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RENEWABLE ENERGIES

2023284
Period: 2011-1I
Biomass III

Course Schedule
Introduction
Densification Fundamentals
Market data
Manufacture process
Energy from pellets
Environmental assessment

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
2

Introduction

Why do we use biomass for energy


production???

What are some problems related with


biomass use???

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
3

Introduction

Biomass has so many benefits related


with:
GHG Emissions reduction
Energy supply security
Small scale power systems

Biomass has problems in terms of:

Storage
Transportation
Transformation
Low efficient processes
Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
4

Fundamentals
Densification of biomass is a process of
reducing the bulk volume of the material
by mechanical means.
Final products are called pellets or
briquettes

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
5

Fundamentals

Pellets and briquettes are high density biomass


products, with low moisture content which
could be distinguished by their dimensions

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
6

Fundamentals
Pellets are cylindrical solids which diameter is
about 5 10 mm and length about 8 29 mm
Briquettes are cylindrical solids which diameter
varies between 40 to 90 mm and the length is
between 74 to 300 mm
Advantages:

Ease of handling and storage


Improve biomass stability
Facilitates the feeding of solid biomass fuels to
furnaces
Clean burning
High energy density
Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
7

Fundamentals

Volume required to substitute one cubic


meter of oil by some other fuels

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
8

Fundamentals

Most of pellets and briquettes are


produced from wood, but there are new
raw material such as agricultural or coal
residues, these solid biofuels are called
Mixed Biomass Pellets

Wheat straw, barley straw, corn stover


Swtichgrass
Alfalfa
Palm oil
Rice straw, rice bran
Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
9

Fundamentals

There are no standardized quality


parameters but some countries define
particular norms.

norm M1735 (Austria)


DIN 51731 (Sweden)
SS 187120 (Germany)
CEN/TS 14961:2005

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
10

Fundamentals

Basic specifications

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

March 2011

Source: European pellet center

11

Market data

Wood pellets consumption have increased the


last 5 years more than 200%

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
12

Market Data
Europe
Prod. 7 mill
Con. 8 mill

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
13

Market Data

Rest of the world

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
14

Market Data
Why do you think European countries consume
and produce most of the wood pellets???
Do they have enough biomass potential???

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
15

Manufacture process

General wood pellet process

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
16

Manufacture process

More detailed process

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
17

Manufacture process

Plant Lay out

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

March 2011
18

Manufacture process
Cleansing:
After drying several impurities could be mixed with biomass
such as metals; therefore they must be removed using
magnets and screens
Grinding:
The size of the biomass must be homogeneous, typically size
is below 5 mm
Pressing:
Raw material raw lies in a layer in front of a rolling press,
which presses the material down into the die block.
1 or 2% of steam is injected before the biomass goes into
the pelletising machine

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
19

Manufacture process

Pelletising machine with ring die block.

Diagram of the plane type die block


Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
20

Manufacture process
Parameters:
- Pressure
- Temperature
- Moisture
- Particle size
- Fibers
- Proteins
- Starch
- Lignin
- Oil and wax

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
21

Manufacture process
SEM (Beech at 25 and 100C)

Source: Stelte,
Biomass and Bioenergy 35 910 - 918

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
22

Manufacture process
UV-AF microscopy
(corn stover before and after)

Source: Kaliyan, Bioresource


Technology 101 1082 - 1090

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Lignin: brilliant blue, bluish white


Proteins: green or yellow green
Carbohydrates: black
Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
23

Energy from Pellets

We could use pellets either for electricity


production or thermal energy generation

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
24

Energy from pellets

Bulk power
Long term contracts
needed
Especially used at
co-firing plants

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
25

Energy from pellets

District heating

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
26

Energy from pellets

Residential heating

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
27

Energy from pellets

Residential Heating

Small bags: max 25 kg


Big Bags of up to 1200 kg

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
28

Energy from pellets

Electricity production
There is not any medium scale power plant
which operates only with biomass pellets.
Avedore (300.000 tonnes/year)

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
29

Energy from pellets

Pellet stoves for residential heating

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
30

Energy from pellets

Residential Heating

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
31

Environmental assessment

Energy consumption at the procurement


and use of wood pellets

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
32

Environmental assessment

Energy consumption of other fuels


Fuel

Energy consumption
MJ/tonne

% of energy content

Native wood
pellets

627

3,6

Imported wood
pellets

787

4,5

Natural Gas

2840

5,8

Oil

4617

11,4

Coal

1764

6,7

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
33

Environmental assessment

GHG Emissions

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
34

Environmental assessment

GHG Emissions compared with other


fuels

Fuel
Substance

Wood
pellets

Straw

Fuel Oil

Natural
Gas

CO2

g/MJ

0,108

0,108

0,972

0,72

SO2

g/MJ

13

94

0,5

CO

mg/MJ

50-3000

500-3000

15-30

15-20

NOx

mg/MJ

130 - 300

130 - 300

75

50 - 100

TOC

mg/MJ

<10

<10

0-2

0-2

Dust

mg/m3n

25 - 500

200 - 500

Renewable Energy .- Thermodynamics I.

Carlos Andrs Forero.

Sept 2011
35