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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT REPORT
(ME-719)

“EFFECT OF HEAT INPUT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE WELD


BEAD IN SAW WELDING USING THE RECYCLED SLAG.”

SUBMITTED BY

RAHUL VIKRAM (04231169) GWT/7709/04


DEEPAK KUMAR CHOUDHARY (04231151) GWT/7703/04
SUBHASH CHANDER (04231177) GWT/7770/04
KOUSTOV MONDOL (04231158) GWT/7771/04

UNDER GUIDANCE
Mr. KULWANT SINGH
(Assistance Professor Mech. Engg. Deptt.)

Submitted to
Department of Mechanical Engineering in the partial fulfillment for the
Degree programme in

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
(Specialization in Welding Technology)

SANT LONGOWAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(Estd. by Govt. of India)
LONGOWAL- 148106

DECEMBER 2006

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “EFFECT OF HEAT INPUT ON THE

MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE WELD BEAD (IN SAW WELDING USING THE

RECYCLED SLAG.” being submitted by:

RAHUL VIKRAM (04231169) GWT/7709/04


DEEPAK KUMAR CHOUDHARY (04231151) GWT/7703/04
SUBHASH CHANDER (04231177) GWT/7770/04
KOUSTOV MONDOL (04231158) GWT/7771/04

To Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology towards the partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the award of B.Tech degree is the record of bonafide work
carried out by students under my supervision and guidance.

(Signature)

Mr. KULWANT SINGH


(Assistance Professor Mech. Engg. Deptt.)

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SR. NO CONTENTS PAGE


NO.

1 Acknowledgement i

2 Abstract ii

3 List of figures iii

4 INTRODUCTION 1
4.1 Introduction to SAW process 2
4.2 Equipments 2
4.3 Advantages and Major Uses 4
4.4 Limitations of the Process 4
4.5 Principles of Operation 5
4.6 Applications 10

5 METALLURGY OF WELD METAL 11


5.1 Iron –iron carbide Equilibrium Diagram 11
5.2 Transformation and Microstructure 17
17
5.3 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams 20
5.4 Properties of weld metal 23
5.5 Microstructural products in weldments

6 WELDING: SOLIDIFICATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE 26

7 EXPERIMENTATION 30
7.1 Agglomerated Fluxes 30
7.2 Processing of Slag 31
7.3 Process variables 33
7.4 Bead on plate using Recycled slag 35
7.5 Specimen preparation 36

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8 METALLURGICAL INVESTIGATION 40
8.1 Grain size determination 42
8.2 Specimen preparation for optical microscopy 43
8.3 Microstructures 44
8.4 Properties of weld zone of weld bead (B3, B4, B5, B6) 53
8.5 Properties of base metal of weld bead of weld bead (B3, 57
B4, B5, B6)
8.6 Properties of heat affected zone of weld bead (B3, B4, B5, 57
B6)
8.7 Work piece samples 58

9 RESULT AND DISCUSSSION 59


9.1 Calculation for finding heat input for four different weld 60
beads

10 CONCLUSION 62

11 Reference 64

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We deem it as a proud privilege to express our sincere regard and


gratitude to Mr. KULWANT SINGH (Assistance Professor Mech. Engg. Deptt.),
who as a project guide provided this valuable opportunity to pursue this work with him.
His sincere support and continuous guidance helped us in overcoming all the hurdles
that came during the progress of this project.

We hereby express our deep gratitude to DR. ANAND J. VAZ HOD


(Mechanical Engg.) for extending a hand of support whenever needed in the practical
work.

We would like to show our deep regards to SRI. A.S. SHAHI Project co-
coordinator, Deptt. Of Mech. Engg. SLIET and his valuable assistance regarding project
submission.

And last but not least, we are grateful our worthy Director, for her deep concern
about formulating the syllabus of degree module.

RAHUL VIKRAM
DEEPAK KUMAR CHOUDHARY
SUBHASH CHANDER
KOUSTOV MONDOL

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

The metallurgical and mechanical properties of weld metal depend upon its
microstructure which is governed by the rate of heat input. The rate of heat input is
further dependant on the welding parameters. Weld metal generally constitutes of grain
boundary ferrite, polygonal ferrite and acicular ferrite. In order to have maximum
toughness and good strength it is desirable to obtain maximum amount of acicular ferrite
in the weld metal.
So, investigations were carried out to study the microstructure of weld metal.
Beads on plates were deposited at various heat input by changing the welding parameters
accordingly. The microstructure of the base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal was
investigated with metallurgical microscope. The microstructures were examined and
analyses were done. It was found out that the weld metal which was welded with highest
heat input has maximum concentration of acicular ferrite in its weld zone. As we know
that the weld metal that contains maximum concentration of acicular ferrite has better
mechanical properties and thus this type of a microstructure is desirable.

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List of Figures

Fig No. Explanation


1 Block diagram of Submerged Arc Welding Process
2 The 3D diagram of the SAW process
3 Process diagram – Submerged Arc Welding
4 Iron –iron carbide Equilibrium Diagram
5 Three distinct regions in the weldment are the fusion zone, the heat
affected zone, and the base metal.
6 The fusion line dividing the base metal with the welded part.
7 (a) CCT and (b) TTT diagrams.
8 A Submerged Arc Welding machine
9 An Automatic Polishing Machine with Two Rotating Discs
10 Optical Microscope Fitted with 35mm Camera and Digital Camera
11 SAMPLE NO: B3
12 SAMPLE NO: B4
13 SAMPLE NO: B5
14 SAMPLE NO: B6
15 WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B3
16 WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B4
17 WELD BEAD ZONE OF SAMPLE B5
18 WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B6
19 The welded metal specimens over which the microstructures are being
analyzed.
20 Effect of Heat Input on amount of Acicular Ferrite
21 A schematic CCT Diagram for a weld deposit showing the relationship
of the acicular ferrite phase field to those of other constituents.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

EFFECT OF HEAT INPUT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE


OF THE WELD BEAD IN SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
USING THE RECYCLED SLAG

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION

“EFFECT OF HEAT INPUT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE WELD


BEAD IN SAW WELDING USING THE RECYCLED SLAG.”

Figure 1. Block diagram of Submerged Arc Welding Process

In submerged arc welding (SAW), selecting appropriate values for Process


variables are essential in order to control weld bead and heat-affected zone (HAZ)
dimensions and get the required bead size and quality. Also, conditions must be selected
that will ensure a predictable and reproducible weld bead, which is critical for obtaining
high quality. In this investigation, mathematical models were developed to study the
effects of heat input on the microstructure of the weld bead (M.S.) in SAW welding using
the recycled flux.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION TO SAW PROCESS

Figure 2. The 3D diagram of the SAW process

Submerged arc welding is a process in which the joining of metals is produced by


heating with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work.
The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular fusible material on the work. Pressure is not
used. Filler metal is obtained from the electrode or from a supplementary welding rod.

Equipment.

(1) The equipment components required for submerged arc welding are shown by figure.
Equipment consists of a welding machine or power source, the wire feeder and control
system, the welding torch for automatic welding or the welding gun and cable assembly
for semiautomatic welding, the flux hopper and feeding mechanism, usually a flux
recovery system, and a travel mechanism for automatic welding.

(2) The power source for submerged arc welding must be rated for a 100 percent duty
cycle, since the submerged arc welding operations are continuous and the length of time
for making a weld may exceed 10 minutes. If a 60 percent duty cycle power source is
used, it must be derated according to the duty cycle curve for 100 percent operation.

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(3) When constant current is used, either ac or dc, the voltage sensing electrode wire
feeder system must be used. When constant voltage is used, the simpler fixed speed wire
feeder system is used. The CV system is only used with direct current.

(4) Both generator and transformer-rectifier power sources are used, but the rectifier
machines are more popular. Welding machines for submerged arc welding range in size
from 300 amperes to 1500 amperes. They may be connected in parallel to provide extra
power for high-current applications. Direct current power is used for semiautomatic
applications, but alternating current power is used primarily with the machine or the
automatic method. Multiple electrode systems require specialized types of circuits,
especially when ac is employed.

(5) For semiautomatic application, a welding gun and cable assembly are used to carry
the electrode and current and to provide the flux at the arc. A small flux hopper is
attached to the end of the cable assembly. The electrode wire is fed through the bottom of
this flux hopper through a current pickup tip to the arc. The flux is fed from the hopper to
the welding area by means of gravity. The amount of flux fed depends on how high the
gun is held above the work. The hopper gun may include a start switch to initiate the
weld or it may utilize a "hot" electrode so that when the electrode is touched to the work,
feeding will begin automatically.

(6) For automatic welding, the torch is attached to the wire feed motor and includes
current pickup tips for transmitting the welding current to the electrode wire. The flux
hopper is normally attached to the torch, and may have magnetically operated valves
which can be opened or closed by the control system.

(7) Other pieces of equipment sometimes used may include a travel carriage, which can
be a simple tractor or a complex moving specialized fixture. A flux recovery unit is
normally provided to collect the unused submerged arc flux and return it to the supply
hopper.

(8) Submerged arc welding system can become quite complex by incorporating
additional devices such as seam followers, weavers, and work rovers.

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Advantages and Major Uses.

(1) The major advantages of the submerged arc welding process are:
(a) High quality of the weld metal.
(b) Extremely high deposition rate and speed.
(c) Smooth, uniform finished weld with no spatter.
(d) Little or no smoke.
(e) No arc flash, thus minimal need for protective clothing.
(f) High utilization of electrode wire.
(g) Easy automation for high-operator factor.
(h) Normally, no involvement of manipulative skills.

(2) The submerged arc process is widely used in heavy steel plate fabrication work. This
includes the welding of structural shapes, the longitudinal seam of larger diameter pipe,
the manufacture of machine components for all types of heavy industry, and the
manufacture of vessels and tanks for pressure and storage use. It is widely used in the
shipbuilding industry for splicing and fabricating subassemblies, and by many other
industries where steels are used in medium to heavy thicknesses. It is also used for
surfacing and buildup work, maintenance, and repair.

Limitations of the Process.

(1) A major limitation of submerged arc welding is its limitation of welding positions.
The other limitation is that it is primarily used only to weld mild and low-alloy high-
strength steels.

(2) The high-heat input, slow-cooling cycle can be a problem when welding quenched
and tempered steels. The heat input limitation of the steel in question must be strictly
adhered to when using submerged arc welding. This may require the making of multipass
welds where a single pass weld would be acceptable in mild steel. In some cases, the
economic advantages may be reduced to the point where flux-cored arc welding or some
other process should be considered.

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(3) In semiautomatic submerged arc welding, the inability to see the arc and puddle can
be a disadvantage in reaching the root of a groove weld and properly filling or sizing.

Principles of Operation.

(1) The submerged arc welding process is shown by figure.

It utilizes the heat of an arc between a continuously fed electrode and the work.

Figure 3. Process diagram – Submerged Arc Welding

The heat of the arc melts the surface of the base metal and the end of the
electrode. The metal melted off the electrode is transferred through the arc to the work
piece, where it becomes the deposited weld metal. Shielding is obtained from a blanket of
granular flux, which is laid directly over the weld area. The flux close to the arc melts
and intermixes with the molten weld metal, helping to purify and fortify it. The flux
forms a glass-like slag that is lighter in weight than the deposited weld metal and floats
on the surface as a protective cover. The weld is submerged under this layer of flux and
slag, hence the name submerged arc welding. The flux and slag normally cover the arc so
that it is not visible. The Unmelted portion of the flux can be reused. The electrode is fed
into the arc automatically from a coil. The arc is maintained automatically. Travel can be
manual or by machine. The arc is initiated by a fuse type start or by a reversing or retracts
system.

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(2) Normal method of application and position capabilities.

The most popular method of application is the machine method, where the
operator monitors the welding operation. Second in popularity is the automatic method,
where welding is a pushbutton operation. The process can be applied semi automatically;
however, this method of application is not too popular. The process cannot be applied
manually because it is impossible for a welder to control an arc that is not visible. The
submerged arc welding process is a limited-position welding process. The welding
positions are limited because the large pool of molten metal and the slag are very fluid
and will tend to run out of the joint. Welding can be done in the flat position and in the
horizontal fillet position with ease. Under special controlled procedures, it is possible to
weld in the horizontal position, sometimes called 3 o'clock welding. This requires special
devices to hold the flux up so that the molten slag and weld metal cannot run away. The
process cannot be used in the vertical or overhead position.

(3) Metals weldable and thickness range.

Submerged arc welding is used to weld low- and medium-carbon steels, low-alloy
high-strength steels, quenched and tempered steels, and many stainless steels.
Experimentally, it has been used to weld certain copper alloys, nickel alloys, and even
uranium. Metal thicknesses from 1/16 to 1/2 in. (1.6 to 12.7 mm) can be welded with no
edge preparation. With edge preparation, welds can be made with a single pass on
material from 1/4 to 1 in. (6.4 to 25.4 mm). When multipass technique is used, the
maximum thickness is practically unlimited. This information is summarized in table 10-
22. Horizontal fillet welds can be made up to 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in a single pass and in the
flat position, fillet welds can be made up to 1 in. (25 mm) size.

(4) Joint design.

Although the submerged arc welding process can utilize the same joint design details as
the shielded metal arc welding process, different joint details are suggested for maximum
utilization and efficiency of submerged arc welding. For groove welds, the square groove
design can be used up to 5/8 in. (16 mm) thickness. Beyond this thickness, bevels are

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

required. Open roots are used but backing bars are necessary since the molten metal will
run through the joint. When welding thicker metal, if a sufficiently large root face is used,
the backing bar may be eliminate. However, to assure full penetration when welding from
one side, backing bars are recommended. Where both sides are accessible, a backing
weld can be made which will fuse into the original weld to provide full penetration.

(5) Welding circuit and current.

(a) The welding circuit employed for single electrode submerged arc welding is
shown by figure. This requires a wire feeder system and a power supply.

(b) The submerged arc welding process uses either direct or alternating current for
welding power. Direct current is used for most applications which use a single arc. Both
direct current electrode positive (DCEP) and electrode negative (DCEN) are used.

(c) The constant voltage type of direct current power is more popular for
submerged arc welding with 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) and smaller diameter electrode wires.

(d) The constant current power system is normally used for welding with 5/3 2 in.
(4 mm) and larger-diameter electrode wires. The control circuit for CC power is more
complex since it attempts to duplicate the actions of the welder to retain a specific arc
length. The wire feed system must sense the voltage across the arc and feed the electrode
wire into the arc to maintain this voltage. As conditions change, the wire feed must slow
down or speed up to maintain the prefixed voltage across the arc. This adds complexity to
the control system. The system cannot react instantaneously. Arc starting is more
complicated with the constant current system since it requires the use of a reversing
system to strike the arc, retract, and then maintain the preset arc voltage.

(e) For ac welding, the constant current power is always used. When multiple
electrode wire systems are used with both ac and dc arcs, the constant current power
system is utilized. The constant voltage system, however, can be applied when two wires
are fed into the arc supplied by a single power source. Welding current for submerged arc

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welding can vary from as low as 50 amperes to as high as 2000 amperes. Most
submerged arc welding is done in the range of 200 to 1200 amperes.

(6) Deposition rates and weld quality.

(a) The deposition rates of the submerged arc welding process are higher than any
other arc welding process. Deposition rates for single electrodes are shown by figure 10-
62. There are at least four related factors that control the deposition rate of submerged arc
welding: polarity, long stickout, additives in the flux, and additional electrodes. The
deposition rate is the highest for direct current electrode negative (DCEN). The
deposition rate for alternating current is between DCEP and DCEN. The polarity of
maximum heat is the negative pole.

(b) The deposition rate with any welding current can be increased by extending
the "stickout." This is the distance from the point where current is introduced into the
electrode to the arc. When using "long stickout" the amount of penetration is reduced.
The deposition rates can be increased by metal additives in the submerged arc flux.
Additional electrodes can be used to increase the overall deposition rate.

(c) The quality of the weld metal deposited by the submerged arc welding process
is high. The weld metal strength and ductility exceeds that of the mild steel or low-alloy
base material when the correct combination of electrode wire and submerged arc flux is
used. When submerged arc welds are made by machine or automatically, the human
factor inherent to the manual welding processes is eliminated. The weld will be more
uniform and free from inconsistencies. In general, the weld bead size per pass is much
greater with submerged arc welding than with any of the other arc welding processes.
The heat input is higher and cooling rates are slower. For this reason, gases are allowed
more time to escape. Additionally, since the submerged arc slag is lower in density than
the weld metal, it will float out to the top of the weld. Uniformity and consistency are
advantages of this process when applied automatically.

(d) Several problems may occur when using the semiautomatic application
method. The electrode wire may be curved when it leaves the nozzle of the welding gun.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

This curvature can cause the arc to be struck in a location not expected by the welder.
When welding in fairly deep grooves, the curvature may cause the arc to be against one
side of the weld joint rather than at the root. This will cause incomplete root fusion. Flux
will be trapped at the root of the weld. Another problem with semiautomatic welding is
that of completely filling the weld groove or maintaining exact size, since the weld is
hidden and cannot be observed while it is being made. This requires making an extra
pass. In some cases, too much weld is deposited. Variations in root opening affect the
travel speed. If travel speed is uniform, the weld may be under- or overfilled in different
areas. High operator skill will overcome this problem.

(e) There is another quality problem associated with extremely large single-pass
weld deposits. When these large welds solidify, the impurities in the melted base metal
and in the weld metal all collect at the last point to freeze, which is the centerline of the
weld. If there is sufficient restraint and enough impurities are collected at this point,
centerline cracking may occur. This can happen when making large single-pass flat fillet
welds if the base metal plates are 45º from flat. A simple solution is to avoid placing the
parts at a true 45º angle. It should be varied approximately 10º so that the root of the joint
is not in line with the centerline of the fillet weld. Another solution is to make multiple
passes rather than attempting to make a large weld in a single pass.

(f) Another quality problem has to do with the hardness of the deposited weld
metal. Excessively hard weld deposits contribute to cracking of the weld during
fabrication or during service. A maximum hardness level of 225 Brinell is recommended.
The reason for the hard weld in carbon and low-alloy steels is too rapid cooling,
inadequate postweld treatment, or excessive alloy pickup in the weld metal. Excessive
alloy pickup is due to selecting an electrode that has too much alloy, selecting a flux that
introduces too much alloy into the weld, or the use of excessively high welding voltages.

(g) In automatic and machine welding, defects may occur at the start or at the end
of the weld. The best solution is to use runout tabs so that starts and stops will be on the
tabs rather than on the product.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(7) Weld schedules.

The submerged arc welding process applied by machine or fully automatically


should be done in accordance with welding procedure schedules. The table can be used
for welding other ferrous materials, but was developed for mild steel. All of the welds
made by this procedure should pass qualification, tests, assuming that the correct
electrode and flux have been selected. If the schedules are varied more than 10 percent,
qualification tests should be performed to determine the weld quality.

Applications
SAW is ideally suited for longitudinal and circumferential butt and fillet welds.
However, because of high fluidity of the weld pool, molten slag and loose flux layer,
welding is generally carried out on butt joints in the flat position and fillet joints in both
the flat and horizontal-vertical positions. For circumferential joints, the workpiece is
rotated under a fixed welding head with welding taking place in the flat position.
Depending on material thickness, either single-pass, two-pass or multipass weld
procedures can be carried out. There is virtually no restriction on the material thickness,
provided a suitable joint preparation is adopted. Most commonly welded materials are
carbon-manganese steels, low alloy steels and stainless steels, although the process is
capable of welding some non-ferrous materials with judicious choice of electrode filler
wire and flux combinations.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

METALLURGY OF WELD METAL

Iron –iron carbide Equilibrium Diagram


A study of the constitution and structure of all steels and irons must first start with
the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram. Many of the basic features of this system (Fig. 1)
influence the behavior of even the most complex alloy steels. For example, the phases
found in the simple binary Fe-C system persist in complex steels, but it is necessary to
examine the effects alloying elements have on the formation and properties of these
phases. The iron-carbon diagram provides a valuable foundation on which to build
knowledge of both plain carbon and alloy steels in their immense variety.

Figure4. Iron –iron carbide Equilibrium Diagram

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram

This is one of the most important alloys for structural applications. The diagram
Fe—C is simplified at low carbon concentrations by assuming it is the Fe—Fe3C
diagram. Concentrations are usually given in weight percent. The possible phases are:

• α-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solution


• γ-austenite (FCC) Fe-C solution
• δ-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solution
• liquid Fe-C solution
• Fe3C (iron carbide) or cementite. An intermetallic compound.

The maximum solubility of C in α- ferrite is 0.022 wt%. δ−ferrite is only stable at


high temperatures. It is not important in practice. Austenite has a maximum C
concentration of 2.14 wt %. It is not stable below the eutectic temperature (727 C) unless
cooled rapidly (Chapter 10). Cementite is in reality metastable, decomposing into α-Fe
and C when heated for several years between 650 and 770 C.

For their role in mechanical properties of the alloy, it is important to note that:

• Ferrite is soft and ductile


• Cementite is hard and brittle

Thus, combining these two phases in solution an alloy can be obtained with
intermediate properties. (Mechanical properties also depend on the microstructure, that is,
how ferrite and cementite are mixed.)

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

It should first be pointed out that the normal equilibrium diagram really represents
the metastable equilibrium between iron and iron carbide (cementite). Cementite is
metastable, and the true equilibrium should be between iron and graphite. Although
graphite occurs extensively in cast irons (2-4 wt % C), it is usually difficult to obtain this
equilibrium phase in steels (0.03-1.5 wt %C). Therefore, the metastable equilibrium
between iron and iron carbide should be considered, because it is relevant to the behavior
of most steels in practice.

The much larger phase field of γ-iron (austenite) compared with that of α-iron
(ferrite) reflects the much greater solubility of carbon in γ-iron, with a maximum value of
just over 2 wt % at 1147°C (E, Fig.1). This high solubility of carbon in γ-iron is of
extreme importance in heat treatment, when solution treatment in the γ-region followed
by rapid quenching to room temperature allows a supersaturated solid solution of carbon
in iron to be formed.

The α-iron phase field is severely restricted, with a maximum carbon solubility of
0.02 wt% at 723°C (P), so over the carbon range encountered in steels from 0.05 to 1.5
wt%, α-iron is normally associated with iron carbide in one form or another. Similarly,
the δ-phase field is very restricted between 1390 and 1534°C and disappears completely
when the carbon content reaches 0.5 wt% (B).

There are several temperatures or critical points in the diagram, which are
important, both from the basic and from the practical point of view.

Firstly, there is the A1, temperature at which the eutectoid reaction occurs (P-S-
K), which is 723°C in the binary diagram.
Secondly, there is the A3, temperature when α-iron transforms to γ-iron. For pure
iron this occurs at 910°C, but the transformation temperature is progressively lowered
along the line GS by the addition of carbon.
The third point is A4 at which γ-iron transforms to δ-iron, 1390°C in pure iron,
hut this is raised as carbon is added. The A2, point is the Curie point when iron changes

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from the ferro- to the paramagnetic condition. This temperature is 769°C for pure iron,
but no change in crystal structure is involved. The A1, A3 and A4 points are easily
detected by thermal analysis or dilatometry during cooling or heating cycles, and some
hysteresis is observed. Consequently, three values for each point can be obtained. Ac for
heating, Ar for cooling and Ae (equilibrium}, but it should be emphasized that the Ac and
Ar values will be sensitive to the rates of heating and cooling, as well as to the presence
of alloying elements.
The great difference in carbon solubility between γ- and α-iron leads normally to
the rejection of carbon as iron carbide at the boundaries of the γ phase field. The
transformation of γ to α - iron occurs via a eutectoid reaction, which plays a dominant
role in heat treatment.
The eutectoid temperature is 723°C while the eutectoid composition is 0.80%
C(s). On cooling alloys containing less than 0,80% C slowly, hypo-eutectoid ferrite is
formed from austenite in the range 910-723°C with enrichment of the residual austenite
in carbon, until at 723°C the remaining austenite, now containing 0.8% carbon transforms
to pearlite, a lamellar mixture of ferrite and iron carbide (cementite). In austenite with
0,80 to 2,06% carbon, on cooling slowly in the temperature interval 1147°C to 723°C,
cementite first forms progressively depleting the austenite in carbon, until at 723°C, the
austenite contains 0.8% carbon and transforms to pearlite.

Steels with less than about 0.8% carbon are thus hypo-eutectoid alloys with ferrite
and pearlite as the prime constituents, the relative volume fractions being determined by
the lever rule which states that as the carbon content is increased, the volume percentage
of pearlite increases, until it is 100% at the eutectoid composition. Above 0.8% C,
cementite becomes the hyper-eutectoid phase, and a similar variation in volume fraction
of cementite and pearlite occurs on this side of the eutectoid composition.

The three phases, ferrite, cementite and pearlite are thus the principle constituents
of the infrastructure of plain carbon steels, provided they have been subjected to
relatively slow cooling rates to avoid the formation of metastable phases.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

The austenite- ferrite transformation


Under equilibrium conditions, pro-eutectoid ferrite will form in iron-carbon alloys
containing up to 0.8 % carbon. The reaction occurs at 910°C in pure iron, but takes place
between 910°C and 723°C in iron-carbon alloys.
However, by quenching from the austenitic state to temperatures below the
eutectoid temperature Ae1, ferrite can be formed down to temperatures as low as 600°C.
There are pronounced morphological changes as the transformation temperature is
lowered, which it should be emphasized apply in general to hypo-and hyper-eutectoid
phases, although in each case there will be variations due to the precise crystallography
of the phases involved. For example, the same principles apply to the formation of
cementite from austenite, but it is not difficult to distinguish ferrite from cementite
morphologically.

The austenite-cementite transformation


The Dube classification applies equally well to the various morphologies of
cementite formed at progressively lower transformation temperatures. The initial
development of grain boundary allotriomorphs is very similar to that of ferrite, and the
growth of side plates or Widmanstaten cementite follows the same pattern. The cementite
plates are more rigorously crystallographic in form, despite the fact that the orientation
relationship with austenite is a more complex one.
As in the case of ferrite, most of the side plates originate from grain boundary
allotriomorphs, but in the cementite reaction more side plates nucleate at twin boundaries
in austenite.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

The austenite-pearlite reaction


Pearlite is probably the most familiar micro structural feature in the whole science
of metallography. It was discovered by Sorby over 100 years ago, who correctly assumed
it to be a lamellar mixture of iron and iron carbide.
Pearlite is a very common constituent of a wide variety of steels, where it
provides a substantial contribution to strength. Lamellar eutectoid structures of this type
are widespread in metallurgy, and frequently pearlite is used as a generic term to describe
them.
These structures have much in common with the cellular precipitation reactions.
Both types of reaction occur by nucleation and growth, and are, therefore, diffusion
controlled. Pearlite nuclei occur on austenite grain boundaries, but it is clear that they can
also be associated with both pro-eutectoid ferrite and cementite. In commercial steels,
pearlite nodules can nucleate on inclusions.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Transformation and Microstructure

Introduction

The goal is to obtain specific microstructures that will improve the mechanical
properties of a metal, in addition to grain-size refinement, solid-solution strengthening,
and strain-hardening.

Basic Concepts

Phase transformations that involve a change in the microstructure can occur through:

• Diffusion
• Maintaining the type and number of phases (e.g., solidification of a pure metal,
allotropic transformation, recrystallization, grain growth).
• Alteration of phase composition (e.g., eutectoid reactions, see 10.5)
• Diffusionless
• Production of metastable phases (e.g., martensitic transformation, see 10.5)

Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams

There are two main types of transformation diagram that are helpful in selecting
the optimum steel and processing route to achieve a given set of properties. These are
time-temperature transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT)
diagrams. CCT diagrams are generally more appropriate for engineering applications as
components are cooled (air cooled, furnace cooled, quenched etc.) from a processing
temperature as this is more economic than transferring to a separate furnace for an
isothermal treatment.

Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams measure the extent of


transformation as a function of time for a continuously decreasing temperature. In other
words a sample is austenitised and then cooled at a predetermined rate and the degree of
transformation is measured.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams measure the rate of


transformation at a constant temperature. In other words a sample is austenitised and then
cooled rapidly to a lower temperature and held at that temperature whilst the rate of
transformation is measured.

CCT Diagrams

As for heating diagrams, it is important to clearly state what type of cooling curve
the transformation diagram was derived from.

Use of a constant cooling rate is very common in experimental practice. However,


this regime rarely occurs in a practical situation. One can also find curves for so-called
natural cooling rates according to Newton’s law of cooling. These curves simulate the
behavior in the interior of a large part such as the cooling rate of a Jominy bar at some
distance from the quenched end. Close to the surface the characteristics of the cooling
rare can be very complex. Each CCT diagram contains a family of curves representing
the cooling rates at different depths of a cylinder with a 300 mm (12 in.) diameter. The
slowest cooling rate represents the center of the cylinder. The more severe the cooling
medium, the longer the times to which the C-shaped curves are shifted. The M,
temperature is unaffected.

It should be noted, however, that transformation diagrams can not be used to


predict the response to thermal histories that are very much different from the ones used
to construct the diagrams. For instance, first cooling rapidly to slightly above Ms and
then reheating to a higher temperature will give more rapid transformation than shown in
the IT diagram because nucleation is greatly accelerated during the introductory quench.
It should also be remembered that the transformation diagrams are sensitive to the exact
alloying content within me allowable composition range.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 7. (a) CCT and (b) TTT diagrams.

P- Pearlite
Ms - Martensite start temperature.
An increase in carbon content shifts the CCT and TTT curves to the right (this
corresponds to an increase in hardenability as it increases the ease of forming martensite -
i.e. the cooling rate required to attain martensite is less severe). An increase in carbon
content decreases the martensite start temperature.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PROPERTIES OF WELD METAL

Properties are required for weld metal are toughness and strength. the ratio of
yield strength to the ultimate strength is always higher in weld metal then in base metal
properties are generally influenced by the type of microstructure grain size. In addition of
toughness and strength weldment also required to have good fatigue strength. in general
fatigue properties of the Weld metal are inferior corresponding to that of base metal. the
creep strength of weld metal is always lower.
METALLURGY OF WELD METAL
Although a weldment formed by the fusion welding result in the information of
monolithic structure but such a joint varies in a metallurgical structure from point to point
variation in mechanical properties. Basically a weld divided in 3 zones
1) Weld metal zone
2) Heat affected zone
3) Base metal zone
Weld metal zone constitute the weld bead and is a cast structure, the HAZ in a
way, the heat treated portion of the weldment while the unaffected base metal is
originally work material plus a small zone which has been heated to about 650°C
depending on the material composition, the welding speed and amount of heat input,
different microstructure may be expected from different zones of weldment formed by
the fusion welding.

WELD METAL ZONE

The weld metal zone is formed by the solidification of weld pool which itself is
formed by the melting of a part of parent material plus the additional material
solidification of molten metal in the weld pool start as soon as it reaches the liquidus
temperature for that material composition it require no under cooling and as the partially
grain provide the nuclei where from the growth of the grain start in to the solidifying
weld pool such a mode of solidification is reoffered to as epitaxial solidifications.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FUSION BOUNDARY ZONE

Different terms are used to define the volume of parent metal actually melted to
form the weld deposit .tweed dale calls it fusion one while Kenyon calls it as fusion
boundary. In the most of the metals the fusion welding zone is quite sharp and may be
referred as a fusion line. At the fusion line composition changes from that of parent
metal. One of the two types of grains fine and coarse may form in the fusion boundary. In
steels this may depend on X>Y+delta phase transformation on heating the alloy
composition in such that the base metal in the fusion boundary zone transforms to the
delta ferrite and liquid at the grain boundaries. Because of lower suitability of C and Mn
in ferrite. These elements tend to segregate to the melted grain boundaries. On
transforming back to austenite during the melted cycle. The high degree of segregation at
the boundaries may kinds of nucleation sites in the delta ferrite. Thus reduce the final
grains growth leading to fine grains in the fusion boundary zone.

HEAT AFFECTED ZONE

HAZ is a part of welded joint which has been heated up to a temperature unto the
solidus of parent material resulting in varying degree of influence of microstructure on a
consequences of heating and cooling cycle .depending upon the pack temperature the
HAZ in the steel can subdivided into the following zones starting from the weld metal
site:
1. Under bead zone: the part of HAZ which is heated to beyond critical temperature
of grain growth and extend up to the fusion boundary zone.
2. Grain growth zone beyond 1250 peritectic temperature
3. Grain refined zone : 950 to 1150 up to grain refined temperature
4. Partially transform zone: 750 to 950 °C
5. Zone of sophisticated carbide: 550 to 750 °C
6. Zone of unchanged base material : up to 550 °C

The final microstructure of a section HAZ depends on several factors including


composition, grain size, peak temperature attained, heating and cooling rates etc.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

UNDER BEAD ZONE:

This zone lies next to the fusion boundary zone and undergoes austenitic
transformation and grain growth in practically every fusion welding process employed.
Grain size of paramount importance in metal being a keying factor in determining the
strength and toughness of the material.
With present a structure steels the critical temperature 1050 °C. The degree of grain
growth depends upon the chemical composition of the steels and the heat input of the
welding. Grain growth in the under bead zone presents one of the major weld ability
problems with all modes of welding for every metal and alloy.

COARSE GRAIN CAUSES:


1. Decreased zone plasticity
2. increase susceptibility of steel to clod cracking ,stress relief cracking
3. Lowering of strength of under bead zone in the metal which doesn’t undergo
polymorphous transformation.

GRAIN REFINED ZONE

The peak temperature doesn’t exceed 1150 C therefore alpha and gamma
transformation during heating austenite doesn’t have time to develop properly and thus
the grain size remain small also the carbides may not be fully dissolved . The gamma to
alpha transformation and cooling therefore tends to produce if fine grained ferrite and
pearlite structure depending upon the factors like heat input thickness etc.

The large grain boundary tends to promote ferrite nucleation and the austenite that
remains at the grain canters is rich in carbon and transform to pearlite .this zone tends to
particularly wide in micro alloy steel because of the effectiveness of the carbonitrides in
preventing grain growth at this temperature.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ZONE OF UNCHANGED BASE METAL:


The peak temperature of the unchanged base metal rises up to 550 °C and there
appears to be no change in morphology in the constituents. However the combine effect
of heating and residual stress can cause dynamic strain and ageing to occur.

MICRO STRUCTURAL PRODUCTS IN WELDMENTS:

AUSTENITIC:

Austenite and gamma iron is stable at high temperature between 1390 °C and 910 °C
the cast austenite in the weld metal is usually regarded as primary micro structure which
is maintained during cooling.
Gamma iron is dissolved up to 1.7 % by weight giving rise to a wide range of gamma
solid solution known as austenite .it is non magnetic and relatively weak. In slowly
cooled steel it can not exist temperature below 695 °C at completely decompose when it
falls below the temperature for plain carbon steel.

GRAIN BOUNDARY FERRITE:

Grain boundary is referred to as pro-eutectoid ferrite. However this nomenclature is


misleading because other constituents. GBF is normally considered detrimental to
toughness because of its coarse grain structure compared with acicular. It has been
reported cracks in ferrite weld normally propagating GBF.
A process which is intensified by the presence of brittle paralytic structure along
grain boundaries GBF are also called blocky ferrite and ferrite veins.

FERRITE SIDE PLATE:

In cross sectional view FSP appears on long needles with aspect ratio 20:1. This
micro structure constituent grows from grain boundary ferrite into original austenitic
grains as packets of parallel plates. In addition isolated packets of ferrite sides plates can

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

sometimes be inside the original austenite grains FSP sometimes are also called
Widmanstatten ferrite.

POLYGONAL FERRITE:

Polygonal ferrite occurs in the form of coarse islands inside the prior austenite grains.
Polygonal ferrite like grain boundary ferrite is detrimental to toughness because of its
coarse grain size.

ACICULAR FERRITE:

It is formed in the interior of original austenitic grains by indirect nucleation from


the inclusion resulting in randomly oriented short needle with weave feature .the reduce
reduce the change of cleavage because these boundaries impede ferrite crack propagation.
ACICULAR ferrite and bainite are considered to be formed by the same transformation
mechanism. Both microstructures develop in the same range of temperatures: below the
high temperatures where allotriomorphic ferrite or pearlite form, but above the
martensite-start temperature. In bainite, the ferrite initiates at the austenite grain
boundaries, forming sheaves of parallel plates with the same crystallographic orientation,
whereas acicular ferrite is nucleated intragranularly at nonmetallic inclusions. The
process of nucleation, leads to a chaotic arrangement of plates and the fine-grained
interlocking microstructure characteristic of acicular ferrite. Most of the work on acicular
ferrite has been carried out on welds. The high density of inclusions present in steel weld
deposits ensures a high density of nucleation sites, which favors the development of an
acicular ferrite micro-structure instead of a bainitic one. Several authors have focused on
the study of acicular ferrite nucleation at inclusions, and a variety of mechanisms have
been proposed to explain the nucleation event, as reported elsewhere. Some inclusions
have been identified to favor the nucleation of the acicular ferrite and have been used to
inoculate steel and produce this type of microstructure in the base material and not only
in the weld pool. Acicular ferrite has also been developed in a medium-carbon forging
steel or a low-carbon steel following a conventional processing route. The lower density

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

of inclusions, as compared to that of weldments, would be expected to cause an increase


of the volume fraction of bainite, at the expense of acicular ferrite. However, in the steel
used in this study, this difficulty is avoided thanks to the nature, crystallography, and
spatial configuration of the nucleating inclusions, as has been previously reported. As in
the case of the acicular ferrite developed in low-carbon steels, the fine-grained
microstructure obtained in these medium-carbon steels also ensures a good combination
of mechanical properties.

In the present article, the influence of the time and temperature of the isothermal
treatment on the morphology of the acicular ferrite formed in medium-carbon steel has
been investigated. The investigation has been focused on the development of the
microstructure once the nucleation event has taken place. The work includes the study of
the different transformation products obtained during the isothermal transformation of the
austenite. The fine details of the various microstructures produced have been resolved
using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

WELDING: SOLIDIFICATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE

Parameters that control the solidification of castings also control the solidification
and microstructure of welds. However, various physical processes that occur due to the
interaction of the heat source with the metal during welding add a new dimension to the
understanding of the weld pool solidification. Conventional theories of solidification over
a broad range of conditions can be extended to understand weld pool solidification. In
certain cases, because of rapid cooling rate effects, it is not unusual to observe non-
equilibrium microstructures. Recent developments in the application of computational
thermodynamics and kinetic models, studies on single-crystal welds, and advanced in-situ
characterization techniques have led to a better understanding of weld solidification and
microstructures.
In welding, as the heat source interacts with the material, the severity of thermal
excursions experienced by the material varies from region to region, resulting in three
distinct regions in the weldment. These are the fusion zone (FZ), also known as the weld
metal, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal (BM). The FZ
experiences melting and solidification, and its microstructural characteristics are the
focus of this article.

Figure 5. Three distinct regions in the weldment are the fusion zone, the heat-
affected zone, and the base metal.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

The microstructure development in the FZ depends on the solidification behavior


of the weld pool. The principles of solidification control the size and shape of the grains,
segregation, and the distribution of inclusions and porosity. Solidification is also critical
to the hot-cracking behavior of alloys. Sometimes, it is convenient to consider the FZ as a
minicasting. Therefore, parameters important in determining microstructures in casting,
such as growth rate (R), temperature gradient (G), undercooling (ΔT), and alloy
composition determine the development of microstructures in welds as well.
Comprehensive reviews of weld pool solidification based on these parameters are
available in the literature.

Most knowledge of weld pool solidification is derived from the extrapolation of


the knowledge of freezing of castings, ingots, and single crystals at lower thermal
gradients and slower growth rates. In addition, rapid solidification theories have been
extended to welds solidified at very high cooling rates. However, microstructure
development in the FZ is more complicated because of physical processes that occur due
to the interaction of the heat source with the metal during welding, including re-melting,
heat and fluid flow, vaporization, dissolution of gasses, solidification, subsequent solid-
state transformation, stresses, and distortion. These processes and their interactions
profoundly affect weld pool solidification and microstructure. In recent years,
phenomenological modeling of welding processes has provided unprecedented insight
into understanding both the welding process and the welded materials. A variety of
sophisticated models that employ analytical and numerical approaches are capable of
describing many physical processes that occur during welding.

Weld pool shape

An important aspect of weld solidification is the dynamics of weld pool


development and its steady-state geometry. Weld pool shape is important in the
development of grain structure and dendrite growth selection process. Thermal conditions
in and near the weld pool and the nature of the fluid flow have been found to influence
the size and shape of the weld pool. Significant advances have been made in recent years

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

to understand, in greater detail, the dynamics of the heat and fluid flow in the weld and
the subsequent development of the pool shape. To a large extent, convective flow in the
weld pool determines weld penetration. For arc-welding processes, convection in the
weld pool is mainly controlled by buoyancy, electromagnetic forces, and surface-tension
forces. In actuality, depending on the interplay between various driving forces, the
convective flow could be simple or more complex with a number of convective cells
operating within the weld pool.

Microstructure

Unlike in casting, during welding, where the molten pool is moved through the
material, the growth rate and temperature gradient vary considerably across the weld
pool. Geometrical analyses have been developed that relate welding speed to the actual
growth rates of the solid at various locations in the weld pool.
Along the fusion line the growth rate is low while the temperature gradient is steepest. As
the weld centerline is approached, the growth rate increases while the temperature
gradient decreases. Consequently, the microstructure that develops varies noticeably from
the edge to the centerline of the weld. Most of these microstructural features can be
interpreted by considering classical theories of nucleation and growth.
In welds, weld pool solidification often occurs without a nucleation barrier. Therefore, no
significant undercooling of the liquid is required for nucleation of the solid. Solidification
occurs spontaneously by epitaxial growth on the partially melted grains. This is the case
during autogenous welding. In certain welds, where filler metals are used, inoculants and
other grain-refining techniques are used in much the same way as they are in casting
practices. In addition, dynamic methods for promoting nucleation such as weld-pool
stirring and arc oscillation have been used to refine the weld metal solidification
structure.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 6. The fusion line dividing the base metal with the welded part.

The temperature gradient and growth rate are important in the combined forms
GR (cooling rate) and G/R since they influence the scale of the solidification substructure
and solidification morphology, respectively. Although the method of using GR and G/R
relations to understand the solidification modes is simple and elegant, modeling of
solidification morphology in a typical weld must consider other factors such as fluid flow
and the effect of base plate texture. Recent work on the in-situ observation of weld pool
solidification using a transparent analog-metal system has produced a greater
understanding of the evolution of growth morphology in welds.
Solute distribution during weld pool solidification is an important phenomenon
resulting in segregation that can significantly affect weldability, microstructure, and
properties.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENTATION

AGGLOMERATED FLUXES

Agglomerated fluxes are produced similar to bonded fluxes with the exceptions:
A ceramic binder is used. A higher drying temperature is also used which limits the use
of deoxidizers and alloy elements similar to the fused fluxes.
Agglomerated submerged arc welding (SAW) fluxes are manufactured using
minerals and metallic powders held together by silicate binders. Fused fluxes are
manufactured using minerals, which are melted to form a glass, which is subsequently
crushed to form the flux particles. Submerged arc welding fluxes absorb moisture with
the amount of moisture absorbed being dependent upon the atmospheric conditions and
time of exposure. Most of the Special Metals fluxes are supplied in air tight 90 mil plastic
buckets with an 'O' ring seal in the lid. The 'O' ring seal is an effective moisture barrier
that works when the bucket is both opened and re-sealed correctly to allow the 'O' ring to
seat properly. To open the bucket of flux, the embossed tab on the lid must be pulled, or
cut free, and then peeled loose from the lid. This removes a thin ring of plastic from the
circumference of the lid. Once this ring of plastic is removed, the lid is quickly and easily
opened and resealed. Properly seating the 'O' ring is necessary in order to prevent any
flux that remains in the bucket from absorbing moisture. INCOFLUX 9 is supplied in
heavy duty plastic sacks. Fluxes should be stored in a dry area and labels should never be
removed from the packaging.

Submerged arc welding fluxes can be re-baked if it is suspected that the flux has
absorbed excessive moisture. Re-baking should be performed at 700-900ºF (375-480ºC)
for two hours in a vented oven for all INCOFLUX fluxes except INCOFLUX 9. For
INCOFLUX 9 re-baking should be conducted at 300-480ºF (150- 250ºC) in a vented
oven. Flux should be placed on metal trays with a maximum flux depth on the tray of 2"
(50mm). The plastic buckets and plastic sacks should not be baked.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESSING OF SLAG
The slag was modified on the bias of information obtain from the studies on loss
or gain of elements. Under these modifications slag was crushed and subsequently milled
in ball mill to convert into powder form. Alloying elements/deoxidizers were added and
mixed mechanically in a ball mill for thirty minutes so that the ingredients could form a
homogeneous mixture. 20% solution of potassium silicate binder was added to wet the
dry mixed powder , wet mixed for 15 minutes and passed through a 10-mesh screen to
form small pallets . These pallets were mixed and dried separately in air for 24 hours and
then were sintered at 850 ◦C for 2 hours in a muffle furnace. Sintered mass was then
crushed and sieved to the required grain size and termed as recycle slag. Recycle slag in
combination with EL- 8 filler wire was used for preparation of chemical pad. Chemical
composition of weld pad was checked with a spectrometer. These modifications were
repeated until acceptable chemistry of weld metal was achieved as shown in Table - 1.
Sixth modification gave acceptable weld metal composition along with bead appearance
and selected for further investigations.

Table 1. Chemical compositions of trial weld pads.

Trial No. Additives C Mn Si S P

CaCO3 + SiO2 = 7.1%


1. F – Mn + F-Ti = 5.2% 0.032 0.421 0.113 0.027 0.0227
CaCO3 + SiO2 = 10.1%
2. F – Mn + F -Ti = 2.6% 0.087 0.428 0.142 0.029 0.0276
CaCO3 + SiO2 = 10%
3. F – Mn + F-Ti = 4.2% 0.070 0.557 0.140 0.025 0.0237
CaCO3 + SiO2 = 10%
4. F – Mn + F-Ti = 5.8% 0.061 0.683 0.136 0.026 0.0271
F-Si = 1%
CaCO3 + SiO2 = 12%
5. F – Mn + F-Ti = 5% 0.043 0.687 0.158 0.025 0.023

CaCO3 + SiO2 = 10.3%


6. F – Mn + F-Ti = 7.26% 0.075 0.832 0.199 0.025 0.030
F-Si = 2%

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Flux re-cycling

• Flux can be re-cycled successfully and the following guidelines should be adopted
for flux re-cycling.
• During continuous welding operations unused flux can be recycled and returned
to the flux hopper for re-use.
• Slag and metallic particles should be removed from the recycled flux and
discarded prior to using recycled flux.
• Fines should be removed from recycled flux. Excessive levels of fines will impair
the welding performance of the flux and degrade the weld bead appearance.
• Re-crushed slag should not be used as flux for welding operations.
• Following a break in welding operations any unused flux should be removed from
the welding machine hopper and stored in a heated hopper (250-300°F, 120-
150°C) for a maximum period of 24 hours. This flux should then be mixed with
twice its volume of new flux prior to reuse.
• Care should be taken when using forced air recycling systems to ensure that such
systems use only dry air and that the flux particles are not damaged or degraded
by using high air flow rates (which can result in the formation of large quantities
of dust). Only dry air must be used in forced air recycling systems to prevent
moisture pick up by the flux. Compressed air systems used for operating power
tools should not be used for flux recovery as they may contain oil lubricant.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Process Variables
Process variables are of key importance in SAW as these affects the penetration,
bead width, pool size and shape, extent of HAZ, reinforcement, microstructure, metal
transfer, droplet size, frequency of transformer, arc force burn off rate etc.
In SAW, the weld deposit quality is determined by the type of flux, grade of wire and the
following parameters:
1. Welding current
2. Arc voltage
3. Speed of Arc travel
4. Size of electrode
5. Electrode stick out
6. Heat input rate

1. Welding Current: - It controls the melting rate of electrode and thereby the
metal deposition rate. It also controls the depth of penetration and thereby the
extent of dilution of the weld metal. Too high a current causes excessive weld
reinforcement which is wasteful, and burn through in case of thinner plates.
Excessive current can also produced narrow bead and undercut. Excessively low
current gives unstable arc, inadequate penetration and overlapping.
2. Arc voltage: - Arc voltage is also called welding voltage, means the electric
potential difference between the electrode wire tip and the surface of the molten
weld puddle. It is indicated by the voltmeter provided on the equipment. It hardly
affects the electrode melting rate, but it determines the profile or surface
appearance of the weld bead. As the arc voltage increases, weld bead become
wider and flatter and the penetration decreases.
3. Speed of Arc travel: - Increase in welding speed result in lesser penetration,
lesser weld reinforcement and lower heat input per unit of of length of weld.
Excessive speed of arc travel can result in poor penetration, decrease the fusion
between weld deposit and parent metal. But too low speed also causes poor
penetration as the weld puddle in direct under the electrode tip and the force of
arc is cushioned by the weld puddle.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

4. Size of electrode: - Width increase electrode welding current can be increased so


as to get higher deposition rates, deeper penetration and increased weld size. At
the given current changing over to a large electrode resulting wider, less
penetrating bead.
5. Electrode stick out: - It is termed as electrode extension. It refers to the length of
electrode, between the end of contact tube and the arc, which is subjected to
resisting heating, increased electrode stick out gives higher deposition rate.
6. Heat input rate: - It is also known as the energy and is calculated by the
following formula:
H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilojoules/mm
Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)
V = Voltage
W = Weld Current (in Amperes)
S = Speed (in meter/min)

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BEAD ON PLATE USING RECYCLED SLAG

Figure 8. A Submerged Arc Welding machine

The four workpieces are taken i.e. B3, B4, B5, and B6. These workpieces
are prepared for producing a bead on them. First of all a V-groove is made at the
centre of the workpieces. The submerged arc welding equipment is set up with
the specified parameter as mentioned in Table 3.
After the specimen is prepared for welding, it is kept at the work table of
the submerged arc welding machine. The bare electrode is brought in contact with
the work piece. The recycled slag in poured over the metal work piece and the
welding is performed. As the bead is covered by the flux, the arc is not visible and
by this way the bead is generated on the work piece. After the generation of bead,
the unused flux is removed from the top of the weld bead. The slag is chipped off
from the upper surface of the metal and the metal is prepared for the next
operation to be performed.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SPECIMEN PREPARATION

Cutting:

The first step in preparing a specimen for metallographic or microstructural


analysis is to locate the area of interest. Sectioning or cutting is the most common
technique for obtaining this area of interest. Proper sectioning has the following
characteristics:

ƒ Flat and cut close to the area of interest


ƒ Minimal microstructural damage
ƒ Smeared (plastically deformed) metal
ƒ Heat affected zones (burning during cutting)
ƒ Excessive subsurface damage (cracking in ceramics)
ƒ Damage to secondary phases (e.g. graphite flakes, nodules or grain pull-out)

Sectioning can be categorized as either: Abrasive Cutting and Precision Wafer


Cutting. Abrasive cutting is generally used for metal specimens and is accomplished with
silicon carbide or alumina abrasives in resin or resin rubber bonds. Proper blade selection
is required to minimize burning and heat generation during cutting which degrades both
the specimen surface as well as the blade cutting efficiency. Wafer cutting is
accomplished with thin diamond blades. Wafer cutting is especially useful for cutting
ceramics and minerals as well as some metallic materials.

Rough Preparation:
The specimen is ground on progressively finer SiC waterproof papers from 120 to
1000 grit, to produce a reasonably flat surface; it is lubricated with water to keep it cool
and to remove the grinding products. If the sample is not flat, it might be necessary to
remove some material on the lathe or grinding machine first. The sample should be
moved forward and backward on the paper until the whole surface is covered with
unidirectional scratches. It is then washed with running water to remove debris associated
with the grade of paper used. It is then ground on the next finer paper such that the

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

scratches produced are at right angles to those formed by the previous paper. This enables
you to easily decide when the scratches from the coarser paper have been completely
removed. This procedure is repeated through the range of papers available.

When the specimen has been ground on the final paper, it is generally worthwhile
rotating it through and grinding again with less pressure than before. This technique can
decrease the time required for the next stage, which is polishing. Before polishing, the
specimen and your hands must be washed and dried to remove any SiC particles.

Polishing:
Due to the very small depth of field obtained from an optical microscope it is
essential that the surface is flat, in fact it needs to be optically flat, acting as a perfect
mirror. The specimen therefore has to be “polished”. This is done using rotating wheels
covered with a cloth impregnated with a very fine abrasive compound. The common
compounds used are diamond and alumina.

The polishing was done by the following grades of emery papers:


• 400
• 600
• 800
• 1000
• 1200

Polishing is the final step in production a surface that is flat, scratch free, and
mirror like in appearance. Such a surface is necessary for subsequent accurate
metallographic interpretation, both qualitative and quantitative. The polishing technique
used should not introduce extraneous structure such as disturbed metal, pitting, dragging
out of inclusions, comet tails and staining.

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(a) Coarse scratches left by previous grit size.


(b) First set of fine scratches left by the current grit size.
(c) Second set of fine scratches left by the current grit size.
Note: - Arrows show the direction of polishing motion.
Each time a new grit is used, apply a polishing direction at 90° angle to the previous
polishing direction.

Figure 9: An Automatic Polishing Machine with Two Rotating Discs

Polishing cloth:-
The requirement of any good polishing cloth include the ability to hold an
abrasive, long life, absence of any foreign material that may cause scratches, and absence
of any processing chemicals that may react with the specimen. A cloth without nap or
with a very low nap is preferred for the preliminary or rough polishing operation. The
absence of nap ensures maximum contact with the polishing abrasive, and results in fast
cutting with minimum of relief. The cloths most frequently used are canvas, low-nap,

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

cotton, nylon, silk and pelon. These cloths are stretched tight on the laps and fastened
securely, usually by a band – type clamp. (Usually in size from 15 microns down to 1
microns) and carrier.
Rough polishing usually done with the laps rotating at 500 to 600 rpm. Cloths
with a medium or high nap are ordinarily used on slow rotating laps (less than the 300
rpm) for intermediate and final polishing. Felt or billiards cloths (100% virgin wool),
used with 0.3 micron aluminum oxide or other comparable abrasive, are excellent for
intermediate polishing of soft metals (most nonferrous alloy and low carbon steels) and
final polishing of hard materials (such as hardened alloy steel). One of the most popular
cloths for final polishing of most metals is composed of densely packed, vertically
aligned, synthetic fibers bonded to a suitable backing.

Polishing abrasives:-
Polishing usually involves the use one or more of five types of abrasives:
aluminum oxide (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), iron oxide
(Fe2O3), and diamond compound. With the exception of diamond compound these
abrasive are normally used in a distilled water suspension, but if the metal to be polished
is not compatible with water, other suspensions, such as ethylene glycol, alcohol,
kerosene or glycerin, may be required. The diamond compounds should be extended only
with the carrier recommended by the manufacture.
Aluminum oxide (alumina) is the polishing abrasive most widely used for general metal.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

METALLURGICAL INVESTIGATION

Metallography is the study of metals by optical and electron microscopes.


Structures which are coarse enough to be discernible by the naked eye or under low
magnifications are termed macrostructures. Useful information can often be gained by
examination with the naked eye of the surface of metal objects or polished and etched
sections. Those which require high magnification to be visible are termed
microstructures. Microscopes are required for the examination of the microstructure of
the metals. Optical microscopes are used for resolutions down to roughly the wavelength
of light (about half a micron) and electron microscope are used for detail below this level,
down to atomic resolution. The most commonly used microscope is the conventional
light microscope. In principle, optical microscopes may be used to look through
specimens (‘in transmission’) as well as at them (‘in reflection’). Many materials,
however, do not transmit light and so we are restricted to looking at the surface of the
specimens with an optical microscope. Electron microscope can be used in the
transmission e.g. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and to look at the surfaces
e.g. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Microscopy can give information concerning a
material’s composition, previous treatment and properties. Particular features of interest
are
(I) Grain size
(II) Phases present
(III) Chemical homogeneity
(IV) Distribution of phases
(V) Elongated structures formed by plastic deformation

Optical Microscopy
With optical microscopy, the light microscope is used to study the microstructure;
optical illumination systems are its basic elements. For materials that are opaque to
visible light (all metals, many ceramics and polymers), only the surface is subject to

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observation, and the light microscope must be used in a reflective mode. Contrasts in the
image produced result from differences in reflectivity of the various regions of the
microstructure. Careful and meticulous surface preparations are necessary to reveal the
important details of the microstructure. The specimen surface must first be ground and
polished to a smooth and mirror like finish. This is accomplished by using successively
finer abrasive papers and powders. The microstructure is revealed by a surface treatment
using an appropriate chemical reagent in a procedure termed etching. The etching
reagents depend on the material used and after etching the specimen must be washed with
alcohol and ether to remove the grease. The atoms at the grain boundaries are chemically
more active, and consequently dissolve more readily than those within the grains forming
small grooves. These grooves become discernible when viewed under a microscope
because they reflect light at an angle different from that of the grains themselves.

When the microstructure of a two phase alloy is to be examined, an enchant is


chosen that produces a different texture for each phase so that the different phases may be
distinguished from each other. The maximum possible magnification with an electron
microscope is approximately 2000 diameters.

Electron Microscopy:

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM):


The image seen with a TEM is formed by an electron beam that passes through
the specimen. Details of the internal microstructural features are accessible to
observation; contrasts in the image are produced by differences in beam scattering or
diffraction produced between various elements of the microstructure or defect. In the
TEM, electrons are focused on an extremely thin foil of the material; the beam of
electrons interacts with imperfections in the material, causing differences in the fraction
of electrons that are transmitted. The transmitted beam is projected onto a fluorescent
screen or a photographic film so that the image may be viewed. Magnifications
approaching 1000000x are possible with TEM. The TEM is used to observe dislocations.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM):


The surface to be examined is scanned with an electron beam, and the reflected
beam of electrons is collected, then displayed at the same scanning rate on a cathode ray
tube. The image that appears on the screen, which may be photographed, represents the
surface features of the specimen. The surface may or may not be polished and etched, but
it must be electrically conductive; a very thin metallic coating must be applied to non
conductive materials. Magnifications ranging from 10 to in excess of 50 000 diameters
and also very great depths of field are possible.

GRAIN SIZE DETERMINATION:


The grain size of metals is usually expressed as the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) grain size number. The ASTM has prepared 10 standards
comparison charts, all having different average grain sizes. To each is assigned a grain
size number, n, ranging from 1to 10, the larger the number, the smaller the grains. The
designation is based on the equation, N = 2n-1
where, N is the number of grains in an area of 1 sq. in at 100x magnification.
A specimen must be properly prepared to reveal the grain structure, which is
photographed at a magnification of 100x. Thus a steel with N=6 has, on average, 32
grains in an area of 1 sq. in. at 100x. Grain size is expressed as the grain size number of
the chart that most nearly matches the grains in the micrograph. Grain size may also be
determined using an intercept method described below. Straight lines all of the same
length are drawn through several photomicrographs that show the grain structure. The
grains intersected by each line segment are counted; the line length is then divided by an
average of the number of grains intersected, taken over all the line segments. The average
grain diameter is found by dividing this result by the linear magnification of the
micrographs.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SPECIMEN PREPARATION FOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

The examination of materials by optical microscopy is essential in order to


understand the relationship between properties and microstructure. Metallography is the
study of metals by optical examination. This is most commonly done using a
conventional light microscope. However useful information can be gained by
examination with the naked eye of the surface of metal objects or of polished and etched
sections. Structures which are coarse enough to be discernible be the naked eye is termed
macrostructures. Those which require magnification to be visible are termed
microstructures.

Figure 10: Optical Microscope Fitted with 35mm Camera and Digital Camera

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MICROSTRUCTURES

The preparation of a specimen to reveal its microstructure involves.


• Sawing the section to be examined
• Mounting in resins (if sample is too small)
• Coarse grinding
• Grinding on progressively finer emery paper
• Polishing using alumina powder or diamond paste on rotating wheel
• Etching in dilute acid (2% Nital for steel)
• Washing in Alcohol and drying
• Typical magnifications used are between 50x and 1000x

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 11. SAMPLE NO: B3

(A). WELD AND BASE METAL

(B). BASE METAL

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(C). WELD ZONE

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 12. SAMPLE NO: B4

(A). WELD AND BASE METAL

(B). BASE METAL

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(C). WELD ZONE

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 13. SAMPLE NO: B5

(A). WELD AND BASE METAL

(B). BASE METAL

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(C). WELD ZONE

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 14. SAMPLE NO: B6

(A). WELD AND BASE METAL

(B). BASE METAL

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(C). WELD ZONE

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PROPERTIES OF WELD ZONE OF WELD BEAD (B3, B4, B5, B6)

1. PROPERTIES OF WELD ZONE OF WELD BEAD (B3)

A) Grain size is coarse

B) Width of columns increased due to less heat input

C) Grain boundary ferrite increased due to less heat input

D) Acicular ferrite decreased due to less heat input

E) Polygonal ferrite more

F) Cast structure of weld zone

Figure 15. WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B3

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

2. PROPERTIES OF WELD ZONE OF WELD BEAD (B4)

A) Grain size is smaller than the B3 (WELD BEAD)

B) Width of columns smaller than the B3 (WELD BEAD)

C) Grain boundary ferrite something less than the B3 (WELD BEAD)

D) Polygonal ferrite less than the B3 (WELD BEAD)

E) Cast structure of weld zone

Figure 16 WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B4

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

3. PROPERTIES OF WELD ZONE OF WELD BEAD (B5)

A) Grain size is smaller then the B4 (WELD BEAD)

B) Width of columns smaller than the B4 (WELD BEAD) due to increase heat input

C) Grain boundary ferrite decreased due to increased heat input

D) Polygonal ferrite less than the B4 (WELD BEAD) due to increased heat input.

E) Acicular ferrite increased due to increased heat input.

F) Cast structure of Weld Zone B5.

Figure 17. WELD BEAD ZONE OF SAMPLE B5

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

4. PROPERTIES OF WELD ZONE OF WELD BEAD B6

A) Width of column decreases due to higher heat input.

B) Grain boundary ferrite decreased due to increased heat input

C) Grain structure fine

D) Polygonal ferrite less than the B3, B4, B5.

E) Acicular ferrite increased due to increased heat input, it is desirable it has more
toughness and more ductility and more strength than the B3, B4 & B5

F) Cast structure of Weld Zone same as B5.

Figure 18. WELD ZONE OF SAMPLE B6

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PROPERTIES OF BASE METAL OF WELD BEAD


(B3, B4, AND B5 & B6)

Outside the heat affected zone is the parent metal that was not heated sufficiently to
change its microstructure. From the microstructure of base metal of weld bead (B3, B4,
B5 & B6) we get uniformly distributed ferrite pearlite grain structure.

PROPERTIES OF HEAT EFFECTED ZONE OF WELD BEAD


(B3, B4, B5 & B6)
(1) Adjacent to the weld metal zone is the heat affected zone that is composed of parent
metal that is composed of parent metal that did not melt but was heated to a high enough
temperature for sufficient period that grain growth occurred.

(2) heat- affected zone is the portion of the portion of the base metal whose mechanical
properties and microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding

(3) The width of HAZ varies according to the welding process and technique: in arc
welds it extends only a few mm from the fusion boundary, but in oxy- acetylene and
electro slag welds it is some- what wider.

NOTE: - The microstructure of HAZ of weld bead B3, B4, B5, & B6 at the
given heat input approximately same which is shown in figure

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WORKPIECE SAMPLES

B3 B4

B5 B6

Polished side of the workpieces Top view of the workpieces

Figure 19. The welded metal specimens over which the microstructures are being
analysed.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 2.VARIABLE PARAMETERS FOR WELDING

Value Weld Current (W) Voltage (V) Speed (S)

(Higher Value) 500 amp (A) 40 Volts (V) 0.5 meter/min

(Lower Value 300 amp (A) 32 Volts (V) 0.25 meter/min

Table3. WELDING PARAMETERS FOR THE FOUR WORKPIECES

S.No W(Weld Current) V (Voltage) S(Speed)


B3 300 amp 32 Volts 0.5 meter/min

B4 500 amp 32 Volts 0.5 meter/min

B5 300 amp 40 Volts 0.25 meter/min

B6 500 amp 40 Volts 0.25 meter/min

Formula Used For Finding Heat Input (H)

H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilo joule/mm

Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)


V = Voltage

W = Weld Current (in Amperes)

S = Speed (in meter/min)

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CALCULATIONS FOR FINDING HEAT INPUT OF FOUR


DIFFERENT WELD BEADS

1) FOR B3 WELD BEAD

W=300amp, V= 32 volt, S=0.5 meter/min

For using heat input formula

H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilo joule/mm

Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)

H= {(300*32*60)/ 106 *0.5}*0.9 = 1.035 Kilo joule/mm


(Minimum heat Input)

2) FOR B4 WELD BEAD

W=500amp, V= 32 volt, S=0.5 meter/min

For using heat input formula

H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilo joule /mm

Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)

H= {(500*32*60)/ 106*0.5}*0.9 = 1.728 Kilo joule/mm

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

3) FOR B5 WELD BEAD

W=300amp, V= 40 volt, S=0.25 meter/min

For using heat input formula

H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilo joule/mm

Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)

H= {(300*40*60)/ 106*0.25}*0.9 = 2.592 Kilo joule /mm

4) FOR B6 WELD BEAD

W=500amp , V= 40 volt , S=0.25 meter/min

For using heat input formula

H = {(V*W/S)* 60}/ 106 * η Kilo joule/mm

Where η = Efficiency of SAW Welding Process (η is 0.9)

H= {(500*40*60)/ 106*0.25}*0.9 = 4.32 Kilo joule/mm


( Maximum heat Input )

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CONCLUSION

VARIATION OF ACICULAR FERRITE CONTENT WITH


CURRENT UNDER ISO HEAT INPUE CONDITIONS

From Figure 20.,we get that when we increase the value of current, the percentage
of acicular ferrite content increases. When the percentage of acicular ferrite increases, the
toughness as well as ductility also increases, this is desirable.

Figure 20. Effect of Heat Input on amount of Acicular Ferrite

From calculation of four different weld beads, B3, B4, B5 & B6, we get

The percentage of acicular ferrite content for B6 weld bead at 500 ampere and
4.32 kilojoules /mm is between 65% to 70%, which is maximum among the four weld
beads.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Figure 21. A schematic CCT Diagram for a weld deposit showing the relationship of
the acicular ferrite phase field to those of other constituents.

After studying the cooling curve transformation diagram, it is concluded that if


heat input is increased the cooling rate of the metal decreases and thus according to the
above curve, the concentration of the acicular ferrite increases. If we have higher
concentration of acicular ferrite in the metal structure, then the ductility and toughness of
the metal increases i.e., the mechanical properties of the metal is increased which is
desirable.

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Reference

1:- Kulwant Singh, 2006. “Some studies in recycling of submerged arc welding slag as a
flux.” Thesis of Doctor of Philosophy 2006.

2:- Prashanta Kanjilal, Sujit Kumar Majumdar and Tapan Kumar Pal, 2005. “Predication
of acicular ferrite from flux ingredients in submerged arc weld metal of C-Mn steel.” Isij
international, vol.45.

3:- B.Basu and R.Raman, 2002. “Micro structural variation in a high strength structural
steel weld under isoheat input conditions.” Welding journal November 2002.

4:- A.Joarder, S.C.Saha and A.K.Ghose,1991. “ Study of submerged arc weld metal and
heat affected zone microstructure of a plain carbon steel.” Welding research supplement
june 1991.

5:- C.B. Dallam, S.Liu, and D.L. Olson, 1985. “Flux composition depends of
microstructure and toughness of submerged arc HSLA weldments.” Welding research
supplement may 1985.

6:- R. Kohno, T. Takami, N. Nagano, 1982. “New fluxes of improved weld metal
toughness for HSLA steels.” Welding research supplement December 1982.

7:- G.M. Evans, 1983. “ The effect of carbon on the microstructure and properties of C-
Mn all weld metals deposits.” Welding research supplement November 1983.

8:- E.S. Surian and L.A.de Vedia, 1999. “ All weld metal design for AWS E 10018M,
E11018M, and E12018M type electrodes.” Welding research supplement june 1999.

9:- http:/www.recycleflux.com

10:- http:/www.titussteel.com

11:- http:/www.paton.kiew.ua

12:- http://www.metallographic.com

13:- “Modern arc welding” by S.V. Nadkarni.

14:- “Welding process and technology” by R.S.Parmar.

15:- Metallurgy of welding by J.F. LANCASTER.

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