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# CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Stress and Strain Transformation

(Part 1)
by
Assoc Professor T. H. Wee
Department of Civil Engineering
Email: cveweeth@nus.edu.sg

Introduction
The knowledge of stress and strain transformation will help to:
Establish the state of plane stress (where the stresses in the outof-plane axis is zero) and the state of plane strain (where the
strains in the out-of-plane axis is zero) for various orientations of
reference axes
Determine the principal stress and principal strain; and establish
the principal planes for plane stress and plane strain conditions
Evaluate the maximum shearing stress and maximum shearing
strain for both in-plane and 3-D cases and
Establish the state of plane strain using the strain rosettes
The following syllabus will be covered in this topic.
Plane stress
Transformation equations for plane stress
Principal stresses and maximum shear stress
Mohrs circle of stress
Plane strain
Mohrs circle of strain
Strain measurement
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Introduction

Introduction

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Elasticity
Most engineering structures are
designed to undergo relatively
small deformations, involving only
linear portion of the stress-strain
relationship.
Within this linear
portion, the stress, is directly
proportional to the strain , given
by

= E
where E is the modulus of elasticity of the material, also known as
Youngs modulus and the relationship is known as Hookes Law. The
largest value of the stress for which Hookes Law can be used for a given
material is known as the proportional limit of that material.
If the strains induced in a test specimen by the application of a given load
disappear when the load is removed, the material is said to behave
elastically. The largest value of the stress for which the material
behaves elastically is called the elastic limit.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Stress State at a Point

The state of stress at a point can be represented most generally by six
independent normal and shear stress components which act on the
faces of an element of material located at the point. These stresses are
referred to the corresponding coordinate axes.
If the coordinate axes are rotated, the same state of stress will be
represented by a different set of component stresses.

## Generally, in failure criteria, the respective component stresses

are compared against the critical stress or strain (e.g. yield
stress, tensile strain capacity) of the materials.
Since it is prudent to compare the maximum of the respective
component stress or strain with the critical stress or strain,
transformation of stresses and strains would be necessary to identify this
maximum component stress or strain as well as the plane in which this
stress or strain acts by rotating the coordinate axes.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Stress State at a Point

Consider the case of a structural element subjected to a generalized stress state. The
subscript of normal stress, denotes the direction along the axis which the stress is
directed. The first subscript of shear stress, denotes the plane on which the stress
acts (plane designation x, y or z corresponds to the plane in which the axis x, y and z
acts perpendicularly to) and the second subscript denotes the direction of stress (along
the axis). The direct and shear strains, and , associated with the normal and shear
stresses respectively are also accordingly denoted.

xy

## plane (perpendicular to the

x-axis) on which the stress
acts
direction of
stress

x, y, z = normal stresses
xy, xz, yz = shear stresses
x, y, z = direct strains
xy, xz, yz = shear strains
xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy
xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

## Stress State at a Point

x, y, z
xy, xz, yz
x, y, z
xy, xz, yz

= normal stresses
= shear stresses
= direct strains
= shear strains

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy
xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

Sign convention:
For brevity, the front side of the element is defined as one where the normal to
the face is pointing in the positive direction. Accordingly, the rear side of the
element is one where the normal to the face is pointing in the negative direction.
Stresses on the front side of the element are positive if they act in the positive
direction of the axes. Stresses on the rear side of the element are positive if they
act in the negative direction of axes. In other words,
Stress(+ve)
Stress (-ve)

## if surface (+ve) & direction (+ve) (tension)

if surface (-ve) & direction (-ve) (tension)
if surface (+ve) & direction (-ve) (compression)
if surface (-ve) & direction (+ve) (compression)
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Poissons ratio

Uni-axial
When an axial load, P is applied to a homogeneous, slender bar of crosssectional area A along its axis x, the resulting stress and strain would satisfy
Hookes law. The axial stress and strain can be
expressed as

x =

P
A

x =

x
E

However, it also causes lateral transverse strains along y and z axes. The ratio of
lateral strain over axial strain is called Poissons ratio and is denoted by .
x
lateral strain
Hence,
= =
=
axial strain

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Now extending Hookes law to the
resulting strain conditions would be:

x =

y =

x
E

y = z =

x = z =

z = z
E

x = +
y = +

x
E
y

E
z
x = y =
E

x y z

E
E
E
y
E

x z

E
E

z y x

E
E
E
The relations are referred to as generalized Hookes law for multi-axial
z = +

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example Problem
A concrete block of dimension 1500mm by 1200mm by 800mm and cube
compressive strength 5 MPa is dropped into the sea of depth 1000m.
When the concrete block come to rest at the seabed, what would be the
change in volume of the concrete block? Would the concrete block
crush? (Given for the concrete, E = 4000 MPa, = 0.2 and assume for
seawater, = 1000 kg/m3).
Solution:
p = gh (hydrostatic)

At 1000m depth, x = y = z =

## = 1000 x 9.81 x 1000

= 9.81 MPa
From generalized Hookes law,

x = y = z =

Substituting, we obtain x = y = z

p
(1 2 )
E

= ( 9.81/4000) x (1 2 x 0.2)

= 0.0015
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Example Problem (Contd)

Reduction in volume = l x b x h l (1 + x ) x b (1 + y ) x h (1 + z )
= (1500 x 1200 x 800) 1500(1 0.0015) x
1200(1 0.0015) x 800(1 0.0015)
= 6470 cm3
Cube compressive strength

= 5 MPa

= 9.81 MPa

No

## Failure can only occur when surface dislocate either in shear or

tension. Compression cannot cause dislocation directly but can
cause dislocation in other planes in shear or tension.

## Example of stresses acting on stressed element

1.
A link plate subjected to axial load will induce normal and shear
stresses. In the plane perpendicular to the direction of axial load, a
normal stress which is also the maximum stress, will be present. By
transformation it can be found that the maximum shear stress acts in a
plane inclined 45 to the direction of axial load. The axial load may be
tensile or compressive.

pin

## Link plates with pin connections used as tension members.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Example of stresses acting on stressed element

2. An axial compressive load would
produce a maximum shear stress
along a plane inclined at 45o to the
A
material, such as wood, which is
weaker in shear than tension or
compression, would fail in a plane
45 to the plane of the applied load.

## Example of stresses acting on stressed element

3. When a bar is subjected
to only torsion (T), the
element abcd would be in
a state of pure shear.

## However, by transformation it can be shown that the

maximum normal stress exist in a plane orientated
45 to pure shear stress ( = 0) plane and also equal
to . For brittle material which fails in tension,
failure would result in a plane perpendicular to the
direction of maximum normal stress.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Example of stresses acting on stressed element

4. When a beam is subjected to bending, the following normal and shear stresses
are induced.
compression

My
=
I

VQ
Ib

tension
The two equations provide only the normal and shear stress in the longitudinal
direction of the beam. Sometimes, when the beam is non-homogeneous or nonisotropic, such as timber beams, the stresses obtained from the two equations would
have to be transformed to find the critical stresses that acts on the weaker planes in
the beam.

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

compression

My
I

VQ
Ib

tension
At point A, for the element orientated parallel to
the beam, only normal compressive stress,
which is also the maximum, would exist. By
transformation, the maximum shear stress is
found in the direction 45 to the beam.
At point B, for the element orientated parallel to
the beam, both normal compressive and shear
stress, would exist. By transformation, it is
found that the maximum normal compressive
and tensile stresses are orientated in a direction
less than 45 to the beam. The maximum shear
stress is found in a direction less than 45 to the
beam.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

compression

My
I

VQ
Ib

tension

## At point C (which lies on the neutral axis),

for the element orientated parallel to the
beam, only shear stress, would exist.
By transformation, it can be found that the
maximum normal compressive and tensile
stresses are orientated in the direction 45 to
the beam.
The maximum shear stress is found in the
direction parallel and perpendicular to the
beam.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

compression

My
I

VQ
Ib

tension
At point D, for the element orientated parallel to
the beam, both normal tensile and shear stress,
would exist.
The maximum normal
compressive and tensile stresses are found by
transformation to be orientated in a direction
less than 45 to the beam. The maximum shear
stress is found in a direction less than 45 to the
beam.
At point E, for the element orientated parallel to
the beam, only normal tensile stress which is
also the maximum, would exist.
By
transformation, the maximum shear stress is
found in a direction 45 to the beam.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Maximum Stresses in Beams

C
stress at point C
Stress Trajectories for cantilever and simply supported rectangular beams
Earlier, the maximum and minimum normal stress and its direction were
demonstrated at five points along a cross section of a beam. If this were
extended to a larger number of sections and a larger number of points in each
section, it would be possible to draw two orthogonal systems of curves on the
side of the beam.
As shown above, the two systems of orthogonal curves (Stress Trajectories)
represents the directions of maximum normal compressive and tensile stresses.
Solid lines show the tensile stresses, and dashed lines show the compressive
stresses.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Maximum Stresses in Beams

C
stress at point C
Stress Trajectories for cantilever and simply supported rectangular beams
The curves for maximum tensile and compressive stresses always
intersect at right angles, and every trajectory crosses the longitudinal
(centroidal) axis at 45o (example see point C).
At top and bottom surfaces of the beam, where the shear stress is zero,
the trajectories are either horizontal or vertical. Location where the
trajectories are predominantly concentrated and is in the same direction
indicate susceptibility to failure.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Plane Stress Problems

In a plane (2D) problem, two conditions can be imposed.
1) The out-of-plane components of the stresses, that is the stresses
acting in the direction perpendicular to the plane in consideration, is
zero. Problems subjected to this condition is known as PLANE
STRESS PROBLEMS.
i.e. for a xy-plane stress problem, z = xz = yz = 0
Examples of plane stress problems include thin plate loaded by forces
parallel to plane of plate only, pressure vessels, thin shell structures,
membrane structures.

## Plane Stress Problems

Membrane

Tension tie

Compression strut

## Example of membrane structures which can be analyzed as a plane stress problem.

CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

2)

## The out-of-plane components of the strains, that is the strains in the

direction perpendicular to the plane in consideration, is zero.
Problems subjected to this condition is known as PLANE STRAIN
PROBLEMS.
i.e. for a xy-plane strain problem, z = xz = yz = 0
Examples
of
plane
strain
problems includes dams, tunnels
and
retaining
walls.
As
conditions can be assumed to
be the same at all cross sections
for these structures, it is only
required to consider a slice
between two sections, a unit
distance apart with two fixed
supports at the ends. Note that
strain between the fixed support
would be zero.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Hookes Law for Plane Stress

Consider an element of material in plane stress (z = xz = yz = 0)
subjected to biaxial stress in the x and y direction.

Due to the effect of Poissons ratio, the strain will be present in all the three
directions. The strains can be obtained by substituting z = 0 into the
generalized Hookes law equations to obtain:

x =

1
( x y )
E

y =

1
( y x)
E

z =

( x + y )

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Now extending Hookes law to the
resulting strain conditions would be:

x =
y =

x
E

y = z =

x = z =

z = z
E

x = +
y = +

x
E
y

E
z
x = y =
E

x y z

E
E
E
y
E

x z

E
E

z y x

E
E
E
The relations are referred to as generalized Hookes law for multi-axial
z = +

## Hookes Law for Plane Stress

Now, by rearranging the strain equations obtained earlier,

x =

1
1
( x y ) y = ( y x)
E
E

## The stresses in a plane stress problem can be expressed in terms of strains

as:

x =

E
E
( x + y ) y =
( y + x )
2
(1 )
(1 2 )

Note that only two strain components (x and y) are sufficient to express
the stresses in a plane stress problem. Knowledge of the out-of-plane
strain (z) is not required although it is not zero.

y =z = 0

x = E x

x =

x
E

y = z =

x
E

## Hookes Law for Plane Stress

Beside direct strains () induced by normal stress, elements can also be subjected
to shear strains, induced by shear stresses. The deformation due to shear strain
is illustrated below. Applying Hookes law, the stress and strain relationship for
shear can be expressed as

xy = G xy
Where G is the shear modulus. The stress
is given by

x = y =z = 0
x = y = z = 0
xy
xy =
G

Note that, so far, three material parameters, the Youngs modulus, E, the Poissons
ratio, and shear modulus, G have been introduced. However, only two of these
parameters, E and are independent as G can be deduced from them:
E

G=

2(1 + )

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Consider the point O being subjected to a state of plane stress. The stress
components acting at the point O with respect to the xy-coordinate axes
can be represented by the set of component stresses acting on an
element as shown in the figure. The normal stresses are defined by the
stress components, x and y; and the shear stress by xy and yx. To
satisfy rotational equilibrium, xy = yx
Positive normal stress indicate tension and negative normal stress indicate
compression.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

However, the same state of plane stress at point O can be represented by different
set of component stresses. To illustrate, let us rotate the coordinate axes counterclockwise through an angle and the new coordinate axes named as x1, y1 and z1,
with z1 axis coinciding with z axis. The same state of plane stress at point O can
now be represented by the stress components, x1 and y1, and the shear stress by
x1y1 and y1x1.
Next we look at how the stress components x1, y1 and x1y1 associated with the
element after it has been rotated through an angle , can be expressed in terms of
x, y and xy.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

In order to determine the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1
exerted on the face perpendicular to the x1 axis, we consider a prismatic
element with faces respectively perpendicular to x, y and x1 axes. This
will allow the horizontal and vertical components of the stresses, x ,y
and xy to be expressed as a function of the normal stress x1 and the
shearing stress x1y1.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

STRESS DIAGRAM

FORCE DIAGRAM

If the area of the vertical face is denoted by A0, the areas of the
horizontal and oblique face are respectively equal to A0tan and A0sec.
The forces exerted on the three face can be given by the stress
multiplied by the respective area as shown in the figure.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Taking the equilibrium of forces along x1
and y1 axes, the following equilibrium
equations can be obtained. Note here that
the forces on the horizontal and vertical
faces of the prismatic element would have
to be resolved into component forces in the
x1 and y1 axes first.

## = 0 : x1 A0 sec x A0 cos xy A0 sin

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

## = 0 : x1 y1 A0 sec + x A0 sin xy A0 cos

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

x1

y1

x1

## = 0 : x1 A0 sec x A0 cos xy A0 sin

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

y1

## = 0 : x1 y1 A0 sec + x A0 sin xy A0 cos

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

Note that xy= yx, and after simplifying the equilibrium equations, we obtain

## x1 = x cos2 + y sin2 + 2 xy sin cos

x1y1 = - ( x y ) sin cos + xy ( cos2 sin2 )
For case when =0,

x1 = x and x1y1 = xy
For case when =90o,

x1 = y

and x1 y1 = xy = yx

Shear stress yx acts to the right, while positive stress x1y1, after rotating 900, acts to
the left
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Now, substituting the trigonometric identities
1
sin cos = sin 2
2
1
1
2
cos = (1 + cos 2 ) sin 2 = (1 cos 2 )
2
2
into the equations

## x1 = x cos2 + y sin2 + 2 xy sin cos

x1y1 = - ( x y ) sin cos + xy ( cos2 sin2 )
The Transformation Equations for Plane Stress can be obtained as follows:

x1 =

x + y x y

x1y1 =

x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

## Since the transformation equations were derived solely from equilibrium of an

element, they are applicable to stresses in any kind of material, whether linear or
nonlinear, elastic or inelastic.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

The expression for the normal stress y1 is obtained by replacing in the
equation

x1 =

x + y x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

by the angle ( + 90o). This is possible because, the rotation of the y-axis anticlockwise by an angle would coincide with the rotation of the x-axis by an
angle ( + 90o). Since cos(2 + 180o) = cos2 and sin(2 + 180o) = sin2,
normal stress y1 is given by

y1 =

x + y x y
2

cos 2 xy sin 2

## Summing expressions for x1 and y1 , we obtain

x1 + y1 = x + y
This equation shows that sum of normal stresses acting on perpendicular faces of
plane-stress elements is constant and independent of angle .
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Stresses vary continuously as the orientation of the element is changed. The graph
shows the variation of the stress components x1 and x1y1 with respect to the axes
orientation(). At certain angles, normal stress reaches a maximum or minimum
value. At other angles, it becomes zero. Similarly for shear stress. Note that the
normal stress x1 is maximum or minimum when x1y1 is zero.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation Equations for Special Cases of

Plane Stress

1. Biaxial Stress

## In the case of biaxial stress, there is no shear stress.

Substituting xy= 0 into the transformation
equations,
+
x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2
2

x1y1 =

x y
2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

## The transformation equations for the case of biaxial

stress can be obtained as follows:

x1 =

x + y
2

x1 y1 =

x y

x y
2

cos 2

sin 2
2
Biaxial stress occurs in many kinds of structures,
including thin-walled pressure vessels.

## Transformation Equations for Special Cases of

Plane Stress
2. Uniaxial Stress

## In the case of uniaxial stress, only the normal stress

component, x is not zero. By setting y and xy
equal to zero in the transformation equations, we
obtain

x1 = x (1 + cos 2 )
2

x1y1 = x sin 2
2
Uniaxial stress occurs in many kinds of structures,
including members in a truss structure.

3. Pure Shear
In the case of pure shear, substituting x= 0 and y= 0
into the transformation equation would give

x1 = xy sin 2
x1y1 = xy cos 2
Pure shear occurs in many kinds of structures, including
cylinders subject to pure torsion.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation Equations for Plane Stress

SUMMARY
The Transformation Equations for Plane Stress are as follows:

x1 =
y1 =

x + y x y
+

x + y x y

x1y1 =

x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2
cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

## Where is the rotation in counter-clockwise direction. Summing expressions

for x1 and y1 , we obtain

x1 + y1 = x + y

This equation shows that sum of normal stresses acting on perpendicular faces of
any plane-stress elements is constant and independent of angle .
(EXAMPLE)
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Principal Stresses
The transformation equations for plane
stress show that normal stresses x1 and
shear stresses x1y1 vary continuously as
the axes are rotated through angle .
The maximum normal stress is known as
the principal stress, 1 and the plane on
which it acts is the principal plane. The
stress orthogonal with the principal stress,
1 is the minimum normal stress, also
known as principal stress, 2 and the
shear stress acting on all the four principal
planes is zero.

y1
2

y
x = max
= 1

x1
= p
x

## Most failures of structures are often

associated with the maximum tensile or
compressive stresses, and thus their
magnitudes and orientations should be
determined.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Principal Stresses
By taking the derivative of x1 of the
transformation equation with respect to and
setting it to zero, we obtain an equation for which
we can find the values of x1 at which it is a
maximum or minimum. The equation for the
derivative is

y1
2

x = max
= 1

d x1
= ( x y ) sin 2 + 2 xy cos 2
d

x1
= p
x

## and setting this equation to zero, we obtain

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

The orientation of the principal stresses can therefore be obtain from the above
equation. Subscript p indicates that the angle p defines the orientation of principal
stresses. The angle p is known as the principal angle. Substituting this angle into
the transformation equations, the principal stresses can be obtained.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Now, consider the right-angled triangle,

which is constructed from the equation

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

## By Pythagorean theorem, the hypotenuse R is given by

2

x y
2
R=
+ xy
2
From the triangle, we obtain

cos2 p =

x y
2R

& sin 2 p =

xy
R

## General Formulae for Principal Stresses

Next, substituting the relationships,

cos 2 p =

x y

x y
2
R=
+ xy
2

xy

sin 2 p =
2R
R
into the transformation equations
+
x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2 and
2
2
x + y x y
y1 =

cos2 xy sin 2
2
2
The following equations for the principal stresses can be obtained, in which 1 > 2.
2

x + y x y
x y
2
2
2 =

+
+ xy
+ xy
2
2
2
2
The equations for the principal stresses, 1 and 2 can be combined into one as:
1 =

x + y

1,2 =

x + y
2

x y
2

+ xy
2

## General Formulae for Principal Stresses

The principal angle, which is the angle p1 corresponding to the principal
stress 1 can be obtained from the equations

cos 2 p1 =

x y
2R

sin 2 p1 =

xy
R

Only one angle exists between 0 and 360o that satisfies both of these
equations. For example, if both cos2p1 and sin2p1 are positive, angle
2p1 can only be between 0 to 90o. Otherwise, if both cos2p1 and sin2p1
are negative, angle 2p1 can only be between 180 to 270o.
y1

## Thus, value of p1 can be determined uniquely.

Angle p2 corresponding to 2, defines a plane
that is perpendicular to the plane defined by
p1. Thus, p2 can be taken as 90o larger or 90o
smaller than p1.

x = max
= 1

x1
= p
x

Plane Stress
Uniaxial stress

Biaxial
stress

## The principal planes for elements

in uniaxial stress and biaxial
stress are the x and y planes
themselves, because xy = 0 and
hence tan2p= 0, and the two
values of p are 0 and 90o. In
another word, when shear stress is
zero, the normal stresses are the
principal stresses.
For element in pure
shear, the principal
planes are orientated at
45o to the x axis,
obtained
from
the
condition x = y = 0
and hence cos2p = 0
and sin2p = 1.

Pure shear

## Maximum Shear Stresses

The shear stresses x1y1 acting on inclined planes are
y
y1
given by the transformation equation,

x1y1 = x y sin 2 + xy cos 2
x 1y 1 = max
x1
2
= s
Taking derivative of the above equation with respect to
x
d x1y1
we obtain:
= ( x y ) cos2 2 xy sin 2
d
x y
where s is the angle of the plane
and setting it to zero, we obtain tan 2 s =
2 xy
2 xy
which
of maximum shear stress, and comparing with the equation tan 2 p =
x y
1
= cot 2 p
determines the maximum principle stress, we deduce that tan 2 s =
tan 2 p
This results in the relationship s = p 45o
The planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45o to the principal planes.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation Equations for Plane Stress

Now, from the two transformation equations
+
x1 = x y + x y cos 2 + xy sin 2
2

x1y1 =

x y
2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

## the following equations can be obtained by rearranging and squaring the

transformation equations.
2

+ y x y

x1 x
=
cos2 + xysin2
2 2

x y

2
x1y1 =
sin2 + xy cos2
2

Next, adding the left and right hand sides of the two equations respectively, the
following can be obtained:
2

+ y

y
x1 x
+ x1y12 = x
+ xy 2
2

2
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

2

x1y1
xy
x1
2
2

## represent the equation of a circle plotted in a rectangular coordinate system with

abscissa x1 and ordinate x1y1 with the centre point at

x + y
C =

x1y1

x y
+ xy 2
R =
2

## Since at points A and B, x1y1 = 0,

then
x1 = max = 1 at A,

x1 = min = 2

ave =

x1

at B and

max + min 1 + 2
=
2
2
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Transformation Equations for Plane Stress

At points D and E in the figure, observe that

x1 =

x + y

x1y1

2
2

and

x y
2
x1y1 = R =
2 + xy

## Since at points D and E, x1y1 is the

positive and negative of the maximum
shear respectively, therefore the
maximum shear stress would be given
by
2

x1

x y
+ xy 2
max =
2

Note
also
the
normal
stress
corresponding to the condition of
maximum shear stress is

x1 = ave =

x + y
2

## Recall that the maximum shear stress would be given by

2

max

x y
+ xy 2
=
2

and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear
stress would be given by

x1 = ave =

x + y
2

## If an element is subjected to principal stresses 1 and 2 whereby the shear stress

xy is zero, the maximum shear stress would then be given by

max =

1 2
2

and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear
stress would be given by

x1 = ave =

1 + 2
2

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

SUMMARY
The direction of the plane in which the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acts could be obtained, respectively, from:

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

tan 2 s =

x y
2 xy

## The principal stresses are given by:

1,2 =

x + y
2

x y
2

+ xy
2

The maximum shear stress and the corresponding normal stress acting in the plane
of the maximum shear stress would be given by

x + y
x y
+ xy 2 x1 = y1 = ave =
=
2
2
2

max

For an element subjected to principal stresses, the maximum shear stress and the
corresponding normal stress acting in the plane of the maximum shear stress
would be given by
1 + 2
1 2

max =

x1 = y1 = ave =

Example 1

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example 1 (contd)

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example 1 (contd)

Example 2

## CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example 2 (Contd)

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form by
a plot known as Mohrs Circle. This graphical representation is extremely useful
for visualising the relationships between normal and shear stresses acting on various
inclined planes at a point in a stressed body. It also provides a means for calculating
principal stresses, maximum shear stresses, and stresses on inclined planes. Mohrs
Circle is valid not only for stresses but also for other quantities of a similar
mathematical nature, including strains and moments of inertia.
Recall earlier that from the two transformation equations, the following equation was
2
2
obtained:

x1 x y + x1y12 = x y + xy2
2
2

## Writing this equation in a simpler form by using

ave =

x + y
2

and

)2

x y
+ xy2
R =
2

would result in
x1 ave + x1y1 = R 2
This is the equation of a circle in standard algebraic form. The coordinates are x1
and x1y1, the radius is R, and the center of the circle has coordinates x1= aver and
x1y1=0.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Construction of Mohrs Circle

Mohrs Circle can be constructed in a variety of ways, depending upon which
stresses are known and which are unknown. Assume that we know the stresses x,
y and xy acting on the x and y planes of an element in plane stress and we wish to
know the stresses x1, y1 and x1y1 acting on the x1 and y1 planes.

Known
stress
state

Stress state
to be
determined
for rotated
element

For the Mohrs Circle, adopt the convention to plot clockwise shear stress as
positive, anticlockwise shear stress as negative, tension stress as positive,
compression stress as negative and counter-clockwise angle () as positive.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Introduction

## Stress State at a Point

x, y, z
xy, xz, yz
x, y, z
xy, xz, yz

= normal stresses
= shear stresses
= direct strains
= shear strains

xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy
xy = yx; zx = xz; yz = zy

Sign convention:
For brevity, the front side of the element is defined as one where the normal to
the face is pointing in the positive direction. Accordingly, the rear side of the
element is one where the normal to the face is pointing in the negative direction.
Stresses on the front side of the element are positive if they act in the positive
direction of the axes. Stresses on the rear side of the element are positive if they
act in the negative direction of axes. In other words,

## Stress(+ve) if surface (+ve) & direction (+ve) (tension)

if surface (-ve) & direction (-ve) (tension)
Stress (-ve) if surface (+ve) & direction (-ve) (compression)
if surface (-ve) & direction (+ve) (compression)

## Note that after

transformation in Mohrs
Circle, the stresses would
have to be converted to this
convention

## Procedure for Construction of Mohrs Circle

1. Draw a set of
coordinate axes with
x1 as abscissa (+ve to
the right), and x1y1 as
ordinate (+ve upward).
Note that x1 and
x1y1 are the variables.

2. Locate center C of
circle at point having
coordinates x1 = ave
and x1y1 = 0

ave =

x + y
2

## Procedure for Construction of Mohrs Circle

3. Locate point A,
representing stress
condition on x face of
element labelled A by
plotting its coordinates
x1= x and x1y1 = -xy
.

## Procedure for Construction of Mohrs Circle

4. Locate point B,
representing stress
condition on y face of
element labelled B
by plotting its
coordinates x1= y
and x1y1 = + xy.

## Procedure for Construction of Mohrs Circle

5. Draw line from point
A to point B. This
line is the diameter
of the Mohrs circle
and passes through
center C.

6. Using point C as
center, draw the
Mohrs Circle
passing through
points A and B.

## Stresses on Inclined Element (with angle from x-axis )

+
The stresses on faces D and D
are represented by the stresses at
- the point D and D on the
Mohrs circle, respectively.
These points are located by
rotating the line AB about C
through an angle 2 in the same
direction as the element is
rotated, which in the
anticlockwise direction.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

y1
2

y
x = max
= 1

x1
= p
x

## Point P1 and P2 represents the

principal stresses as the
corresponding shear stress, xy
at the principal plane is zero.

## Principal angle p1 between xaxis and the axis of 1 (the

x + y
algebraically larger principal
1 = OC + CP1 =
+R
2
stress) is one-half the angle 2
x + y
p1 (which is the angle between
2 = OC CP2 =
R
2
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Points S1 and S2, representing

the maximum negative and
maximum positive shear
stresses, respectively, are
located at the bottom and top
of the Mohrs Circle. These
points are at angles 2 =90o
from points P1 and P2. That
is the maximum and
minimum shear stress acts on
the plane inclined 45o from
the principle plane.

## Maximum Shear Stresses

The shear stresses x1y1 acting on inclined planes are
y
y1
given by the transformation equation,

x1y1 = x y sin 2 + xy cos 2
x 1y 1 = max
x1
2
= s
Taking derivative of the above equation with respect to
x
d x1y1
we obtain:
= ( x y ) cos 2 2 xy sin 2
d
x y
where s is the angle of the plane
and setting it to zero, we obtain tan 2 s =
2 xy
2 xy
which
of maximum shear stress, and comparing with the equation tan 2 p =
x y
1
= cot 2 p
determines the maximum principle stress, we deduce that tan 2 s =
tan 2 p
This results in the relationship s = p 45o
The planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45o to the principal planes.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Example

Example

Example

Example contd

Example contd

Example

Example

Example contd

Example-contd

Example contd

Example-contd

## Because the transformation equations of plane stress are based on force

equilibrium in the xy plane, they are independent of the normal stress z..
Therefore, we can use these equations for determining the stresses and .
Note that when considering the stresses in the xy-plane, the stress z is
known as the out-of-plane stress while the stresses x and y are known as
the in-plane stresses.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Element in Triaxial Stress

In order to determine the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1 exerted on
the face perpendicular to the x1 axis, we consider a prismatic element with faces
respectively perpendicular to x, y and x1 axes. This will allow the horizontal and
vertical components of the stresses, x ,y and xy to be expressed as a function of
the normal stress x1 and the shearing stress x1y1.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

FORCE DIAGRAM

STRESS DIAGRAM

If the area of the vertical face is denoted by A0, the areas of the horizontal and
oblique face are respectively equal to A0tan and A0sec. The forces exerted
on the three face can be given by the stress multiplied by the respective area as
shown in the figure.
CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

## Taking the equilibrium of forces along x1 and

y1 axes, the following equilibrium equations
can be obtained. Note here that the forces on
the horizontal and vertical faces of the
prismatic element would have to be resolved
into component forces in the x1 and y1 axes
first.

## = 0: x1 A0 sec x A0 cos xy A0 sin

y A0 tan sin yx A0 tan cos = 0

## = 0: x1y1 A0 sec + x A0 sin xy A0 cos

y A0 tan cos + yx A0 tan sin = 0

x1

y1

## General State of Stress

Recall that the generalized state of stress at a point Q can be represented by six
components of stress, namely three normal stresses, x, y and z and three shear
stresses xy, xz and yz. When the coordinate axes, x, y and z are rotated, the stress
state can be represented by another set of six stresses components x, y, z, xy,
xz and yz. However, for every stress state, there exist one orientation of the
coordinate axes where the shear stress on all faces of the cubic element would
vanish. Only normal stresses would remain and these normal stresses are,
therefore, the principal stresses 1, 2 and 3 for the stress state at point Q. The
principal stresses may also be denoted as a, b and c corresponding to coordinate
axes a, b and c as shown.

## Application of Mohrs Circle to Three Dimensional

Analysis of Stress
As mentioned earlier the transformation equations of plane stress in the xy-plane
are independent of the out-of-plane stress, z. Assume the point Q is subjected to a
generalized (3D) stress state and the coordinate axes a, b and c are the principal
axes of stress. Therefore, when the element is rotated about one of the principal
axes, e.g. c-axis, the corresponding transformation of stress may be analyzed by
means of Mohrs circle as if it was a transformation of plane stress. We may
therefore use the circle of diameter AB to determine the normal and shearing
stresses exerted on the faces of the element as it is rotated about the c-axis.

## Application of Mohrs Circle to Three Dimensional

Analysis of Stress
Similarly, circles of diameter BC and CA may be used to determine the stresses on
the element as it is rotated about the a and b axes, respectively. It can be shown that
any other transformation of axes would lead to stresses represented by a point located
within the shaded area. Thus, the radius of the largest of the three circles yields the
maximum value of the shearing stress at point Q. Therefore, max = 12 max min
where max and min are the maximum and minimum value of the three principal
stress and which also represent the algebraic values of the maximum and minimum
stresses at point Q.

## Application of Mohrs Circle to Three Dimensional

Analysis of Stress

## Returning to the case of plane stress, we observe z = zx = zy = 0, and therefore the

z-axis is one of the principal axes since the shear stress, zx = zy = 0 in the x-y
plane. Hence, in the Mohrs circle, this axis would corresponds to the origin O
where = = 0. We also recall that the other two principal stresses corresponds to
another two points, A and B in Mohrs circle. If A and B are located on opposite
sides of the origin O, the corresponding principal stresses represent the maximum
and minimum normal stresses at point Q, and the maximum shearing stress is equal
to the maximum in-plane shearing stress. The in-plane refers to a plane which is
perpendicular to the plane in consideration. The planes of maximum shearing stress
correspond to points D and E of Mohrs circle and are 45o to the principal planes
corresponding to points A and B, shown as shaded diagonal planes in figures (a)
and (b).

(a)

(b)

## Application of Mohrs Circle to Three Dimensional

Analysis of Stress
If, on the other hand, A and B are on the same side of the origin O, that is, if a and
b have the same sign, then the circle defining max, min and max is not the circle
corresponding to a transformation of stress within the xy plane. If a > b > 0, as
assumed, we have max = a, min = 0, and max is equal to the radius of the circle
defined by points O and A, that is max = 12 max
We also note that the normals Qd and Qe to the planes of maximum shearing
stress in figures (a) and (b) respectively, are obtained by rotating the axis Qa
through 45o within the za plane. In other words, the maximum shear stress is inplane to the za-plane and therefore out-of-plane to the ab-plane that is being
considered as the plane of plane stress. Thus, the planes of maximum shearing
stress, are the shaded diagonal planes shown.

(a
)

(b)