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THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL BAR

AIM:

To determine the thermal conductivity of metal bar.

INTRODUCTION:Thermal conductivity of a substance is a physical property, defined as the ability of a


substance to conduct heat. Thermal conductivity of material depends on chemical composition
state of matter crystalline structure of a solid the temperature pressure and wheather or not is
a homogeneous material.

APPARATUS:The apparatus consists of a metal bar one end of which is heated by a electric heater
while the other end of the bar projects inside the cooling water jacket. The middle portion of
the bar is surrounded by a cylindrical shell filled with the asbestos insulating powder. The
temperature of the bar is measured at different section.
The heater is provided with a dimmerstat for controlling the heat input. Water under
constant head conditions is circulated through the jacket and its flow rate and temperature rise
are noted by two temperature sensors provided at the inlet and outlet of the water.

THEORY:The heater will heat the bar on its end one and heat will be conducted through the bar
to the other end. Since the rod in insulated from outside, it can be safely assumed that heat
transfer along the copper rod is mainly due to axial conduction and at steady state the
abconducted shall be equal to the heat absorbed by water at the cooling end. The heat
conducted at steady state shall create a temp. Profile within the rod.
T = f (x)
The steady state heat balance at the rear end of the rod is:
Heat absorbed by cooling water = Q= M.CpT
Where
M= Mass flow rate of cooling water, kgC
Cp =Specific heat of water, K cal/ KgC
T = temp rise of cooling water= (T-T)

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Heat conducted through the rod in axial direction:


dT
Q = -kA -------dX
dT
at steady state Q = -kA -------- = M.CpT
dX

UTILITIES REQUIRED:

Electricity Supply: 1 Phase 220V AC, 2Amp.


Drain
Table for set up support

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION:

450 mm
25 mm
235 mm
8 Nos.
RTD PT- 100
Nichrome heater
100 mm
75 mm
Digital Temp. Indicator 0C to 199.9C
and least count 0.1C with multichannel
switch.
Dimmerstat for Heater Coil
:
2A/230V
Digital Voltmeter
:
0 to 200 volts
Digital Ammeter
:
0 to 2 Amps.
The whole set-up is mounted on a powder coated base plate.
Length of the Metal Bar
Dia of the Metal Bar
Test length of the Bar
No. of Temp. Sensors
Jacket type of Temperature Sensors
Heater Coil
Cooling Jacket Dia
Length of Cooling Jacket
Temperature Indicator

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OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:OBSERVATION TABLE:Diameter of the copper rod = D = 2.54 cm

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Test length of the copper rod = 235 mm

Temp. Sensor No.

Temperature C

Steady State Temp.

Temp. Sensor No.


Distance from leading edge (hot end) of the rod, X,
Along the axis
mm
T1
35
T2
75
T3
115
T4
155
T5
195
T6
235
T7 is the inlet temp. of cold water
T8 is the outlet temp. of cold water

CALACULATION:Heat gained by water (at Steady state)

M.Cp (T0 Ti) kcal/hr

Heat transfer area for axis conduction

(/4)D2

D is the diameter of copper rod Plot T vs X


Draw a smooth curve through all the points and obtain the slope dT/dX at X=L or using least
square method fit the T vs X data to a polynomial (Express the data as T = A0 + A1x + A2 X2
And thus obtain the slop dT/dX at X = L

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Express the slope in C/m


Calculate the value of thermal conductivity of metal bar, k from:
K = M.CpT/[-A {dT/dX}] expressed as kCal/h-mC
Compare it with the literature value of Kcopper = 332 kCal/ h-mC
Discuss the sources of error, if any

PRECAUTION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:1. Take reading when steady state is reached.
2. Dont stop the water supply in between the experiment.
3. Do not exceed 200 Volts.

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