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# Financial Mathematics

Financial Mathematics
Jonathan Ziveyi1
1 University of New South Wales
Risk and Actuarial Studies, Australian School of Business
j.ziveyi@unsw.edu.au

## Module 3 Topic Notes

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Financial Mathematics

Plan
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Introduction
Allowing for Tax
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments
Sinking Funds
Loans at a Flat Rate of Interest
Loan Valuation Example
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds
Pricing Bonds
Bond Valuation Example
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates
Investment Decision Criteria
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure
Project Appraisal Example
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Introduction

## compare different projects based on certain criteria:

which project is the best?

## make a recommendation based on certain criteria:

should we invest in that project?

## This involves determining net cash flows:

gains:

minus costs:

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sales
salvage value of assets
expenses
transaction costs
taxes
depreciation of assets
cost of debt

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Introduction

## Financing a project There are several ways of financing a project:

for an individual

for a company

personal wealth
personal loan
equity (shares)
debt (loans, bonds)

for a government

taxes
debt (treasury bonds)

## The analysis of loans and bonds is necessary in order to be able to

build the cash flow model. Note that bonds are nothing else than
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Introduction

## Plan of this module

1. Introduction
2. Allowing for Tax
3. Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments
4. Sinking Funds
5. Loans at a Flat Rate of Interest
6. Loan Valuation Example
7. Fixed Income Securities and Bonds
8. Pricing Bonds
9. Bond Valuation Example
10. Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates
11. Investment Decision Criteria
12. Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure
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## 13. Project Appraisal Example

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Allowing for Tax

## Allowing for tax Tax is a very important consideration when

analysing a cash flow:

## when and how much tax is paid influences the profitability of a

security or project
the tax rate depends on the type of cash flows:

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## income (e.g. interest, dividends, rents, . . . ), or

capital gains (e.g. increase of the value of a share or property,
above par redemption payments, . . . )

company)

## tax is usually paid with a lag that also depends on the

individual considered

## income and capital losses are usually allowed to be offset

against gains to derive tax benefits

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Allowing for Tax

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flows

## in case of losses that can offset gains, tax benefits can be

(the government wont pay any money, but a loss means tax
that otherwise would have been paid will not be paid)

in many cases price and yield calculations allowing for tax can
be done analytically (using financial mathematics formulae),
"by hand" and using a calculator

## larger/more complicated models can be easily done using a

spreadsheet model or other relevant software.

## transaction costs are similar costs that need to be allowed for

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Allowing for Tax

## Depreciation Schedules and Tax Many projects involve an

investment in capital equipment. For taxation purposes this is
depreciated usually on two (alternative) bases:

WDV)

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## in case of deferral (or lag) for taxation payments, treat as two

different cash flows

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

Loans Definitions:

## Consider a loan of amount L made at time 0 with repayments

of K1 , K2 ,. . . ,Kn at times 1, 2, . . . , n

Equation of value
L = K1 v + K2 v 2 + . . . + Kn v n

## Each loan repayment Kt can be decomposed into

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at effective rate i.

## a principal component (which amortises the loan)

an interest component (which pays the interest due since the
last repayment)

## The amount that still need to be reimbursed after a payment

is called the outstanding balance

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

Denote:
It

payment

## Interest in t th payment is simply the previous outstanding balance

multiplied by the rate of interest
i OBt1
Principal repaid should just be the difference between the actual
payment and the interest component
Kt It
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

## If we work recursively we have

at time 0
OB0 = L

at time 1
I1 = iOB0 = iL
PR1 = K1 I1 = K1 iOB0
OB1 = OB0 (1 + i) K1 = OB0 (K1 iOB0 )
= OB0 (K1 I1 ) = OB0 PR1

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## and then we move forward to the next time period

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

In general we have
It+1 = iOBt
PRt+1 = Kt+1 It+1
OBt+1 = OBt (1 + i) Kt+1 = OBt (Kt+1 It+1 )
= OBt PRt+1
Total repayments
KT =

Xn

Kt

IT =

Xn

It

total interest
and

L = KT IT =

n
X
t=1

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PRt

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

## Numerical example Example: Consider a loan of \$1000 repaid by 5

equal installments of principal and interest at the end of each year
for 5 years with an interest rate of 5%. Determine the repayments.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

Loan Schedule In practice it is often much easier to set out all the
information in a "loan schedule" providing information (for each
period) on:

Payments

Interest Due

Principal Repayments

Principal Outstanding

## This is usually presented in a table computed with the help of R or

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

Example For the \$1000 5 year loan with level repayments, what are
the interest and principal components in each year? Give a
repayment schedule.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

## In order to determine a given line of the loan schedule, one needs

only the principal outstanding at the beginning (or the end) of the
period. This can be determined directly via:

OBt =

n
X

s=t+1

t

OBt = L (1 + i)

t
X

s=0

## Both methods yield the same result.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Analysis of Loan Schedules and Repayments

## Numerical example (retrospective method) Consider a loan of

\$1000. For the first year the repayment was \$200, and the interest
charged was 5%
For the second and third years the repayment was \$150 p.a., and
interest charged was 4% p.a. What is the loan outstanding at the
end of the third year?

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sinking Funds

## Company A has borrowed an amount L (from a bank, by

issuing a bond, etc. . . ) and will need to reimburse the loan
after n years

to the lender(s)

## Company A wants to set up payments to a fund that will

accumulate to the amount of the loan at time n in order to
ensure the reimbursement

Usually, j < i.

## Such a fund is called a sinking fund.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sinking Funds

## In order to accumulate to L, level payments to the sinking fund

need to be equal to
L
,
sn j
which means that the total payment for each time unit is
iL +

L
.
sn j

## The first component is the interest component, paid to the lender,

and the second is the principal component, paid to the sinking
fund.

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## Does a sinking fund lead to higher repayments than when the

loan is reimbursed gradually using the amortisation method?

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sinking Funds

## Sinking fund example A loan of \$1000 is to be repaid by 5 annual

payments, beginning one year after the loan is made. The lender
wants annual payments of interest only at a rate of 7% and
repayments of the principal in a single lump sum at the end of 5
years.
The borrower can accumulate principal in a sinking fund earning an
annual interest rate of 6%, and decides to do this with 5 level
deposits starting one year after the loan is made. Determine the
repayment and model the cash flows of this transaction in a

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sinking Funds

Example

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loans at a Flat Rate of Interest

I =Lf n
where:

interest)

R=

L+I
n

## where n is the number of level instalments.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loans at a Flat Rate of Interest

## Numerical example A lawnmower worth \$400 is offered for sale on

the following terms:
10% deposit, flat interest of 10% p.a. with monthly repayments
over 30 months.
Determine the repayment and the effective annual rate of interest.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loans at a Flat Rate of Interest

## the "real" rate of interest is usually much higher than what

the flat rate suggests

## flat rate loans do not encourage earlier payments (the amount

of interest that has to be paid is fixed)

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## because of the problems described above, it is forbidden is

some countries (mainly developed, such as in Australia)

## however, it is widely used in developing countries (mainly by

microcredit institutions)

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loan Valuation Example

## Example - Loan Valuation - Spreadsheet A loan of nominal amount

\$500,000 was issued bearing interest of 8% per annum payable
quarterly in arrears. The loan will be repaid at \$105% by 20 annual
installments, each of nominal amount \$25,000, the first repayment
being ten years after the issue date. An investor, liable to both
income tax and capital gains tax, purchased the entire loan on the
issue date at a price to obtain a net effective annual yield of 6%.
Find the price paid, given that his rates of taxation for income and
capital gains are 40% and 30% respectively.
What is the price paid allowing for taxation? Develop a spreadsheet
model for the loan allowing for both income and capital gains
taxation.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loan Valuation Example

complicated.

## Given a price we can determine if a CGT is due for each

repayment:

+
face value reimbursedt
P
CGTt = 30% actual paymentt
500000

## we have then (net receipts):

CFt = APRt + It TIt CGTt

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Loan Valuation Example

## Calculate in a cell the difference between the PV and the Price

(which should be equal)

## Using the solver, target a difference of 0

You may need to constraint the interest rate and the price to
be positive.

Note:
(x y )+ = max(x y , 0).

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds

## Fixed Income Securities Broad range of securities with fixed

income:
bonds (or notes, or debentures), issued by

types of bonds

## short term (e.g. Australian Treasury note, or promissory note)

vs long term (e.g. Australian Treasury bond)
virtually risk free to very risky (junk bonds)
coupon bonds or zero-coupon bonds (ZCB)
indexed bonds, or real return bonds

but also

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the government
private companies

## certificates of deposit (tradable or not)

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds

Government Bonds
Government Bonds:

## also provide low risk securities (liquidity on the market, and

determination of the structure of interest)

## both short and long term

(in Australia: Treasury Notes and Treasury Bonds)

## consist of both coupon and capital payments

(in Australia: usually interest only until maturity)
for (Commonwealth) Government Bonds in Australia

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## usually semiannual coupons

coupons are paid on the 15th of each relevant month.
yields are quoted as nominal p.a. with the same frequency as
the coupon payments

## Other conventions: see Broverman and Sherris

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds

## Bond basics Pays coupon (interest) to purchaser a certain number

of times a year, of amount
Fc
paid p times per year
p
where
F is the face value (par value)
c is the annual coupon rate
p is the frequency of payments
Payments will continue during the term to maturity of the bond
(denoted by n).
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds

## Maturity is the date when the bond is redeemed

(reimbursed)
The redemption amount FR at maturity is not always equal to
the face value. We have

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## R = 1: the bond is redeemed at par

R < 1: the bond is redeemed below par
R > 1: the bond is redeemed above par

## Sometimes, principal is reimbursed before maturity. Again, the

amount of face value can be reimbursed at par, or
below/above par.

## A bond is essentially a loan that is amortised in a single lump

sum payment (at maturity) and/or by earlier payments.

## Being able to differentiate between face value redemption and

capital gain/loss (above/below par reimbursements)
is important for accounting, yield and tax purposes.

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Fixed Income Securities and Bonds

## Numerical example A 3 year bond with a face value of \$100,000

pays annual coupons at a rate of 10% p.a. The bond is
1. entirely redeemed at maturity with a payment of \$120,000;
2. redeemed by 2 payments of \$65,000 each at the end of the
second and third year, each for half of the bonds face value.
For both cases, establish a loan schedule showing interest
payments, principal repayments and capital gains.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

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## as usual for securities, the price of a bond is essentially the

present value of its future cash flows

## the rate, called yield, at which cash flows are discounted is a

critical assumption

## it is usually quoted along with the price of the bond (both

values are equivalent ways of quoting the price of a bond)

## it is usually of the same type as the coupon rate (semiannual

nominal for US/CA/AU, sometimes also annual in EU)

## the yield usually depends on the current structure of interest,

as well as the risk associated to the bond as perceived by the
market (note also some rating agencies rate bonds AAA to C)

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

## On coupon dates For a bond at yield i (p) = pi whose redemption

and face values are the same (R = 1) we have:
P = Fcanp i + Fvinp
= Fcanp i + F (1 ianp i )
= F + F (c i) anp i

## If R 6= 1, the price is the PV of the future CF (simple application of

compound interest techniques)

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

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## in practice bonds are traded between coupon payment dates

the seller will require the interest accumulated since the last
coupon date to be paid by the buyer

## if the sale is too close to the next coupon payment (in

Australia, 7 days or less), the bond becomes ex-interest,
which means that the next coupon payment will still be paid
to the seller, even if the bond is not his property any more

## the general pricing approach is to discount the bond cash flows

to the next coupon payment date (including the coupon
payment at that date), and then further discount this present
value this to the (prior) sale date

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

## The RBA formula

The RBA uses the following formula to value Treasury Bonds when
maturity is between n and n + 1 semesters:
f

P = vi d [C + Gan i + 100v n ]
where:

## (this is identical to the general formula given in Broverman)

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

Market price Two bonds with the same cash flows and the same
yield will have a different purchase price if coupons payment dates
are different, which may be confusing. Hence, bonds are usually
quoted at a market price. We distinguish:
Price-plus-accrued:

## the price with accrued interest (coupon) - see previous slide

the purchase price
also: "dirty price", "full price", or "flat price"

Market price

## price as quoted ( smoothed price)

accrued interest is removed
market price = dirty price accrued interest = P tFc

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## also: "clean price"

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

## Numerical example Consider a Government bond paying semi

annual interest of 10% p.a. on 15-April and 15-October each year.
It is redeemable at par on 15 Oct in 6 years time. Find the purchase
and market prices to yield 8.5%p.a. (semi-annual) on 30 June.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Pricing Bonds

## be fixed (most of the bonds)

vary at borrowers option

## on or after certain date

no final date (undated)
between two dates

at lenders option

## An uncertain redemption dates means that lenders (buyers) cant

easily determine yields at the purchase date. In such a case, they
can still determine:

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## a minimum yield, for given price

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

## Example - Loan Valuation - "by hand" [UNSW Final Exam 2006] A

bond with a nominal face value of \$100, 000 is redeemable by two
payments, one in 5 years time and the other in 10 years time. The
payment in 5 years time is for a nominal amount of \$40, 000 and in
10 years time for a nominal amount of \$60, 000. Redemption
payments are payable at \$105 per \$100 nominal face value.
Coupons are paid on the bond at 6% p.a semi-annually based on
the nominal amount outstanding. Tax is paid on the coupons at a
rate of 30% and tax is paid on capital gains at a rate of 15%.
Capital losses are assumed to be offset against other capital gains
of the investor.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

## 1. Determine the price to be paid by an investor to earn a gross

yield of 6.5% p.a. (semi-annual).
2. Determine the price to be paid by an investor to earn a net of
tax (after tax) yield of 5% p.a. (semi-annual) allowing only for
tax on the coupons.
3. Determine the price to be paid for the bond to yield an net of
tax return of 4% pa. (semi-annual) allowing for tax on
coupons and capital gains.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

## 1. Price to earn a gross yield of 6.5% p.a. (semi-annual) (note the

yield and coupons are semi-annual so work in half years)
0.06
(40,000) a10 + 40,000 (1.05) v 10
2
0.06
6.5
+
(60,000) a20 + 60,000 (1.05) v 20 at
%
2
2
= 1,200 8.422395 + 42,000 0.726272

Price =

## +1,800 14.539346 + 63,000 0.527471

= 10,106.874 + 30,503.431 + 26,170.823 + 33,230.689
= 100,011.82

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

## 2. Gross yield of 5% p.a. (semi-annual), tax on the coupons

0.06
(40,000) a10 + 40,000 (1.05) v 10
2
0.06
5.0
+ (1 0.3)
(60,000) a20 + 60,000 (1.05) v 20 at
%
2
2
= 840 8.752064 + 42,000 0.781198

Price = (1 0.3)

## +1260 15.589162 + 63,000 0.610271

= 7,351.7337 + 32,810.333 + 19,642.3445 + 38,447.0694
= 98,251.48

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

## After tax return of 4% p.a. (semi-annual), tax on coupons and

capital gains
Price = (1 0.3)

0.06
(40,000) a10
2


+40,000 (1.05) v
+ (1 0.3)

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
40000
0.15 40,000 (1.05)
P v 10
100000

0.06
(60,000) a20
2


+60,000 (1.05) v
at

10

20


60000
0.15 60,000 (1.05)
P v 20
100000
4.0
%
2

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Bond Valuation Example

We have
P = 840 8.982585 + [42,000 0.15 (42,000 0.4P)] 0.820348
+1260 16.351433 + [63,000 0.15 (63,000 0.6P)] 0.672971
and thus
(1 0.049221 0.060567) P = 7,545.371 + 29,286.4236
+20,602.8056 + 36,037.597
93,472.197
= 105,000.
P =
0.890212

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

## effective "average" rate of interest over the whole (time)

length of an investment:
yield rate =

accumulated value
investment cost

1/length of investment

## present value of inflows (gains) minus outflows (expenses and

investment costs), or net cash flows

## must be calculated using a relevant rate of interest

(reflecting risk and cost of capital)

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## rate of interest such that the NPV is 0

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

0
1
2
3
4
5

Option 1
-1000.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00

Option 2
-1000.00
533.20
350.00
250.00
150.00
50.00

P

## Inflows accumulated @ IRR

1000

Yield = IRR!
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1/5

1 =

1762.90
1000

1/5

1 = 12.01%

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

## What if it is not possible to reinvest inflows at a rate equal to IRR?

For option 1
P

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Inflows accumulated @ 3%
1000

1/5

1 =

1561.37
1000

1/5

1 = 9.32%

## if the reinvestment rate is different from the IRR, the yield is

not equal to the IRR!

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

Numerical example

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

## assume a homogeneous rate of interest for all cash flows:

(Accum. value @ IRR) = (Invmt cost)(1 + IRR)length of invmt

## do not allow for a different reinvestment rate

Solution

MIRR:
(Accum. value @ reinv. rate) = (Invmt cost)(1+MIRR)length of invmt

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## MIRR is a modified yield that takes into account the

reinvestment rates

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Definitions of Yield, IRR and MIRR Rates

Multiple IRR If cash flows are non conventional (change sign more
than once), there may be several IRR...
Example:

t
0
1
2

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CFt
-59
= NPV(i):
154
-99

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Investment Decision Criteria

Decision criteria
1. Payback period

## the amount of time until repayments accumulate (without

interest) to the initial investment

## the amount of time until discounted repayments have a higher

PV than the initial investment
same idea as payback period, but taking the time value of
money into account

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## the present value of net cash flows

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Investment Decision Criteria

5. MIRR

## a modified IRR that takes into account reinvestment rates

6. Profitability index

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the ratio
(PV of repayments) / (initial investment)
remember the NPV is the difference:
(PV of repayments) - (initial investment)

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Investment Decision Criteria

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## returns over subsequent periods are compounded to yield an

average return
particularly used by investment funds to transform monthly
returns into longer term returns (semesterly, annual, . . . )

Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Investment Decision Criteria

Numerical example
In this example, what is the decision that the various decision
criteria that were introduced would yield?

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure

## Sensitivity of Results: Example Suppose your company is

considering the purchase a small insurer. You forecast the following
cashflows for this insurer over the next 5 years:

## Expenses: 5m p.a, increasing at 3% p.a.

Assume that these are all incurred at the middle of the year on
average.

At the end of the 5th year the business will be sold for a total
of 10m.

## Find the NPV of this project at 6% p.a.

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure

## discount rate assumption?

expense increase rate?

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure

7. Reporting
A Member must ensure that his or her reporting (whether oral or
written) in respect of Professional Services provided:
(a) is appropriate, having regard to:
1. the intended audience;
2. its fitness for the purposes for which such
reporting may be required or relevant;
3. the likely significance of the reporting to its
intended audience;
4. the capacity in which the Member is acting; and
5. any inherent uncertainty and risks in relation to
the subject of the report;
(b) complies with any relevant Professional Standards.
Institute of Actuaries of Australia Code of Professional Conduct
(November 2009, Section 7)
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure

## Assess Extract of professional standards on economic valuations:

4.2 Scope of economic valuation
[. . . ]
The Member should ascertain the materiality limits that apply to
the economic valuation bearing in mind:

## Institute of Actuaries of Australia Guidance Note 552 on Economic

Valuations (July 2004)

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Sensitivity of Results and Duty of Disclosure

## And then communicate

3.3 Transparency
The models, methods and assumptions used for the economic
valuation should, as far as practical, be transparent, enabling
valuation results and sensitivities in the results to changes in
particular assumptions to be understood by the intended users of
the economic valuation.
Institute of Actuaries of Australia Guidance Note 552 on Economic
Valuations (July 2004)

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Project Appraisal Example

## Project Appraisal Example A company considers buying equipment

and then leasing it out to third parties. This project has the
following variables:

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Project Appraisal Example

Loan schedule

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Project Appraisal Example

Taxable income

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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Project Appraisal Example

## NPV @ 18%: \$161,745

IRR: 22.06%
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Financial Mathematics
Module 3: Loan Valuation and Project Appraisal Techniques
Project Appraisal Example

NPV check

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