top either through an RS-232 or USB cable and could
be useful to avoid useless waste of time.
As already commented in Section 3.1, in several cases the management network must
use a limited address range defined by the customer. In such cases, the full addressing of
the equipment can be impossible and two alternative addressing methodologies can be
used.
The first alternative is to not address the RS-232/2Mbs port when it is not used to connect
other equipments (Figure 23). In this case a dummy address 1.0.0.1 can be assigned at the
RS-232/2Mbs port of each equipment.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 31 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Station B

Station A

AL-1

AL-2

10. 8. 15. 4/28


RADIO

10. 8. 15 .1/28
LAN

10. 8. 15. 2/28


LCT

10. 8. 15. 5/28


RADIO

10. 0. 0. 1/8

10. 0. 0 .1/8

RS232

10. 8. 15. 18/28

RS232

10. 8. 15. 17/28

LCT

LAN

LAN B

LAN A

Figure 23

In this case it is still possible to see the whole network from a laptop running the SCT
connected to the LCT port of each equipment. As can be seen two IP addresses are saved
in this way for each equipment. In fact a total number of 8 IPs are reserved for each radio
link (4 IP addresses per equipment): 5 IPs belong to Station As sub-network (LAN A) and
3 IPs belong to Station Bs sub-network (LAN B).
The second alternative is to not address both LCT and RS-232/2Mbs ports (Figure 24). In
this case three dummy addresses must be assigned for each equipment: 1.0.0.1 (LCT
port), 1.0.0.2 (remote PC connected to the LCT port) and 1.0.0.3 (RS-232/2Mbs port).

Station B

Station A

AL-1

AL-2

10. 8. 15. 2/29


RADIO

10. 8. 15. 3/29


RADIO

10. 8. 15 .1/29

10. 0. 0. 1/8

10. 0. 0. 3/8

LAN

LCT

RS232

10. 0. 0 .3/8

1. 0. 0. 1/8

RS232

10. 8. 15. 9/29

LCT

LAN

LAN B

LAN A

Figure 24

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 32 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

In this case four IP addresses are saved for each equipment. In fact, a total number of 4
IPs are reserved for each radio link (2 IP addresses per equipment): 3 IPs belong to
Station As sub-network (LAN A) and 1 IP belong to Station Bs sub-network (LAN B).
However, with this second alternative we lose the possibility to connect the whole network
from a laptop running the SCT connected to the LCT port of each equipment. In addition,
we also lose the possibility to connect the remote equipment. In fact, when we connect a
laptop to the LCT port of AL-2 in Figure 24, the PPP connection automatically assigns the
address 1.0.0.2 to the laptop. If now we try to connect the AL-1 equipment, the laptop
sends IP packets to AL-1 (either by means of its RADIO address or its LAN address).
However, when AL-1 tries to reply to the laptop by sending packets to 1.0.0.2, it is not able
to route properly the packet back to AL-2.
To solve this problem, two different classes of dummy addresses can be used for each
radio link. Figure 25 shows an example.

Station B

Station A

AL-1

AL-2

10. 8. 15. 2/29

10. 8. 15. 3/29

RADIO

10. 8. 15 .1/29

1. 0. 0. 1/8

LAN

LCT

RADIO

1. 0. 0. 3/8

10. 8. 15. 9/29

2. 0. 0. 1/8

2. 0. 0 .3/8

RS232

RS232

LCT

LAN

LAN B

LAN A

Figure 25

So doing, if AL-2 uses AL-1s RADIO address as Default Gateway, it will be enough to add
the Routing Tables row shown in Table 32 to make it possible to connect the remote
equipments.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

2.0.0.0

255.0.0.0

10.8.15.3
.
.

RADIO

NETMGMT

Other Routing Table rows


.
.

Table 32: AL-1s Routing Table row required for the connection of its remote equipment.

In fact, when AL-2 must reply to a packet sent by a laptop connected to AL-1s LCT port, it
sends a packet to 1.0.0.2. AL-2 routes this packet to AL-1 by means of its Default Gateway
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 33 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

and so can reach the laptop. When instead AL-1 must replay to a packet sent by a laptop
connected to AL-2s LCT port, it sends a packet to 2.0.0.2. AL-1 routes this packet to AL-2
by means of the row added in Table 32.
Repeating this scheme for each radio link, we can maintain on each radio equipment the
possibility to manage the remote equipment without use IPs of the customer range to
address the LCT ports.

4 Guidelines for the usage of the PPP connections


As already described in Paragraph 2, the AL equipment can establish three PPP
connections over the RADIO, LCT and RS232/2Mbs ports. The first two are reserved for
very specific usage: PPP connection over LCT port can be used only to connect a
PC/laptop for local management purpose, while PPP connection over the RADIO port is
used to connect two radio equipments through the radio link between them. The third PPP
connection can be instead used to connect other network elements over either an RS232
connection or a 64kbit/s Time Slot of a tributary E1. This connection is mainly exploited
when there is the needing to carry ALs management traffic over a radio network of
another supplier.
To better understand this thing, an example is shown in Figure 26.
Main Site

Remote Site

AL
Radio Links

Remote AL
Radio Links

Other Supplier
Network

AL

AL

2 Mbit/s
Tributary
Connections

Local Switch

Other supplier
radio equipment

2 Mbit/s Tributary
Connections

Figure 26

In this example it has been supposed to have a remote ALs network to be managed from
the main site. In between there is an existing radio network provided by another supplier.
In the remote site, the AL equipment is connected to the other suppliers equipment
through several E1 tributary connections. In the main site, however, both AL and the other
suppliers equipments are connected to a local switch.
A first solution for the management of remote sites ALs is to carry the ALs supervision
traffic over the management channels of the other suppliers equipment, if this latter is
done through IP packets. However, the customer often requires keeping separated each
management networks.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 34 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Two solutions can be proposed to solve this problem exploiting the ALs PPP connections:
- First solution, through the RS-232 port.
Main Site

Remote Site

AL
Radio Links

Remote AL
Radio Links

Other Supplier
Network

AL

RS232

RS232

AL

2 Mbit/s
Tributary
Connections

Other Supplier
Radio Equipment

Local Switch

2 Mbit/s Tributary
Connections

Figure 27

If the other suppliers equipment provides an RS-232 service channel, it can be used to
carry ALs supervision traffic between main and remote sites. As shown in Figure 27,
this service channel can be connected to the ALs RS-232 port both in main and
remote sites. If the transport over RS232 service channel is fully transparent, the final
result is like if the two AL equipments would be directly connected by means of an
RS232 cable. From the point of view of the IP addressing, the IP assigned to the
RS232 port of the remote sites AL must belong to the Main Sites sub-network. For
example we could have:
Main Site sub-network:
10.0.1.0/24
RS-232 IP address of Main sites AL:
10.0.1.4/24
RS-232 IP address of Remote sites AL: 10.0.1.5/24
The Remote sites AL must be configured with the address 10.0.0.4 as Default
Gateway. In addition, the main sites AL Routing Table must be properly configured in
order to address all the sub-networks defined for the Remote AL radio links
addressing. For example, if all these sub-networks can be summarized with the subnetwork 10.1.0.0/20, in the Routing Table of the main sites AL must be inserted the
row indicated in Table 33.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

Protocol

10.1.0.0

255.255.240.0

10.0.1.5
.
.

RS232/2Mb

NETMGMT

Other Routing Table rows


.
.

Table 33: Routing Table row required for into main sites AL of Figure 27.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 35 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Second solution, through the 2Mbs port.


Main Site

AL
Radio Links

Remote Site

Network
Management
over TS30

AL

Network
Management
over TS14

Remote AL
Radio Links

Network
Management
over TS14

Other Supplier
Network

2 AL

Local Switch

2 Mbit/s Tributary
Connections

2 Mbit/s
Tributary
Connections

Figure 28

Another solution that can be adopted is to use a free 64kbit/s Time Slot (TS) of an E1
tributary connection. In Figure 28 it is shown an example of such solution. In the figure,
the main sites AL uses TS30 (Time Slot number 30) of the 2Mbs connection number 1
for the PPP connection. This time slot is cross-connected to TS14 of a second E1
when passing through the Local Switch. This E1 is then carried from the Other Supplier
Network until the Remote Sites AL, where it is received over the tributary 2Mbs
number 2. Supposing to use the same IP addressing of the previous example
(connection through RS-232), the PPP connection must be configured as follow:
o Main Sites AL:

IP PPP Address = 10.0.1.4


IP PPP NetMask = 255.255.255.0
PPP Mode = Client
Remote Access Type = 2Mbs
2Mbit Selector = 1
Slot Selector = 30
16kbit Map = All selected

o Remote Sites AL:

IP PPP Address = 10.0.1.5


IP PPP NetMask = 255.255.255.0
PPP Mode = Client
Remote Access Type = 2Mbs
2Mbit Selector = 2
Slot Selector = 14
16kbit Map = All selected

Even in this case, the Remote Sites AL must be configured with the address 10.0.0.4
as Default Gateway and the Main Sites AL Routing Table must be configured with the
same row shown in Table 33.
Both the solutions described in this paragraph require some support from the customer.
In fact, in the first solution the customer must guarantee the availability of the RS232
service channel for the transport of ALs management traffic. In addition, the customer
must also provide support about any required configuration of the non-AL equipments and
their connections in order to implement the RS232 connection between Main and Remote
Sites.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 36 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

About the second solution, the customer must guarantee that the Time Slots used for the
management are free of tributary traffic. In addition, the customer must provide support
about the proper configuration of the Local Switch.
Finally, it is important to note that the PPP connection over the 2Mbs can also be used to
overcome problem due to congestion over the supervision channel. More details about this
application will be provided in the next Paragraph.

5 Capacity design of the supervision channels


One of the main problems to be considered during the management network design is the
required capacity for the supervision channel. The problem is only relevant to the
embedded supervision radio channel, that for the AL equipment has a capacity of 64kbit/s.
In fact, on the Ethernet port we have an higher capacity of 10Mbit/s. Looking at the
example of Figure 29 we can see that on the embedded channel of the radio link between
AL-1 and AL-2 is carried the supervision traffic of the whole network.
Supervision traffic
of AL-2 AL-6 equipments

Intermediate Sites

Main Site
AL - 1

AL - 2

AL - 3

AL - 4

AL - 5

AL - 6

SCT

Figure 29

As can be seen from the figure, the supervision traffic on said radio link grows if the
number of radio equipment deployed in the daisy chain grows. It is important to note that in
normal working conditions, the management traffic is very low and due to the periodic
polling of the management system (SCT or NMS) towards the network elements.
However, if one or more radio links have alarms due to failures or propagation, a lot of
SNMP traps are sent from the alarmed equipments to the management centre. If the
supervision channel has not been dimensioned properly, it can result congested from this
traffic. In order to avoid this, SIAE suggests reserving a capacity of 2.4kbit/s for each
radio equipment.
In the example of Figure 29, the supervision channel of the radio link AL-1 AL-2 carries
the management traffic of 5 equipments. So, the total capacity to be reserved for these
equipments is 5x2.4=12kbit/s. The radio channel capacity is 64kbit/s and so it is enough to
carry such traffic. In general it can be seen that the 64kbit/s channel is enough to carry the
management traffic of about 64/2.427 radio equipments (which means 14 radio links). If
the number of radio equipments is greater than 27, additional capacity must be provided

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 37 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

for the supervision network exploiting some unused time slots of the payload traffic2. Two
different solutions can be adopted for this problem:
- PPP 2Mbs connection between two AL equipments
This solution uses a PPP connection over a 2Mbs between two AL equipments to
provide additional capacity to the radio supervision channel. An example of such
solution is represented in Figure 30.
Main Site
10. 0. 1. 0/24

SCT

LAN Address

10. 0. 1. 1

Up to 13
Radio Links

LAN Address

12 Radio
Links

10. 0. 1. 8

AL - n

AL - 1

AL - 2

AL - 25

AL - 27

AL - 26
Network Management
over a Tributary TS

Network Management
over a Tributary TS

PPP 2 Mbs port.


IP Address = 10. 0. 1. 5

PPP 2 Mbs port.


IP Address = 10. 0. 1. 4

10.0.16.0 mask 255.255.240.0

Legend:
Ethernet connection
E1 connection

Figure 30

In this example we have a network with more than 13 radio links. The supervision radio
channel is enough for the management of the equipments up to AL-26. For the
remaining equipments, the management traffic is carried over a Tributary Time Slot
between AL-27 and AL-n. Supposing that the sub-networks from AL-26 on can be
addressed with the address 10.0.16.0/20, the following configurations must be
included:
o AL-n: Its routing table must contain the following row:
Destination: 10.0.16.0
Mask:
255.255.240.0
Hop:
10.0.1.5
Interface:
RS232/2Mbs
The Default Gateway must be set to 10.0.1.8, which is the LAN port of AL-1.
o AL-1: Its routing table must contain the following row:
Destination: 10.0.16.0
Mask:
255.255.240.0
Hop:
10.0.1.1
Interface:
LAN
Other routing table rows must route the sub-networks deployed for AL-2AL-25
management, using the AL-2s RADIO address as Hop.
o AL-27: Its Default Gateway must be set to 10.0.1.4, which is the PPP 2Mbs port
of AL-n. Other routing table rows must route the sub-networks deployed for the
next radio links, using the RADIO address of the remote equipment connected
to AL-27as Hop.

When available, the 2Mbit/s wayside channel can be used for this scope. In this way, no payload Time
Slots are wasted for the supervision of the network.
Issued by
Approved by
Date
Page
GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RIGAMG/INR
BENED/INR
10/12/2007 38 di 60
DEPARTMENT
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

The advantage of this solution is that it is entirely done with AL equipments, without
any external router device. However two main disadvantages limit the use of this
solution:
1. It is not adapted to manage very large networks. In fact, each AL equipment can
establish only one PPP connection. So, multiple connections over tributary timeslots
require an equivalent number of AL equipments in the main site to terminate each
PPP connection.
2. This solution cannot be applied if in the main site we have only one AL equipment.
For example, if AL-n would not be present in Figure 30, we will not be able to
terminate the PPP connection in the main site.
In the following, solutions using an external router will be shown that solve these
problems.
PPP connection using the PROXY equipment
PROXY equipment is a router that can map Ethernet traffic over a TDM channel,
exploiting up to 4x64kbit/s Time Slots. The PROXY equipment is provided with a
10baseT Ethernet port and two E1 ports. Figure 31 shows the general working principle
of the PROXY equipment, also named IP-BOX.
Dropped TS

Tributary Time slot


with traffic

Free Tributary Time slot


TributaryTime slot used
to carry Ethernet traffic

Inserted TS

E1
ports

Rx Tx

Rx Tx

Port 1

Port 2

E1
port selected
for Drop/Insert

IP - BOX

Ethernet
Figure 31

The Ethernet traffic is extracted or inserted into one of the two E1 ports by means of
the Drop/Insert functionality, as shown in Figure 7. As can be seen, the Ethernet traffic
from the 10baseT port is inserted into a Time Slot of the E1 port number 2. On the
contrary, the traffic received from the same Time Slot on port 2 is Dropped and
transmitted on the 10baseT port. The other tributary Time Slots of the E1 flux pass
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 39 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

unchanged into the PROXY. The routing of the packets between E1 and Ethernet ports
is regulated by means of a Routing Table. IP addresses must be assigned also the
PROXY ports. This addressing is required for its management and to make it able to
route IP packets properly between its ports.
Let us considering again the example of Figure 30, in which now we suppose that only
AL-1 is present in the main site. In this case, a PROXY can be used in the main site to
terminate the PPP connection over the 2Mbs, as shown in Figure 32.
Main Site
10. 0. 1. 0/24

SCT
LAN Address

PROXY

10. 0. 1. 1

Up to 13
Radio Links
LAN Address

12 Radio
Links

10. 0. 1. 8

AL - 1

AL - 2

AL - 25

AL - 26

Network Management
over a Tributary TS
PPP 2 Mbs port.
IP Address = 10. 0. 1. 4

AL - 27

Network Management
over a Tributary TS
PPP 2 Mbs port.
IP Address = 10. 0. 1. 5

10.0.16.0 mask 255.255.240.0

Legend:
Ethernet connection
E1 connection

Figure 32

In this case for the equipments AL-1 and AL-27 it still remain valid the considerations
made for the example of Figure 31. So, the same configurations must be included.
About the PROXY equipment, the following row must be included in its Routing Table:
Destination: 10.0.16.0
Mask:
255.255.240.0
Hop:
10.0.1.5
Interface:
RS232/2Mbs
The Default Gateway must be set to 10.0.1.8, which is the LAN port of AL-1.
Figure 33 shows an example in which the PROXY is used to carry the management
traffic over a multiple number of Time Slots.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 40 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Chain 2
5 Radio Links
10. 0. 3. 0/24
10. 0. 4. 0/22

Nodal Site
10. 0. 2. 0/24

Chain 1
8 Radio Links

Chain 3
8 Radio Links

AL - 4

10. 0. 8. 0/21

10. 0. 16. 0/21


10. 0. 2. 16
10. 0. 2. 9

10. 0. 2. 23

AL - 5

AL - 3
10. 0. 1. 6

PROXY

10. 0. 2. 1

TS29 & TS30


10. 0. 2. 4

AL - 2

Legend:

Main Site

Ethernet connection

10. 0. 1. 0/24

E1 connection
10. 0. 1. 7

AL - 1

10. 0. 1. 1

SCT

10. 0. 1. 5

PROXY

TS29 & TS30

10. 0. 1. 2

Figure 33

In the figure is shown a nodal centre in which are converging 3 daisy chains of radio
links. The nodal centre is then connected to the Main Site through the radio link AL1AL-2. Over this radio link must be carried the management traffic of 8+5+8=21 links,
which means 42 radio equipments. So, the embedded supervision channel cannot be
enough. For this reason, a couple of PROXYs have been deployed to exploit the
capacity of two payload Time Slots, obtaining a management channel of 128kbit/s. In
the Nodal Site the equipments AL-3, AL-4 and AL-5 must be configured with a Default
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 41 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Gateway equal 10.0.2.1, which is the address of the PROXYs Ethernet port. Instead,
the PROXY must be configured with Default Gateway equal to 10.0.1.5 (2Mbs port of
the Main Sites PROXY) and with the routing rows shown in Table 34 that address the
three radio link chains connected to the Nodal Site.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.16.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.2.16
10.0.2.16
10.0.2.9
10.0.2.23

LAN
LAN
LAN
LAN

Table 34

In the Main Site, both AL-1 and the PC running the SCT software must be configured
with Default Gateway equal to 10.0.1.2, which is the address of the PROXYs Ethernet
port. Instead, the PROXY must be configured with the routing rows shown in Table 35
that address the Nodal Sites sub-network and the three radio link chains connected to
it.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.16.0

255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.1.6
10.0.1.6
10.0.1.6
10.0.1.6

2 Mb/s
2 Mb/s
2 Mb/s
2 Mb/s

Table 35

The PROXY equipment can be used only if is required an additional capacity less than
or equal to 4x64=256kbit/s. For higher capacity, different routers must be used. On the
market exist several models that can transport the Ethernet traffic on an higher number
of Time Slots (up to the entire E1 flux). Clearly, the same routers can be used even for
capacity less than or equal to 256kbit/s. However, it is suggested to use as far as
possible the PROXY equipment because the same supervision software of the AL
equipments can manage it.
Finally, it is worth to make one consideration about PROXY equipment. In the previous
paragraph it has been shown how an isolated network can be connected to the Main Site
exploiting the PPP 2Mbs connection between two ALs. However, if more than 13 radio
links are deployed into the remote network, the 64 kbit/s cannot be enough to carry their
supervision. In this case, a couple of PROXY can be used to carry the supervision over a
channel of up to 256kbit/s.

6 Case Studies
In this paragraph four case studies will be provided and commented. These case studies
reflect real supervision networks studies in which have been applied the concept explained
in the previous paragraphs of this document. This four examples have been taken as
example:
1. Simple network configuration. It will be shown the full configuration (IP addressing and
routing tables) of a little network, where a limited set of IP addresses provided by the
customer must be used.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 42 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

2. IP plan of a medium network. It will be shown the IP plan foreseen for a network of
medium size, with large perspective to growth.
3. Connection of an isolated network to the Main Site. It will be shown the same network
discussed in the previous example, in which an isolated network is added and
connected to the Main Site through several existing radio links provided by another
supplier.
4. Supervision channel sizing. It will be shown the supervision channel sizing of a medium
size network.

6.1 Simple network configuration


Site 3
Site 4

Site 2
Site 1

Main Site
Figure 34

Case
The first case study is relevant to the simple network shown in Figure 34, where four radio
links are deployed using AL-Compact equipments. The customer wants to manage the
network from a remote management room, already connected to its intranet. At this scope,
it will provide a Router in the main site from the connection between the radio equipment
room and the remote management room. In order to not conflict with its intranet, the
customer also requires that the IP address range 192.168.73.32/27 will be used for the
radio equipment management. The customer also claims that no additional links will be
added in the future to this network.
Analysis
Being AL-Compact equipment deployed in the network, no PPP RS232/2Mbs port is
available and so no IP addressing is required for it. In addition, being the address range
limited, we can think to use dummy addresses for LCT port. Under these conditions, we
can calculate the number of IP addresses required in each site. The results are as follow:
- 4 IP addresses for the Main site: 1 for the customer Routers interface connected to the
AL equipment; 2 for the AL equipment (LAN + RADIO); 1 for the RADIO port of the
remote AL of Site 1 connected to the Main Site.
- 4 IP addresses for Site 1: 1 for the LAN port of the AL connected to the Main Site; 2 for
the AL connected to Site 2 (LAN + RADIO); 1 for the RADIO port of the remote AL of
Site 2 connected to Site 1.
- 8 IP addresses for Site 2: 1 for the LAN port of the AL connected to Site 1; 2 for the AL
connected to Site 3 (LAN + RADIO); 2 for the AL connected to Site 4 (LAN + RADIO); 1
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 43 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

for the RADIO port of the remote AL of Site 3 connected to Site 2; 1 for the RADIO port
of the remote AL of Site 4 connected to Site 2.
From these calculations we can see that an 8 IPs sub-network must be defined for Main
Site and Site 1, while a 16 IPs sub-network is required for Site 2. So , the full range of
available IPs must be used for the addressing of these three sites, leaving no additional
IPs for Site 3 and Site 4.
Proposed Solution
Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Sub-Network Address: 192.168.73.48


Sub-Network Mask: 255.255.255.240

192. 168. 73. 50

192. 168. 73. 51

RADIO

RADIO

AL- 5

AL- 6
2. 0. 0. 3

1. 0. 0. 1

2. 0. 0. 1

LAN

192. 168. 73. 54


RADIO

AL- 8

AL- 7
192. 168. 73. 52

192. 168. 73. 49

LCT

LCT

192. 168. 73. 53


RADIO

LAN

2. 0. 0. 1

1. 0. 0. 1

LAN

LCT

LCT

2. 0. 0. 3
LAN

HUB

Site 1
Sub-Network Address:
192.168.73.40
Sub-Network Mask:
255.255.255.248

192. 168. 73. 43

192. 168. 73. 44

RADIO

RADIO

AL- 4

AL- 3
1. 0. 0. 1

192. 168. 73. 42


LAN

2. 0. 0. 1

LCT

192. 168. 73. 48

LCT

LCT

LAN

192. 168. 73. 35

2. 0. 0. 1

192. 168. 73. 41

LAN

IP Address: 192.168.73.33
Sub-Network Mask: 255.255.255.248

Router

RADIO

To remote
management room

AL- 1

AL- 2
1. 0. 0. 1
192. 168. 73. 36
RADIO

LCT

192. 168. 73. 34

Main Site

LAN

Sub-Network Address: 192.168.73.32


Sub-Network Mask: 255.255.255.248

Figure 35

Figure 35 shows the proposed solution for this case study. As can be seen, a dummy

address has been used also for the LAN port of the AL equipments deployed in Site 3 and
Site 4. This equipment can be connected from the remote manager by means of their
RADIO address. The first IP address of the available range has been assigned to the
Routers interface in the Main Site. AL-1 uses this address as Default Gateway, while the
Router must include the rows shown in Table 36 in its Routing Table.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

192.168.73.40
192.168.73.48

255.255.255.248
255.255.255.240

192.168.73.34
192.168.73.34

Table 36

In the following Table 37 are shown the IP address to be assigned to each network
element, while tables from Table 38 to Table 45 show the Routing Table of each radio
equipment. It is worth to note that in Site 2 a HUB is required to allow the connection
between the three equipments. In Site 1 the HUB is not required because the two ALs can
be directly connected by means of a cross cable.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 44 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

NETWORK
ELEMENT
AL-1

AL-2

AL-3

AL-4

AL-5

AL-6

AL-7

AL-8

PORT

IP ADDRESS

MASK

LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
LAN
RADIO
LCT
RADIO remote
PC on LCT

192.168.73.34
192.168.73.35
1.0.0.1
192.168.73.36
1.0.0.2
192.168.73.41
192.168.73.36
2.0.0.1
192.168.73.35
2.0.0.2
192.168.73.42
192.168.73.43
1.0.0.1
192.168.73.44
1.0.0.2
192.168.73.48
192.168.73.44
2.0.0.1
192.168.73.43
2.0.0.2
192.168.73.49
192.168.73.50
1.0.0.1
192.168.73.51
1.0.0.2
2.0.0.3
192.168.73.51
2.0.0.1
192.168.73.50
2.0.0.2
192.168.73.52
192.168.73.53
1.0.0.1
192.168.73.54
1.0.0.2
2.0.0.3
192.168.73.54
2.0.0.1
192.168.73.53
2.0.0.2

255.255.255.248
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240
255.0.0.0

Table 37

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 45 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

AL-1
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

2.0.0.1
192.168.73.40
192.168.73.48

255.0.0.0
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.240

192.168.73.36
192.168.73.36
192.168.73.36

RADIO
RADIO
RADIO

192.168.73.33

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 38

AL-2
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

192.168.73.48

255.255.255.240

192.168.73.42

LAN

192.168.73.35

RADIO

Default Gateway 

Table 39

AL-3
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

2.0.0.1
192.168.73.48

255.0.0.0
255.255.255.240

192.168.73.44
192.168.73.44

RADIO
RADIO

192.168.73.41

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 40

AL-4
Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

192.168.73.43

RADIO

Table 41

AL-5
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

2.0.0.1

255.0.0.0

192.168.73.51

RADIO

192.168.73.48

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 42

AL-6
Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

192.168.73.50

RADIO

Table 43

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 46 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

AL-7
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

2.0.0.1

255.0.0.0

192.168.73.54

RADIO

192.168.73.48

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 44

AL-8
Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

192.168.73.53

RADIO

Table 45

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 47 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

6.2 IP PLAN OF A MEDIUM-SIZE NETWORK


Site_N5

Site_N4
Site_N3

Site_N2

Site_N8

Site_N6

Site_N9

Site_N1
Site_N7

Site_N10
Site_N13
Site_N11
Site_N12
Site_C7
Site_C8
Site_C5
Site_C6

LEGEND

Site_C4

Radio connections
Future Radio connections

Site_C3
Site_C2
Site_C1

Site_C9

Site_C11
Site_C10
Site_C12

Site_C13
Site_S8

Site_C15

Site_S7
Site_S3
Site_S2

Site_S1

Site_S6
Site_S5

Site_S4

Figure 36

Case
The radio network considered in this case study is shown in Figure 36. This figure
represents the first deployment stage of the AL radio network in which there is an high
perspective of future growth. The customer wants to start three separated deployments in
three regions: North, Central and South regions. In each region the radio links are
connected to a main POP (Point-Of-Presence) of the customer in which are placed the
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 48 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Network Management Systems. This POP sites are: Site_N1 for the North Region;
Site_C1 for the Central Region; Site_S1 for the South Region.
About the future network expansion, the customer claims that each region will expand
independently from the others. Anyway, he is intended to create a connection between
these regions through radio links. These radio links will be deployed:
- Between North and Central regions, connecting Site_N12 and Site_C5 with maximum
two radio links.
- Between South and Central regions, connecting Site_S8 and Site_C10 with maximum
five radio links.
Once the three regions will be connected, the Customer wants to be able to manage the
whole network from Site_C1, the main POP of the Central Region. In addition, he has
provided Table 46 that shows his Mid-Term forecast about the new radio links that will be
deployed. This forecasts are expressed in terms of number of radio links that will be added
starting from a network site. In some cases the customer is not able to give the precise
number of links, being it again dependent from site searching activity results. In such
cases the customer has given an estimation (for example, for Site_N5 a reasonable
number of links will be between 2 and 3).
About the IP addressing, the Customer claims that the AL management network will be
kept isolated from any other LANs. So, he does not pose any restriction on the addresses
range to be used.
SITE NAME

NUMBER OF FUTURE RADIO LINKS

Site_N2
Site_N5
Site_N9
Site_N13
Site_C6
Site_C4
Site_C13
Site_S3

About 10
23
46
5
3
3
4
67
Table 46

Analysis
Two main factors must be taken into account about the IP plan of this network:
1. The future expansion of each region.
2. The Routing Table complexity of the equipments.
About the first point, large IP address ranges should be assigned to each region in order to
not limit the future expansion. Having no restriction from the customer, the usage of the
addresses from the private range 10.0.0.0/8 could be the best choice. The three IP ranges
must not overlap, in order to avoid address duplications when the radio links connecting
the regions will be deployed.
About the second point, in order to reduce the Routing Table complexity the Customers
forecast must be taken into account when the IP plan is designed. In addition, the Routing
Tables must be configured with rows addressing IP ranges reserved for the future links.
This will reduce the upgrading work when these links will be deployed.
Proposed Solution
Figure 37 shows the proposed IP plan for the network of this case study. In this plan are
shown both the sub-network planned for each site and the IP ranges reserved for the
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 49 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

future network expansion (inside clouds). The following IP ranges have been assigned to
the three regions:
- 10.0.0.0/16 for the Central Region;
- 10.1.0.0/16 for the North Region;
- 10.2.0.0/16 for the South Region.
Each sub-network has been planned with a mask 255.255.255.0 that gives it a lot of
available IPs for future expansions. The customer forecast about mid-term expansion has
been taken into account by reserving IP ranges according to Table 46. More in details:
- 3 sub-networks reserved for future expansion from Site_C6.
- 4 sub-networks reserved for future expansion from each one of the following sites:
Site_N5, Site_C4 and Site_C13.
- 6 sub-networks reserved for future expansion from Site_N13.
- 8 sub-networks reserved for future expansion from each one of the following sites:
Site_N9 and Site_S3.
- 16 sub-networks reserved for future expansion from Site_N2.
In addition two other IP ranges have been reserved:
- 2 sub-networks reserved for Site_N12, where future links that will be deployed for the
connection between North and Centre regions.
- 6 sub-networks reserved for Site_C10, where future links that will be deployed for the
connection between South and Centre regions.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 50 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Site_N5
10.1.3.0/24

10.1.4.0/22

Site_N2
10.1.1.0/24

Site_N4
10.1.2.0/24
Site_N3
10.1.8.0/24

10.1.32.0/20

Site_N8
10.1.11.0/24
10.1.16.0/21

Site_N6
10.1.9.0/24
Site_N7
10.1.10.0/24

Site_N1
10.1.0.0/24__

10.1.26.0/23
10.1.28.0/22

Site_N9 10.1.16.0/24
Site_N10
10.1.12.0/24

Site_N11
10.1.13.0/24

Site_N13
10.1.15.0/24

Site_N12
10.1.14.0/24

10.1.24.0/23

Site_C7 10.0.7.0/24

10.0.9.0/24
10.0.10/23

Site_C8 10.0.8.0/24

Site_C5
10.0.5.0/24

Site_C6 10.0.6.0/24

LEGEND
Radio connections
10.0.12.0/22

Site_C4
10.0.4.0/24

Future Radio connections

Site_C2 10.0.2.0/24

Sub-network available
for future network
expansion

Site_C3
10.0.3.0/24
Site_C1 10.0.1.0/24
Site_C9
10.0.16.0/24

Site_C11 10.0.24.0/24
Site_C10
10.0.17.0/24

10.1.18.0/23
10.1.20.0/22

Site_S8
10.2.7.0/24

Site_C15
10.0.27.0/24

10.2.8.0/21
Site_S7
10.2.6.0/24

Site_S3
10.2.3.0/24

Site_S2
10.2.2.0/24

Site_S1
10.2.0.0/24

Site_S5
10.2.4.0/24

Site_C12 10.0.25.0/24

Site_C13
10.0.26.0/24

10.0.28.0/22

Site_S6
10.2.5.0/24

Site_S4
10.2.1.0/24

Figure 37

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 51 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

6.3 Connection of an isolated network to the Main Site


Future connection
towards North
Site_C7 10.0.7.0/24

10.0.9.0/24
10.0.10/23

Site_C8 10.0.8.0/24

Site_C5
10.0.5.0/24

Site_C6 10.0.6.0/24

LEGEND
Radio connections
Other Supplier Radio links

10.0.12.0/22

Sub-network available
for future network
expansion

Site_C4
10.0.4.0/24
Site_C2 10.0.2.0/24

Site_C3
10.0.3.0/24

Site_C1 10.0.1.0/24

Site_C9
10.0.16.0/24
Site_C16
Site_C11
10.0.24.0/24
Site_C12
10.0.25.0/24

Site_C10
10.0.17.0/24

10.1.18.0/23
10.1.20.0/22

Future connection
towards South

Site_C13
10.0.26.0/24

Site_C17
Site_C18
Site_C19
Site_C20

Site_C15
10.0.27.0/24

Site_C21
10.0.28.0/22
Site_C22
Site_C23

Figure 38

Case
Referring to the Central Region of the previous case study, now 7 new radio links have
been added to the network. These links are connected to the Main Site Site_C1 through
several radio links provided by another supplier, as shown in Figure 38. The customer has
left available for the management network the following tributary Time Slots:
- TS30 of the first E1 connected to Site_C16s AL equipment.
- TS11 of the first E1 of the AL equipment in Site_C1 connected to Site_C2.
These two Time Slots are cross-connected inside Site_C1 by means of the local switch, as
shown in Figure 39.
Site_C1

Site_C16

Network
Management
over TS11

To Site_C2
AL

Network
Management
over TS30

Network
Management
over TS30

Other Supplier
Network

To Site_C17
1 AL

Local Switch

2 Mbit/s Tributary
Connections

2 Mbit/s
Tributary
Connections

Figure 39
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 52 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Analysis
The 64kbit/s Time Slot is enough to carry the supervision of the 7 new radio links. So, no
external equipments are required because the PPP 2Mbs connection between the two ALs
can be used. About the addressing of the new links, an IP range of 8 sub-networks is
required.
Proposed Solution

Future connection
towards North
10.0.9.0/24
10.0.10/23
Site_C5
10.0.5.0/24

Site_C7 10.0.7.0/24
Site_C8 10.0.8.0/24

Site_C6 10.0.6.0/24

LEGEND
Radio connections
Other Supplier Radio links

10.0.12.0/22

Sub-network available
for future network
expansion

Site_C4
10.0.4.0/24
Site_C2 10.0.2.0/24

Site_C3
10.0.3.0/24

Site_C1 10.0.1.0/24

Site_C9
10.0.16.0/24
Site_C16 10.0.32.0/24

10.1.18.0/23
10.1.20.0/22

Future connection
towards South

Site_C10
10.0.17.0/24

Site_C11
10.0.24.0/24
Site_C12
10.0.25.0/24
Site_C13
10.0.26.0/24

Site_C17 10.0.33.0/24
Site_C18 10.0.34.0/24
Site_C19 10.0.35.0/24
Site_C20 10.0.36.0/24

Site_C15
10.0.27.0/24

Site_C21 10.0.37.0/24
10.0.28.0/22
Site_C22 10.0.38.0/24
Site_C23 10.0.39.0/24

Figure 40

Figure 40 shows the proposed solution for this case study. The IP range 10.0.32.0/21 has
been reserved for the new sites. The PPP 2Mbs port of the ALs shown in Figure 39 are

configured with the following parameters:


o Site_C1:
PPP Mode = Client
Remote Access Type = 2Mbs
2Mbit Selector = 1
Slot Selector = 11
16kbit Map = All selected
o Site_C16:
PPP Mode = Client
Remote Access Type = 2Mbs
2Mbit Selector = 1
Slot Selector = 30
16kbit Map = All selected
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 53 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

The Routing Table of Site_C1s equipment must be updated adding the grey row shown in
Table 47. Being this AL used as Default Gateway in Site_C1, no changes are required on
the other equipments. The IP addresses and Routing Table of Site_C16s AL are shown in
Table 48 and in Table 49.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

10.1.0.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.8.0
10.0.16.0
10.2.0.0
10.0.24.0
10.0.32.0

255.255.0.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.248.0

10.0.1.7
10.0.1.7
10.0.1.7
10.0.1.7
10.0.1.8
10.0.1.8
10.0.1.15
10.0.1.6

RADIO
RADIO
RADIO
RADIO
LAN
LAN
LAN
RS232/2Mb

Default Gateway 
Table 47

PORT

IP ADDRESS

MASK

LAN
RADIO
LCT
RS232/2Mbs
RADIO remote
PC on LCT
Element on RS232/2Mbs

10.0.32.1
10.0.32.4
10.0.32.2
10.0.1.6
10.0.32.5
10.0.32.3
10.0.1.5

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

Table 48

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

10.0.33.0
10.0.34.0
10.0.36.0

255.255.255.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.252.0

10.0.32.6
10.0.32.6
10.0.32.6

LAN
LAN
LAN

10.0.1.5

RS232/2Mb

Default Gateway 
Table 49

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 54 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

6.4 Supervision Channel Sizing

Main Site

Figure 41

Case
In this case study it will be analysed the supervision channel sizing for the network shown
in Figure 41. As can be seen, this network is made by many links connected in daisy-chain.
The network management system is located in the Main Site. All the equipment deployed
are PDH AL with capacity grater than or equal to 16x2 Mbit/s. The customer is reluctant to
waste tributary Time Slots for the supervision network.
Analysis
On the equipment of this network a 2Mbs wayside is available. Such 2Mbs can be used to
carry the supervision traffic using some 64kbit/s Time Slots.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 55 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Proposed Solution

PROXY
Site 1

PROXY

Site 3

Site 2
Site 4

PROXY

PROXY

Main Site
PROXY
Site 5

Figure 42

The proposed solution can be described with the aid of Figure 42. Here the networks links
have been subdivided in sub-groups, each one of 13 links. Each group has been identified
by means of a colour and the relevant supervision traffic is collected by means of a
PROXY equipment. The PROXYs are used to map the management traffic over some
Time Slot of the 2Mbs wayside. Each PROXY makes use of a different Time Slot, as
shown in the following Table 50.
SITE
Site 1
Site 2
Site 3
Site 4
Site 5

TIME SLOT
1
2
3
4
5
Table 50

As can be seen from this table the PROXY located in Site 1 collects the supervision traffic
of the 13 violet links over Time Slot 1 of the 2Mbs wayside; Site 2s PROXY collects the
supervision traffic of the 13 orange links over Time Slot 2, and so on.
For each group an IP address range has been reserved. Table 51 shows these ranges.
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 56 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

GROUP
GREEN links
RED links
BLUE links
YELLOW links
ORANGE links
VIOLET links

IP RANGE
172.28.0.0/23
172.28.2.0/23
172.28.4.0/23
172.28.6.0/23
172.28.8.0/23
172.28.10.0/23
Table 51

ORANGE
Links

Sub-Network Address:
172.28.5.160

Site 2

Blue
Links

Sub-Network Mask:
255.255.255.224
172. 28.5. 163

172. 28.5. 132

RADIO

RADIO

2 Mbs Way side

AL- I

AL- II

172. 28.5. 162

172. 28.5. 161

LAN

LAN

TS1

TS1 TS2
172. 28.0. 10

PROXY
LAN

172. 28.5. 165

Figure 43

Figure 43 shows the connections of Site 2s equipments. As can be seen, in this site TS1 of

the 2Mbs wayside is busied by Site 1s PROXY. This Time Slot pass unchanged through
the Site 2s PROXY. However, this latter does the Drop/Insert on TS2 in order to carry the
orange links supervision traffic to the Main Site, where another PROXY is used to convert
again the traffic from TDM to Ethernet. The equipment connections into the Main Site are
shown in Figure 44. Here five PROXY are deployed, each one terminating the PPP
connection of the IP-BOX equipments shown in Figure 42.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 57 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Sub-Network Address:
172.28.0.0

Main Site

Sub-Network Mask:
255.255.255.224

Towards
North

172.28.0.3
RADIO

172.28.0.1

AL- III

LAN

172.28.0.2

2Mbs wayside

PROXY

172.28.0.9

TS3
TS4

172.28.0.12

PROXY

TS4

172.28.0.15

PROXY

PROXY
172.28.0.18
TS5

LAN

172.28.0.8

172.28.0.11
LAN

PROXY

172.28.0.14
LAN

TS2
TS3
TS4

172.28.0.5
LAN

172.28.0.6

172.28.0.17
LAN

TS1
TS2
TS3
TS4

2Mbs Way Side

172.28.0.20

AL- IV

LAN

172.28.0.21

Towards
South

Figure 44

The PPP E1(2Mb/s) port of the PROXY deployed in Site 2 is configured with the following
parameters:
PPP Mode = Client
E1 Signal3 = PPP/IP-SWITCH connector
PMP Master = Not Present
Time Slot Assignment = 02
3

It is important to note that all the PROXY equipments deployed in this network do the Drop/Insert over the
SWITCH connector.
Issued by
Approved by
Date
Page
GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK
NETWORK
ENGINEERING
MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RIGAMG/INR
BENED/INR
10/12/2007 58 di 60
DEPARTMENT
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Table 52 shows the Routing Table of the PROXY deployed in Site 2. This PROXY
establishes the PPP connection with the orange PROXY of the Main Site (see Figure 44).

The PPP E1(2Mb/s) port of this latter is configured in the same way as Site 2s PROXY,
while its Routing Table is shown in Table 53.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.8.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.5.162

LAN

172.28.0.9

2Mb/s

Default Gateway 

Table 52: Routing Table of the Site 2s PROXY.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.8.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.0.10

2 Mb/s

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 53: Routing Table of the Main Sites orange PROXY.

In tables from Table 54 to Table 61 are shown the Routing Tables of the other equipments
deployed in Site 2 and Main Site. To better understand these Routing Tables consider the
following notes:
- 172.28.5.164 is the RADIO ports address of the AL connected through the radio link to
AL-I.
- 172.28.5.131 is the RADIO ports address of the AL connected through the radio link to
AL-II.
- 172.28.0.4 is the RADIO ports address of the AL connected through the radio link to
AL-III.
- 172.28.0.22 is the RADIO ports address of the AL connected through the radio link to
AL-IV.
- 172.28.0.7 is the PPP E1(2Mb/s) ports address of Site 1s address.
- 172.28.0.13 is the PPP E1(2Mb/s) ports address of Site 3s address.
- 172.28.0.16 is the PPP E1(2Mb/s) ports address of Site 4s address.
- 172.28.0.19 is the PPP E1(2Mb/s) ports address of Site 5s address.
Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.8.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.5.164

RADIO

172.28.5.165

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 54: Routing Table of the Site 2s AL-I.

Destination

Net Mask

Default Gateway 

Hop

Interface

172.28.5.131

RADIO

Table 55: Routing Table of the Site 2s AL-II.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 59 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.0.32
172.28.0.64

255.255.255.224
255.255.255.192

172.28.0.4
172.28.0.4

RADIO
RADIO

Default Gateway 
Table 56: Routing Table of the Site 2s AL-III.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.0.128

255.255.255.128

172.28.0.22

RADIO

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 57: Routing Table of the Site 2s AL-IV.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.10.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.0.7

2 Mb/s

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 58: Routing Table of the Main Sites violet PROXY.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.6.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.0.13

2 Mb/s

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 59: Routing Table of the Main Sites yellow PROXY.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.4.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.0.16

2 Mb/s

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 60: Routing Table of the Main Sites blue PROXY.

Destination

Net Mask

Hop

Interface

172.28.2.0

255.255.254.0

172.28.0.19

2 Mb/s

172.28.0.2

LAN

Default Gateway 

Table 61: Routing Table of the Main Sites red PROXY.

NETWORK
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Property of
Siae Microelettronica
all right reserved

GUIDELINES FOR NETWORK


MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF SIAE
RADIO EQUIPMENTS - AL SERIES

Issued by

RIGAMG/INR

Approved by

BENED/INR

Date

Page

10/12/2007 60 di 60

Document Code

INR.0225

Ver.

03