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FORCED CONVECTION: EXTERNAL FLOWS

Nu
Lh
Lh
= C1 Rem
Ar + C2 RenL (1 Ar )
Di
0.4
D
L
Pr
i

(6.202)

where
Ar =

Di2
4lh2

The data were found to be best correlated in the range 1000 < ReDn < 51,000 for
C2 = 0.516, C2 = 0.491, and n = 0.532, where the uid properties are evaluated at
the mean of the surface and ambient uid temperature.

6.8

[508], (70)

SUMMARY OF HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS

Isothermal at plate in uniform laminar ow (Sections 6.4.3 through 6.4.5): Near


Pr = 1,
1/3
Nux = 0.332Re1/2
x Pr

(6.36)

For P r  1,
1/2
Nux = 0.565Re1/2
x Pr

(6.44)

For P r  1,

Lines: 2959 to 3023

3.51332pt PgVar

Normal Page
PgEnds: TEX
[508], (70)

1/3
Nux = 0.339Re1/2
x Pr

(6.48b)

Isothermal at plate in uniform laminar ow with appreciable viscous dissipation


(Section 6.4.6):
1/3
Nux = 0.332Re1/2
x Pr

The local heat ux is given by


q  = hx (To TAW )
where
TAW = T + rc

U2
2cp

and for gases


rc = b(Pr  Pr)1/2

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 508 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

(6.36)

SUMMARY OF HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS

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509

and where the uid properties are evaluated at


T = T + (TW T ) + 0.22(TAW T )
The surface-averaged heat transfer coefcient in each of the foregoing cases for
an isothermal at plate is determined from its local value at x = L(hL ) as
h = 2hL

(6.37)

Flat plate in uniform laminar ow with an unheated starting length (x0 ) and
heated to a uniform temperature beyond Pr near 1 (Section 6.4.7):
Nu =

0.332Pr1/2 Re1/2
x
[1 (x0 /x)3/4 ]1/3

(6.63)

Wedge at uniform temperature with an included angle of in a uniform laminar


ow in the range 0.7 < Pr < 10 (Section 6.4.4):
0.56A
Nux
=
1/2
(2 )1/2
Rex

(6.42)

where
=

2m
m+1

and

A = ( + 0.2)0.11 Pr0.333+0.0670.026



5/8 4/5
1/2

ReD
0.62ReD Pr1/3
hD
1+
= 0.30 +
NuD
(6.155)
k
[1 + (0.40/Pr)2/3 ]1/4
282,000
General two-dimensional object at uniform surface temperature in a uniform
laminar ow (Section 6.4.9):


c1 (U )c2
x

c3

(U ) dx

1/2

1
ReL

1/2
(6.72)

where c1 through c3 are as given in Table 6.1.


Laminar ow over a sphere at a uniform surface temperature (Section 6.4.16):
 1/4



1/2
2/3
NuD = 2 + 0.4ReD + 6ReD Pr0.4
s

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 509 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

Lines: 3023 to 3075

12.48723pt PgVar

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* PgEnds: Eject
[509], (71)

Cylinder at uniform surface temperature in a laminar cross ow (Section 6.4.16):

k
q 
=
= 
St =
cp U (T0 T )
cp U

[509], (71)

(6.156)

510

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FORCED CONVECTION: EXTERNAL FLOWS

General axisymmetric object at uniform surface temperature in a uniform laminar ow (Section 6.4.10):
c1 (r0 )K (U )c2

St = 

x3
0

(U )c3 (r0 )2K dx3


1/2

1
ReL

1/2
(6.76)

where c1 through c3 are as given in Table 6.1.


Isothermal at plate with a turbulent boundary layer from the leading edge for
Pr and PrT near 1 (Section 6.4.14):
Nux = 0.0296Re0.80
x

(6.108)

Isothermal at plate with turbulent boundary layer transition from laminar to


turbulent for Pr and PrT near 1 (Section 6.4.14):

 0.8
0.8
NuL = 0.664Re0.5
T + 0.36 ReL ReT

Lines: 3075 to 3129


(6.110)

Isothermal at plate with turbulent boundary PrT near 1 (Section 6.4.14):


Nux = 0.029Re0.8
x G

[510], (72)

0.73122pt PgVar

Normal Page
(6.130)
* PgEnds: Eject

where
G=

Pr
1/2
(0.029/Rex ) {5Pr + 5 ln[(1 + 5Pr)/6] 5} + 1

[510], (72)
(6.131)

Flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer from the leading edge and with an
unheated starting length followed by uniform surface temperature for Pr and PrT
near 1 (Section 6.4.14):

 x 9/10 1/9
0
St Pr0.8 = 0.287Re0.2
1

x
x

(6.140)

Uniform ux plate with a turbulent boundary layer from the leading edge for Pr
and PrT near 1 (Section 6.4.14):
St Pr0.4 = 0.03Re0.2
x

(6.141)

Isothermal rough at plate with a turbulent boundary layer from the leading for
Pr and PrT near 1 (Section 6.4.15):
St =

Cf /2
PrT + (Cf /2)1/2 /Stk

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 510 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

(6.154)

SUMMARY OF HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS

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511

where
Stk  0.8Re0.2
Pr0.4
k
Cross ow across a bank of cylinders at uniform surface temperature (Section
6.5.1):
NuD = C

Rem
D,max


Pr

0.36

Pr
Prs

1/4
(6.157)

for
NL 20

0.7 Pr < 500

1 < ReD,max < 2 106

[511], (73)

where C and m are given in Table 6.2.


Plate stack (Section 6.5.2): The optimum number of plates in a given crosssectional area, L H ,

Lines: 3129 to 3190

1/2

nopt 

0.26(H /L)Pr1/4 ReL

1/2

1 + 0.26(t/L)Pr1/4 ReL

(6.161)

for Pr 0.7 and n  1.


Offset strips (Section 6.5.2): In the laminar range (Re Re ),
f = 8.12Re0.74
j = 0.53Re

0.50





dh

dh

0.15
0.15

f = 1.12Re

j = 0.21Re0.40





dh

dh

0.65 
0.24 

(6.166)

0.14

(6.167)

t
dh
t
dh

0.17
(6.168)
0.02
(6.169)

The transition Reynolds number Re is obtained from the set of equations


dh
b
 1.23  0.58
t

Reb = 257
s

Re = Reb

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 511 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

Normal Page
PgEnds: TEX
[511], (73)

0.02

In the turbulent range (Re Re + 1000),


0.36

4.71225pt PgVar

(6.170)
(6.171)

512

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FORCED CONVECTION: EXTERNAL FLOWS

1.328
(Re )1/2

b=t+
Re =

(6.172)

Uc 

(6.173)

The parameter is the aspect ratio. = s/W , where W is the strip width.
Flush-mounted heat sources (Section 6.6.1):

Nu = 0.486Pe0.53

se
sx

0.71 

ks
kf

0.057
(6.174)

For the rectangular patch,




0.63 

2s
P s 0.18
0.48

0.60Pe
c

2xs + s
2A
Nu =

0.70 


2s
P s 0.07

0.43Pe0.52
c
2xs + s
2A




ksub
=1
kf

ksub
= 10
kf

[512], (74)
(6.175)


(6.176)

Normal Page
PgEnds: TEX

U0 (sx + se )

A/P is the source surface area/perimeter ratio. The foregoing correlations are
valid for
103 Pec 105

xs + s /2
150
s

0.2

ws
5
s

In the foregoing, ws is the heat source height, P its length, and Pw its width. The
channel width is W = 12 mm and the height H can vary from 7 to 30 mm. The
heat source dimensions covered in the experiments are P = 12 mm, Ph = 4, 8,
and 12 mm, H Ph = 3, 8, and 12 mm, and Ps = 12 mm.
Isolated blocks (Section 6.6.3):
Nu = 0.150Re0.612 (A )0.455

H
P

0.727
(6.178)

 /k, h is the average heat transfer coefcient, and As is the heat


where Nu = hP
transfer area,
As = 2Ph Pw + P Pw + 2Ph P
Ts is the average surface temperature and T is the stream temperature. The
Reynolds number is dened as Re = UDh /, where U is the average channel

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 512 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

0.49246pt PgVar

Here Nu is as dened for the two-dimensional strip,


Pec =

Lines: 3190 to 3241

[512], (74)

SUMMARY OF HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS

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513

velocity upstream of the heat source, DH is the channel hydraulic diameter at


a section unobstructed by the heat source, and is the uid (air) kinematic
viscosity. The fraction of the channel open to ow is
A = 1

Pw /W
Ph /H

Equation (6.178) is valid for


1500 Re 104
0.12

0.33

Pw
1.00
W

Ph
1.00
P

0.583

H
2.50
P
[513], (75)

A realistic error bound is 5%.


Block array (Section 6.6.4):
NuP = 0.348Re0.6
P

(6.182)

Lines: 3241 to 3305

where the characteristic length for both Nu and Re is the streamwise length of
the block, P .
Pin n heat sinks (Section 6.6.6): Two correlations are given:
0.574
Nu = 7.12 104 Cp

 a 0.223  p 1.72
L

0.65236pt PgVar

Normal Page
* PgEnds: Eject

(6.185)
[513], (75)

where in
Cp =

L3 p
2

is the dynamic viscosity of the air. Equation (6.185) was derived from the data
for 5 106 < Cp < 1.5 108 :
Nu = 3.2 106 CP0.520
W

 a 0.205  p 0.89
L

(6.186)

where
CPW =

2 LPw
3

covers a range of 1011 to 1013 .


Single round submerged jet impinging on an isothermal target surface (Section
6.7.2):


Nu
D H
,
f1 (Re)
=
G
(6.190)
r D
Pr0.42

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 513 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

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FORCED CONVECTION: EXTERNAL FLOWS

where
f1 (Re) = 2Re1/2 (1 + 0.005Re0.55 )1/2
G=

(6.191a)

D
1 1.1(D/r)
r 1 + 0.1[(H /D) 6](D/r)

(6.191b)

The range of applicability of the foregoing is


2000 Re 4 105

H
12
D

2.5

r
7.5
D

0.004 Ar 0.04

Single submerged slot jet impinging on an isothermal target surface (Section


6.7.2):

[514], (76)

Nu
3.06Re
=
0.42
(x/W ) + (H /W ) + 2.78
Pr

(6.193)
Lines: 3305 to 3360

where


 x   H 1.33
m = 0.695
+ 3.06
+
2W
2W

1.58235pt PgVar

1
(6.194)

Normal Page
* PgEnds: Eject

The range of applicability is


3000 Re 9 104

H
20
W

[514], (76)

x
50
W

Array of round submerged jets impinging on an isothermal target surface (Section 6.7.2):




Nu
H
H
=
K
A
,
,
,
G
A
f2 (Re)
r
r
D
D
Pr0.42

(6.195)

where
f2 (Re) = 0.5Re2/3


K = 1 +

(6.196a)
0.05
6

H /D
1/2

0.6/Ar

(6.196b)

and G is given by eq. (1.191b). The range of validity of the foregoing is


2000 Re 105

H
12
D

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 514 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

2.5

r
7.5
D

0.004 Ar 0.04

NOMENCLATURE

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515

Array of submerged slot jets impinging on an isothermal target surface (Section


6.7.2):
Nu
2 3/4
= Ar,0
3
Pr0.42

2Re
Ar /Ar,0 + Ar,0 /Ar

2/3
(6.197)

where


Ar,0

h
= 60 + 4
2
2W

2 1/2
(6.198)

with a range of validity of


1500 Re 4 104

H
80
W

[515], (77)

0.008 Ar 2.5Ar,0

Single round free surface jet impinging on a square isothermal target surface
(Section 6.7.2):
Nu
Lh
Lh
= C1 Rem
Ar + C2 RenL (1 Ar )
Di
0.4
Di
L
Pr

(6.202)

Ar =

Roman Letter Symbols


A
constant or correlation constant, dimensionless
Prandtl numberdependent constant, dimensionless
source surface area, m2
As
surface area, m2
AT
total heat sink surface area, m2

A
fraction of channel cross section open to ow, m2
ow area (aligned tube arrangement), m2
A1

BOOKCOMP, Inc. John Wiley & Sons / Page 515 / 2nd Proofs / Heat Transfer Handbook / Bejan

Normal Page
PgEnds: TEX
[515], (77)

(6.201)

These data have been found to be best correlated in the range 1000 ReDn
51,000 for C1 = 0.516, C2 = 0.491, and n = 0.532, where the uid properties
are evaluated at the mean of the surface and ambient uid temperature.

NOMENCLATURE

0.43257pt PgVar

where
Di2
4L2h

0.5( 2 Lh Di ) + 0.5(Lh Di )

L =
2

Lines: 3360 to 3613