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TTCProveIt,TheArtofMathemathicalArgument052615

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1. WhatareProofsandHowdowedoThem
Questions:
2. TheRootofProofABriefLookatGeometry
1. Wheredoesodd/evennumbersdefinitionscomesfrom?

TTCProveIt,TheArtofMathemathicalArgument052615

Lecture1:WhatAreProofsandHowdowedoThem:
WhatareProofsandWhyareTheyImportant:
Aproofisalogicalargumentthatestablishesthetruthofa
statementortheorem(statementthathasbeenproven).
Proofsteachyouwhysomethingistrue.Makesyouaprecise
mathematician.Bestproofsare,hopefully,shortandelegant,
&sometimesgiveyouinsightintowhythetheoremistrue.
Earlymatheducationisbasedoncalculations.Thingsare
giventoyouandyouhavetoacceptthem,mostlybyfaith.
Postcalculuscourses(Analysis,LinealAlgebra,Topology)
areweightedonproofs,toemphasizeprecisemathematical
reasoning.
SOMETHEOREMS:
PythagoreanTheorem:

FermatLastTheorem:foreachinteger
2,thereareno
positiveintegersolutions , , suchthat
.Why
did they always call it theorem if it was unproven until recently?

CONJECTURES:Unsolvedproblems.Ifsolved,becometheorems.

CollatzConjecture:Takeanyinteger
0.Ifeven,divideby
2,ifoddmultiplyby3andadd1.Itclaims, willeventually
getto1.Nocounterexamplefound.AKA3
1conjecture.
COUNTEREXAMPLE:Examplethatshowsaconjectureisfalse

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OddNumbers:
Aninteger isoddifitisoftheform
,where isaninteger.Someauthorsusethe
form
.
Inotherwords,andoddnumberisanevennumber
( ),plus1.Forexample,7isanoddnumber
becauseitisoftheform:7 2 3 1.
9 2
5 1
LetstrytoprovefirstthefollowingTheorem:
P1TheproductoftwoEvenintegersiseven.
(1) Beginwithtwoevenintegers,2 and2
(2) Multiplythem:2 2 equals4
(3) 4 equals2 2
(4) 2 isaninteger,multipliedby2,getsaneven
LetsnowtrytoprovethefollowingTheorem:
P2TheproductoftwoOddintegersisanOddinteger.
1. Beginwithtwooddintegers,2
1and2
1
1 2
1
4
2
2
1
2. Multiply: 2
3. Regroup:2 2
1
4. Notethat2 2
isaneveninteger,plus
1,makesitanoddinteger;thatistheproof.
DirectProofs:Youbeginwithanargument,directly
makesomemath/algebra,andarriveataconclusion.
Likebothproofsabove.

HOWDOYOUGETGOODATPROOFS:
1. Understandtheproblem.Trysomenumbersonit
2. Doyoureallybelieveit,andcanyouproveit?
EXAMPLE1:Considerthesetofpositiveintegers
3. Haveyouprovensimilarthingsinthepast?
1,2,3,4 andthesetoftheirsquares
4. Practiceandbecreative.Playingcantriggeraproof
1, 4, 9, 16 ,whichsetisbigger?Youmight
5. Ifyoususpecttheconjectureisfalse,getcounterexample argue,intuitively,that
becausethereseemsto
beonlyoneelementbetween1and2(1stand2nd
FirstProofs:
itemsofA),but3elementsbetween1and4(1stand
Letssupposeyoumultiply2oddnumbers.Istheresulteven
2nditemsofB);however,bothsetsaresamesize
orodd?Youcantryseveralexamples:7x9=63,5x7=35,
becauseyoucanmatcheachelementin withan
3x9=27.Itseemstheresultisalwaysodd,butbecareful,
elementin .
EXAMPLESDONTPROVEITWILLALWAYSBETRUE.Maybe
atsomegiantnumberitbreaks.Ithashappened.
1 1, 2 4, 3 9, 4 16andsoon,forever.
Canyouproveit?
So,howdoyouproveforsureoddtimesoddwillalwaysbe
st
odd?Well,1 youneedtodefineobjectivelyandprecisely:
EXAMPLE2:ConsidertheFibonaccinumbers(FN)
(1)Whatsanoddnumber(2)whatsandevennumber
1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34 .Whatsthe1000thFN?,
Youcangeneratethelistonebyone,butyoucanalso
EvenNumbers:Andevennumberisalwaystheproductof2
comeupwithaformulathatpopsoutanyFN.Does
timesanotherinteger,(e.g.2k).wherekisanotherinteger
thatformulaexist,anddoesitworkalways,no
(oddoreven,negativeorpositive).Remember,theconcept
matterhowlargethenumber?Canyouproveit?
ofodd/evenappliesonlytointegers.Example:8=2x4,10=
2x5,6=2x(3).
Problem:P3ProvethatEVEN+ODD=ODD
1. AddoddNo(2s+1)andeven(2k): 2
1
2
Aninteger isevenifitisoftheform
,where is
2. Distribute:2
2
1
aninteger.
3. Regroup:2
+1

4. 2
isaneven,plus1,isanodd.

TTCProveIt,TheArtofMathemathicalArgument052615

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TTCProveIt,TheArtofMathemathicalArgument052615

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