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M.P. De Guzman et al.

/ The Impact of Establishments with NoTraffic Impact


As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

The Impact of Establishments with No Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) Studies


On Adjacent Road Networks
MARK Paz De Guzman, MSCE, PhDCE1,
Marjorie O. Abad2, Effie Mae Criscel A. Acosta2
Dan Ismael L. Averilla2, Riezee Mae S. Dela Cruz2,
Enrique G. Dela Torre2, Jan Michael S. Ferrer2,
Gideon Jr. Q. Nuesca2
2
Student Researcher, 1Faculty Promoter
Department of Civil and Geodetic Engineering
Saint Louis University, 2600 Baguio City
Contact information: mark_deg73@hotmail.com
marjorieoabad@gmail.com, efieacosta@gmail.com,
danismaelaverillaX10@yahoo.com, theriezeemae@yahoo.com,
dtenrique1993@gmail.com, ferrermichaeljan@gmail.com,
gideonnuesca@yahoo.com
Abstract
Traffic impact assessment (TIA) is a powerful tool for engineers and planners to
determine the possible effects of a project on the transportation and traffic system, and
the corresponding formulation of traffic management schemes and recommendation of
infrastructure. This study focuses on the effects of a non-TIA study along the vicinity of
Saint Louis Universitys main campus during its construction. Having a non-TIA study
may result to high traffic volumes on surrounding roads that may affect movement to and
from the establishment and poorly constructed traffic schemes. The main objective of this
study is to be able to assess the effect of non-TIA study for SLU main campus along
Bonifacio Street, specifically the current orientation of the parking entrance and exit of
SLU, the loading and unloading stations, and the effectivity of the pedestrian lane along
SLU main gate.
Keywords: traffic impact assessment, traffic management
Introduction
Being the ideal convergence zone of neighboring highland places, Baguio is the melting
pot of different peoples and cultures and has boosted its ability to provide a center for education
for its neighbors. One of its educational institutions is Saint Louis University (SLU), which is the
focus of this study. SLU has a pivotal role in the evolution of the City into a center for education
in the North. Today, SLU is the largest university north of Manila with more than 30,000
students from the elementary, high school and college levels. Its reputation for excellence attracts
students and scholars not only from the Philippines but from other countries as well. It has
sustained itself throughout the past ninety years to become one of the top centers of academic
excellence in the Philippines that meet international standards in tertiary education. Most of its
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M.P. De Guzman et al. / The Impact of Establishments with NoTraffic Impact


As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

programs, from the elementary to the graduate level, have received the highest level of
accreditation in the country. SLU has four campuses: the main campus at A. Bonifacio Street, St.
Aloysius de Gonzaga Campus (for Elementary and Law) at General Luna Road, Navy Base
Campus (for High School and Teacher Education) in Pacdal, and the Maryheights Campus (for
Accountancy and Business management) in Bakakeng. It has become the venue for seminars,
various forums, and other special events of the public and private sectors in the Cordillera, in
addition to the everyday conduct of student life in the University. It has welcomed within its
walls an eclectic mix of various cultures, traditions, beliefs and nationalities.
Apparently, TIA is sometimes not used in establishments in the country. Hence, the
researchers aim to show the effects of non-TIA and the importance of implementing TIA on SLU
by focusing on the main contributors to these effects namely, the current orientation of the
parking entrance and exit of SLU, the loading and unloading stations, and the effectivity of the
pedestrian lane along SLU main gate. In addressing these problems, the researchers should be
able to determine the causes of delays in traffic (such as loading and unloading of PUVs and
jaywalking), assess existing pedestrian lanes, and evaluate the existing movement of vehicles to
and from the university through the framework as shown:

NO
YES

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As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

Review of Related Literature


TIA in the Philippines
In the Philippines, many cities like Metro Manila are facing the traffic impacts
generated from urban developments, especially for shopping centers or commercial areas.
Similar to Thailand, there exists legislation requiring the conduct of an environmental
impact assessment for different kinds of development, either for environmentally critical
projects or for projects located in environmentally critical areas. An early version of this
law is the Presidential Decree 1586 (in 1979) establishing an Environmental Impact
Statement System including other environment-related measures and for other purposes.
As shown in Figure 2, the mechanisms of TIA implementation in the Philippines
can be classified into three strategies: 1. through the EIA framework; 2. through national
legislation; and 3. through local government unit ordinance, as identified by the study of
the University of the Philippines National Center for Transportation Studies Foundation
Inc. or the UPNCTSFI [Regidor & Teodoro, 2003].

Figure 2. The Mechanisms for Implementing TIA in the Philippines


Source: Combined from Regidor and Teodoro (2003)
Figure 3 shows a framework identified by the UPNCTSFI study team for TIA
institutionalization. Three main cases, including site development in a critical area, urban
renewal or industrial site development, and rezoning, are required a TIA study. Regidor
and Teodoro (2003) suggest that it is realistic and practical to implement TIA based on
this Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 4208 4223, 2005 4211 framework, because all development types can be taken into account,
and it is applicable with the existing EIA system.
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The expected output of this study is a proposal regarding thorough observations of the
effects of a non-TIA on Saint Louis University and the several factors that affects the traffic
conditions along the perimeter of Saint Louis University such as the loading and unloading
stations along the main gate, pedestrian behavior towards traffic rules, proper orientation of the
parking entrance and exit of SLU, and the appropriate location of traffic signs. This study
recognizes the impacts of motor vehicle use on the environment and the desirability of increasing
the use of public transport. Most developments attract more private transport movements rather
than public. It is, therefore, necessary to address the impact of motor vehicles and road traffic
effects on the environment. Every establishment can generate additional traffic on its adjacent
roads and streets that may lead to a need for improvements to the existing infrastructure. Its
effects may be responsibly assessed considering the expected future traffic movements;
undertaking of TIA study is an accepted method. TIA should provide an impartial and objective
description of the impacts and traffic effects of a proposed development. A full and detailed
assessment of how vehicle and person movements to and from a development site might affect
existing road and pedestrian networks is required. An objective consideration of the traffic
impact of a proposal is vital to enable planning decisions to be based upon the principles of
sustainable development.
Design and Methods

SAINT LOUIS
UNIVERSITY

Saint Louis University is surrounded


by busy road networks like the upper
and lower Bonifacio Street which is
filled with different establishments,
some without their own parking space
thus motorists tend to park in the road
itself causing traffic congestion. Also
loading and unloading bays are not
provided which reduces the capacity
of Bonifacio Street, resulting to traffic
congestion. Other things being put to
consideration is the direction of
vehicles going in and out of the
campus, and the two pedestrian lanes
situated in front of main gate and gate
2.
Source: Google Map (2014)

Traffic impact assessment (TIA) is the process of assessing and analysing traffic impacts
of urban and regional developments. The TIA process proposed by a set of guidelines consists of
four stages which are crucial to follow: Pre-Evaluation, Data Collection/Gathering, Traffic
Impact Analysis, and Finalization of the TIA report. As per the researchers aim, which is to
conduct a study regarding the impact of non-TIA establishments to their adjacent road networks,
the methods that they are going to imply consists of the following: conducting traffic surveys and
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As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

analysis of transportation demand management (TDM) measures. The researchers chose these
methods because it can show the portion of road network affected by the development, critical
segments where the users perceive that will have a change in the quality of transportation
service, and to have a data regarding on traffic volume count and inventory studies. From the
data gathered, the researchers can also evaluate on what are the necessary facilities that are
needed in the road network (transportation and pedestrian facility).
Also the analysis used in this research is the presentation of Transportation Demand
Management (TDM) Measures wherein the researchers are to assess the effectiveness of the
existing measures along the perimeter of SLU based from the traffic surveys. Accordingly, the
researchers will focus on soft measures as their main approach in this assessment. Soft measures
or Soft mitigating TDM measures concentrates on traffic management schemes, such as:
(1) Traffic Volume Count Method
Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number, movements, and
classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. These data can help identify
critical flow time periods, determine the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on
vehicular traffic flow, or document traffic volume trends.
In this method, the researchers have evaluated the effectivity of the current
orientation of the parking entrance and exit of SLU by manual counting. For every 15minute interval, the vehicles entering and exiting SLU coming from both left and right
directions are counted separately.
(2) Pedestrian Count
Pedestrian count data are used frequently in planning applications. Pedestrian
counts are used to evaluate sidewalk and crosswalk needs, to justify pedestrian signals,
and to time traffic signals. Pedestrian counts may be taken at intersection crosswalks,
midblock crossings, or along sidewalks.
In this method, the researchers gathered data through tallying. In every 15-minute
interval, the pedestrians going to and coming from SLU are counted cumulatively. Due to
the recent accident that happened in the area, the width of the pedestrian lane had been
increased and the directions going to and coming from SLU have been indicated. With
this, the researchers opted to evaluate the capacity of the present pedestrian lane and
compared it to the past one. Only the critical data had been selected for further analysis.
The researchers used the formula in determining the level of service (LOS) of the
pedestrian lane.

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As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

LOS A
LOS B
LOS C
LOS D
LOS E
(3) Test Car Method (Travel Time and Delay)
This technique has involved the use of a data collection vehicle within which an
observer records cumulative travel time at predefined checkpoints along a travel route.
This information is then converted to travel time, speed, and delay for each segment
along the survey route. There are several different methods for performing this type of
data collection, depending upon the instrumentation used in the vehicle and the driving
instructions given to the driver.
In this method, the researchers used a test car to determine the different causes of
delay, which affects the travel speed in a certain area. The researchers chose five station
points (rotunda SLU main gate Caltex BCU Stop sign at the pedestrian
overpass in Center mall, and vice versa, as in Fig. A) which was used in recording the
travel time and distance needed to compute the travel speed.

Fig. A
In conducting the TIA study, the researchers are focused in certain areas with each of the
following methods said above. The test car method is concentrated on a specific route: Rotunda
to Baguio Center Mall (and vice versa, shown in the left side of the figure). For the rest of the
methods indicated above (pedestrian and traffic count), the area being studied is at the main gate
of Saint Louis University. The researchers will be conducting these methods simultaneously at
peak hours specifically 7:00-8:30 A.M. and 5:00-7:00 P.M.

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Findings and Discussion


The researchers have gathered the data for Traffic Count, Pedestrian Count, and Test Car
methods simultaneously on February 5, March 18, and 19, respectively at 7:00-8:30 AM and at
5:00 7:00 PM. The following are the data acquired for every method used.
Traffic Count

Fig. 1-1 Current parking entrance of SLU


Fig. 1-1 shows a vehicle entering the premises of SLU coming from the left direction
(from the rotunda). This causes obstructions in the traffic flow, particularly the barrier being
created by the jeepney in the pedestrian lane situated just before the parking entrance.
The next figures (Fig. 1-2 and 1-3) show a vehicle exiting the premises of SLU going to
the right direction. This causes delay to the vehicles heading to the rotunda. Fig. 1-3 shows that
the vehicle exiting had let the delayed vehicle pass first, causing it to swerve which delayed the
ones in the other lane.

Fig. 1-2 Current parking exit of SLU

Fig. 1-3 Vehicle exiting the university going to


the opposite lane

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As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

TABLE
1-1
Time

Plan
and
Date:

7:00
7:15
7:30
7:45
8:00
8:15
TOTAL
TABLE
1-2
Time
5:00
5:15
5:30
5:45
6:00
6:15
6:30
6:45
TOTAL

Entrance

Exit

From Left
From Right
Side
Side
14
30
14
16
10
14
11
5
3
5
3
6
55 Entrance 76

To Left
To Right
Side
Side
6
5
3
6
3
10
8
3
2
6
1
1
23
Exit 31

From Left
Side
7
4
3
2
0
1
3
0
20

To Left
Side
4
4
1
3
1
2
3
0
18

From Right
Side
7
4
4
4
2
4
2
0
27

To Right
Side
11
19
7
5
7
7
4
1
61

Fig. 1-4
view of the
parking
entrance
exit of SLU
February 2015

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M.P. De Guzman et al. / The Impact of Establishments with NoTraffic Impact


As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

TABLE
1-4
Time

Date:

18

5:00
5:15
5:30
5:45
6:00
6:15
6:30
6:45
TOTAL
TABLE
1-5
Time
7:00
7:15
7:30
7:45
8:00
8:15
TOTAL
TABLE
1-6
Time

Date:

19

5:00
5:15
5:30
5:45
6:00
6:15
6:30
6:45
TOTAL

TABLE
1-3
Time
7:00
7:15
7:30
7:45
8:00
8:15
TOTAL

Entrance
From Left
Side
5
2
2
3
1
2
1
2
18

From Right
Side
1
9
0
2
1
3
2
0
18

Exit
To Left
Side
12
5
5
4
1
0
2
1
30

To Right
Side
16
9
7
4
3
3
5
4
51

Entrance

Exit

From Left
From Right
Side
Side
24
26
12
31
1
7
8
12
0
1
4
7
49 Entrance 84

To Left
To Right
Side
Side
4
11
10
11
2
3
5
3
5
3
2
1
28
32
Exit

From Left
Side
5
0
2
5
0
0
2
1
15

To Left
Side
9
6
0
0
2
5
4
2
28

From Right
Side
3
8
4
3
1
0
2
1
22

Entrance
From Left
Side
17
19
9
3
7
5
60

From Right
Side
25
18
9
9
3
5
69

To Right
Side
16
17
7
0
5
7
3
10
65

March 2015

March 2015

Exit
To Left
Side
11
5
8
4
2
2
32

To Right
Side
13
4
9
5
5
4
40

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As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

Interpretation of Data
The researchers have observed that the quantity of the vehicles entering the university
coming from the right side is greater than that of the left side. This means that the pedestrian lane
has a greater possibility of being obstructed by the said vehicles. On the other hand, the quantity
of the vehicles exiting the university going to the right side is greater than that of the left side.
This means that there is a greater possibility of accidents in the area as these exiting vehicles
have a higher risk of colliding with the vehicles heading to the rotunda.

Pedestrian Count
Fig. 2-1 shows the past pedestrian lane. It
presents that the directions for passage through the
said lane had not yet been indicated, therefore, it
causes congestions and bumping of the pedestrians
passing through it. The past pedestrian lane has lesser
width, which takes part in the development of
congestion among the pedestrians. Thus, the usage of
the pedestrian in gate 2.
Fig. 2-1 Old Pedestrian Lane (as of Feb 5, 2015)

A.M.

TO CAMPUS

FROM CAMPUS

7:00 - 7:15
7:15 - 7:30
7:30 - 7:45
7:45 - 8:00
8:00 - 8:15
8:15 - 8:30
P.M.
5:00 - 5:15
5:15 - 5:30
5:30 - 5:45
5:45 - 6:00
6:00 - 6:15
6:15 - 6:30
6:30 - 6:45
6:45 - 7:00

373
626
165
96
136
313

70
49
49
47
66
158

TO & FROM
CAMPUS
443
675
214
143
202
471

205
173
168
156
144
116
78
90

783
206
221
466
498
231
245
273

988
379
389
622
642
347
323
363

UNIT FLOW
(p/min/ft)
1.51
2.29
0.73
0.49
0.69
1.60

LOS B
LOS B
LOS B
LOS A
LOS B
LOS B

3.36
1.29
1.32
2.11
2.18
1.18
1.10
1.23

LOS C
LOS B
LOS B
LOS B
LOS B
LOS B
LOS B
LOS B

LOS

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TABLE 2-1
Fig. 2-2 shows the present
pedestrian lane. It has greater width
than the past one and the directions
of the flow has been indicated. The
researchers have observed that some
of the pedestrians passing through
the lane do not follow the directions
allotted at the pedestrian lane. This
causes them to bump with each
other, and therefore, delaying the
flow of the traffic.
Fig. 2-2 New Pedestrian Lane

A.M.

TO CAMPUS

FROM CAMPUS

7:00 - 7:15

298

66

TO & FROM
CAMPUS
364

7:15 - 7:30

650

53

7:30 - 7:45

394

55

7:45 - 8:00

116

8:00 - 8:15
8:15 - 8:30

UNIT FLOW
(p/min/ft)

LOS

1.24

LOS B

703

2.39

LOS B

449

1.53

LOS B

125

241

0.82

LOS B

180

119

299

1.02

LOS B

345

299

644

2.19

LOS B

5:00 - 5:15

351

916

1267

4.31

LOS C

5:15 - 5:30

204

322

526

1.79

LOS B

5:30 - 5:45

183

241

424

1.44

LOS B

5:45 - 6:00

206

517

723

2.46

LOS B

6:00 - 6:15

175

573

748

2.54

LOS B

6:15 - 6:30

130

201

331

1.12

LOS B

6:30 - 6:45

97

275

372

1.26

LOS B

6:45 - 7:00

145

342

487

1.65

LOS B

P.M.

TABLE 2-2
Interpretation of Data
The researchers have collected the number of pedestrians passing to and from the
university and evaluated its level of service. The data shown are based from platoon-adjusted
LOS criteria since the pedestrians are crossing by platoon and are taken from the past pedestrian
lane and the new lane.
The evaluation of these data have almost the same results such that they have level of
service B and C. At level B, pedestrians begin to be aware of other pedestrians and their
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presence. On the latter, pedestrian movements in reverse direction can cause minor conflicts,
speeds and flow rate are lower.
Test Car Method (Travel Time and Delay)

Fig. 3-1
Fig. 3-2
The pictures above show the different factors (delay) that affect travel time.
Fig. 3-1 exhibits two types of delay the researchers encountered during their travel going
back to the rotundaloading and unloading in gate 2, and swerving. On the other hand, Fig. 3-2
shows another two types of delayleft turn and jaywalking.

Fig. 3-4

Fig. 3-5

Fig. 3-4 complements the traffic count conducted by the researchers. It can be seen that
the jeepney came from the parking exit of SLU and this maneuver caused delay to the lane
heading to the rotunda. Making a U-turn from a non-U-turn slot as portrayed in Fig. 3-5 is also
one of the factors that caused delay to the vehicles heading to the intersection near Center mall.
A.M Data

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Fig. 3-6 Station 1 to 5

Fig. 3-7 Station 5 to 1


P.M. Data

Fig. 3-8 Station 1 to 5


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Fig. 3-9 Station 5 to 1


Interpretation of Data
The graphs above show the critical data that the researchers have assessed based from the
travel speed computed through travel time and the distance per station. The data gathered from
station 1 to 5 (AM, Fig. 3-6) illustrates that there is a gradual decrease in travel speed. This
means that the lane going towards Magsaysay is more congested than that of the opposite lane.
Meanwhile, Fig. 3-7 shows that there is a gradual increase in travel speed which complements
Fig. 3-6. The congestion in Magsaysay area means that there are more vehicles coming from that
area than that of coming from the rotunda.
Fig. 3-8 and 3-9 show that there is a moderate to slow speed as the vehicles approach
SLU. This delay is mostly caused by the pedestrian lane situated in front of SLU main gate.
However, it can also be inferred that there is no significant change in the extension of the
pedestrian lane width as the speed computed from March 18 and 19 data (before the extension of
lane width) are slower than that of February 5.
Further Discussion
Regulating the traffic behavior along SLU Bonifacio Street can help motorists from the
surrounding area to move smoothly while allowing pedestrians cross roads safer as well. This
benefit can still produce some advantages by facilitating traffic flow in the wider margins, that
SLU Bonifacio Street leading to a major intersection and a major traffic lane on both ends. By
preventing jams and minimizing delays caused by unruly drivers, passengers and pedestrians,
traffic can be loosen out to accommodate the growing number of cars passing through the street.
The traffic system was formerly designed to accommodate motorists and pedestrians in
the previous years. Now with the growing number pedestrians and motorists, changes on the
system of traffic along SLU Bonifacio Street are important to improve its efficiency. SLU has a
big population of faculty as well; this means that there are also a good number of vehicles
entering and exiting the university to bring them.

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Regulating the traffic behavior along SLU Bonifacio Street helps in the everyday lives of
students, teachers, business establishments and motorists. Just as we ought to be efficient and
effective in our work, so must our ways.
Conclusions/Recommendations
The following can be concluded from the interpretations of the findings of the study:
1. In traffic count method, the researchers found out that there is a greater number of vehicles
entering the university coming from the right side. It is also indicated in the interpretation of
data the greater quantity of vehicles exiting to right side and therefore the researchers come
up with a conclusion that the orientation of the entrance and exit of the university is unfitting
with the needs of the motorists going to and from the university.
2. The researchers come about with a conclusion that the alterations made for the pedestrian
present in front of the university main gate dont cause a great improvement with the flow
rate of the pedestrians crossing it.
3. Based on the findings of the study discussed, test car method is used by the researchers to
know the causes of the delay of the traffic flow within the selected area. One of the delays
considered is the delay caused by the presence of the pedestrian at gate 2 of the university.
Therefore the researchers suggest that this should be taken out and just expand the pedestrian
present at main gate. Other delays considered by the researchers are the entrance and exit of
the university, the motorists going to and from the university causes obstruction to the flow
of traffic. The researchers recommend that they re-orient the system of the vehicles going to
and from the university.
4. The effects of a non-TIA study is as follows:
a. A notable change was to switch the main entry and exit point of vehicles to SLU.
By doing such, a substantial frequency of obstructions of pedestrians will be
removed. This in turn minimizes the crowd build up along the main gate also
helping people going in and out of the university. Massive pedestrian crossing
will be avoided and thus reducing waiting time for motorists as well as decreasing
their travel time. With less interaction of pedestrians with moving vehicles, the
less probability of accidents. In the same manner, easier entry and exit of vehicles
to and from the university decreases occurrences of side swipes, thus less delays
and hassle to pedestrians, motorists and traffic enforcers. This produces yet
another benefit; the connected lanes depending on the traffic flow of Bonifacio
Street will also experience smoothening of their movement. From a birds eye
view, such simple change has benefits that ramify indefinitely. The following
changes are best implemented with the help of traffic officials.
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M.P. De Guzman et al. / The Impact of Establishments with NoTraffic Impact


As s e s s m e n t ( T IA) S t u d i e s O n Ad j a c e n t R o a d N e t w o r k s

b. Another notable change was to position the loading/unloading zones to a better


place rather than sticking it close to the pedestrian lane. In doing so, obstructions
are removed to facilitate pedestrian crossing. Parking along the roads facing
commercial areas should also be reduced. As was mentioned traffic officials are
capable of mitigating abusive parking occurrences.
Acknowledgements
The researchers would like to take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and
deep regard to John Cedrick T. Laroya, Jerwin M. Raquedan, and Kraybell Pinasen for lending
their cars, their exemplary driving skills, and their support throughout the duration of the project.
Special thanks to the researchers faculty promoter, Mark P. De Guzman, MSCE, PhDCE, for his
valuable suggestions were of immense help throughout the project work. His perceptive criticism
kept the researchers working to make this project in a much better way. Working under him was
an extremely knowledgeable experience for the researchers.
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