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The roles of teacher

the roles of learner

Motivation ( intrinsic and extrinsic ) - how to rise them ?
Lession 4 : teaching and learning
Final Task :
The roles of teacher in the classroom as a promper and tutor ?
As a prompter :
+ ............................................
ex :
+ .................
Note : Tutor and advisor are different ( in our book, there was a paragraph : tutor as a advisor ......... ) . Tutor is an instructor ......
Looking for some info about : facilitator , manager

Individuals, groups and organisations have roles and responsibilities in assessment. Some are indicated here but these are not
comprehensive or definitive lists.

engage actively in learning.

are assessed as part of daily learning through a range of activities including dialogue and interactions with peers and
teachers, practical investigations, performances, oral presentations and discussions.
are assessed on written work and on products such as artwork, reports or projects.
demonstrate their knowledge and understanding, skills, attributes and capabilities through a wide range of evidence
including specific assessment tasks, activities, test and examinations.
shape and review their learning by reflection, setting learning goals and next steps including through personal learning
review their own learning through self assessment.
collaborate in peer assessment.
contribute to moderation activities.
After reading a couple of articles about the role of a student in the classroom, I found some common threads that were
mentioned. Students, first of all, should be ACTIVE participants in their education. By active, this means that students should
contribute to classroom discussions by not only answering direct questions posed by the teacher, but answers questions posed
by their peers. This again, is not all that the student should do. Students should feel free to ask questions, or express their own
ideas about a subject, not only to their teacher, but also their peers. This allow students to construct their own knowledge about
their learning, and apply if to their education.
A students role is also to be motivated about their learning. This role is also tied to a teachers role as well. However, if
students are truly interested in learning, it is their job to THINK. When thinking, students should be able to find some prior
experience or knowledge to apply this new learning to. When doing so, they should mentally prepare themselves to learn more
about this new concept or idea. Now, this does nto always happen, but a student who wants to be actively involved in their
education, should THINK.

As the teachers role is now a facilitator (or should be), the students role is to take given information or instructions and
coordinate that task for himself or group members, and begin the task. The student must be a task monitor by checking
himself/herself in terms of on task study time, noise level, and quality work. He or she should be responsible for gathering
materials needed for an assignment, when given directions to where resources can be found. He or she should also put back
materials when finished. These are simplistic roles, but roles that I use in my classroom as a cooperative learning teacher.
Students take on the roles of coordinators, task master, noise monitor, clean-up/maintenance. While all students take on
different main roles, all students are still required to take part in the assignment and learning itself. For example, just because
one student is the noise monitor, does not mean his/her sole role is to tell their team to keep an appropriate noise level in the
classroom. He/she must also be involved in the task that the coordinator has assigned to him/her, and cooperate with team
members to accomplish that task.

First, motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is when you want to do something. Extrinsic motivation is
when somebody else tries to make you do something.
Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation and Hierarchy of Needs
MOTIVATION: Something that energizes, direct, and sustains behaviors.
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Internal desires to perform a particular task, people do
Certain activities because it gives them pleasure, develops a particular skill, or
Its morally the right thing to do.
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Factors external to the individual and unrelated to the
Task they are performing. Examples include money, good grades, and other

Intrinsically motivated students are bound to do much better in classroom activities, because they are willing and eager to
learn new material. Their learning experience is more meaningful, and they go deeper into the subject to fully understand
it. On the other hand, extrinsically motivated students may have to be bribed to perform the same tasks.
How can we motivate students intrinsically?

A theorists by the name of Abraham Maslow, has concluded that before we can be intrinsically motivated we must first satisfy
some more basic human needs. According to Maslow there are five basic levels of human needs.

Physiological needs. We are motivated to satisfy needs that ensure our physical survival. Needs in this group include
food, water, air, shelter, clothing and sex. Most people have satisfied their physiological needs allowing them to concentrate
on higher level needs. For some though, physiological needs are dominant and are the biggest needs in their lives.


Safety needs. Once physiological needs are met one can concentrate on bringing safety and security to our lives. Safety
and security needs include, order, stability, routine, familiarity, control over ones life and environment, certainty and health.


Social needs or love and belonging needs. These needs include love, affection, belonging and acceptance. People look for
these needs in relationships with other people and are motivated for these needs by the love from their families.


Esteem needs. All people have a need for stable, firmly based, usually high evaluation of themselves for self-respect or
self-esteem and for the esteem of others. These needs may therefore be classified into two subsidiary sets. These are, first,
the desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery of competence, confidence, independence and freedom. Second, we

have what we call the desire for reputation or prestige (defining it as respect from other people), status, fame, glory,
dominance, importance, recognition, dignity or appreciation.

Need for self-actualization. This level of hierarchy is concentrated on an individual being able to reach their full potential
a human being. Once someone has satisfied the first four levels of needs then they have the ability to concentrate on
functioning to their highest potential. But even if all these needs are satisfied, we may often still expect that a new discontent
and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what they are fitted for. Musicians must play music, artists
must paint if they are to be at peace with themselves. What humans can be, they must be. They must be true to their own

The first four needs are what we call deficiency needs, because they come from things we are lacking. These needs can be met
only by external sources, by the environment, people or things going on around us.
Self-actualization is a growth need. This doesnt just address what we are lacking in our lives, but it gives us room to grow and
develop as an individual. This need is always intrinsically motivated, because we do it out of pure enjoyment and desire to grow.
Maslow, does explain that self-actualization is rarely achieved, even as adults. But we as teachers, must make sure our students
have satisfied their deficiency needs in order to move on to their growth one. Intrinsic motivation will not occur until they are
well fed, safe in their environment, and can love and respect the teachers and their classmates. From there on motivation will be
a breeze.

"Intrinsic an internal form of motivation. You strive towards a goal for personal satisfaction or


1) External








Extrinsic motivation is an external form of motivation. For example, if your boss sets a deadline on a project and your bonus is
tied to the deadline, that is a very clear form of extrinsic motivation. In fact, this example includes two extrinsic motivators: your
boss's expectations and the bonus. So, extrinsic motivation doesn't always have to be another person, but it is some outside
2) Internal


Intrinsic motivation, however, is an internal form of motivation. You strive towards a goal for personal satisfaction or
accomplishment. You may even work towards a long-term reward such as the development of a business or participating in a
You may have heard the story about the old man who had an empty lot next to his house. Every afternoon the neighborhood
children played baseball in the lot. The old man, annoyed by all the yelling and commotion, developed a plan to stop the children
from using the lot. One day while they were playing, he told them that he would pay each of them $5 every day they came to play
in the lot. They thought he was a little nuts but were thrilled to be paid to do something they did anyway. After a few days, he
told them he couldn't afford to pay the $5 but still wanted them to play in the lot, and asked if they would accept $1. They
grumbled a little but agreed to take the $1. A few days more passed and he approached them with an apology telling them that he
wouldn't be able to pay them anymore but hoped that they would still play in the lot anyway. The children responded by refusing
This story is a good example of changing intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation. At first the children played in the lot for the
enjoyment of it. However, once the man started paying them, their motivator became the money which was extrinsic motivation.

I experienced a similar situation with a hobby of mine. I enjoyed decorating cakes for family and friends for special occasions.
When in college, I decided to make some extra money by starting a business of decorating cakes. However, as the business grew,
my interest and enjoyment in decorating cakes declined. Eventually, I quit the business and didn't make cakes for anyone except
my son for about five years. I found that as a hobby I did for personal enjoyment became tied to extrinsic reward (money) I
Persistency of Behavior
Therefore, intrinsic motivation is more likely to lead to persistent behavior toward a goal when external motivators are not
present. However, as you may realize, motivation needs to be based upon the circumstances and the personality of the individual
involved. For instance, some people are satisfied with external reward and demand in a job situation and don't desire to develop
personal goals. Or an athlete may be purely motivated by the excitement and adulation of the crowd. However, an individual who
desires to achieve goals outside of a structured situation or outside rewards needs to have an intrinsic form of motivation.
The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been one of the important theoretical conceptualizations of
qualitative differences in engagement.
Intrinsic motivation refers to engagement in an activity with no reason other than the enjoyment and satisfaction of engagement
itself. By comparison, extrinsic motivation refers to engagement that provides means to ends that go beyond the engagement
itself. The goals of extrinsically motivated engagement might be the attainment of tangible rewards such as money, prizes, or
other benefits; intangible rewards such as social approval, a sense of worthiness, or even a sense of conscientiousness; or the
avoidance of tangible and intangible punishments such as time-out, scolding, rejection or sense of low self-worth.
Motivations rely on a type of reward system, or trade-off, that provides certain expected outcomes when certain conditions are
met, according to Educational Psychology Interactive. Reward systems can come in the form of an internal result, like a feeling
or expectation. They can also appear as an external influence, like a paycheck or getting someones approval. These types of
reward systems are what differentiate intrinsic from extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivators are internal, or self driven.
Extrinsic motivators are dependent on an external outcome.
Read more:
Intrinsic motivation is based on a persons natural inclinations in terms of whats important or enjoyable to him, according to
PsychCentral. This is an internal drive that takes little effort or coaxing. A person will perform a certain task simply because he
enjoys doing it. An example of this would be a hobby. Intrinsic motivation can also exist in cases where an external reward is
present, like when a person enjoys his line of work and also receives a paycheck. Internal motivators may also be connected to a
persons sense of purpose when it taps into his sense of who he is.
Extrinsic motivation is based on receiving a certain reward from an external source, like a person or place, according to
PsychCentral. External rewards can come in the form of school grades, money, a promotion at work or approval from others.
Under these circumstances, a persons actions are controlled by an external outcome, whereas intrinsic motivations are selfdriven. The difference here is once the source of control is removed, theres no reason to follow through on the task when its
extrinsically motivated
Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are based on obtaining some type of goal, according to Purdue University Calumet. An
example of an intrinsic goal is the feeling of relaxation that some people experience when gardening. The extrinsic goal would be
an array of beautiful flowers. Intrinsic motivators can also connect with a person on an emotional level, which may or may not
hold true for an extrinsic motivator. In cases where an external goal carries great personal value (like winning a contest), it can
cause an emotional response; however, the response is still brought on by an external condition.