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Class 21

ENME02 Fall 2014

Name: _________________________________________ Section: ______________


Unit 4: Textos de comprensin lectora, la cohesin por anforas y vocabulario especializado.
Criterio de evaluacin
4.2.2: Traduce textos de la especialidad, con elementos cohesionados por anforas y lxico
especializado, a fin de demostrar comprensin de lectura.
4.2.3: Realiza las tareas que le son asignadas, dentro del grupo, en los plazos requeridos, reconociendo
sus cualidades personales.
Use the same text you worked with in class 20.
Activity 1. - Translate into Spanish. Choose any other text below. Consider cohesion and coherence
given by anaphoric elements, transitional references and specific vocabulary.
Activity 2. - Create a word map in Spanish of your translation.

Text N1

Burning Smell

iStockpoto.com/Sergey Lemeshencko
If you get a whiff of burning transmission fluid, be advised it is definitely not the sweet smell of success.
That's because it may indicate your transmission is overheating. Transmission fluid not only keeps the
transmission's many moving parts properly lubricated, but it prevents the unit from burning itself up, by
providing much-needed cooling.
In some vehicles, the transmission even has its own mini-radiator (an oil cooler) that circulates fluid to
transport heat away from the transmission unit itself.
Common causes include low or inadequate transmission fluid, which can in turn indicate a leak or dirty
fluid that needs changing.
If you thought your transmission was safe from wear at least while it was in neutral, the truth might
surprise you.

Class 21
ENME02 Fall 2014

Text N 2

Transmission Noisy in Neutral

It seems intuitive that if you hear weird noises when the car should be shifting, that the transmission is
acting up. But would you suspect it if things were going "bump" in neutral? Yes, it could be the
transmission.
Such sounds could have a simple and inexpensive solution -- as with many of the problems on our list,
adding or replacing the transmission fluid sometimes does the trick. Bear in mind that as is the case with
engine oil, different vehicles do best with the specific formulation called for in the owner's manual.
Alternatively, lots of noises from the transmission while it's in neutral could signal something more
serious, like mechanical wear that will need the replacement of parts. In this case, common culprits are a
worn reverse idler gear or worn bearings, possibly coupled with worn gear teeth [source:
Procarcare.com].
Losing control while driving is never a fun experience. Find out on the next page how a bum
transmission could have a car "slipping" toward disaster if not repaired in time.

Text N 3

Gears Slipping

Does your transmission ever slip out of gear?


iStockphoto.com/Dennis Debono
In a normally functioning transmission, the car stays in the gear you designate, or that the computer
designates for a given RPM range, until you or the computer initiate a gear shift.
But on a transmission in which the gears slip, the car can spontaneously pop out of the gear it's in while
driving and (in a manual) force the stick back into neutral [source: Procarcare.com].
This is unnerving at best and potentially dangerous at worst: when you mash the gas pedal to avoid an
out-of-control vehicle, the last thing you want is a transmission that doesn't get power to the wheels. No
need to scratch your head over whether this is trouble or not: if it happens, you know it's time to have
your transmission examined.
Our next trouble sign might seem like a real "drag" if it happens to your vehicle, but its fix is often not so
complicated -- see what it is on the next page.

Class 21
ENME02 Fall 2014

Text N 4

Dragging Clutch

Here's another transmission trouble sign that haunts manual transmission vehicle owners: the dreaded
dragging clutch. A dragging clutch is one that fails to disengage the clutch disk from the flywheel when
the driver pushes in the clutch pedal.
When the driver attempts to shift gears, he or she can't because the still-engaged clutch is still spinning
along with the engine. The driver is abruptly made aware of this by the grinding noise that then ensues
with each attempt to shift.
Fortunately, the most common cause for this problem is not that severe or costly to fix -- at least not
compared to some other transmission issues. More often than not, the problem is too much slack in the
clutch pedal. With too much free play, the cable or linkage between the pedal and the clutch disk doesn't
have enough leverage to disengage the clutch disk from the flywheel (or pressure plate).
Some transmission trouble signs are plainly visible even to the lay person -- if that person knows what to
look for. To learn about one of the most obvious ones, continue to the next page.