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ROLL NO : 330
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


APRIL 2015

Introduction to Robots & Modular


A robot is more often designed for one particular activity, or at best a few
closely related activities.
This is course isn't the ideal situation as many jobs require a large number of
very different
activities. For example, building the walls of a home and installing plumbing and
electricity require
many different tools and techniques. In practice this means you'll end up
designing either several
various robots or a very complicated one.
Modular robotics is the answer to such problems. Typical modular robots consist
of a number of
independent cubes, which can move and connect themselves in various different
ways. Each of the
cubes have their own power supply and intelligence and can have specific tools.
When a issue is
fed to its computer, it analyzes it and connects the cubes in such a way that it
does solve the
Ideally that a robot would consist of a very large number of very small identical
cubes. This is similar
to the way plants, animals or humans are consisting of various cells, which are
practically identical,
with that difference that specification would happen in software rather than in
composition.The difference between fractal and modular robotics is that the
former allows multiple
sizes of cubes and the latter has not.
Most people are familiar with the fact that sufficient quantities of clay bricks
(architectural bricks) or

Lego bricks can be used to approximate nearly any shape, and so the
introduction to modular
robotics was in terms of cubes. Besides of making each cube independent, some
researchers make
pairs or triplets of cubes independent. However, some roboticists point out that
dodecahedron are, in some ways, superior to cubes.

Introduction to Fractal Robots

A brand new concept in this world of technology is shape shifting robotics or Frac
tal robots.
Fractal robots are objects designed using cubic bricks. A computer program is us
ed to operate these
robots. The cubic bricks are fitted with a motor . They can be commanded to perf
different functions and can be used in various
variety of fields. The basis of this technology is the
method used to control the
matter digitally. The cubic bricks are called a Robotic cube. The size of
these cubes is between one thousand atoms to ten thousand atoms. All these cu
bes have a
computerized chip , which can be fed in with specific commands.
Areas of our lives , like the fields of construction, the medical fields, the military
fields and the
research fields, can use Fractal robots
more effectively. These robots can shorten the time needed to
build a house, they can be used to conduct risky surgeries , they can test the effe
ct of
medicines on contagious diseases and these can also be used to test the new def
technology. All these functions can be done with minimum human intervention. A
lso these

robots can
definitelyrepair themselves and thus can continue the programmed work without
stopping. The
fractal manufacturing system is one of the newmanufacturing paradigms for this
purpose. A basic
component of fractal manufacturing system, called
a basic fractal unit (BFU), consists of five
functional modules such as an observer, ananalyser, an organizer, a resolver, an
d a reporter.

Fractal Robot is a science that promises torevolutionize technology in a way that
has never
been witnessed before. Fractal Robots are objectsmade from cubic bricks that ca
n be controlled by a
computer to change shape and to reconfigurethemselves into objects of different
shapes. These
cubic motorized bricks can be programmed tomove and shuffle themselves to ch
ange shape to
make objects like a house potentially in fewseconds. It is exactly like kids playing
with Lego
bricks and making a toy house or a toy bridge bysnapping together Lego bricks,
except that here we
are using a computer.
This technology has the potential to penetrateevery field of human work like con
medicine, research and others. Fractal robots canenable buildings to build within
a day, help
perform sensitive medical operations and can assistin laboratory experiments. Al
so, Fractal Robots
have builtin self repair which means they continueto work without human interve
ntion. Also, this
technology brings down the manufacturing pricedown dramatically.

A Fractal Robot resembles itself, i.e. wherever youlook at, any part of its body will
be similar to the
whole object. The robot can be animated around itsjoints in a uniform manner. Su
ch robots can be
straight forward geometric patterns/images thatlook more like natural structures
such as plants.
This patented product however has a cubicalstructure.A fractal cube can be of an
y size. The
smallest expected size is between 1000 and 10,000atoms wide. These cubes are
embedded with
computer chips that control their movement.


Considerable effort has been spent in making the robotic cube as simple as
possible after the

invention had been conceived. The design is such that it has the fewest possible
moving parts so that
they can be mass produced. Materials requirements have been made as flexible
as possible so that
they can be built from metals and plastics which are cheaply available in
industrial nations but also
from ceramics and clays which are environmentally friendlier and more readily
available in

developing nations.
The cube therefore is hollow and the plates have all the mechanisms. Each of
these face plates have
electrical contact pads that allow power and data signals to be routed from one
robotic cube to
another. They also have 45 degree petals that push out of the surface to engage
the neighboring
face that allows one robotic cube to lock to its neighbors.
The contact pads are arranged symmetrically around four edges to allow for
rotational symmetry .

Cubes are assembled from face plates bolted

to a cube frame
Each face plates have electrical contact pads
that allow data signals to be routed from one
cube to another.
Cubes have inductive coupling to transmit
power and data signals.



Fractal Robots is an emerging new service that promises to revolutionize every
aspect of human
technology. Fractal robots are objects made from cubic bricks that can be
controlled by a computer
to change shape and reconfigure themselves into objects of different shapes.
These cubic motorized
bricks can be programmed to move and shuffle themselves to change shape to
make objects like a
house potentially in a few seconds. This technology has the potential to
penetrate every field of
human work like construction, medicine, research and others. Fractal robots can
enable buildings to

be built within a day, help perform sensitive medical operations and can assist in
experiments. This technology is called Digital Matter Control and is implemented
here with a
machine called robotic cubes and the entire technology is called Fractal Robot
Technology. Also
Fractal Robots have built-in self repair which means they can continue without
human intervention.
The principle behind Fractal Robots is very simple. You take some cubic bricks
made of metals and
plastics, motorize them, put some electronics inside them and control them with
a computer and
you get machines that can change shape from one object to another. Almost
immediately, you can
now build a home in a matter of minutes if you had enough bricks and instruct
the bricks to shuffle
around and make a house! It is exactly like kids playing with Lego bricks and
making a toy hose or a
toy bridge by snapping together Lego bricks-except now we are using computer
and all the work is
done under total computer control. No manual intervention is required. Fractal
Robots are the
hardware equivalent of computer software.