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Slot Cycle Index Setting Notes

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Case TitleSlot Cycle Index Setting Notes

Abstract
Every network parameter modification is related to the network quality & resource. If the
changes are made to improve the network quality, there will be a resource trade off. This
document address the Slot Cycle Index (SCI) setting for CDMA 1X network with EVDO
network overlay. The setting value would impact the devices battery standby time and paging
success ratio, based on the operators preference.

Keywords CDMA, EVDO, Slot Cycle Index (SCI), Network Optimization


Case Text:

1. Introduction
Every network parameter modification is related to the network quality & resource. If the
changes are made to improve the network quality, there will be a resource trade off. Vice versa,
to utilize the network resource, the network quality would be sacrificed.
Therefore, in the standard network optimization process, the change recommendation will be
determined by the network statistics and the real-time tests for the existing network. For the
Greenfield network, the vendors default values will be set initially. The optimization will also be
based on the test results and network statistic.

2. Objective
The CDMA Paging Channel is the shared channel that all phones listen to for incoming calls and
other control info. To conserve power, the idle phones only "wake up" and listen for messages on
the Paging Channel during their assigned slots. The slot cycle index determines how often the
phone's slot comes around. If the slot cycle index is 0, the phone wakes up every 1.28 seconds. If
it's one, it wakes up every 2.56 seconds. If it's two, it's every 5.12 seconds, and so on. The larger
the setting, the more power is conserved, but the longer it takes to page the phone for an incoming
call. If the SCI were set to 10.24 seconds, few callers would hang on the line long enough for the
phone to be answered. There are two settings that govern this. One is the "preferred slot cycle
index" in the phone, and can be set via service programming. The other is the "maximum slot
cycle index" set in the base station and broadcast in overhead messages on the Paging Channel.
The phone has to use whichever number is smaller.
The typical 1x2000 network Slot Cycle Index setting is 0 or 1. Due to the EVDO network data
throughput improvement purpose, there is consideration to set the SCI to 2 which may help the
data performance.
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However, since the EVDO slot cycle occurs every 5.12 seconds (defined in the protocol), the
CDMA1x SCI2 (identical to EVDO slot cycle) has a higher probability of conflict between 1X
paging and EVDO paging, that requests AT goes to negotiate with system to change the paging
slot assigned to it. Please refer to the appendix 5.1 for the detail.

3. Procedure
There are several network parameters (appendix 5.2) that should be modified corresponding to the
CDMA1x SCI change. Since each single network has different morphologies, design, subscribers
distribution, etc. All the settings will be determined from the current network switch statistics and
real-time field testing.

3.1.

Networks Data Gathering & Real-Time Field Testing

Collect the data as the benchmark before applying any change to the network. This includes two
kinds of information:
OM statistics related with paging performance (NSS), call setup performance (BSS), DO data

throughput (BSS) shall be collected.


Field
test with signaling tracing from both NSS and BSS side to obtain statistics of paging

and call setup.

3.2.

SCI Change and Relative Parameters Change

Implement the modification according to the attached SCI changes MOP. After modification of the
parameters, repeat step 3.1 to collect the information and monitor the network condition. If there is
any network degradation, change back to the original values.
It is strongly recommended to modify each parameter gradually, testing and verifying after each
modification, until the proper values been determined and set as the final setting.
The RF team shall be responsible for modification of SCI, BSC timer.
The NSS Team shall be responsible for modification of other related parameters in the Softswitch.

3.3.

Network Quality Verification

Once all the changes have been completed and the network quality has not been degraded, collect
all the data and compare to the initial benchmark data. That includes:

IOT result of all types of mobiles using SCI2 in commercial network.


Field test with signaling tracing from both NSS and BSS side to obtain statistics of paging
and call setup.
OM statistics related with paging performance(NSS), call setup performance(BSS) of 1X
mobile and EVDO AT, DO data throughput(BSS) of hybrid AT shall be collected.

4. SCI and Related Parameters


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Query current parameters setting


1. SCI
LST SYSMSGPARA, and then select SPM, to get current SCI value.
2. Max times of paging to being repeated
LST PAGINGSTRA, to get current value.
3. Interval between paging resending
LST PAGEINTVL, to get current value.

Command of parameters modification


1. SCI
Command:
MOD SPM: MAXTSPRDIDX= (SCI setting value), BATCHMODSIGN = "FFFFFFFF";
2. Max times of paging to being repeated
If SCI is set to 1, 3 times to resend un-responded paging message is suggested. If SCI is set to 2,
then 2 times to resend un-responded paging message is suggested.
Command:
MOD PAGINGSTRA
3. Interval between paging resending
The values for interval between paging resending should be determined upon the process results in
the section 3.
Command:
MOD PAGEINTVL

5. Appendix
5.1.

SCI Protocol and Qualcomm Recommendation

In CDMA1X/EVDO system, the hybrid AT is able to receive a Page message when it is on the
1xEV-DO system because the AT is in slot-mode operation with 1X/EVDO network. If the AT is a
hybrid mobile, it is required to monitor the paging channel on the 1X system as well as the 1xEVDO slotted control channel. The AT will wake up in its designated 1X slot to monitor the 1X
paging channel. If the AT is on the 1xEV-DO traffic channel, the AT may send a null DRC to
indicate that it does not want to receive any data from the network while it is monitoring the 1X
paging channel. If there is no page message for the AT on the 1X system, the AT would come back
to the 1xEV-DO system to resume its data connection by pointing a non-null DRC to some sector.
If there is a page message for the AT, the AT would stay in the 1X system to continue call setup
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procedures.
A dual-mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO mobile using slotted-mode paging can effectively watch the
paging channels of both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO. For EVDO, slot cycle occurs every 5.12 seconds
defined in the protocol, see figure 1 for detail. For 1X, according to the value of Slot Cycle Index,
it can be 0(1.28seconds), 1(2.56seconds), 2(5.12seconds) in protocol (SCI= 1.28 * 2^ i), see figure
2 for detail. SCI=1 is recommend for 1X from Qualcomm, and its verified in a practical network
to be good for the call setup and paging performance.

Figure 1. EVDO Slot Cycle

Figure 2. 1x RTT Slot Cycle Index


The Inter-Operability between 1x and 1xEV Networks are covered in the TIA Standard, IS-856.

5.2.

Analysis of Mobile Throughput Impact from Qualcomm

The average data throughput seen by a particular hybrid access terminal from the IS-856 access
network is not expected to be noticeably impacted by the periodic interruptions required to
monitor the IS-2000 paging slot.
The hybrid access terminal monitors the IS-2000 paging channel when active on an IS-856 access
network, which does imply an impact to the peak data throughput achievable by a hybrid access
terminal.
When monitoring the IS-2000 paging channel, a hybrid access terminal must
periodically tune away from the IS-856 access network. During the time the hybrid access
terminal is monitoring the IS-2000 paging channel, the IS-856 access network cannot schedule
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packets to that particular hybrid access terminal. However, in a practical deployment, multiple
access terminals will be receiving service on the forward link at a given time. Using a fairnessbased scheduler, such as the one currently in use, an access terminal accumulates credit for the
time away from the IS-856 access network, and receives the corresponding scheduling priority
after returning to the IS-856 access network.
The fraction of time that a hybrid access terminal is unavailable for packet data service on an IS856 access network depends on the slot cycle index of the IS-2000 access network being
monitored and the time required monitoring the IS-2000 paging slot. The time required away from
the IS-856 access network is determined by the time required to tune to the IS-2000 frequency,
reacquire the IS-2000 access network, receive the IS-2000 paging channel information, tune back
to the IS-856 frequency, and reacquire the IS-856 access network. Because the IS-2000 and IS-856
access networks are synchronized to the same timing reference, the time required to reacquire
either type of access network after tuning to the corresponding frequency is greatly reduced
relative to the time required to reacquire without the availability of system timing. The time
required can be further reduced in a system where the IS-2000 and IS-856 sectors are co-located
and use the same pilot PN offsets.
In the event that the IS-2000 paging channel is available and there is no need to access the IS-2000
system, the mean time the hybrid access terminal is required to be away from the IS-856 system to
monitor the IS-2000 paging slot is expected to be approximately 100 msec, and the worst case
time is expected to be no greater than 250 msec. Additionally, use of the IS-2000 Quick Paging
Channel may improve these times. These times are dependent, in part, on the actual access
terminal radio hardware, and may therefore vary between different access terminal designs.
Simulations have been performed to characterize the impact of IS-2000 slotted operation on
access terminal data throughput on an IS-856 access network. Simulation parameters and results
for the Pedestrian, 2 antenna cases are presented in Table 1 and Figure 3.

Table 1 Mobile throughput simulation parameters


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Figure 3 shows that the impact on the application layer TCP throughput available to a hybrid
access terminal operating on an IS-856 access network is negligible for typical durations of time
spent away from the IS-856 access network to monitor the IS-2000 paging slot.

Figure 3 User throughputs vs. away time for Pedestrian A, 2 antennas

5.3.

Switch Parameters

Below is the definition of the parameter.


Parameter ID

Parameter name

Parameter description

PIT1

Paging interval
(Second)

T1The interval between the first paging message and the


second one in voice/data/location services.

PIT2

Paging interval
(Second)

T2The interval between the second paging message and


the third one in voice/data/location services.

PIT3

Paging interval
(Second)

T3The interval between the third paging message and the


fourth one in voice/data/location services.

RPI

Remain paging intervalThe interval between two paging messages after the
(Second)
fourth paging message in voice/data/location services.

PISMT1

Paging interval of SMSThe interval between the first paging message and the
T1 (Second)
second one in normal short message services, OTAPA
services, or SDB services.

PISMT2

Paging interval of SMSThe interval between the second paging message and
T2 (Second)
the third one in normal short message services,
OTAPA services, or SDB services.

PISMT3

Paging interval of SMSThe interval between the third paging message and the

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fourth one in normal short message services, OTAPA


services, or SDB services.

RPISM

Remain paging intervalThe interval between two paging messages after the
of SMS (Second)
fourth paging message in normal short message
services, OTAPA services, or SDB services.

AISMT1

ADDS paging intervalThe interval between the first ADDS_PAGE message


T1 (Second)
and the second one in the short message service.

AISMT2

ADDS paging intervalThe interval between the second ADDS_PAGE


T2 (Second)
message and the third one in the short message
service.

AISMT3

ADDS paging intervalThe interval between the third ADDS_PAGE message


T3 (Second)
and the fourth one in the short message service.

RAISM

Remain ADDS pagingThe interval between two ADDS_PAGE messages


Interval(Second)
after the fourth ADDS_PAGE message in the short
message service.
Table 2 Switch Parameters List

6. Case Study
Country A, operator C has current 1x2000 network Slot Cycle Index setting to 1. The market
operational management plans to modify the SCI to 2 after the EVDO network turned on for data
throughput improvement.
Huawei provided the SCI modification guideline and suggestion, in the same time helped the
customer analyzed some network data as well.
Note:
1. Unknown for the EVDO data throughput improvement
2. In CDMA1x/EVDO system, the hybrid AT will listen to the CDMA1x network periodically
(SCI setting). During the EVDO data download session, the frequent listen to the 1x
network, the more interrupt to the DO data download.
3. The 1x network performance may be impacted

6.1.

Pre-Analysis Networks Data & Test

Page Duration distribution Analysis:


The paging duration measurement had been collected and analyzed to understand the majority of
the page responses duration. The charts below indicated the 85% or above of paging duration are
under 3000 ms, only around 10% of the paging duration laid in 4000 ms, and the remaining 5%
are exceed the range.

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Figure 4. Page Duration distribution

Figure 5. Page Duration Trend


Page Success Ratio:
The network page success ratio was also reviewed. The sample file below indicated the page
success ratio is very between different times during the day. The range is 93% to 97% and the
average success ratio is 96.4%.

Table 3 Page Success Ratio


Page Success Responses:
The sample analysis below indicates the percentage of page responses on the 1 st page, 2nd page and
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3rd page. Most of the page responses (success) occurred after the 1 st page, only a few page
responses occurred on the 2nd and 3rd page. It means the system has proper timer setting
corresponding to the SCI 1.

Table 4 Page Responses


IMSI/ESN Trace:
The device real-time traces to match the network level page duration. The average page duration
is 2.02 seconds for this sample device below, which is satisfied to the current SCI setting in 1
(2.56 seconds). For the EVDO SCI setting to 2, the page duration may be measured for relate
timer settings.

Table 5 IMSI Trace for Page Duration


FTP Throughput Measurement:
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This is the sample measurement point set to FTP server. Jagged 1-second throughput curve
caused by SCI 0 value. Every second there is a transmission gap of up to 300 ms. This is
affecting the bucketing of transferred data.

6.2.

Method of Procedure for SCI Change

Huawei provided the SCI modification MOP for customer to follow step by step. The
recommendations to customer modify each associate parameter gradually, testing and verifying
after the change in place.
The following attachment is the MOP for the SCI change.

SCI slot index


changes MOP Sample.doc

6.3.

Post-Change Verification

The customer conducted the change and collected the related data and information to verify the
result of change. The modification did not show significant improvement due to the different
networks & subscribers scenario. The customer did not provide the data result, therefore, this
case is closed.

7. Conclusion
According to this customer SCI modification support excise, the following are the conclusions for
the future reference.
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Mobile station operating in slotted mode usually monitors 1 or 2 paging channel slots per
sleep cycle
The translation parameter maximum Slot Cycle Index (SCI) defines this sleep cycle
Mobile uses the minimum value of the one programmed in its memory and the one it
receives over-the-air from the network
Tradeoffs associated with Slot Cycle Index
Higher value of SCI increases mobile battery life. However, it may degrade the overall
termination performance
o As mobile sleeps more, there are fewer RF information updates (Idle handoffs)
o Mobile will likely respond to the termination request on a weaker pilot
There is no firm recommendation on the value of Max. SCI. Service providers should
understand the possible tradeoff while setting Max. SCI.
Hybrid mode AT periodically monitors 3G1x paging channel
Update 3G1x overhead messages for voice page
The Slot Cycle Index govern the frequency of the 3G1x Tune-away
A value of SCI=0 results in maximum 1xEV throughput degradation in a single user
scenario (up to 20% loss in throughput with single, stationary user in good RF condition)
Single , stationary user requesting 2.4567 Mbps rate
The loss in 1xEV throughput above is a minimum bound. The loss will be higher during
drive testing
o 3G1x handoffs and mobile hashing
The loss in 1xEV data throughput performance may vary with different handsets
Handsets based on 6500 chipset will experience smaller loss. The difference in SCI
impact between MSM6500 and MSM5500 is due to the rate at which the reverse traffic
channel resumes data transmission after 1x Tune-Away (from some research document
for this conclusion)

8. Reference

Qualcomm 80-V2301-1[1][1].X3(cdma2000 Hybrid Access Terminal Operation White Paper)


Huawei CBSS Product guideline
Huawei MSC & BSS paging parameter setting principle
Alcatel-Lucent 1xEV-DO Data Network Testing and Analysis Services Report

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