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84 Aufrufe44 SeitenCE2155 - Stress and Strain Transformation (Part 1)

Jun 02, 2015

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CE2155 - Stress and Strain Transformation (Part 1)

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84 Aufrufe

CE2155 - Stress and Strain Transformation (Part 1)

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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(Part 1)

by

Assoc Professor T. H. Wee

Department of Civil Engineering

Email: cveweeth@nus.edu.sg

Introduction

The knowledge of stress and strain transformation will help to:

Establish the state of plane stress (where the stresses in the outof-plane axis is zero) and the state of plane strain (where the

strains in the out-of-plane axis is zero) for various orientations of

reference axes

Determine the principal stress and principal strain; and establish

the principal planes for plane stress and plane strain conditions

Evaluate the maximum shearing stress and maximum shearing

strain for both in-plane and 3-D cases and

Establish the state of plane strain using the strain rosettes

The following syllabus will be covered in this topic.

Plane stress

Transformation equations for plane stress

Principal stresses and maximum shear stress

Mohrs circle of stress

Plane strain

Mohrs circle of strain

Strain measurement

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Introduction

Introduction

Elasticity

Most engineering structures are

designed to undergo relatively

small deformations, involving only

linear portion of the stress-strain

relationship.

Within this linear

portion, the stress, is directly

proportional to the strain , given

by

= E

where E is the modulus of elasticity of the material, also known as

Youngs modulus and the relationship is known as Hookes Law. The

largest value of the stress for which Hookes Law can be used for a given

material is known as the proportional limit of that material.

If the strains induced in a test specimen by the application of a given load

disappear when the load is removed, the material is said to behave

elastically. The largest value of the stress for which the material

behaves elastically is called the elastic limit.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

The state of stress at a point can be represented most generally by six

independent normal and shear stress components which act on the

faces of an element of material located at the point. These stresses are

referred to the corresponding coordinate axes.

If the coordinate axes are rotated, the same state of stress will be

represented by a different set of component stresses.

are compared against the critical stress or strain (e.g. yield

stress, tensile strain capacity) of the materials.

Since it is prudent to compare the maximum of the respective

component stress or strain with the critical stress or strain,

transformation of stresses and strains would be necessary to identify this

maximum component stress or strain as well as the plane in which this

stress or strain acts by rotating the coordinate axes.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Consider the case of a structural element subjected to a generalized stress state. The

subscript of normal stress, denotes the direction along the axis which the stress is

directed. The first subscript of shear stress, denotes the plane on which the stress

acts (plane designation x, y or z corresponds to the plane in which the axis x, y and z

acts perpendicularly to) and the second subscript denotes the direction of stress (along

the axis). The direct and shear strains, and , associated with the normal and shear

stresses respectively are also accordingly denoted.

xy

x-axis) on which the stress

acts

direction of

stress

x, y, z = normal stresses

xy, xz, yz = shear stresses

x, y, z = direct strains

xy, xz, yz = shear strains

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

x, y, z

xy, xz, yz

x, y, z

xy, xz, yz

= normal stresses

= shear stresses

= direct strains

= shear strains

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

Sign convention:

For brevity, the front side of the element is defined as one where the normal to

the face is pointing in the positive direction. Accordingly, the rear side of the

element is one where the normal to the face is pointing in the negative direction.

Stresses on the front side of the element are positive if they act in the positive

direction of the axes. Stresses on the rear side of the element are positive if they

act in the negative direction of axes. In other words,

Stress(+ve)

Stress (-ve)

if surface (-ve) & direction (-ve) (tension)

if surface (+ve) & direction (-ve) (compression)

if surface (-ve) & direction (+ve) (compression)

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Poissons ratio

Uni-axial

When an axial load, P is applied to a homogeneous, slender bar of crosssectional area A along its axis x, the resulting stress and strain would satisfy

Hookes law. The axial stress and strain can be

expressed as

x =

P

A

x =

x

E

However, it also causes lateral transverse strains along y and z axes. The ratio of

lateral strain over axial strain is called Poissons ratio and is denoted by .

x

lateral strain

Hence,

= =

=

axial strain

Now extending Hookes law to the

case of multi-axial loading, the

resulting strain conditions would be:

x =

y =

x

E

y = z =

x = z =

z = z

E

x = +

y = +

x

E

y

E

z

x = y =

E

x y z

E

E

E

y

E

x z

E

E

z y x

E

E

E

The relations are referred to as generalized Hookes law for multi-axial

loading.

z = +

Example Problem

A concrete block of dimension 1500mm by 1200mm by 800mm and cube

compressive strength 5 MPa is dropped into the sea of depth 1000m.

When the concrete block come to rest at the seabed, what would be the

change in volume of the concrete block? Would the concrete block

crush? (Given for the concrete, E = 4000 MPa, = 0.2 and assume for

seawater, = 1000 kg/m3).

Solution:

p = gh (hydrostatic)

At 1000m depth, x = y = z =

= 9.81 MPa

From generalized Hookes law,

x = y = z =

Substituting, we obtain x = y = z

p

(1 2 )

E

= ( 9.81/4000) x (1 2 x 0.2)

= 0.0015

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Reduction in volume = l x b x h l (1 + x ) x b (1 + y ) x h (1 + z )

= (1500 x 1200 x 800) 1500(1 0.0015) x

1200(1 0.0015) x 800(1 0.0015)

= 6470 cm3

Cube compressive strength

= 5 MPa

= 9.81 MPa

No

tension. Compression cannot cause dislocation directly but can

cause dislocation in other planes in shear or tension.

1.

A link plate subjected to axial load will induce normal and shear

stresses. In the plane perpendicular to the direction of axial load, a

normal stress which is also the maximum stress, will be present. By

transformation it can be found that the maximum shear stress acts in a

plane inclined 45 to the direction of axial load. The axial load may be

tensile or compressive.

Link plate

pin

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

2. An axial compressive load would

produce a maximum shear stress

along a plane inclined at 45o to the

plane of the applied load.

A

material, such as wood, which is

weaker in shear than tension or

compression, would fail in a plane

45 to the plane of the applied load.

3. When a bar is subjected

to only torsion (T), the

element abcd would be in

a state of pure shear.

maximum normal stress exist in a plane orientated

45 to pure shear stress ( = 0) plane and also equal

to . For brittle material which fails in tension,

failure would result in a plane perpendicular to the

direction of maximum normal stress.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

4. When a beam is subjected to bending, the following normal and shear stresses

are induced.

compression

My

=

I

VQ

Ib

tension

The two equations provide only the normal and shear stress in the longitudinal

direction of the beam. Sometimes, when the beam is non-homogeneous or nonisotropic, such as timber beams, the stresses obtained from the two equations would

have to be transformed to find the critical stresses that acts on the weaker planes in

the beam.

compression

My

I

VQ

Ib

tension

At point A, for the element orientated parallel to

the beam, only normal compressive stress,

which is also the maximum, would exist. By

transformation, the maximum shear stress is

found in the direction 45 to the beam.

At point B, for the element orientated parallel to

the beam, both normal compressive and shear

stress, would exist. By transformation, it is

found that the maximum normal compressive

and tensile stresses are orientated in a direction

less than 45 to the beam. The maximum shear

stress is found in a direction less than 45 to the

beam.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

compression

My

I

VQ

Ib

tension

for the element orientated parallel to the

beam, only shear stress, would exist.

By transformation, it can be found that the

maximum normal compressive and tensile

stresses are orientated in the direction 45 to

the beam.

The maximum shear stress is found in the

direction parallel and perpendicular to the

beam.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

compression

My

I

VQ

Ib

tension

At point D, for the element orientated parallel to

the beam, both normal tensile and shear stress,

would exist.

The maximum normal

compressive and tensile stresses are found by

transformation to be orientated in a direction

less than 45 to the beam. The maximum shear

stress is found in a direction less than 45 to the

beam.

At point E, for the element orientated parallel to

the beam, only normal tensile stress which is

also the maximum, would exist.

By

transformation, the maximum shear stress is

found in a direction 45 to the beam.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

C

stress at point C

Stress Trajectories for cantilever and simply supported rectangular beams

Earlier, the maximum and minimum normal stress and its direction were

demonstrated at five points along a cross section of a beam. If this were

extended to a larger number of sections and a larger number of points in each

section, it would be possible to draw two orthogonal systems of curves on the

side of the beam.

As shown above, the two systems of orthogonal curves (Stress Trajectories)

represents the directions of maximum normal compressive and tensile stresses.

Solid lines show the tensile stresses, and dashed lines show the compressive

stresses.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

C

stress at point C

Stress Trajectories for cantilever and simply supported rectangular beams

The curves for maximum tensile and compressive stresses always

intersect at right angles, and every trajectory crosses the longitudinal

(centroidal) axis at 45o (example see point C).

At top and bottom surfaces of the beam, where the shear stress is zero,

the trajectories are either horizontal or vertical. Location where the

trajectories are predominantly concentrated and is in the same direction

indicate susceptibility to failure.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

In a plane (2D) problem, two conditions can be imposed.

1) The out-of-plane components of the stresses, that is the stresses

acting in the direction perpendicular to the plane in consideration, is

zero. Problems subjected to this condition is known as PLANE

STRESS PROBLEMS.

i.e. for a xy-plane stress problem, z = xz = yz = 0

Examples of plane stress problems include thin plate loaded by forces

parallel to plane of plate only, pressure vessels, thin shell structures,

membrane structures.

Membrane

Tension tie

Compression strut

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

2)

direction perpendicular to the plane in consideration, is zero.

Problems subjected to this condition is known as PLANE STRAIN

PROBLEMS.

i.e. for a xy-plane strain problem, z = xz = yz = 0

Examples

of

plane

strain

problems includes dams, tunnels

and

retaining

walls.

As

conditions can be assumed to

be the same at all cross sections

for these structures, it is only

required to consider a slice

between two sections, a unit

distance apart with two fixed

supports at the ends. Note that

strain between the fixed support

would be zero.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Consider an element of material in plane stress (z = xz = yz = 0)

subjected to biaxial stress in the x and y direction.

Due to the effect of Poissons ratio, the strain will be present in all the three

directions. The strains can be obtained by substituting z = 0 into the

generalized Hookes law equations to obtain:

x =

1

( x y )

E

y =

1

( y x)

E

z =

( x + y )

Now extending Hookes law to the

case of multi-axial loading, the

resulting strain conditions would be:

x =

y =

x

E

y = z =

x = z =

z = z

E

x = +

y = +

x

E

y

E

z

x = y =

E

x y z

E

E

E

y

E

x z

E

E

z y x

E

E

E

The relations are referred to as generalized Hookes law for multi-axial

loading.

z = +

Now, by rearranging the strain equations obtained earlier,

x =

1

1

( x y ) y = ( y x)

E

E

as:

x =

E

E

( x + y ) y =

( y + x )

2

(1 )

(1 2 )

Note that only two strain components (x and y) are sufficient to express

the stresses in a plane stress problem. Knowledge of the out-of-plane

strain (z) is not required although it is not zero.

Similarly, by introducing the conditions of uniaxial loading

y =z = 0

x = E x

loading condition can be obtained as

x =

x

E

y = z =

x

E

Beside direct strains () induced by normal stress, elements can also be subjected

to shear strains, induced by shear stresses. The deformation due to shear strain

is illustrated below. Applying Hookes law, the stress and strain relationship for

shear can be expressed as

xy = G xy

Where G is the shear modulus. The stress

and strain in a pure shear loading condition

is given by

x = y =z = 0

x = y = z = 0

xy

xy =

G

Note that, so far, three material parameters, the Youngs modulus, E, the Poissons

ratio, and shear modulus, G have been introduced. However, only two of these

parameters, E and are independent as G can be deduced from them:

E

G=

2(1 + )

Consider the point O being subjected to a state of plane stress. The stress

components acting at the point O with respect to the xy-coordinate axes

can be represented by the set of component stresses acting on an

element as shown in the figure. The normal stresses are defined by the

stress components, x and y; and the shear stress by xy and yx. To

satisfy rotational equilibrium, xy = yx

Positive normal stress indicate tension and negative normal stress indicate

compression.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

However, the same state of plane stress at point O can be represented by different

set of component stresses. To illustrate, let us rotate the coordinate axes counterclockwise through an angle and the new coordinate axes named as x1, y1 and z1,

with z1 axis coinciding with z axis. The same state of plane stress at point O can

now be represented by the stress components, x1 and y1, and the shear stress by

x1y1 and y1x1.

Next we look at how the stress components x1, y1 and x1y1 associated with the

element after it has been rotated through an angle , can be expressed in terms of

x, y and xy.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

In order to determine the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1

exerted on the face perpendicular to the x1 axis, we consider a prismatic

element with faces respectively perpendicular to x, y and x1 axes. This

will allow the horizontal and vertical components of the stresses, x ,y

and xy to be expressed as a function of the normal stress x1 and the

shearing stress x1y1.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

STRESS DIAGRAM

FORCE DIAGRAM

If the area of the vertical face is denoted by A0, the areas of the

horizontal and oblique face are respectively equal to A0tan and A0sec.

The forces exerted on the three face can be given by the stress

multiplied by the respective area as shown in the figure.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Taking the equilibrium of forces along x1

and y1 axes, the following equilibrium

equations can be obtained. Note here that

the forces on the horizontal and vertical

faces of the prismatic element would have

to be resolved into component forces in the

x1 and y1 axes first.

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

x1

y1

x1

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

y1

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

Note that xy= yx, and after simplifying the equilibrium equations, we obtain

x1y1 = - ( x y ) sin cos + xy ( cos2 sin2 )

For case when =0,

x1 = x and x1y1 = xy

For case when =90o,

x1 = y

and x1 y1 = xy = yx

Shear stress yx acts to the right, while positive stress x1y1, after rotating 900, acts to

the left

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Now, substituting the trigonometric identities

1

sin cos = sin 2

2

1

1

2

cos = (1 + cos 2 ) sin 2 = (1 cos 2 )

2

2

into the equations

x1y1 = - ( x y ) sin cos + xy ( cos2 sin2 )

The Transformation Equations for Plane Stress can be obtained as follows:

x1 =

x + y x y

x1y1 =

x y

2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

element, they are applicable to stresses in any kind of material, whether linear or

nonlinear, elastic or inelastic.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

The expression for the normal stress y1 is obtained by replacing in the

equation

x1 =

x + y x y

2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

by the angle ( + 90o). This is possible because, the rotation of the y-axis anticlockwise by an angle would coincide with the rotation of the x-axis by an

angle ( + 90o). Since cos(2 + 180o) = cos2 and sin(2 + 180o) = sin2,

normal stress y1 is given by

y1 =

x + y x y

2

cos 2 xy sin 2

x1 + y1 = x + y

This equation shows that sum of normal stresses acting on perpendicular faces of

plane-stress elements is constant and independent of angle .

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Stresses vary continuously as the orientation of the element is changed. The graph

shows the variation of the stress components x1 and x1y1 with respect to the axes

orientation(). At certain angles, normal stress reaches a maximum or minimum

value. At other angles, it becomes zero. Similarly for shear stress. Note that the

normal stress x1 is maximum or minimum when x1y1 is zero.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Plane Stress

1. Biaxial Stress

Substituting xy= 0 into the transformation

equations,

+

x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

x1y1 =

x y

2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

stress can be obtained as follows:

x1 =

x + y

2

x1 y1 =

x y

x y

2

cos 2

sin 2

2

Biaxial stress occurs in many kinds of structures,

including thin-walled pressure vessels.

Plane Stress

2. Uniaxial Stress

component, x is not zero. By setting y and xy

equal to zero in the transformation equations, we

obtain

x1 = x (1 + cos 2 )

2

x1y1 = x sin 2

2

Uniaxial stress occurs in many kinds of structures,

including members in a truss structure.

3. Pure Shear

In the case of pure shear, substituting x= 0 and y= 0

into the transformation equation would give

x1 = xy sin 2

x1y1 = xy cos 2

Pure shear occurs in many kinds of structures, including

cylinders subject to pure torsion.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

SUMMARY

The Transformation Equations for Plane Stress are as follows:

x1 =

y1 =

x + y x y

+

x + y x y

x1y1 =

x y

2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

for x1 and y1 , we obtain

x1 + y1 = x + y

This equation shows that sum of normal stresses acting on perpendicular faces of

any plane-stress elements is constant and independent of angle .

(EXAMPLE)

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Principal Stresses

The transformation equations for plane

stress show that normal stresses x1 and

shear stresses x1y1 vary continuously as

the axes are rotated through angle .

The maximum normal stress is known as

the principal stress, 1 and the plane on

which it acts is the principal plane. The

stress orthogonal with the principal stress,

1 is the minimum normal stress, also

known as principal stress, 2 and the

shear stress acting on all the four principal

planes is zero.

y1

2

y

x = max

= 1

x1

= p

x

associated with the maximum tensile or

compressive stresses, and thus their

magnitudes and orientations should be

determined.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Principal Stresses

By taking the derivative of x1 of the

transformation equation with respect to and

setting it to zero, we obtain an equation for which

we can find the values of x1 at which it is a

maximum or minimum. The equation for the

derivative is

y1

2

x = max

= 1

d x1

= ( x y ) sin 2 + 2 xy cos 2

d

x1

= p

x

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

The orientation of the principal stresses can therefore be obtain from the above

equation. Subscript p indicates that the angle p defines the orientation of principal

stresses. The angle p is known as the principal angle. Substituting this angle into

the transformation equations, the principal stresses can be obtained.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

which is constructed from the equation

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

2

x y

2

R=

+ xy

2

From the triangle, we obtain

cos2 p =

x y

2R

& sin 2 p =

xy

R

Next, substituting the relationships,

cos 2 p =

x y

x y

2

R=

+ xy

2

xy

sin 2 p =

2R

R

into the transformation equations

+

x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2 and

2

2

x + y x y

y1 =

cos2 xy sin 2

2

2

The following equations for the principal stresses can be obtained, in which 1 > 2.

2

x + y x y

x y

2

2

2 =

+

+ xy

+ xy

2

2

2

2

The equations for the principal stresses, 1 and 2 can be combined into one as:

1 =

x + y

1,2 =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

2

The principal angle, which is the angle p1 corresponding to the principal

stress 1 can be obtained from the equations

cos 2 p1 =

x y

2R

sin 2 p1 =

xy

R

Only one angle exists between 0 and 360o that satisfies both of these

equations. For example, if both cos2p1 and sin2p1 are positive, angle

2p1 can only be between 0 to 90o. Otherwise, if both cos2p1 and sin2p1

are negative, angle 2p1 can only be between 180 to 270o.

y1

Angle p2 corresponding to 2, defines a plane

that is perpendicular to the plane defined by

p1. Thus, p2 can be taken as 90o larger or 90o

smaller than p1.

x = max

= 1

x1

= p

x

Plane Stress

Uniaxial stress

Biaxial

stress

in uniaxial stress and biaxial

stress are the x and y planes

themselves, because xy = 0 and

hence tan2p= 0, and the two

values of p are 0 and 90o. In

another word, when shear stress is

zero, the normal stresses are the

principal stresses.

For element in pure

shear, the principal

planes are orientated at

45o to the x axis,

obtained

from

the

condition x = y = 0

and hence cos2p = 0

and sin2p = 1.

Pure shear

The shear stresses x1y1 acting on inclined planes are

y

y1

given by the transformation equation,

x1y1 = x y sin 2 + xy cos 2

x 1y 1 = max

x1

2

= s

Taking derivative of the above equation with respect to

x

d x1y1

we obtain:

= ( x y ) cos2 2 xy sin 2

d

x y

where s is the angle of the plane

and setting it to zero, we obtain tan 2 s =

2 xy

2 xy

which

of maximum shear stress, and comparing with the equation tan 2 p =

x y

1

= cot 2 p

determines the maximum principle stress, we deduce that tan 2 s =

tan 2 p

This results in the relationship s = p 45o

The planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45o to the principal planes.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Now, from the two transformation equations

+

x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

x1y1 =

x y

2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

transformation equations.

2

+ y x y

x1 x

=

cos2 + xysin2

2 2

x y

2

x1y1 =

sin2 + xy cos2

2

Next, adding the left and right hand sides of the two equations respectively, the

following can be obtained:

2

+ y

y

x1 x

+ x1y12 = x

+ xy 2

2

2

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

2

x1y1

xy

x1

2

2

abscissa x1 and ordinate x1y1 with the centre point at

x + y

C =

,0 and the radius at

x1y1

x y

+ xy 2

R =

2

then

x1 = max = 1 at A,

x1 = min = 2

ave =

x1

at B and

max + min 1 + 2

=

2

2

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

At points D and E in the figure, observe that

x1 =

x + y

x1y1

2

2

and

x y

2

x1y1 = R =

2 + xy

positive and negative of the maximum

shear respectively, therefore the

maximum shear stress would be given

by

2

x1

x y

+ xy 2

max =

2

Note

also

the

normal

stress

corresponding to the condition of

maximum shear stress is

x1 = ave =

x + y

2

2

max

x y

+ xy 2

=

2

and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear

stress would be given by

x1 = ave =

x + y

2

xy is zero, the maximum shear stress would then be given by

max =

1 2

2

and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear

stress would be given by

x1 = ave =

1 + 2

2

SUMMARY

The direction of the plane in which the principal stresses and the maximum shear

stress acts could be obtained, respectively, from:

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

tan 2 s =

x y

2 xy

1,2 =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

2

The maximum shear stress and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane

of the maximum shear stress would be given by

x + y

x y

+ xy 2 x1 = y1 = ave =

=

2

2

2

max

For an element subjected to principal stresses, the maximum shear stress and the

corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear stress

would be given by

1 + 2

1 2

max =

x1 = y1 = ave =

Example 1

Example 1 (contd)

Example 1 (contd)

Example 2

Example 2 (Contd)

The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form by

a plot known as Mohrs Circle. This graphical representation is extremely useful

for visualising the relationships between normal and shear stresses acting on various

inclined planes at a point in a stressed body. It also provides a means for calculating

principal stresses, maximum shear stresses, and stresses on inclined planes. Mohrs

Circle is valid not only for stresses but also for other quantities of a similar

mathematical nature, including strains and moments of inertia.

Recall earlier that from the two transformation equations, the following equation was

2

2

obtained:

x1 x y + x1y12 = x y + xy2

2

2

ave =

x + y

2

and

)2

x y

+ xy2

R =

2

would result in

x1 ave + x1y1 = R 2

This is the equation of a circle in standard algebraic form. The coordinates are x1

and x1y1, the radius is R, and the center of the circle has coordinates x1= aver and

x1y1=0.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Mohrs Circle can be constructed in a variety of ways, depending upon which

stresses are known and which are unknown. Assume that we know the stresses x,

y and xy acting on the x and y planes of an element in plane stress and we wish to

know the stresses x1, y1 and x1y1 acting on the x1 and y1 planes.

Known

stress

state

Stress state

to be

determined

for rotated

element

For the Mohrs Circle, adopt the convention to plot clockwise shear stress as

positive, anticlockwise shear stress as negative, tension stress as positive,

compression stress as negative and counter-clockwise angle () as positive.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Introduction

x, y, z

xy, xz, yz

x, y, z

xy, xz, yz

= normal stresses

= shear stresses

= direct strains

= shear strains

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

Sign convention:

For brevity, the front side of the element is defined as one where the normal to

the face is pointing in the positive direction. Accordingly, the rear side of the

element is one where the normal to the face is pointing in the negative direction.

Stresses on the front side of the element are positive if they act in the positive

direction of the axes. Stresses on the rear side of the element are positive if they

act in the negative direction of axes. In other words,

if surface (-ve) & direction (-ve) (tension)

Stress (-ve) if surface (+ve) & direction (-ve) (compression)

if surface (-ve) & direction (+ve) (compression)

transformation in Mohrs

Circle, the stresses would

have to be converted to this

convention

1. Draw a set of

coordinate axes with

x1 as abscissa (+ve to

the right), and x1y1 as

ordinate (+ve upward).

Note that x1 and

x1y1 are the variables.

2. Locate center C of

circle at point having

coordinates x1 = ave

and x1y1 = 0

ave =

x + y

2

3. Locate point A,

representing stress

condition on x face of

element labelled A by

plotting its coordinates

x1= x and x1y1 = -xy

.

4. Locate point B,

representing stress

condition on y face of

element labelled B

by plotting its

coordinates x1= y

and x1y1 = + xy.

5. Draw line from point

A to point B. This

line is the diameter

of the Mohrs circle

and passes through

center C.

6. Using point C as

center, draw the

Mohrs Circle

passing through

points A and B.

+

The stresses on faces D and D

are represented by the stresses at

- the point D and D on the

Mohrs circle, respectively.

These points are located by

rotating the line AB about C

through an angle 2 in the same

direction as the element is

rotated, which in the

anticlockwise direction.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

y1

2

y

x = max

= 1

x1

= p

x

principal stresses as the

corresponding shear stress, xy

at the principal plane is zero.

x + y

algebraically larger principal

1 = OC + CP1 =

+R

2

stress) is one-half the angle 2

x + y

p1 (which is the angle between

2 = OC CP2 =

R

radii CA and CP1)

2

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

the maximum negative and

maximum positive shear

stresses, respectively, are

located at the bottom and top

of the Mohrs Circle. These

points are at angles 2 =90o

from points P1 and P2. That

is the maximum and

minimum shear stress acts on

the plane inclined 45o from

the principle plane.

The shear stresses x1y1 acting on inclined planes are

y

y1

given by the transformation equation,

x1y1 = x y sin 2 + xy cos 2

x 1y 1 = max

x1

2

= s

Taking derivative of the above equation with respect to

x

d x1y1

we obtain:

= ( x y ) cos 2 2 xy sin 2

d

x y

where s is the angle of the plane

and setting it to zero, we obtain tan 2 s =

2 xy

2 xy

which

of maximum shear stress, and comparing with the equation tan 2 p =

x y

1

= cot 2 p

determines the maximum principle stress, we deduce that tan 2 s =

tan 2 p

This results in the relationship s = p 45o

The planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45o to the principal planes.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example

Example

Example

Example contd

Example contd

Example

Example

Example contd

Example-contd

Example contd

Example-contd

equilibrium in the xy plane, they are independent of the normal stress z..

Therefore, we can use these equations for determining the stresses and .

Note that when considering the stresses in the xy-plane, the stress z is

known as the out-of-plane stress while the stresses x and y are known as

the in-plane stresses.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

In order to determine the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1 exerted on

the face perpendicular to the x1 axis, we consider a prismatic element with faces

respectively perpendicular to x, y and x1 axes. This will allow the horizontal and

vertical components of the stresses, x ,y and xy to be expressed as a function of

the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

FORCE DIAGRAM

STRESS DIAGRAM

If the area of the vertical face is denoted by A0, the areas of the horizontal and

oblique face are respectively equal to A0tan and A0sec. The forces exerted

on the three face can be given by the stress multiplied by the respective area as

shown in the figure.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

y1 axes, the following equilibrium equations

can be obtained. Note here that the forces on

the horizontal and vertical faces of the

prismatic element would have to be resolved

into component forces in the x1 and y1 axes

first.

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

x1

y1

Recall that the generalized state of stress at a point Q can be represented by six

components of stress, namely three normal stresses, x, y and z and three shear

stresses xy, xz and yz. When the coordinate axes, x, y and z are rotated, the stress

state can be represented by another set of six stresses components x, y, z, xy,

xz and yz. However, for every stress state, there exist one orientation of the

coordinate axes where the shear stress on all faces of the cubic element would

vanish. Only normal stresses would remain and these normal stresses are,

therefore, the principal stresses 1, 2 and 3 for the stress state at point Q. The

principal stresses may also be denoted as a, b and c corresponding to coordinate

axes a, b and c as shown.

Analysis of Stress

As mentioned earlier the transformation equations of plane stress in the xy-plane

are independent of the out-of-plane stress, z. Assume the point Q is subjected to a

generalized (3D) stress state and the coordinate axes a, b and c are the principal

axes of stress. Therefore, when the element is rotated about one of the principal

axes, e.g. c-axis, the corresponding transformation of stress may be analyzed by

means of Mohrs circle as if it was a transformation of plane stress. We may

therefore use the circle of diameter AB to determine the normal and shearing

stresses exerted on the faces of the element as it is rotated about the c-axis.

Analysis of Stress

Similarly, circles of diameter BC and CA may be used to determine the stresses on

the element as it is rotated about the a and b axes, respectively. It can be shown that

any other transformation of axes would lead to stresses represented by a point located

within the shaded area. Thus, the radius of the largest of the three circles yields the

maximum value of the shearing stress at point Q. Therefore, max = 12 max min

where max and min are the maximum and minimum value of the three principal

stress and which also represent the algebraic values of the maximum and minimum

stresses at point Q.

Analysis of Stress

z-axis is one of the principal axes since the shear stress, zx = zy = 0 in the x-y

plane. Hence, in the Mohrs circle, this axis would corresponds to the origin O

where = = 0. We also recall that the other two principal stresses corresponds to

another two points, A and B in Mohrs circle. If A and B are located on opposite

sides of the origin O, the corresponding principal stresses represent the maximum

and minimum normal stresses at point Q, and the maximum shearing stress is equal

to the maximum in-plane shearing stress. The in-plane refers to a plane which is

perpendicular to the plane in consideration. The planes of maximum shearing stress

correspond to points D and E of Mohrs circle and are 45o to the principal planes

corresponding to points A and B, shown as shaded diagonal planes in figures (a)

and (b).

(a)

(b)

Analysis of Stress

If, on the other hand, A and B are on the same side of the origin O, that is, if a and

b have the same sign, then the circle defining max, min and max is not the circle

corresponding to a transformation of stress within the xy plane. If a > b > 0, as

assumed, we have max = a, min = 0, and max is equal to the radius of the circle

defined by points O and A, that is max = 12 max

We also note that the normals Qd and Qe to the planes of maximum shearing

stress in figures (a) and (b) respectively, are obtained by rotating the axis Qa

through 45o within the za plane. In other words, the maximum shear stress is inplane to the za-plane and therefore out-of-plane to the ab-plane that is being

considered as the plane of plane stress. Thus, the planes of maximum shearing

stress, are the shaded diagonal planes shown.

(a

)

(b)

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