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ZF Friedrichshafen AG

Corporate Headquarters
88038 Friedrichshafen
Germany
Phone +49 7541 77-0
Fax +49 7541 77-908000
www.zf.com

Innovations
of Great Value.

Driveline and Chassis Technology

Driveline and Chassis Technology

1050 750 101 f SVU 6007

for Cars

Innovations of Great Value.


Cars move people both physically
and emotionally. But its not just stunning design and powerful engines that
fascinate people. There is also a great
deal of interest in the more intelligent
concepts that will make mobility and
the thrill of the open road compatible
with fuel and resource savings, and
even more personal safety. These are
by no means conicting aims for ZF,
which has been setting the pace in the
eld of driveline and chassis technology for years and is a reliable partner to
vehicle manufacturers when it comes
to making driving more responsive,
safer, and more efcient.

The Right Driveline for Every


Need Car Transmissions from ZF

These days, car transmissions are the true jacks-of-all-trades, backing up high-torque
engines, improving fuel economy, and using fewer natural resources, while also contributing
to a more dynamic and more comfortable drive. And they have to achieve all of this without taking up too much installation space in a wide range of vehicle models. ZF transmissions live up to these expectations and also set new standards. Every new generation of
automatic transmissions reduces fuel consumption by between three and six percent. And
whats more, they can also boast other features such as direct engine integration, sportiness, precise gear shifting, comfortable handling, and a long lifespan.
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Transmissions

1 Second-generation 6HP 6-speed automatic


transmission: faster than human perception
The second-generation 6-speed automatic transmission is undoubtedly a fast transmission and
is designed for torques of up to 850 Newton
meters. At the heart of the transmission are the
turbine-based torsional dampers for gasoline
engines and a dual damper converter for diesel
engines. They are able to bridge the converter
slip period much quicker and therefore result in
more direct engine integration for greater responsiveness and optimized fuel consumption. In
contrast to the predecessors, the gasoline engine
reduces fuel consumption by three percent while
the diesel engine saves six percent. A hydraulics
system and control software now make it possible
to downshift multiple times without any loss of
time and also reduce reaction times by 50 percent
to below the threshold of human perception.

3 8HP 8-speed automatic transmission:


designed for reduced fuel consumption
Increased performance with lower fuel consumption: these seemingly contradictory
exclusive targets have been achieved in ZFs
newly developed 8-speed automatic transmission. This has been made possible by a
new transmission concept comprising four
planetary gear sets and ve transmission

clutches. And only two transmission clutches


are unlocked per gear, thus resulting in greater efciency and a higher overall transmission
ratio. Thanks to its harmonious torque and
speed distribution, the 8-speed automatic
transmission doesnt take up any more space
than and does not consist of any more components than the latest 6-speed automatic
transmission, but will nevertheless reduce

fuel consumption by six percent! This is also


partly attributable to an early torque converter
lockup, which is in turn also responsible for
much more direct vehicle reactions when
the driver pulls away. The 8-speed automatic
transmission can also serve as a modular system for other initial acceleration, all-wheel
drive, and hybrid concepts, without the need
to adapt the basic concept.

2 Mechatronics module: sensing your


wishes through the soles of your feet
The mechatronics module unites the electronic transmission control unit and the
hydraulic shifting device as a single unit
within the transmission. The electronic transmission control unit uses data relating to the
driving conditions and behavior collected by
sensors to ascertain when the driver would
like to shift gears, which gear they need, and
when would be the best moment to do so.
The hydraulic shifting device is then responsible for implementing those changes.

Transmissions

4 8-speed hybrid transmission: for twice


the savings in the future
The new 8-speed automatic transmission
has a modular design that will allow it to
be used in tandem with various drivelines
without having to adapt the basic transmission concept. It is particularly versatile
when it comes to hybrids: a mild hybrid
drive can be adapted with the addition of

a crankshaft starter generator (a) or a full


hybrid system can be integrated as a parallel
hybrid drive (b) both options regardless of
the available space. Alternatively, the 8-speed
automatic transmission can be combined
with a hydrodynamic cooled clutch (c) or an
integrated starting clutch (d). In terms of
power take-off, it can be used with all standard ZF all-wheel systems.

5 Dual clutch transmission: a sporty


drive with low fuel consumption
With up to 9,000 revs per minute and an
efcient transmission architecture, the dual
clutch transmission really knows how to win
over sporty drivers. Its winning feature comes
from its two sub-transmissions: while the car
drives with one of them, an electrohydraulic
control system selects the next gear in the
second sub-transmission. A wide array of
highly efcient transmission options reduces
fuel consumption and emissions. A spontaneous gear shift and an initial acceleration
element that can be tuned to any type of
engine round out the dual clutch transmissions sporty prole.

6 6-speed manual transmission:


powerful and comfortable
The 6-speed manual transmission was designed with powerful engines in mind and
is able to transfer 600 Newton meters, making
it more than suitable for modern diesel engines. Its top performance comes from its
large range of gear ratios and ne gear intervals. The 6-speed manual transmission is
particularly comfortable to use thanks to a
precisely dened pressure point. Whats more,
the oil does not need replacing at any point
throughout the transmissions lifespan.

7 eTronic automated transmission:


economical and comfortable
The eTronic 6-speed automated transmission
was designed for use in vans and minivans. It
has a torque of between 350 and 500 Newton
meters and helps save costs in the delivery
business, as it takes care of choosing the
gears and using the clutch and gearshift on
behalf of the driver. The complex gear shifting
strategy automatically chooses the most suitable gear, regardless of the driver, the vehicle
load, and the road. The driver nonetheless
has the option of switching from automatic to
manual and can then change gears using a
touch control lever. Clutch operation remains
automatic, thus eliminating any incorrect gear
shifts that cause considerable wear.

Extracting Every Last Iota of Power


Driveline Components from ZF

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Generating the necessary power for a cars driveline is one thing efciently transferring
the engine power to the wheels is quite another. Depending on the driveline concept in
question, the power is transferred between the engine and the drive wheels in different
ways. ZF optimizes these channels with the help of innovative driveline technology such
as dual damper converters, dual mass ywheels, hybrid modules, and intelligent distribution of the drive torque via the Vector Drive rear axle drive, to make sure not an iota of
power goes to waste. ZF driveline components have proven themselves to be robust, resistant to wear, and effective, meaning they are both economical and environmentally friendly.
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Driveline Components

2 Power take-off unit: top performance in


the smallest of installation spaces for cars
with front transverse drive
The power take-off unit transfers the torque
to the rear axle in all-wheel drives with front
transverse drive and transmission. It is responsible for delivering maximum performance in
a very tight space. The two-tier model with
reinforced spur and bevel gears and a special
housing construction admirably meets these
requirements.

1 Vector Drive rear axle drive: intelligent


torque distribution
As the drive torque is distributed to the leftor right-hand wheel individually, the Vector
Drive rear axle drive generates an additional
yaw moment. This screwing motion lends
support to the vehicle steering and stabilizes
the car during sudden swerving without
having to apply any of the wheel brakes.
Vector Drive therefore results in better driving

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dynamics and enhanced safety. And, with


its planetary construction, the rear axle
drive even delivers when the engine has no
traction, i.e. in cases where the driver is
not accelerating, such as when descending
winding mountain roads. It also prevents tire
slip when moving off on all kinds of road
surfaces, which reduces wear and tear and
improves the vehicles traction.

3 Electric motor for hybrid drives:


bringing the best of both worlds together
intelligently
Hybrid drives are a high-performance cross
between a combustion engine and an electric motor that uses less fuel and generates
fewer emissions. Whereas a combustion
engine needs to reach higher speeds to
achieve maximum performance, an electric
motor is highly efcient, delivering maximum
torque right from the start. An intelligent
drive management system utilizes the advantages of both engine types for maximum
driving performance in any situation, combined with reduced fuel consumption and
emissions.

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Driveline Components

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4 Clutch systems: reliable power


transmission
Modern clutch systems transfer the power
in vehicles with a manual transmission
and consist of a pressure plate, a clutch disk
with friction linings, a torsional damper, and
a clutch release bearing with a hydraulic
actuator system. They are available with
clutch diameters ranging from 160 to 280
millimeters and are tailor-made for a wide
variety of different vehicles. They transfer
input torque of between 80 and 600 Newton
meters, have a high load-bearing capacity,
and are extremely reliable. Whats more, with
the XTend automatic wear compensation,
clutch manipulation remains comfortable for
the duration of its lifespan.

5 Torque converters: reduced consumption


and maximum comfort
Torque converters expertly counteract torsional vibrations to make driving vehicles
with automatic transmission more dynamic
and also to considerably reduce fuel consumption. Thanks to this torque converter
trait, the transmission control unit is able to
close the lockup clutch of the dual damper
converter on diesel engines extremely quickly, thus reducing the time the vehicle is run
in a consumption-heavy hydrodynamic state
to a bare minimum.

6 Dual mass ywheel: for a quieter power


train
The dual mass ywheel is located between
the engine and the transmission in cars with
a manual transmission and is responsible for
transferring the engine torque to the pressure
plate and the clutch disk. Its main purpose
is to balance out any torsional vibrations that
are passed from the engine to the power
train in order to rule out any growling or
rumbling noises and to increase the level of
comfort for the vehicle passengers. It also
helps to reduce fuel consumption, as drivers of diesel engines without a dual mass
ywheel in particular tend to drive at higher
revs that cause less vibrations and sound
more acoustically pleasant.

7 Shifttronic gearshift system:


gear selection made easy
The gearshift is connected to the transmission electronically, making it very reliable
and easy to use. Another advantage of a
purely electronic solution is that the gearshift
commands can be combined with other
electronic functions (e.g. in the chassis).
A shift-by-wire solution also gives manufacturers greater scope in designing and
constructing the gearshift system.

8 Aggregate mounting: driving force


for a smooth ride
The aggregate mounting can be switched
on or off and is highly effective at preventing
engine vibrations from being passed on to
the bodywork. When the vehicle is idling, an
integrated pneumatic suspension is activated
to improve the comfort level. When the
vehicle is traveling, however, the module automatically switches to hydraulic suspension,
which is more suited to a dynamic driving
style. The aggregate mounting therefore
balances out not only low-frequency engine
vibrations when idling, but also high-frequency
vibrations caused during driving. The module
also prevents unwanted pitching from being
passed from the road surface to the vehicle
via the engine-transmission unit.

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Solutions that Take the Strain


Axle Systems from ZF

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A lot is expected of car axle systems they have to balance out potholes, washboards,
and other road surface irregularities while still giving the driver a feeling of direct connection to the road. With such an important part to play, its the kinematics of the solution that really count, so the axle system, damping, and other chassis components all
have to complement one another perfectly. ZF is a true technical expert when it comes
to car chassis solutions and has exceptional chassis manufacturing know-how. As a result,
automobile manufacturers from around the world place their trust in ZFs complete axle
systems.
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Axle Systems

2 Corner modules: individual parts working


in tandem
Corner modules bring together the entire
wheel suspension, i.e. wheel trunks, mountings, control arms, dampers, and springs, and
the brake system. Special wheel guidance
for off-roaders makes the vehicles suitable for
rough terrains. Innovative suspension joints
and rubber-metal mountings contribute to
long suspension travel, which results in maximum off-road traction.

1 Front and rear axle systems:


perfectly in tune
The character of a car is very much dependent on its chassis, the individual components
of which need to be perfectly in tune with
one another to achieve the best possible result. A single model of SUV can be tted with
any one of up to nearly 100 different axle
variations, depending on the engine size, the
maximum load, and the quality of the roads

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in the market for which the vehicle is being


manufactured. This is because the front and
rear axles determine the cars handling, how
comfortable it is, its responsiveness, and its
safety standard. There are, however, other
factors at work: wheel trunks, sensors, wheel
suspension and guidance, cross members,
stabilizers, springs and dampers all have
their part to play in connecting the wheels to
the bodywork too.

One of the smallest but no less important


components within the entire system are the
rubber-metal components, which serve as
elastokinematic connectors that highly effectively absorb vibrations and sound. With its
expertise and experience, ZF supplies automobile manufacturers with chassis components and complete axle systems that are
constantly improving the dynamics, comfort,
and safety of the manufacturers cars.

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Greater Intelligence
Chassis Components from ZF

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A cars wheel suspension and damping are responsible for a good level of road contact
and for minimizing vibrations and noise. They increase a vehicles safety and inuence
its driving characteristics. ZF offers tried and tested modules in this eld. The Nivomat
leveling system makes sure the car is driven at the right level, whatever it is transporting,
making it safer to drive and reducing wear and tear. Driving is even safer with variable
damping systems such as CDC. They adjust the damping power electronically within milliseconds to the driving situation, between a hard, sporty damping feel and a soft, comfortable one. Networking together with other units, CDC is part of an intelligent chassis that
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is capable of reacting to all sorts of different driving situations.

Chassis Components

1 CDC electronic damping system:


uncompromising damping
CDC (Continuous Damping Control) adapts
the chassis damping to the current driving
situation on a precise sliding scale, thus making it easier for the driver to control the vehicle. Sensors pass on information about the
road surface, vehicle behavior, and driver
responses to the electronic control system,
which then calculates just the right damping
power for the driving conditions every two
milliseconds. A proportional valve in the
damper then sets each wheel at just the
right damping level.

2 Sensitive Damping Control mechanical


damping system: for agility and comfort
Sensitive Damping Control is a mechanical
damping system that makes cars comfortable and safe on the road by distributing the
damping between two consecutive pistons.
The rst piston is attached to the piston rod,
and the second is cushioned at the end of
the rod between springs. This second piston,
which has a separate characteristic curve,
is not activated until the piston stroke in the
rst valve has been exhausted, i.e. when
the road surface is particularly uneven.

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5 ARS Active Roll Stabilization:


reduced roll
When a vehicle takes a corner, actuators
connected to hydraulic swivel motors on the
stabilizer rod cause the two stabilizer halves
to rotate towards each other, generating
torsional torque. This helps reduce rolling on
corners and can even cancel it out completely when the transverse acceleration is
below 0.3 g. As a result, the vehicle is easier
to control and safer to drive.

6 AOS Adaptive Off-road Stabilizer:


greater off-road traction
As soon as you get off the open road, a rigid
stabilizer rod can be more of a hindrance
than a help, especially when it results in
a wheel simply hanging in the air. AOS is
a robust system that allows the driver to
decouple the stabilizer rod to improve wheelto-road contact.

7 SMiCA control arm: more functions,


less weight
New manufacturing processes result in parts
that are not only lighter, but also better.
SMiCA (Sheet Metal integrated Control Arm)
has an integrated suspension joint and is
made without any rivets or screws, making it
lighter than the average sheet metal control
arm. It also takes up less space than more
conventional solutions, giving designers greater
scope when planning a chassis.

3 Nivomat leveling system: always


doing its level best
The Nivomat leveling system features special
shock absorbers for the rear axle that keep
the vehicle at a constant height regardless of
the load and without any hydraulic or electrical connections. This is particularly important
in vehicles which carry loads that vary in size
or vehicles which have a trailer attached.
Nivomat takes the energy it needs from the
motion between the wheels and the bodywork.

4 Ball joint sensor module: precise data


for all control systems
The wheel motion is monitored by a magnet
inside the ball joint without any direct contact.
Control systems can then use the high-resolution
sensor data collated to regulate features such
as the dynamic headlights, and to calculate the
damping force required by the CDC electronic
damping system or by pneumatic suspension
systems.

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Really Feel the Drive


Steering Technology from ZF*

*ZF Lenksysteme GmbH is a joint venture


between ZF Friedrichshafen AG and
Robert Bosch GmbH.

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Drivers have become accustomed to how easy steering can be. They benet from hydraulic and electric assistance which is supplied by the engine for simplied steering. Today,
good power-assisted steering is marked by its ability to give the driver a sense of direct
responsiveness from their steering wheel: with immediate reaction and adapted steering
support, depending on the speed and the driving situation. Even when the steering system serves as an active control system, as with superimposed steering systems. Intelligent
energy management in power-assisted steering also contributes to reducing a vehicles
fuel consumption and emissions.
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Steering Systems

1 Servolectric electric power steering


system: greater functionality, less energy
consumption
Servolectric boasts a number of advantages.
For a start, it only needs energy when the car
is physically being steered. Depending on the
vehicle type, this can cut energy consumption
by up to 85 percent in comparison to hydraulic
solutions, and this equates to a reduction in
fuel consumption of 0.3 liters per 100 kilometers. It consists of a servo unit only, all other
parts such as a steering valve, steering pump,

oil reservoir, and high-pressure tubes having


been eliminated. It is consequently lighter
and easier to install, while the absence of oil
and hydraulics makes it absolutely maintenance-free. Just four basic Servolectric models
are able to cover all vehicle classes, from
compact cars to top-of-the-range models.
And functioning completely independently of
the vehicles engine, the servo unit can be
easily adapted electronically to suit any kind
of vehicle.

2 Varioserv steering pump:


the economical marvel
The Varioserv adjustable vane pump plays an
important part in optimizing the energy usage
of hydraulic steering systems. As their geometric capacity can be adapted in accordance with
the pump speed, less oil is pumped around
and back through the low-pressure circuit.
The result is energy savings of up to 50 percent
and a reduction in fuel consumption of up to
0.15 liters per 100 kilometers.
3 Steering column: with memorized
personal settings
Electrically adjustable steering columns do
more than merely adjust the steering wheel
to suit the drivers preferences. An electronic
control device can also memorize various
steering wheel positions so that all it takes is
the touch of a button when you get in the car
to position the steering wheel exactly how
you want it.

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4 Active steering: driving enjoyment


and safety
An active steering system delivers a steering
ratio that varies according to the driving situation: it is sporty on winding roads, assisted
in city trafc, and provides added safety on
the highway. Whats more, with active steering, the driver can perform sudden evasive
maneuvers more easily because the system
automatically corrects the steering angle and
stabilizes the vehicle.

5 Rack-and-pinion power steering system:


precision and sensitivity
The main advantages of ZFs rack-and-pinion
power steering system are extremely high
steering precision on winding roads and a
safer sense of steering at high speeds. With a
variable-ratio rack-and-pinion power steering
system, it takes the driver just two revolutions
of the steering wheel to go from full left-hand
to full right-hand lock. The speed-dependent
version of this steering is known as Servotronic.

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Innovations of Great Value.


Theres no such thing as a typical driver. Nor is there a typical car, and the
automobile market will increasingly be characterized by the wide variety of models
and car types made available. But automotive development itself will continue
to be characterized by certain objectives that have always been a main priority,
and ZFs innovative solutions will continue to address these objectives. Individual
mobility needs to be economically viable and compatible with using natural
resources sparingly: ZF products genera te fewer emissions and reduce a cars
fuel consumption. After all, driving a car should also offer added emotional value
with improved driving dynamics and comfort. ZF products deliver on this front,
with precision steering, quick and comfortable gear changes, and effective propulsion. At the same time, ZF systems can also cater to high standards of active
and passive passenger safety and make driving safer, either as a single unit or in
tandem with other electronic control systems. It goes without saying that top
quality, durability, and expert service are ZF standards.

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29

Conserving Resources

Conserving Resources
ZF uses innovative technology to prove that greater mobility, comfort, and driving dynamics can indeed be coupled with lower energy
consumption, and ZF products are already reducing fuel consumption considerably today, along with CO2 emissions.

fort, and driving dynamics. And to

on developing hybrid drives and is already in a posi-

keep up with the competition in

tion to offer the entire bandwidth from components

terms of economy too, ZFs engi-

to hybrid systems. The importance of hybrids to ZF

neers improved the energy efcien-

is demonstrated by the 8-speed automatic transmis-

cy of ZF products and, as a result,

sion generation of the future. It was designed to be

fuel consumption has dropped by

able to be integrated into all hybrid systems, further

between eight and ten percent since

reducing fuel consumption.

2001 with the help of the 6-speed


automatic transmission. ZF is con-

Lightweight

Every liter of fuel saved not only benets the bank

active ZF products in passenger cars can optimize

tinuing with this approach by devel-

Reducing the weight of a vehicle reduces the

account of drivers, but greater fuel economy also

energy usage.

oping an 8-speed automatic trans-

amount of fuel the vehicle needs. The cars weight

benets the environment. However, in order to com-

mission that will reap further fuel

can be reduced by using alternative materials such

ply with future CO2 specications, more is required.

Economical drivelines

savings of six percent. At the same

as aluminum and titanium as well as by employing

Innovative technology and integrated networking of

The latest transmissions offer top performance, com-

time, ZF is focusing more and more

innovative construction methods. Together, these

Automatic transmissions easy


on the environment and on
your wallet
Each new generation of automatic transmissions delivers
greater performance, comfort,
and economy with lower fuel
consumption.

Fuel saved by development of ZF automatic transmissions


Based on: 3-speed automatic transmission

6%

6%
2%

8%

5%

13%
3%

6%

CO2 reduction using a


sedan 3.0 l V6 (gasoline
engine) as an example
4-speed
Transmission development

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16%

5-speed

200g/km

188g/km

6-speed

6-speed

8-speed

First
generation

Second
generation

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Conserving Resources

two approaches allow ZF to create transmission

sacricing comfort. The Servolectric power steering

housings, chassis, and axle components that weigh

system goes even further, cutting the steering systems

less.

energy needs by up to 85 percent in comparison to


hydraulic solutions as it only uses energy when the car

Energy phenomenon

is actively being steered.

It takes a lot of energy to permanently keep something on standby, such as the oil pumps in hydraulic
steering systems. Thats not the case with the
Varioserv steering pump. Because it gets the job
done with less oil, it uses up to 40 percent less
energy than conventional hydraulic pumps, without

Electric motors for hybrid


transmissions

Automatic transmissions

SMiCA control arms

Servolectric electric power steering system for reduced CO2

Origin of CO2 in cars

A vehicle with Servolectric saves 0.3 liters per 100 kilometers.


Assuming that 5 million Servolectric electric power steering systems
have been produced so far and that each vehicle clocks up an average mileage of 10,000 kilometers a year, this equates to an annual
gasoline saving of 150 million liters.

CO2 is not only generated by


the combustion process in
the engine. With economical automatic transmissions,
lightweight chassis, and
energy-efcient steering
technology, ZF does its part
to reduce CO2 emissions.

With an average emission of 2.37 kilograms of CO2 per liter of


gasoline, this results in a reduction in CO2 emissions of around
356 million kilograms a year.

Example:
An upper midrange car with automatic transmission (rear-wheel drive)
and medium engine size (3-liter
gasoline engine). Secondary conditions: MVEG driving cycle (European
cycle for analysis of emissions and
consumption on dynamometers).

Servolectric power
steering systems

29% Engine: Physical limitations of efciency


(non-optimizable)

12% Rolling resistance

17% Friction, charge changing, combustion process


(optimizable)

10% Weight

13% Automatic transmission

32

Varioserv steering pumps

11% Drag

8%

Other losses: AC, electrical


equipment, wheel mounts,
steering system, etc.

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Greater Driving Dynamics and Comfort

Greater Driving Dynamics


and Comfort
Driving ought to be enjoyable. But what people enjoy can be
very subjective depending on the driver and their mood, it
can sometimes be the thrill of speed, and sometimes the relaxation of a more leisurely drive that they are looking for. Driving
dynamics and comfort are ip sides of the same coin. ZFs
products tap the full potential of drivelines and chassis.

Extracting every last drop of power


For effective, dynamic propulsion, the power
generated by a car must be transferred from the engine via the wheels to the road without any losses
caused by slippage or tire squeal, for example.
The concept of the Torque Vector System goes one
step further, by optimally distributing the drive
torque to exactly where it is needed for the specic

For drivers, clocking up mileage quickly is more

passengers. The torque converters fast lockup means

driving situation. As all of the vehicles transmis-

than merely a question of time it is also a question

the car drives more smoothly, even with gear changes.

sions automatic transmission, transfer case, front

of perception. With ZF transmissions such as the

Intelligent gearshift electronics adapt to different driving

and rear axle drive are linked electronically, the

second-generation 6-speed automatic transmission

styles, practically second-guessing the drivers next

power can be distributed individually between

or the dual clutch transmission, the gears are shifted

moves through the soles of their feet, be it a zippy over-

the front and rear axle and between the different

so quickly that they are barely perceptible for the

taking maneuver or simply cruising through the city.

wheels on each axle.

Drive torque distribution to


the front and rear axle

Open differential
50 % / 50 %

Longitudinal distribution
as required
050 % / 0100 %

Modern all-wheel drive


concepts such as ZFs
Torque Vector System do not
distribute the drive torque
inexibly (50/50 percent),
but react to each driving
situation. The drive torque
can be distributed exibly
both between the front and
rear axle as well as between
the left- and right-hand
drive wheels from 0 to 100
percent.

Individual wheel torque


distribution
0100 % / 0100 %

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35

Greater Driving Dynamics and Comfort

The transverse distribution supports the steering

drive to suit them, be it sportily or with greater safety

vehicle in critical situations. As a result, sudden eva-

and stabilizes the vehicle. Sporty drivers of all-wheel

reserves. ZF engineers are already working on the

sive maneuvers, which put a great strain on vehicle

drives will noticeably feel this optimum power distri-

next generation of controlled chassis, making sure

stability, are easier to handle.

bution whenever they take a corner or change lanes

their own units t seamlessly into the vehicles net-

quickly even if they do not accelerate. Cars with

working environment, including brake and engine

ZFs dynamic drive concepts do not mean you

rear-wheel drive can also benet from this intelligent

control intervention. This is particularly important

have to drive a vehicle permanently within the limit.

approach to distributing the drive torque.

in the case of IWD (Intelligent Wheel Dynamics), a

Instead, they increase safety and offer dynamics

concept in which a central control unit for the active

wherever and whenever the driver wants them.

Unrestricted dynamics

steering, CDC electronic damping system, and Vector

ZF is pushing back the boundaries of driving

Drive rear axle drive makes corrections within the

dynamics so that drivers can choose the way they

dynamic drive limits to improve the stability of the

Automatic transmissions

Transfer cases

Vector Drive rear axle drive

It really comes into its own


on corners, when the drive
torque is spread unevenly
between the two drive
shafts by the electromechanically actuated multidisk brake of the modulation
transmission. The right- and
left-hand wheels then accelerate at different speeds
and the vehicle is given
additional steering (yaw
moment).

Vector Drive
rear axle drives

CDC electronic
damping systems

Active steering systems

Assistance on corners from


Vector Drive

Planetary transmission

Bevel differential
Multi-disk clutch

Electric servomotors

Spreading the drive torque


between the wheels on an
axle generates additional
steering. This can increase
the amount of steering on
corners in order to compensate for understeer (top
picture). Alternatively, it
can be used to prevent
breakaway of the rear of the
vehicle (bottom picture).

Understeer control

Vector Drive
correction

Cardan shaft

Oversteer control

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37

Greater Safety

Greater Safety
Regardless of the category of cars, one of the most important objectives for car manufacturers continues to
be vehicle safety when driving. As the leader in the eld
of chassis technology, ZF will be one of the driving forces
behind these developments in the future too.
Nivomat leveling system and the Sensitive Damping
Control mechanical damping system.

Integration is the name of the game


The main aspect of this safety systems trend continues to be the electronics. This is because integrating
the sensor systems, control software, and control
technology of the individual units into a system that
Car safety is constantly being improved and there

drive a top-of-the-range car to experience the height-

works together can result in critical driving situa-

are already a number of safety-related ZF prod-

ened safety standards offered by ZF technologies, as

tions being identied and corrected much quicker

ucts that have made their mark on the automotive

many units such as CDC and active steering are now

than can be expected of the driver. There is increas-

market, such as the electronic damping system CDC

also available in compact and midrange cars. ZF also

ing demand for innovative, electronically controlled

(Continuous Damping Control), active steering, and

invests its energy in developing innovative compo-

by-wire technologies to be networked and integrated

ARS (Active Roll Stabilization). You dont have to

nents that make do without electronics, such as the

into vehicles, so that, in the event of a critical situa-

IWD: intelligent vehicles

Vehicle reaction

Malfunctions
Driver behavior
Road
conditions/
Trafc

Vehicle

Engine and
transmission

IWD
control

Suspension
and damping
Chassis mounts

Brake

Steering

Situation-optimized, safe, and


comfortable driving

Electronics have already


been introduced to the majority of units in a car, including the engine, transmission, chassis, dampers,
brakes, and steering. All of
these units can work more
effectively when they work
in conjunction with one another. Driving maneuvers,
vehicle response, and environmental and trafc inuences are analyzed together
so that control intervention
is ne-tuned and coordinated throughout all the units.

Dynamic drive
sensors

Vehicle reaction

38

39

Greater Safety

tion, the unit that can address the issue most effec-

ing it is also activated when taking fast corners on

tively is the rst to respond. With IWD (Intelligent

a normal drive. The CDC and ARS electronic units

Wheel Dynamics), the ZF transmission, damper,

prevent a vehicle from rocking when its load shifts,

and steering units work together with other auxil-

making for a smoother ride for the driver and pas-

iary electronic parts to improve vehicle safety.

sengers alike, both in normal driving circumstances


and in dicier situations.

Safety at all times


But ZFs safety products dont just kick in when a
crisis occurs they operate to improve your drive at
all times. For example, it doesnt take a risky swerving maneuver for IWD to improve a vehicles steer-

Electronic networking

CDC electronic damping


systems

ARS roll stabilizers

Nivomat leveling systems

Nivomat: non-electronic
intelligence

Nivomat: driving safely with


a trailer

Nivomat is a simple yet


ingenious damping system
that prevents the rear axle of
a loaded car from sagging,
which could cause tire wear
and increased fuel consumption. It also keeps the
headlights and bumper at
the correct levels. Nivomat
works without any additional
energy supply or electronics.

Vehicles pulling a trailer are


more difcult to control, especially in critical situations.
The Nivomat damping system makes trailers markedly
more stable and therefore
safer to drive, whether
changing lanes, overtaking,
or driving on uneven road
surfaces.

Without Nivomat

Force effect during


acceleration
Force from load

40

With Nivomat

Active steering systems

Without Nivomat

Force effect during


acceleration
Force from load

With Nivomat

41

The Foundations of Success


ZF is a leading worldwide automotive supplier for Driveline
and Chassis Technology.

Driveline and Chassis Technology

With total sales of euro 11.7


billion in 2006 and 55,000
employees at 120 production
companies in 25 countries, ZF
is among the top fifteen
companies on the ranking list
of the largest automotive

ZF develops and produces products serving the mobility of human beings and goods. Innovations in
Driveline and Chassis Technology provide increased
driving dynamics, safety, comfort, and economy as
well as lower fuel consumption and emissions in the
vehicles of the customers: By land, by sea, and in
the air.

suppliers worldwide.
ZFs main priority is to meet its customers needs by
using leading technology, quality, and service; this is
the key to strengthening the international market
position. In addition to the benets of component
expertise, the customer prots from the Groups system know-how.
ZF is a decentralized organization with divisions
and business units. They are responsible for worldwide products, markets, and results and are run as
prot centers. These operational entities are governed by strategic and nancial objectives.
ZF plays an active role in society and is continuously
engaged in a dialog with the public and its employees. The company promotes employees based on

Car Driveline Technology


ZF Getriebe GmbH

Car Chassis Technology


ZF Lemfrder GmbH

Commercial Vehicle
and Special Driveline
Technology
ZF Friedrichshafen AG

Rubber-Metal Technology
ZF Boge Elastmetall GmbH

Powertrain and
Suspension Components
ZF Sachs AG

Steering Technology
ZF Lenksysteme GmbH*

Off-Road Driveline
Technology
and Axle Systems
ZF Passau GmbH
Marine Propulsion Systems
ZF Padova S.p.A.
Aviation Technology
ZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbH
Aftermarket Trading
ZF Trading GmbH
Sales and
Service Organization
ZF Friedrichshafen AG

*Joint venture of
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
and Robert Bosch GmbH

qualication, performance, work ethics, and mobility. The company assumes social and societal responsibility. Environmental protection is a professed
corporate objective.

42

43

44

45

ZF Product Program

Driveline Technology
Transmissions:

Chassis Technology
Axles:

Manual and automatic transmissions for cars, CVs, and

Front and rear axle systems for cars and CVs

special vehicles

Dual clutch transmissions for cars

Hybrid systems for cars and CVs

Synchronized

modules for cars

Corner

Axles and axle components for

off-road machinery

transaxles, powershift transmissions, as well as continuously variable transmissions for tractors

Hydrodynamic

Chassis Components:

and hydrostatic powershift transmissions for construction

Damper modules and damping systems for cars, CVs,

machinery and lift trucks

rail vehicles, racing and motorcycles

Surface drives for boats


and ships

Electric drives for lift trucks


Transmissions for boats

Drives for mixer, rail vehicles, and aircraft

Industrial drives

Elevator gearboxes

Tie rods, sta-

bilizers, stabilizer links, control arms, suspension joints,


leveling systems, and crash-absorption elements for cars
4-point links, wishbones, torque rods, tie rods, stabilizers, suspension joints, and cabin suspensions for CVs

Driveline Components:

Chassis mounts for cars, CVs, agricultural machinery,

Gearshift systems for cars and CVs

Control systems

for CVs, off-road machinery, special vehicles, boats, and


ships

rail vehicles, and industrial engineering

Precision

plastics parts for cars and CVs

Clutch systems, torque converters for cars, CVs,

off-road machinery, and special vehicles

PTOs and

retarder systems for CVs and special vehicles

Axle

drives, bevel gear sets, differentials, and powertrain


suspension systems for cars and CVs
brakes for industrial engineering

Clutches and

Propellers for boats

and ships

Steering Systems:
Mechanical steering systems, hydraulic, electrohydraulic, and electric power steering systems for cars
Hydraulic power steering systems and rear axle
steering systems for CVs and special vehicles

Steering

pumps, steering columns, and steering accessories for


cars and CVs

ZF is a partner to automotive industry around the world


Alfa Romeo
Daewoo
6HP, eTronic, and IWD are registered trademarks of ZF Friedrichshafen AG.
Shifttronic is a registered trademark of ZF Lemfrder GmbH. ARS, CDC,
Sensitive Damping Control, Nivomat, and XTend are registered trademarks
of ZF Sachs AG. Servolectric, Servotronic, and Varioserv are registered
trademarks of ZF Lenksysteme GmbH.

46

Kia

Aston Martin

Audi

Bentley

Dodge

Ferrari

Fiat

Ford

Lamborghini

Lancia

Land Rover

BMW

Bugatti

General Motors
Lincoln

Buick

Holden

Maserati

Cadillac
Honda

Maybach

Chery

Hummer

Mazda

Mitsubishi Nissan Opel Perodua Peugeot Pontiac Porsche Proton


koda Smart Ssangyong Toyota Vauxhall Volvo VW
Seat S

Chevrolet
Hyundai

Chrysler
Jaguar

Mercedes-Benz

Renault

Rolls-Royce

Mercury
Saab

Citron

Jeep
Mini
Samsung

47