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Why should water be never added to concentrated sulphuric acid?


Name the gas evolved when dilute sulphuric acid acts on sodium carbonate.


Dry ammonia gas has no action on litmus paper, but a solution of ammonia in water turns red litmus paper
blue. Why is it so?
1. Write chemical equations to show the reactions taking place when a glass rod dipped in concentrated
hydrochloric acid is introduced in a jar containing ammonia gas.
2. Write the name and the chemical formula of the organic acid present in vinegar.
3. Which will be more acidic and why?
A solution with pH value of 6.0 or
A solution with pH value of 5.0
4. Write balanced chemical equations for the reactions taking place when dry blue crystals of copper sulphate
are dropped into concentrated sulphuric acid.
5. Name an acid-base indicator prepared at home.
6. What will happen to blue litmus when it is added to soda water?
7. What are acids?
8. What are indicators?
9. What is a litmus solution?
10. What will happen to red litmus solution when it is added to bitter gourd extract? Is it acidic or basic?
11. Why are some perishable foods preserved in vinegar?
12. There are two jars A and B containing food materials. Food in jar A is pickled with acetic acid while B is not.
Food of which of jar will stale first. Explain?
13. How does HCl help in digestion of food?
14. Which acid is present in sour milk or curd?
15. Which acid is present in tamarind?
16. Name two synthetic indicators which are used to test acids and bases.
17. What is the colour of methyl orange in baking soda solution?
18. What is the colour of phenolphalein in dil. HCl?
19. What is the colour of phenolphthalein in soap solution? Is it acidic or basic?
20. Which gas is evolved when zinc granules react with dil. H2SO4? Give chemical reaction.
21. What happens when magnesium metal reacts with dil HCl? Give the chemical reaction involved.
22. Why does copper not react with dil. H2SO4 or dil. HCl?
23. What is aqua regia?

24. Name the metals which are soluble in aqua regia.

25. Which acid cannot be stored in glass bottles and why?
26. Which planet contains yellowish clouds of sulphuric acid?
27. Do you think life can exist on Venus?
28. What happens when limestone reacts with dil. HCl?
29. Why does CO2 gas turns limewater milky? What happens when excess of CO 2 is passed and why?
30. What happens when magnesium carbonate reacts with dil. HCl? Give chemical reaction.
31. Name the products and reactants in the above reaction.
32. Name the salts involved in the above reaction.
33. Will you classify the above reaction as replacement reaction or as a neutralization reaction?
34. Which chemicals are used in soda-acid fire extinguisher?
35. Give chemical equation for the reaction taking place in soda-acid fire extinguisher.
36. What do all acids have in common?
37. What is formula of (i) carbonic acid (ii) formic acid?
38. What is formula of (i) Nitric acid (ii) Acetic acid
39. Why does HCl (g) not conduct electricity when dissolved in toluene?
40. Give chemical reaction for preparation of HCl (g)
41. What role does water play in the litmus test?
42. Why does dry litmus paper not show colour change with solution of dry HCl in dry toluene?
43. When conc. acid is added to water, whether the process is exothermic or endothermic?
44. What will be concentration of H+ (aq) ions in the solution when pH = 0?
45. What is pH of acid rain?
46. What is pH of blood?
47. If soil is acidic, what compound you spread to treat the soil?
48. Which has more H+ concentration, 1 M HCl or 1 M CH3COOH?
49. Why does 1 M HCl have higher concentration than 1 M CH3COOH?
50. What are strong acids? Give two examples.
51. What are weak acids? Give two examples.
52. What happens when copper oxide reacts with HCl? Give chemical reaction.
53. Write down the positive and negative ions of the following compounds:
(i) NaNO3 (ii) KCl
54. State whether above compounds are salts or not. Give reason for your answer.
55. Complete the following reaction:
NH3 + H2O

56. What happens when HCl reacts with ammonium hydroxide? Give chemical equation for the reaction.
57. How is ammonium nitrate obtained? Give chemical reaction.
58. What are antacids? Give one example.
59. What is milk of magnesia? Is it strong or mild base?
60. Is toothpaste acidic or alkaline?
61. Why does tooth decay occur?
62. Which chemical is present in enamel?
63. Which acid is present in fatigued muscles?
64. What is cure for bee sting? How?
65. Do alkalies also react with metals? Give one example.
66. Which acid and base are used in formation of following salts (i) CuSO 4

(ii) NaNO3?

67. What happens when copper metal is added to silver nitrate solution? Give chemical reaction.
68. Which acid and base can be used to prepare (i) NaHCO3 and (ii) NaHSO4 ?
69. What are monocratic acids?
70. Give two examples of monocratic acids.
71. Give one example of diprotic and one example of triprotic acids.
72. Which chemical is present in common salt?
73. What happens when electricity is passed through aqueous solution of NaCl?
74. What is meant by Electrolysis?
75. What is bleaching powder?
76. Name a process used for manufacture of NaHCO3 and washing soda from common salt.
77. Why Solvays process is considered economical?
78. Why do acids react with salt?
79. Give one example of reaction of salt with acid.
80. What happens when HCl is added to baking soda?
81. What is pH of washing soda? Is it less than
82. Name one chemical used for removing permanent hardness of water.
83. What is the role of tartaric acid in baking powder?
84. What happens when CuSO4.5H2O is heated?
85. What is gypsum?
86. How is plaster of Paris obtained from gypsum? Give chemical reaction.
87. A yellow colour solution turns reddish pink in acidic solution. What do you call such substances?

88. A bud of petunias became reddish pink in acidic solution and remains as such in basic solution. What do you
call such substances?
89. Why should acids be handled with care?
90. When zinc granules react with dilute HCl, which element present in acid is replaced by metal?
91. Name an indicator which indicates the various levels of hydrogen ion concentration.
92. Two solutions have pH numbers 7 and 2 respectively. Which solution has more H + concentration?
93. When concentrated acid is diluted, does the pH get higher or lower?
94. What changes will take place in the pH of an acid if you go on adding alkali to it ?
95. Which by-product of Chlor-alkali process is used for manufacture of bleaching powder?
96. Out of Zn, Mg, Fe and Cu, which of them is most reactive?
1. Why should curd and sour substances not be kept in brass and copper vessels?
2. You have been provided with three test tubes. One of them contains distilled water and the other two contain
an acidic solution and a basic solution respectively. You are given
only red litmus paper, how will you
identify the contents of each test tube?
3. Why does an aqueous solution of an acid conduct electricity?
4. Why do HCl, HNO3 etc. show acidic characters in aqueous solutions while solutions of compounds like
C2H5OH and glucose do not show acidic character?
5. Why does dry HCl gas not change the colour of the dry litmus paper?
6. While diluting an acid why is it recommended that the acid should be added to water and not water to the
7. How is the concentration of hydronium ion (H3O+) affected when a solution of an acid is diluted
8. What effect does the concentration of H+ (aq) have on the acidic nature of the solution?
9. You have two solutions A and B. The pH of solution A is 6 and pH of solution B is 8. Which solution has
more hydrogen ion concentration? Which of this is acidic and which one is basic?
10. Do basic solutions also have H+ (aq) ions? If yes, then why are these basic?
11. What is common name of the compound CaOCl2?
12. Name the substance which on treatment with chlorine yields bleaching powder.
13. Name the sodium compound which is used for softening hard water.
14. What will happen if the solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate is heated? Give the equation for the reaction
15. Write an equation to show the reaction between plaster of Paris and water.
16. A solution turns red litmus blue, its pH is likely to be
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 5

(d) 10.

17. A solution reacts with crushed egg-shells to give a gas that turns limewater milky, the
solution contains
(a) NaCl
(b) HCl
(c) LiCl
(d) KCl.
18. 10 ml of a solution of NaOH is found to be completely neutralized by 8 ml of a given
solution of HCl. If
we take 20 ml of the same solution of NaOH, the amount of HCl solution (the same solution as before)
required to neutralize it will be


(a) 4 ml

(b) 8 ml

(c) 12 ml

(d) 16 ml.

19. Which one of the following types of medicines is used for treating indigestion?
(a) Antibiotic
(b) Analgesic
(c) Antacid

(d) Antiseptic.


20. (a) Give Arrhenius definition of an acid and a base.
(b) Choose strong acid and strong base from the following:
21. What is observed when sulphur dioxide is passed through?
(a) Water
(b) limewater
Also write a chemical equation for the reaction for the reactions that take place.

22. What is efflorescence? Give an example.

23. (i) AN aqueous solution has a pH value of 7.0. Is this solution acidic, basic or neutral?
(ii) Which has a higher pH value, 1M HCl or 1 M NaOH solution?
24. Given below are the pH values of four different liquids: 7.0, 14.0, 4.0, and 2.0
Which of these could be that of? (i) Lemon juice, (ii) distilled water,
solution,(iv) tomato juice?

(iii) 1 M sodium hydroxide

25. Write two observations you would make when quicklime is added to water.
26. A calcium compound which is yellowish white powder is used as a disinfectant and also in textile industry.
Name the compound. Which gas is released when this compound is
left exposed to air?
27. How is Plaster of Paris chemically different from gypsum? How may they be interconverted? Write one use of
Plaster of Paris.
28. What are alkalies? Give one example of alkalies.
29. What happens when crystals of washing soda are left open in dry air? What is this change named as? Name
two industries based on use of washing soda.
30. Sulphuric acid is a dibasic acid. Write two reaction equations to justify this statement and name the reaction
products in the two cases.
31. Name the gas evolved when dilute sulphuric acid acts as sodium carbonate. Write the chemical equation for
the reaction products in the two cases.
32. Name the acid formed when
CO2 is dissolved in water.
SO2 is dissolved in water.
What names are given to the two separate sodium salts of the acid in case of SO 2?
33. (i) What is observed when dilute solution of ammonium hydroxide is added to a solution of FeSO4 in water?
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the above reaction.
34. What is the chemical name of washing soda? Name the three chief raw materials used for making washing
soda by the Solvay process.
35. State the chemical property in each case on which the following uses of baking soda are based:
(i) As an antacid
(ii) as a constituent of baking powder.
36. How is plaster of Paris obtained? What reaction is involved in the setting of a paste of plaster of Paris?
37. How is chloride of lime chemically different from calcium chloride? Why does chloride of lime gradually lose
its chlorine when kept exposed to air?

38. What does slaking of lime stand for? Why is there a hissing sound during this process? Write the chemical
equation for the reaction involved.
39. What is meant by the term pH of a solution? The pH of gastric juices extracted from the stomach of two
persons A and B were found to be 1 and 3 respectively. The stomach juice of which person is more acidic?
1. How can you prepare acid-base indicator at home?
2. What are natural-indicators? Give examples of action of two such indicators which you may have observed.
3. You are provided with 4 samples of bitter and sour food extracts. How can you test the presence of acids and
bases among these solutions without tasting them?
4. A gas produced in the laboratory is highly soluble in water. Its colourless solution turns pink when a few drops
of phenolphthalein is added to it. What is the nature of this gas?
5. pH of gastric juice lies between 1 and 3 .
(a) Which substance is responsible for the specific pH of gastric juice?
(b) Is it acidic or basic?
(c) How is this pH range helpful in digestive system?
6. How does acetic acid (vinegar) help in the preservation of food?
7. Name the acids present in the following foodstuffs which attribute a sour taste to them: Lemon juice, vinegar,
vitamin C tablet, tamarind, sour milk.
8. Write down the molecular formula for: Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, Phosphoric acid, Carbonic acid.
9. Equal volumes of dilute hydrochloric acid are reacted with equal amounts of copper, zinc, magnesium and
iron. The metals reacted with different intensity in terms of evolution of
Hydrogen gas. Explain this observation.
10. Hold one moist and one dry strip of blue litmus paper over dry hydrochloric gas. Which strip of litmus paper
will turn red and why?
11. How will you prepare 100 times dilute solution drop 1 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid solution? What
precaution would you suggest and why?
12. What does pH stand for? What does a pH scale indicate?
13. Between dilute and concentrated samples of sulphuric acid which samples of sulphuric acid will have a higher
H+ ion concentration? Which sample will have a lower pH number?
14. Acetic acid is weak acid and ammonia is a weak base. Discuss the term weak.
15. Differentiate between:
(a) Strong acid and concentrated acid
(b) Weak base and dilute base.
16. Three acidic solutions A, B and C have pH = 0, 3 and 5 respectively.
(a) Which solution has highest number of H+ ions?
(b) Which solution has the least number of H+ ions?
17. Salivary amylase, an enzyme present in saliva helps in the digestion of starch into glucose at a pH range of
6.2 to 7.6. Take 5 ml of 1% starch solution in two test-tubes A and B and pour 2 ml of saliva in each test-tube.
In test-tube B drop 2-3 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid. Wait fro 10-15 minutes and then add 2-3 drops of
iodine solution in each test-tube. Why does the solution turn blue-black in test-tube A and not in test-tube B?
(Hint:- Presence of starch can be tested with the help of iodine solution by which it turns blue-black)
18. Fresh milk has pH of 6. How do you think the pH will change as it becomes sour? Explain your answer.
19. To grow specific variety of crops the optimum pH range of the soil should be 5.5 to 7.0. A farmer decides to
add lime to soil. Why does he take such a step?

20. Sweet tooth may lead to tooth decay. Explain why? What is the role of toothpaste in preventing cavities?
21. How is neutralization of carbonate different from neutralization of an oxide or a


22. Salts like sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3I react with dilute HCl to give out CO2
and water. Give chemical reactions to explain this.
23. A blue salt becomes white on heating. With the help of a reaction explain the change in colour.
24. The formula of plaster of Paris is CaSO4. 2H2O. Is it possible for a salt to have half a water molecule as water
of crystallization? Justify your answer.
25. With the help of a chemical reaction explain how a soda-acid fire extinguisher helps putting out a fire.
1. Write word equations and then balanced equations for the reaction taking place when:
(a) Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with zinc granules.
(b) Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium ribbon.
(c) Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with aluminium powder.
(d) Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with iron filings.
2. Why do acids not show acidic behaviour in the absence of water?
3. What is a neutralization reaction? Give two examples.
4. Give two important uses of washing soda and baking soda.
5. Which gas is usually liberated when an acid acid reacts with a metal? Illustrate with an
you test for the presence of gas?

example. How will

6. A metal compound A reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce effervescence. The gas evolved
extinguishes a burning candle. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction if one of the compounds
formed is calcium chloride.
7. Why does distilled water not conduct electricity whereas rainwater does?
8. Five solutions A, B, C, D and E when tested with universal indicator showed pH as 4, 1, 11, 7 and 9
respectively. Which solution is (a) neutral? (b) Strongly alkaline? (c) Strongly acidic? (d) Weakly acidic?
(e) Weakly alkaline? (f) Arrange the pH in increasing order of hydrogen ion concentration.
9. Equal lengths of magnesium ribbon are taken in test tubes A and B. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added to
test tube A while acetic acid (CH3COOH) is added to test tube B. In which test tube will the fizzing occur
more vigorously and why?
10. A milkman adds a very small amount of baking soda to fresh milk.
(a) Why does he shift the pH of the fresh milk from 6 to slightly alkaline?
(b) What do you expect to observe when the milk comes to a boil?
(c) Why does this milk take a long time to set as curd?
11. Fresh milk has a pH of 6. How do you think the pH will change as it turns into curd? Explain your answer.
12. Under what soil condition do you think a farmer would spread or treat the soil of his fields with quicklime
(calcium oxide) or slaked lime (calcium carbonate)?
13. Plaster of Paris should be stored in a moisture proof container. Explain why?

14. Name the raw materials that are required for the manufacture of washing soda by Solvay process. Describe
the chemical reactions involved in the process.

15. (a) Write the formula and the chemical name of bleaching powder.(b) Write chemical equation to represent the
action of atmospheric CO2 gas on bleaching powder when left exposed in open.(c) State for what purpose is
bleaching powder used in water treatment plants.


(a) Write the chemical name and formula of bleaching powder.

(b) Why does bleaching powder smell of chlorine when exposed to air?
(c) Write chemical equation to represent the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on bleaching powder.


What is observed when?

(a) Dilute sulphuric acid is added to solid sodium carbonate.
(b) Hot concentrated sulphuric acid is added to sulphur.
(c) Sulphur dioxide is passed through lime water?
Also write chemical equations to represent the chemical reaction taking place in each


Name the raw materials used in the manufacture of sodium carbonate by Solvay process.
How is the sodium hydrogen carbonate formed during Solvay process separated from
mixture of NH4Cl and NaHCO3?
How is sodium carbonate obtained from sodium hydrogen carbonate?


What is the action on litmus of

(a) Dry ammonia gas
(b) solution of ammonia gas in water.
(ii) State the observations you would make on adding ammonium hydroxide to aqueous
solutions of (a) Ferrous sulphate , (b) Aluminium chloride.


Differentiate between strong and weak electrolytes.

(ii) Select the strong electrolytes from amongst the following:
Molten NaCl, glacial CH3COOH, strong NH4OH solution, dil. HCl


(a) What is meant by pH of a solution ?

(b) State one difference between a strong electrolyte and a weak electrolyte. Give one example of each.


How did Arrhenius define acids and bases? Choose a strong acid and a weak base from
following substances: CH3COOH, NH4OH, HCl, and KOH



Describe the steam reforming processes for the manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas with the help
of necessary chemical equations


Write the chemical name and formula of washing soda. What are the raw materials used
for its
manufacture by Solvay process? What happens when crystals of washing soda are exposed to air?


A compound X of sodium forms a white powder. It is a constituent of baking powder and

is used in
Antacid prescriptions. When heated, X gives out a gas and steam. The gas forms a white precipitate with lime
water. Write the chemical formula and name of X and the chemical equation for its decomposition on heating.
What is its role in baking powder and in antacids?

Identify the compound of calcium which is yellowish white powder and is used for disinfecting drinking
How is it manufactured? Write the chemical equation for the reaction involved. What happens when it is left
exposed to air?
Identify the compound of calcium which is used for plastering of fractured bones. With the help of
equation, describe how this compound is prepared. What special precaution should be taken during the
preparation of this compound?
State Arrhenius concept of acids and bases. Giving reason, select a strong acid and a
amongst the following substances: H2CO3, HNO3, NaOH, and NH4OH.

weak base


You are given dil.HCl and NaOH solutions. Describe an activity by which you can observe just that point
at which neutralization takes place.


Identify the acid and the base from which the following salts are obtained
1. Write their molecular formula and chemical names.
2. Write balanced chemical equation for formation of these salts.
b. NaNO3, K2SO4, Ca3(PO4)2, MgCO3, KBr and CuSO4


Sulphuric acid is diprotic acid and hydrochloric acid is monoprotic acid. Explain this statement with the
help of suitable examples.


Salts of which alkali do not contain metal ion? Support your answer with suitable reaction.


What is the difference between salt formed when an acid reacts with metal and when a base reacts with
metal. Illustrate your answer with chemical reaction using zinc as a metal.


Give one example of each through their chemical and molecular formula. (a) Chloride salt (b) sulphate salt
(c) Carbonate salt (d) Nitrate salt (e) Sodium salt (f) Calcium salt (g) Copper salt.


A more reactive metal can displace less reactive metal from its salt solution. Using this concept describe
an experiment to show among Zn, Fe and Cu, zinc is most reactive and copper is least reactive.


What happens when electric current is passed through brine? Give reaction.


How do the elements present in a fertilizer fulfill the nutritional requirements of a plant?


Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers may lead to water pollution. Elucidate the statement.


How can you prove with the help of activity that hydrogen present in an acid is responsible for its acidic


Perform the activity to compare the pH of strong and weak acids having same concentrations.


Perform the activity to compare the conductance of 1 M HCl with 1 M CH 3COOH and 1 M HNO3 with 1 M


Perform the activity to show the weakly basic nature of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.


Compounds like alcohols and glucose also contain hydrogen but are not categorized as
Discuss an activity to prove it.