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I.

CONGRESSODEARQUEOLOGIA
DOALTORIBATEJO
HomenagemaJosdaSilvaGomes

|Editores:AnaRosaCruz|AnaGraa|LuizOosterbeek|
|PierluigiRosina|

|ARKEOS34|

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|ARKEOS34|

I.CONGRESSODEARQUEOLOGIA
DOALTORIBATEJO
HomenagemaJosdaSilvaGomes

|Editores:AnaRosaCruz|AnaGraa|LuizOosterbeek|
|PierluigiRosina|

Volumeeditadocomacolaboraoda:

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TOMAR|2013

Autores
lvaro Batista
CmaraMunicipaldeAbrantes
alvaromsbatista@hotmail.com
Ana Cruz
CentrodePr-HistriadoInstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
anacruz@ipt.pt
Ana Maria Silva
DepartamentodeCinciasdaVida(FaculdadedeCinciase
TecnologiadaUniversidadedeCoimbra)
CentrodeInvestigaoemAntropologiaeSade,
UniversidadedeCoimbra
amgsilva@antrop.uc.pt
Ana Graa
CentrodePr-HistriadoInstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
anagraca@ipt.pt
Andrea Martins
UniversidadedoAlgarve
BolseiraFCT
andrea.arte@gmail.com
Antonella Pedergnana
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
antonella.pedergnana@gmail.com
Carlos Batata
Ozecarus,ServiosArqueolgicosLda.
batata.c@clix.pt
Cludia Cunha
CentrodeInvestigaoemAntropologiaeSade,
UniversidadedeCoimbra
BolsaIndividualdeDoutoramento
FCT(SFRH/BD/70495/2010)
claudia.cunha.k@gmail.com

Cristiana Ferreira
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
CentrodeInterpretaodeArqueologiadoAltoRibatejo
ferreira.cris.00@gmail.com
Davide Delino
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseuIbricodeArteeArqueologiadeAbrantes
davdelino@gmail.com
Enrique Cerrillo Cuenca
CSIC,InstitutodeArqueologaMrida
ecerrillo@unex.es
Ethel Allu
IPHES,InstitutCataldePaleoecologiaHumanaiEvoluciSocial
URV,UniversitatRoviraiVirgili,readePrehistria
eallue@prehistoria.urv,net
Fernando Coimbra
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
coimbra.rockart@yahoo.com
Francesc Burjachs
IPHES,InstitutCataldePaleoecologiaHumanaiEvoluciSocial
URV,UniversitatRoviraiVirgili,readePrehistria
ICREA,InstituciCatalanadeRecercaiEstudisAvanats
francesc.burjachs@urv.cat
Hugo Gomes
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
hugo.hugomes@gmail.com
Isilda Gomes
Aluna inalista do Curso de Especializao Tecnolgica em
Sistemas de Informao Geogrica no Instituto Politcnico
deTomar

Ivo Oosterbeek
Beneits & Proits, Lda.
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
jms.crimson@gmail.com
Joo Carlos Baptista
UTAD,UniversidadedeTrs-os-MonteseAltoDouro
jbaptist@utad.pt
Joo Pedro Cunha-Ribeiro
FaculdadedeLetrasdaUniversidadedeLisboa
jpcunharibeiro@l.ul.pt
Jedson Cerezer
UTAD,UniversidadedeTrs-os-MonteseAltoDouro
BolsaIndividualdeDoutoramento
FCT(SFRH/BD/74394/2010)
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseudeArtePr-HistricaedoSagradono
ValedoTejo,Mao
jcpithi@gmail.com
Laurent Caron
TcnicoSuperiordoInstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
lcaron@ipt.pt
Luiz Oosterbeek
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
InstitutoTerraeMemria,Portugal
loost@ipt.pt
Marcos Canetta
DoutorandoemQuaternrio,MateriaiseCulturaspelaUTAD,
UniversidadedeTrs-os-MonteseAltoDouro
MilitantedoMovimentoNegroOrganizado(InstitutoLiberdade)
marcoscaneta@bol.com.br

Massimo Beltrame
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
massimo.beltra@gmail.com
Miguel Pinto dos Santos
Vice-PresidentedoInstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
mpsantos@ipt.pt
Nelson Almeida
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseudeArtePr-HistricaedoSagradono
ValedoTejo,Mao
nelsonjalmeida@gmail.com
Nlson Borges
Ozecarus,ServiosArqueolgicosLda.
nelson.borges@mail.pt
Palmira Saladi
IPHES,InstitutCataldePaleoecologiaHumanaiEvoluci
Social,Catalunha
URV,UniversitatRoviraiVirgili,readePrehistria,Catalunha
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
Pedro Cura
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseudeArtePr-HistricaedoSagradono
ValedoTejo,Mao
temposprehistoricos@gmail.com
Pierluigi Rosina
InstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
CentrodeInterpretaodeArqueologiadoAltoRibatejo
prosina@ipt.pt

Rita Ferreira Anastcio


InstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
rfanastacio@ipt.pt
Rita Pimenta
LaboratriodeArqueozoologiaePaleontologia
ritapimenta2@hotmail.com
Rodrigo Banha da Silva
DocentedareadeArqueologiadoDepartamentode
HistriadaFaculdadedeCinciasSociaiseHumanasda
UniversidadeNovadeLisboa
MembrodoInstitutodeArqueologiaePaleocinciasdas
UniversidadesNovadeLisboaedoAlgarve
rodrigobanhadasilva@gmail.com
Salete da Ponte
InstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
saleteponte@ipt.pt
Sara Cura
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseudeArtePr-HistricaedoSagradono
ValedoTejo,Mao
0saracura0@gmail.com
Sara Garcs
UTAD,UniversidadedeTrs-os-MonteseAltoDouro
BolsaIndividualdeDoutoramento
FCT(SFRH/BD/69625/2010)
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
InstitutoTerraeMemria
MuseudeArtePr-HistricaedoSagradono
ValedoTejo,Mao
saragarces.rockart@gmail.com
Silvrio Figueiredo
InstitutoPolitcnicodeTomar
CentroPortugusdeGeo-HistriaePr-Histria
LaboratriodeArqueozoologiaePaleontologia
silverio.igueiredo@ipt.pt

Stefano Grimaldi
Universit degli Studi di Trento, Dept. Filosoia,
StoriaeBeniCulturali
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadoCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73Itlia)
stefanogrimaldim@unitim.it
Tatiana Iria
CentroPortugusdeGeo-HistriaePr-Histria
tiria@cpgp.org
Tiago Lopes
ParqueAmbientaldeSantaMargarida
CmaraMunicipaldeConstncia
tiago.lopes@cm-constancia.pt
Tiago Tom
CentrodeInvestigaoemAntropologiaeSade,
UniversidadedeCoimbra
GrupoQuaternrioePr-HistriadeCentrodeGeocincias
(uID73F.C.T.)
tiagotome@gmail.com

|Nota
Notadeabertura
de abertura|Ana
| AnaRosaCruz|AnaGraa|LuizOosterbeek|PierluigiRosina|
Ana Rosa Cruz | Ana Graa | Luiz Oosterbeek | Pierluigi Rosina |

NDICE
15| Nota de abertura

AnaRosaCruz,AnaGraa.LuizOosterbeek,PierluigiRosina

19| Congresso de Arqueologia do Alto Ribatejo


MiguelPintodosSantos

23| Do patrimnio ao territrio: um novo contexto para a arqueologia


LuizOosterbeek

33| A Ribeira da Ponte da Pedra no contexto das mais antigas ocupaes


do Vale do Tejo
SaraCura,StefanoGrimaldi,PierluigiRosina

45| O Paleoltico Inferior na margem direita do rio Tejo, entre a ribeira


da ponte da Pedra e a foz do Alviela
JooPedroCunha-Ribeiro

73| Utilizao das matrias primas rochosas na indstria ltica musteriense


do stio ao ar livre de Santa Cita (Tomar, Portugal)
AntonellaPedergnana,SaraCura,StefanoGrimaldi,
LuizOosterbeek,PierluigiRosina

79| The Settlements of Fontes and Pedra da Encavalada Key Sites


for the Neolithization of North Ribatejo (Portugal)
AnaCruz

95| Prticas Funerrias na Pr-Histria Recente do Alto Ribatejo:


Ponto da situao
TiagoTom,AnaMariaSilva

109| Zooarqueologia e Tafonomia da Transio para o Agro-Pastoralismo

no Baixo e Mdio Vale do Tejo: um projecto de investigao


NelsonAlmeida,EnriqueCerrilloCuenca,LuizOosterbeek,
PalmiraSaladi

121| O Povoado da Medroa (Jogada) Aldeia do Mato Abrantes


Breve Sntese sobre os resultados da escavao (2006/2007).
lvaroBatista

|ARKEOS34|12|I.
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CONGRESSO DE ARQUEOLOGIA DO ALTO RIBATEJO|
|

|Nota
Notadeabertura
de abertura|Ana
| AnaRosaCruz|AnaGraa|LuizOosterbeek|PierluigiRosina|
Ana Rosa Cruz | Ana Graa | Luiz Oosterbeek | Pierluigi Rosina |

131| Uma perspectiva osteoarqueolgica sobre duas grutas neolticas do vale do Nabo
(Alto Ribatejo, Portugal central)
TiagoTom,NelsonAlmeida,AnaMariaSilva,PalmiraSaladi,
LuizOosterbeek

143| Note on the Dental Morphology of Neolithic Individuals exhumed from the
Burial Cave of Cadaval, North Ribatejo, Portugal
ClaudiaCunha,AnaMariaSilva

153| Dados Arqueobotnicos do Alto Ribatejo Perspectivas Futuras

CristianaFerreira,Ethel
EthelAllu,FrancescBurjachs,PierluigiRosina,
Allu, Francesc Burjachs, Pierluigi Rosina,
LuizOosterbeek

161| A importncia da Fonte Quente enquanto lugar central no contexto

do povoamento pr-histrico do Alto Ribatejo, durante a Pr-Histria Recente


CarlosBatata,NlsonBorges

169| A importncia da Fonte Quente enquanto lugar central no contexto do

povoamento pr-histrico do Alto Ribatejo, durante a Pr-Histria Recente


AnaGraa,AnaCruz

181| A Proto-Histria no Concelho de Mao: Novas investigaes, novas


abordagens, novos dados.
Davide Delino, Luiz
LuizOosterbeek,JooCarlosBaptista,
Oosterbeek, oo Carlos Baptista,
HugoGomes,MassimoBeltrame,PedroCura

195| Material cermico do Bronze Final do povoado do Castelo Velho do Carato


(Mao): dados preliminares da investigao arqueomtrica.
Davide Delino, oo
JooCarlosBaptista,MassimoBeltrame,
Carlos Baptista, assimo Beltrame,
JedsonCerezer

207| SEILIVM, Cidade Romana, na Tomar dos Dias de Hoje


CarlosBatata

217| A 2 Idade do Ferro e a Industria Ltica sob o Frum de Seilium (Tomar)


SaletedaPonte,AnaCruz

223| A dieta alimentar nos territrios romanos de Tomar (Seilium) e de Constncia


(Ch da Bica Montalvo)
SaletedaPonte,SilvrioFigueiredo,RitaPimenta

|ARKEOS34|13|I.
I.CONGRESSODEARQUEOLOGIADOALTORIBATEJO
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|Nota
Notadeabertura
de abertura|Ana
| AnaRosaCruz|AnaGraa|LuizOosterbeek|PierluigiRosina|
Ana Rosa Cruz | Ana Graa | Luiz Oosterbeek | Pierluigi Rosina |

231| Marcas de oleiro na terra sigillata de Santarm.


RodrigoBanhadaSilva

245| Arte Rupestre incisa entre o Tejo e o Zzere: Contributo para o seu inventrio,
tipologia e datao
FernandoCoimbra,SaraGarcs

257| Caracterizao de pigmentos em Arte Rupestre

PierluigiRosina,HugoGomes,AndreaMartins,LuizOosterbeek

265| Fracturao experimental de ossos longos de Bos taurus

NelsonAlmeida,PedroCura,SaraCura,PalmiraSaladi

277| Trabalho experimental sobre armao de cervdeo (Cervus elaphus) utilizando


lascas em quartzito
AntonellaPedergnana,Pedro
PedroCura,SaraCura
Cura, Sara Cura

285| O Retrato de Dorian Gray: Patrimnio enquanto representao


idealizada da sociedade
IvoOosterbeek

295| 4.600 Milhes de Anos de Evoluo: Dinossauros e Memrias da Pr-Histria.


Actividades Expositivas no Centro de Interpretao de Arqueologia
do Alto Ribatejo
AnaCruz,SilvrioFigueiredo,AnaGraa,TatianaIria

307| Patrimnio: olhar sobre o patrimnio e o patrimnio possvel!


MarcosCanetta

317| Aplicao de um Sistema de Informao Geogrica na converso


analgico-digital das plantas inais da escavao da Alcova de
Santarm, no Jardim das Portas do Sol.
RitaFerreiraAnastcio,IsildaGomes,LaurentCaron

323| Parque Ambiental de Santa Margarida

Equipamento para a Educao Ambiental


TiagoLopes

|ARKEOS34|14|I.
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Note on the Dental Morphology of


Neolithic Individuals exhumed from
the Burial Cave of Cadaval, North
Ribatejo, Portugal
CLAUDIACUNHA
ANAMARIASILVA

ABSTRACT: This note presents the irst results on the study of the dental morphology from
thehumanosteologicalremainsexcavatedfromtheNeolithiclevelsintheburialcaveof
Cadaval, Tomar, Portugal. The study aims at the identiication and recording of nonmetric
dental discrete traits and will be integrated in a broader comparative analysis of samples from
therecentPrehistoryintheIberianPeninsula.Itmarksthebeginningofthesystematic
studyofthedentalmorphologyofNeolithic-Chalcolithichumanremainsinarchaeological collections collections from the Nabo valley. Data obtained in the laboratorial work
pointtothepresenceoftraits,particularlyfortheanteriorupperdentition,indegreesnot
expectedforaEuropeanprehistoriccollection.
KEYwORDS:Nonmetricdiscretetraits;dentalmorphology;CadavalCave;Prehistory.
RESUMO:Estanotaapresentaosprimeirosresultadosdaanlisemorfolgicanomtrica

dosrestosdentrioshumanosexumadosdosnveisNeolticosdagrutanecrpoledoCadaval, Tomar, Portugal. A anlise centrase na identiicao e registo dos caracteres no mtricosdeacordocomosistemaASUeserintegradonumaanlisecomparativamaisampla
parastiosdaPr-histriarecentedaPennsulaIbrica.Estetrabalhoconsistenoprimeiro
estudosistemticodamorfologiadentriaemcolecesarqueolgicascronologicamente
associveisaoNeoltico-CalcolticodaregiodovaledoRioNabo.Entreosdadosobtidos
destaca-seaocorrnciadecaracteresdiscretosnamorfologiadadentioanteriorsuperior
dosindivduosemgrauselevadosnoexpectveisparaamostraspr-histricasEuropeias.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE:Indicadoresdiscretosnomtricos;morfologiadentria;Pr-Histria.

Introduction
Teetharethemostresistantpartsofthehumanskeleton,beingless
subjected to taphonomic efects even in highly damaged samples (Scott,
2008; white e Folkens, 2005). Among others, teeth can provide informationonthedentalmorphologyoftheindividualstheycomefrom.
orphological studies within the ield of Dental Anthropology focus on
ofmetricandnonmetrictraitsofthehumandentition.
The study carried out on the material from Cadaval cave (CDV)
focused on the nonmetric traits observable on human remains in the
collection.
Nonmetrictraitsarediscontinuousorquasi-continuouspolymorphismsthatareeitherpresentorabsentorpresentinvariousdegrees
(Larsen,2002,pp.137-138)onthebonestructureofthemaxillaryor
|ARKEOS34|143|I.
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|

|Note
NoteontheDentalMorphologyofNeolithicIndividuals
on the Dental Morphology of Neolithic Individuals|Claudia
| Claudia
ClaudiaCunha
Cunha|AnaMariaSilva|
|

mandible,orontheteeth.Theytendtobegeneticallycontrolledand
consequentlyhaveincreasinglybeenusedinpopulationstudiestoinfer
aboutbiologicaldistancesandkinshipanalysis(ScotteTurner,1988;
Larsen,2002).

The Site
Cadaval (CDV) is one of many burial caves located in the limestoneregionofCanteiresintheNaborivervalley,NorthRibatejo,
Portugal (ap 1), which were used for funerary practices in the recent
Prehistory. Dates provided by archaeological layers, as well as artifacts
associated with four anthropogenic phases, indicate that this cave was
usedfromtheNeolithictotheBronzeAge(Tom,2010).
MAP1.CadavalCave

(CDV)inrelationto
theregionofNorth
Ribatejo(darker
area),Portugal.

Human remains in CDV were distributed in two rooms. Five stratigraphic units could be identiied in these spaces: (I) layer A proved to
be disturbed yielding elements from diferent chronology; (II) layer B
|ARKEOS34|144|I.
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|Note
NoteontheDentalMorphologyofNeolithicIndividuals
on the Dental Morphology of Neolithic Individuals|Claudia
| ClaudiaCunha
Claudia Cunha|AnaMariaSilva|
|

containedahearthtipologicallyattributedtotheFinalBronzeage;(III)
layerC,presentinbothrooms,containedhumanosteologicmaterial
attributed to collective burials; (IV) layer D produced two individual
burials (one in each room); (V) layer E produced no archaeological
material,beingconsideredsterilebythearchaeologistsresponsiblefor
theexcavation(Cruz,1997).
No evidence of organization or structure was found in the collective burial areas. The human bones were disarticulated and horizontally
dispersed.Thefunerarypackageincludedseveralceramicvases,some
of which presented decoration easily related to the ceramic production
found in other burial caves in the Nabo valey (Ossos and Morgado
Superior caves); laked and polished lithic industry were also excavated
along with the human remains, as well as diskshaped ornamental beads
(Oosterbeek,1994;Cruz,1997).
Abundantfunerarypackagecouldbeexcavatedfromtheindividual
burials in layer D, particularly along with the individual burial in room
1.Funerarygoodsincludedpolishedlithicartifacts;bladesandbladlets
(with and without retouch); around 14 ceramic vases (some of which
presentedinciseandpresseddecoration),andornamentalitemssuchas
beadsandperforatedshells(Oosterbeek,1985;Cruz,1997).
Recent exhaustive work on this osteological series produced a inimal Number of Individuals (NI) of 31 (17 of which nonadults)(Tom,
2010).Accordingtotheobservationoftheremainingteeth,theMNIis
16(assessedfromthepermanentupperrightsecondmolar).
CDV was excavated between 1983 and 1987 (Tom, 2010) a period
when the presence of a physical anthropologist was not required in the
ield as it is nowadays according to Portuguese heritage law. Despite
thecareinobservationandregisterdemonstratedbythearchaeologists
in charge of the excavation, the lack of an anthropological approach
tothecollectionofinformationin loco makes it impossible to know if
individualinhumationscontainingarticulatedbonescouldbedetected
among the apparent disorder of bones in the levels where multiple individuals were exhumated from.
Radiocarbondatesforthehumanosteologicalmaterialpointtoa
time span between the third quarter of the 5th millennium b.C. and the
middleofthe4thmillenniumb.C.(Tom,2010).

Sample and Methodology


Thesampleselectedforthisstudyiscomposedofpermanentteeth,
mandibles, and maxillaries from individuals exhumed from the NeolithiclevelsofCDV.Mostoftheteethobservedareloosenfromtheir
alveoliduetotaphonomicfactors.Thesampleincluded195upperand
lower teeth. Lower incisors were not considered for the analysis due to
the lack of discrete traits associated with this tooth class in general.
The selected nonmetric traits (table 1) observed in the sample were
scored using the ASU system (Turner et al., 1991), except one, the
HypotrophicRootsoftheUpperCentralIncisors(HRUCI).Thistrait,
recentlydescribedbyCunhaet al.(inpress),ischaracterizedbytheoccurrenceofextremelyshortrootsfortheUpperCentralIncisors(UC1).
This trait is scored in a presence/absence system, being present when
thefulllengthoftherootisequalorshorterthanthemaximumlength
of the crown in fully developed UC1.
|ARKEOS34|145|I.
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|Note
NoteontheDentalMorphologyofNeolithicIndividuals
on the Dental Morphology of Neolithic Individuals|Claudia
| Claudia
ClaudiaCunha
Cunha|AnaMariaSilva|
|

TABLE1.Nonmetrictraitsselectedforthepresentstudy.
Nonmetric trait
Shoveling
Doubleshoveling
Tuberculum dentale(TD)
Labialconvexity
HRUCI
Interruptiongroove(IG)
Distalaccessoryridge(DAR)
Tri-cusppremolars
Carabelliscusp
Cusp5(Metaconule)
Marginalmesialaccessorytubercules
(MMAT)
Hypocone
Tomesroots
Cuspvariation
Groovepattern
Cuspnumber
Cusp5
Cusp6
Cusp7
Distaltrigonidcrest(DTC)
Anterior fovea
Protostylid
Congenialabsence
Mandibulartorus
Diastema
winging
PegIncisors
Bushmancanine
Accessorycusp
Accessoryridge
Odontomes
Enamelextensions
Parastyle
Supranumeraryroots
Delecting wrinkle
Palatinetorus
Supranumeraryforamina mentale
Mylohyoidbridge

Polar Tooth/Locus
UI1andUI2
UI1
UI1,UI2,UC
UI1
UI1
UI2
UC,LC
UPM
UM1
UM1
UM1

Scoring system
0-7
0-6
0-6
0-4
Presence/absence
0,M,D,MD,Med
0-5
Presence/absence
0-7
0-5
Presence/absence

UM2
LPM1
LPM2
LM1,LM2andLM3
LM1,LM2,LM3
LM1
LM1
LM1
LM1
LM1
LM1,LM3
UPM2,UM3,LPM2,LM2
Mandible
UI1
UI1
UI2
UC
UPM1ANDLPM2
UPM
UPM1,UOM2,LPM1,LPM2
UM1
UM3
LC,LM1
LM1
Palate
Mandibularcorpus
Lingual aspect of the mandibular
ramus

0-5
0-5
0-9
X, Y, +
4-6
0-5
0-5
0-4
Presence/absence
0-4
0-7
Presence/absence
Presence/absence
Presence/absence
1-4
0-2
0-3
Presence/absence
Presence/absence
Presence/absence
0-3
0-6
Registernumber
0-3
0-4
Registernumber
Presence/absence

LEGEND:UI1(uppercentralincisors);UI2(upperlateralincisors);UC(uppercanine);UP1(upper1stpremolars);UP2
(upper2ndpremolars;UM1(upper1stmolars);UM2(upper2ndmolars);UM3(upper3rd molars); LI1 (lower central
incisors); LI2 (lower lateral incisors); LC (lower canines); LP1 (lower irst premolars); LP2 (lower second premolars);
L1 (lower 1st molars); L2 (lower 2nd molars); L3 (lower 3rdmolars).

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Since the osteological material is highly fragmented and it is not


possibletoidentifyisolatedindividualsinthesampleregisteroftraits
was made based on laterality.

Results and Discussion


Sometraitsdescribedintheliterature(HauserandDeStefano,1989;
Turneret al.,1991;Gorskyet al., 1998) were not observed in the sample.
The absence of observation for some traits such as diastema and winging
(bothforUI1)mustbecautiouslytakenoncetaphonomicfactorsmight
prevent proper observation of its locus, particularly in high fragmented
series such is the one from CDV. The same reason might explain the
absenceofpalatinetorus, supranumararyforamina mentale andmylohyoid
bridges in the sample. Other traits were not observed despite the number
ofpolarteeth/loci(N)stillvisibleintherespectiveteeth:pegIncisors
(N=14),bushmancanine(N=6),UPMaccessorycusp(N=20),odontomes(N=22),enamelextensions(N=3),parastyle(N=3),LC(N=9)and
L1 (N=7) supranumerary roots and delecting wrinkle (N=11).
ost exuberant nonmetric traits were registered for the anterior
dentitionofthesample.UpperCentralIncisors(UI1)presentparticularlystrongexpressionsofTD (Fig. 1; Graph 1). Some shoveling was
noticed,butinmildexpressions.Despitethevarietyandexpressionof
positivestructuresonthelingualaspectofcentralincisorsinteethfrom
CDV,UI1tendtohavelittlelabialconvexityreachinguptoDegree1
intheASUscale.
FIG.1.Tuberculum

dentale in two UI1


(left)andplainlingual
surfaceonathirdUI1
fromCDVssample.
Specimens(fromleft
toright):SupSC160,
N26SC195and
M27.69.

GRAPH1.Frequency

ofTDfortheUI1in
thesample(degrees
measuredaccording
totheASUscale).

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A high frequency of HRUCI (Fig. 2) (44%) was observed. Althoughshorteningofrootscanbecausedbyocclusalpressure,trauma,


useoforthodonticbracketsandexposuretoindustriallymanufactured
chemicals and drugs (Ando et al., 1967; Hylander, 1977; Apajalahti,
2004;Edgcombet al.,2011),noneofthesecausesseemtoexplainthe
frequency of short roots UI1 in the sample. Occlusal pressure was ruled
out once it would imply similar frequencies of short roots for UI1s
antimeres (lower incisors) and/or other teeth in the anterior dentition.
None of those was observed to have abnormally short roots in the
sample.Traumaishighlyunliketoproducesuchfrequencyofbilateral
short roots, and inally prehistoric populations were not subjected to
eitherorthodontictreatmentorexposuretoindustriallymanufactured
substances.Therefore,themostlikelyhypothesistoexplainthispolymorphism, also observed in other peninsular Neolithic-Chalcolithic
collections(Cunhaet al.,inpress)isthatitisageneticallycontrolled
traitfrequentinregionalcollections.
FIG.2.UI1(left)

presentingHRUCI
and(ontheright)
normally grown root.
SpecimensM26SC69
(left)andH29.91,
bothfromCDV.

ost upper lateral incisors (UI2) exhibit signiicant expressions of


TD ranging from 24 in the ASU scale. Interruption grooves afect
roughlyonethirdofUI2(Graph2).Expressionsofshoveling(unusual
forEuropeancollections)arealsoobserved(Fig.3).
GRAPH2.Fre-

quencyofinterruptiongroovesforUI2
inthesample.

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FIG.3. TD in two

UI2(leftandcenter)
andplainlingual
surfaceonathirdUI2
fromCDVssample.
Shovelingassociated
with TD can also be
observedinbothUI2
ontheleftandcenter).Specimens(N27
SC63;I30SC54;
M26SC67)fromthe
sampleunderstudy.

Themorphologyofuppercanines(UC)(Fig.4)issimple(i.e. with
low counts of tuberculum dentale and no other observable nonmetric
traits),presentingbarelyanypositiveexpressionofDAR(Graph3).
FIG.4.UCfrom

CDVcavedisplaying
thetypicalsimple
morphologyinthe
collection(Specimen
CDVM26-24).

GRAPH3.Frequency

ofDARfortheUC
inthesample(degrees
measuredaccording
totheASUscale).

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Besides exhibiting simple morphology UPM are considerably affected by dental wear. Almost half UPs present wear equal or higher
than 4 according to scale proposed by Smith, 1984 (modiied by Silva,
1996). Accessory ridges were registered for only two teeth (N=13), but
thislackofdatacanbeinducedbytheeasyobliterationofthistraitdue
to dental wear.
As for the U1 rare cases of Cusp 5 (C5) and AT were regis
tered. As it is expected for a European sample, Carabellis cusps are
themostfrequenttraitforthistoothclassbeingpresentinmostUM1
observed(N=7).
Lower dentition in this collection is marked by very simple morphology. Lower canines present similar frequencies of DAR when compared with upper canines. Only two cases of Tomes roots in very minor
expression (Degree 1, ASU scale) were registered in a total of seven right
irst lower premolars (LP1), and none for the left. Cusp variation for
Second Lower Premolars (LP2) is displayed in Graph 4.
GRAPH4.Frequency

of diferent cusp variationregisteredfor


CDVsample(degrees
measuredaccording
totheASUscale).

Observation of cusp numbers for molars in the sample fell within the
expected range. ost irst molars presented ive well developed cusps.
ExpressionsofCusp5(C5)arepresentedinGraph5.Distributionof
groovepatternsforthistoothispresentedinGraph6.

GRAPH5.Frequency

ofC5inL1inCDV
(degreesmeasured
accordingtotheASU
scale).

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GRAPH6.Frequency

ofgroovepatternsin
LM1inCDV.

Final comments
TheauthorsarecurrentlyassessingcoevalIberiancollections.On
completion of this analysis it is possible that parallels between CDV and
other Holocene collective burial sites may be found. However preliminaryobservationofthesamplesindicatethattherearesomesimilarities
amongthecollectionfromCDVandothersamplesfromsitesinlandthe
IberianPeninsula(Alentejo),intheTagusRiverestuaryandAtlantic
Portugueseshore.ThepresenceofHRUCIandelaboratetopography
forthelingualaspectoftheanteriordentitionmightbefrequentfeatures
inthesecollections.FurtherstudiesofcollectionsfromtheNorthRibatejo region are now required to characterize the regional population
in recent Prehistory. work being currently developed by researchers
associated with the Center of Research on Anthropology and Health
(CIAS) at the University of Coimbra will allow the integration of dental
morphological data from the sample excavated in CDV in a broader
scenarioofpopulationdynamicsinthelocalrecentPrehistory.

Acknowledgments
This study was made possible thanks to PhD Grant SFRHBD
-70495-2010fromFundaoparaCinciaeaTecnologia(Portuguese
Ministry of Education and Science). Our gratitude also goes to the
Center of Prehistory at the Instituto Politcnico de Tomar in whose
labs the study took place. Academic and institutional support for the
researchdevelopedhasalsobeengrantedbytheResearchCenterfor
AnthropologyandHealth(CIAS)attheUniversityofCoimbra.This
work would not be possible without the consent of the curator of the
collection, Dr. Ana Rosa Cruz, Center of Prehistory at the Instituto
Politcnico de Tomar. This work could not be carried without the
efort of Dr. Cruz and Dr. Luiz Oosterbeek (Instituto Politcnico de
Tomar) in unveiling the past of the communities which chose the caves
ofNaborivertohousetheirdead.

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