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About Y- and K-factors

Y- and K-factors are part constants defined by the location of the sheet metal material's
neutral bend line with respect to the thickness. The neutral bend line position is based on
a numeric reference for the type of sheet metal material used in your design. The
numeric references range from 0 to 1. If you are referring to the Y- and K-factors, the
numeric references can be negative, with the lower numbers representing softer
material. Both the Y- and K-factors are integral elements in calculating the developed
length (the length of flat sheet metal required to make a bend of a specific radius and
angle) in your design. However, the length of the neutral line is equal to the developed
The K-factor is a ratio between the distance from the neutral bend line to the inside bend
radius and the material thickness. The K-factor uses the formula k-factor = /T.
Use the K-factor to determine the Y-factor.
The Y-factor is a ratio between the neutral bend line and material thickness. The Y-factor
uses the formula Y-factor = K-factor * (/2). The default value for the Y-factor is 0.50.
Developed Length of Material and the Y- and K-Factors
1. Bend condition

2. Flat Condition

= Distance between the inside radius of the bend and the neutral bend line
T = Sheet metal thickness
L = Developed length between the squares
R = Inside Bend radius
N = Neutral bend line
K-factor = /T

Y-factor = K-factor * (/2)

You can change the Part Y-factor using any of the following:

Set Up commandInitialize the Y-factor using the set up command. The new Yfactor value takes effect for any new parts or features created after the value is set.
The default Y-factor value that is, 0.5 is used by all features in a part except for
features that use user-defined Y- and K-factors.

Material fileInitialize the Y-factor using the PTC_INITIAL_BEND_Y_FACTOR

parameter in the Material Definition dialog box or Edit > Setup > Bend Allow >
Y-factor. The default PTC_INITIAL_BEND_Y_FACTOR value in the material table is 0.5.
The Y-factor is updated if you change the value in the material file assigned to the
part. If you unassign a material file, the part is frozen with the Y-factor, K-factor, and
bend table values that were assigned to the previous material file.

Configuration optionInitialize the Y-factor for new sheet metal parts using the
PTC_INITIAL_BEND_Y_FACTORconfiguration option. After you reload the configuration
file, all new sheet metal parts use the new value. The configuration option does not
change the default value for the existing part's Y-factor.
You can apply a feature-specific Y-factor to the geometry of the feature. You can select
K- and Y-factors for non-arc segments and bend tables for arc segments. A flange profile
can be an arc or any non-arc segment, or a combination of both.
Note: For stretched bends is negative. As a result, the neutral layer stays out of the
sheet metal thickness causing the Y- and K-factors to be negative.
Negative Y-factor
= Distance between the neutral
bend line and the inside bend radius
T = Sheet metal thickness
L = Developed length between the
R = Bend radius
N = Neutral bend line

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