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STOPPING POWER METERS

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3rd Edition
By: John .1. WiUiam, MSEE
President
Consumertronics Co.
Includes STOPPING POWER METERS 2ND EDITION, SPM ADDENDUM
And More!!
STOPPING POWER METERS is divided into two distinct bodies. The first body
covers watt-hour energy meters, how they work, how they are adjusted, and
the errors they produce. The second body is devoted to various techniques of
slowing do~,vn and stopping power meters.
This pamphlet is comprehensive, lengthy and full of valuable information.
Indepth theoretical knowledge is not required to understand and utilize it.
However, a very good practical electrical and electronic background and
know-how is a must. NOTE: The utility meter attached to your home or
business is a watthour meter - not a power meter.
CAUTIONS AND DISCLAIMERS
DO NOT USE THESE METHODS ON ANY METER BELONGING TO A UTILITY.
Completely isolate your utility meter from your personal meter with an
isolation transformer and/or heavy filtering. As hr as we know, the legality
of applying load control methods that incidentally make the utilityowned
meter underregister has not been legally tested. However, assume that the
law will take as dim a View of doing this as it does if you actually physically
tamper with the meter. It is ironic that many law enforcement agencies on
one hand can't seem to do enough to plea# utility big-shots while blithely
ignoring the many and extreme aimes committed by utilities upon the
citizenry. Fortunately, most juries savvy this perversity of the law and act
accordingWe must firmly state that we are totally against breaking the law in any
fashion and that WE FORBID ALL ILLEGAL APPLICATIONS..Also, no licence#
is granted under the copyright and/or patent rights of Consumertronics Co.
or anyone else. And, although we have made every reasonable effort to
provide accurate, reliable and useful information, we assume no
responsibility whatsoever for errors or omissions.
Be careful and know what you are doing. Induced currents can injure or kill
and mistakes can also cause# property damage. All circuit diagrams are
simplified; add fuses and circuit breakers as required.
WATTHOUR METERS
There is nothing magical or sacred about watthour meters.
Like any high-grade scientific instrument designed to accurately
measure an electrical parameter (energy, in kilo-watthours)
under specific operating conditions and an ideal environment,
they lose accuracy when their operating and environmental
conditions are less than ideal and thru the process of aging.
Watthour meters measure electrical energy consumed in a
dynamic load by using the principle of the 2-Phase induction
motor. IN FACT, IF THE ROTOR DISK WAS
RESTRAINED, THE WATTHOUR METER BECOMES A
CONSUMERTRONICS CO.
Copyright ~ 1979 John J. Williams ana

the disk sFed would increase until arrested by very low air and dVot friction. P. and like the induction motor. The register assembly consists of a gear train that connects the rotor worm gear to the pnged dials in the meter's faceplate. This eddy current provides an opposing torque because its flux opposes that of the permanent magnets. among other information. otherwise. To translate the disk torque into disk sFed. For ~I PF less than 0. you will b billed for the real. RMS current. 88310 Family. Although still initially constant .5. As it turns out. Thus. average torque is diminished. not imaginary. Our LOADFINDER pamphlet. Essential features of watthour meters are depicted in Fig. Two torques acting in the same direction but ~0 electrical degrees apart are generated. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Stopping Power Meters STATOR LINE 240 VAC CT~ToF~ ASSEMBLY ~ Braking Maon~. N. the true energy reading cannot b accurately determined.5. imaginary and apparent power and how to make PF corrections. This theoretically results in one constant sFed for every torque level. and PF (cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current). and two current coils. Four-wire polyphase systems usually require three single-phase meters. when the PF is less than unity (lag or lead~. there are different instances in the cydes of each torque component when the torques are reversed corresponding to those instances in which the line voltage and current are of different polarity. The stator consists of a voltage (potential coil) with a compensatory winding. both torques are always in the forward direction because the current (or voltage) flux is always of the same polarity as the voltage (or current)induced eddy currents. These sinusoidal rotor torques add to produce a resultant constant and steady torque. The second rotor torque results from the interaction of the useful voltage flux with the current-induced eddy currents in the disk. permanent "braking" magnets must be provided. When the power factor (PF) is unity. Thus. one meter will always run BACKWARDS! Unless it is known for certain that PF is less than 0.~ ~ Worm Gear . and the resister assembly. rotor speed is proportional to line frequency. Drawer537. Thr~pha#. explains real. The first torque component results from the interaction of the useful current flux (dw to load current) with the voltage-induced eddy currents in the disk.O. The basic elements of the single phase meter are the stator assembly (electromagnet). three-wire systems require two single-phase meters or one meter with two independent stators. the disk torque will be proportional to the product of RMS voltage. These powerful magnets generate an eddy current in the aluminum disk whenever it is moving. 1. 2 Comp~nsation Coil . Alamogordo. P. M. power consumed. The stator is energized by the combined effects of the line voltage and load currents. disk speed is then proportional to consumed real power. However. the rotor assembly (includes disk) the retarding magnet(s).DYNAMOMETER-TYPE POWER METER.

The common inductance watthour meters design principle has remained unchanged since 1925. dtscribt manl~ . due to voltage coil flux irregularities.1S151. Uncompensated. 1: Basic Elements of the Typical Induction Watthour Meter. 3) Westinghouse. by turning the adjustment wh~l that has an "F" and "S" on it until disk speed is accurately ~t. However.. I~ FULL-LOAD ADJUSTMENT The Full-Load Adjustment rating of most home and small business m~rs is 5 to 30 amps. but there have been some improvements in devoting. most modem meters are capable of measuring energies of up to 600% Full-Load Rabng. it has not been uncommon for meters to run backwards under li~ht loads. 2) Sangamo. This opposite notation is designed to fool and Fnalize meter tamFrers. This is the main adjustment that the utility will make when either you or it is concerned about the meter's ccurac~ 2) LIGHT-LOAD ADJUSTMENT Under light loads (10% of Full Load). It is done by assuring that the braking magnets are of suitable strength. in the generation of driving torque as a function of load current. l~tO~ ~o~ other uulnerabilitie~ ISgl.Fig.. ~UI~I. 3) L~ Adjustment.\Volta9. Then. meter performance becomes nonlinear.C~ S Current Coil ~ ~ ~ ~. otc. meters usually overregister under light loads. ~. lack of linearity ~ ~ Registration Dials~ J ~ P ~ ~REGISTER ASSEMBLY. Slots and holes have ben put in the disks of modern meters to prevent the disk from moving at all under very light loads ~less than 1% Full Load). printed on meter face. This results from friction. NOTE: In some cases the "S" direction speeds the meter up while the "F" direction slows it down ~Duncan Meters). since then. At a loss of some accuracy. roil design compenr. tion. 2) Light-Load Adjustment. This adjustment essentially adds a controlled torque due to the w~ n~. To maintain accuracy watthour meters must b calibrated frequently.Wrent Cojl Ll L2 TO LOADS 7~ ~Brskin~ M~n~t. This adjustment is made at full load and unity PF. Utilities u ually limit this recallibration to: I) Full-Load Adjustment. and the presence of torques due to the potential flux acting alone caused by the lack of symmetry of the stator with respect to the disk. 4) Duncan. The four major manufacturers of watthour meters are: 1 ) General Electric.ED OFF~ 1S61. from thedisk or by adjusting the positions of the magnetic shunts that lie between their Pob faces and the disk. -ROTOR AEStM~ ROTOR ASSEMBLY ~_ Rotor Plate . by carefully varying their positions.

many of them interrelated. dirt.3% to 400% and voltage from 80% to 120% of rated values.2 lagging to 0. PF from 0. between calibrations.3) LA~ AD. few people can now afford to pay for their actual consumption much less for errors that are compounded by the Fuel Adjustment rip-off.o. Meters usually spend years in operation. When the error is in your favor. you probably will b billed on a guessed-estimate arbitrarily determined by the utility to adjust your costs upwards. Meter errors are caused by a number of factors. When the lag is out of adjustment. deterioration. the voltage flux lags line voltage by less than 90~. the Light. In reality.Load and Lag Adjustments are provided by the same mechanism. but it is hardly noticeable unless the PF is small. Under the above "field" conditions. In my opinion. This condition is known as "meter aeeP. Light Load and/or Lag adjustments are required. such as in the 1960s and early 1970s. Errors didn't matter so much when rates were fair. The necessity of this adjustment is apparent if the disk turns in either direction when there is no load. cumulative error for a calibrated meter can be as high as 10096 under small loading conditions and higher than 10% under normal home/business loads WITHOUT having made any effort to "fool" the meter. AND SOMETIMES EVEN DECADES. andlor you may b monitored by a pole meter. it almost always results in underregistration. mo~ordo. 88310 N~nON~L ENQUII~EII. this is the very best case error for precise ly calibrated meters under laboratory conditions.M. No scientific instrument remains accurate if not frequently and precisely calibrated. WATTHOUR METER INACCURACIES Utilities are fond of boasting that watthour meters are accurate to within ~1% of actual consumption under conditions where load currents vary from 0. And your meter will b recalibrated or replaced by one more favorably calibrated for the utility. This adjustment is made at 0.5 lagging PF. of C~ ~0 IIII~UT~. and temperatures from -40 C to ~75 C. that claim is utterly false. Compensation torque is provided by adding a shaded-pole loop known as the Light-Load Plate. A radial motion provides the Lag Adjustment while a circumferential motion provides the Light-Load Adjustment. the utility will seldomly adjust an overregistering meter to read the correct amounts. you'll never hear about it. Any lag adjustment made to inaea# disk sFed at lagging PF will decrease its speed for leading PF (capacitative load). humidity. However. These errors exist even when the meter is precisely calibrated. They are accentuated when the Full-Load. and you will undoubtedly never collect a dime for past overpayments. Wear. These errors can result in either your or the utility's favor. A compensatory lag coil (See Fig. Draw~r537 N. 3 voltage flux alone sufficient to provide the correct disk sFed for 10% unity PF loads. particularly an instrument in continuous outdoor use. Often. METER ERROR SOURCES . P.2 leading. if the utility notices. 11 or plate is provided to adjust the lag so that it is as close to 90as possible. When it favors the utility. t~ Shppin~ Power Meters C~ E~ IS20l.~USTMENT Since the voltage coil has some resistance. temperature. electromagnetic fields and vibration always take their toll. However.Nt-rd ~bout our shockin~ public~tion ~UTO~i~TIC ~L~ or ~ FO' ~LLI~ IS201? CoNsUMERTRoNIcs CO~ P. unless you take the initiative and even chronically complain.

a 10% variation of line frequency can result in a 1% or more error. Any attempt to tamper with a utility meter is almost definitely illegal. or near high traffic flows. even stopping power meters without physically tampering with them or applying externally pnerated power. For the dubious privilege of letting the utility monitor your electrical consumption. QUALITY. particularly for high PFs. 6) VIBRATION AND SHOCK Vibration and shock will uncalibrate any scientific instrument . Error is higher for low PF loads at low frequency. even for compensated meters. Meter reads high at low frequencies ~to a point) and low at high frequencies. TIME. 3) VOLTAGE ERROR Generally. Error accentuates with decreasing PF and alone can be as high as 4% at 0. WE ARE ABSOLUTELY AND TOTALLY AGAINST BREAKING THE LAW IN ANY FASHION. The main cause# of this error is the increase in the voltage coil lag at low temperatures (temporary error) and demagnetization of the braking magnets permanent error) at high temperatures. Very high loading of meter results in 'overload droop. causing it to either underregister or overregister. if the disk stops turning. WE MUST STATE CATEGORICALLY THAT NO METHOD IS PROVIDED FOR ILLEGAL APPLICATION WHATSOEVER. This section is dedicated to slowing down.I) TEMPERATURE ERROR Meters read high between O and 8~F and low thereafter." . AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE. THIS INFORMATION IS PROVIDED FOR EDUCATIONAL AND INFORMATIONAL PU RPOSES ONLY." For low PF. 6) METER DISSIPATION Meters dissipate about IA watts on a continuous basis. Meter ~can perform erratically when harmonically rich waveforms ~eg rectified sine wave) is applied to it at appreciable energy levels. and~ while consuming substantial power. It is unclear to me whether the legal definition of tampering includes load control methods.5 PF. or eliminate the measurement of the electricity taken by any Customer or person on the premises. watthour meters read substantially low due to significant AC damping that results in some braking. This phenomenon is called "overload droop" and is slightly higher for low PF. the meter almost always reads high no matter the actual consumption. THE RATE OF WHICH IS DETERMINED BY TEMPERATURE. it costs you about one KWH Fr month in meter dissipation alone. 2. near heavy machinery.4) VERY HIGH OR VERY LOW LOADING Very low loading almost always favors the utility. line voltage k stable to within+10% of rated. Thus. . In cases of overvoltage. including meters or other property. if your meter is located where earthquakes have occurred. Watthour meters read slightly high when voltage is low. The effects of most of these error mechanism are summarized in Fig. up to the point where the meter stops turning. your meter may be put out of calibration in a very short period of time. 22-24 watts is required just to restart it.including watthour meters. Some utilities define it ~: "Tampering means any unauthorized interference with the Company's equipment. Furthermore. This error can possibly be as much as 100% of actual consumption. The demagnetization of braking magnets ALWAYS results in rotor speed-up and over registration I 2) FREQUENCY ERROR Lille frequency seldomly varies more than ~ IX from 60 ~or 50) Hz. or any unauthorized connection of a meter. which would reduce the accuracy of the measurement. ALL PERMANENT MAGNETS DEMAGNETIZE WITH TIME.

at night. Thus. commonly applied to induction motors in general. Many people believe that if the untampered watthour meter provided by the utility is unable to adequately measure the amount of usage required by their particular desired loads. there are certain tones that do this best.they will probably sudd nly appear to examine the situation. it will burn out first.utilities maintain easement rights over virtually every property they service. etc. He would then slaN the meter da~n by inserting a piece of straw between the rotor disk and braking magnet. which can be measured accurately by a utility PF meter. in fact. Since a CSH meter does not indicate line voltage fluctuations. attached magnets. if your PF is extremely low. Or they may b hard-wired. These practices are deadlyll Virtually every method that will slow or stop the meter employs loading that requires DC or frequency components somewhat removed from 6~ Hz.susceptibility of watthour meters to such conditions. Don't brag. These are located on the top of or near to your service pole and are generally placed Just where your service drop connects into the main lines. which has a folding hook that loops around the wire and closes to look like a folded question mark. as well as your meter. Since meter voltage is hard to . a 10% or so difference in readings can occur just from nominal differences between the meters.95). Any DC will brake a meter similarly to the braking magnets. "Vandals shooting up the place last weekend. 2 demonstrates the.Power meters behave similarly. Even a powerful induction motor can be made to practically stop on a dime when DC is applied. the watt-hour reading tends to zero (disk stops turning). A pole 'J meter may be a meter similar to yours or it may be a currentscJuared-hour (~SH) meter. line droppage. then that is their problem. are very obvious. the utility will likely personalize you for this condition. the error can be substantially greater than that of a pole meter watthour meter. Don't be like the old farmer who shot a hole in the side of his meter glass with 9 B-B gun.. DC brakes are. No matter how precise they claim these meters to be. largly dependent upon meter and wiring. Even a little DC will eventually magnetize permanently the stator if applied long enough to provide lasting effects even after it is removed. meter bypasses." See our infamous but delightful GOOSY MOTHA'S FAIRY TALES publication ~$1. In the RF case. A meter with only DC or RF energy imposed on it will not turn no matter how much energy is applied. The hole was discovered by a meter retder five years later. and different environments. High frequency components will simply underregister due to the impedances and hysteresis of the coils and rotor inertia. if you break into the meter attached to your property while standing on your property you could go Stoppin~ Pow~r Met~rs to jail for TRESPASSING! If your utility notices a sudden drop in usage or very low usage that cannot be explained. Broken meters and seals. He blamed the hole on. Few people dispute the need of a utility to get a fair retum solely based upon the service provided (but not upon the utility's investments~. However. Fig. Electrical' costs have soared several times what they should be. ExFa to be hassled if they ever discover this. They may be the hook on tyF. No method of slowing or stopping a power meter should be based upon breaking a line neutral or fusing one. The utility may slap a pole meter on your line. most people believe that public (?) utilities have been swindling them. Note: As the line frequency approaches either DC or high frequency. They are usually easy to spot. Furthermore.

alter. The# capacitors are required ONLY IF you apply the DC Method with other loads #nsitive to DC excitation (induction motors and tNnsformers tend to saturate) simultaneously running off the same meter. and utility apdiance and Peak Demand Meter control in detail. making it possible to realize this method with a smaller. rotor sFed will drastically slow down and may evenstop. 49A East. 3 circuit only affeas the current coils of the meter. does excellent work in this area with very good GEMOV 19 Varistors. Schenectady. and ~7 represents earth ground (ussd to ground cases in three wire 120 VAC systems). as well as good judgment. we used the circuit of Fig. 25 PIV min. In addition. Some are finding that the Cl (Blocking Capacitors) are very expensive. GE 1-14. ie rectified sine wave. Cl of Fi~s. or DC working voltap for capacitors. but customers prefer the Fig. and shields applianres from utility ripde control of them. This problem is simply solved by running all your DC experiments with all the #nsitive loads disconnected. We u#d a very heavy duty charger (like that found in garages) and didn't ob#rve any malfunctions. Fig. NY. be certain that all circuit components induding wiring.. 7567 Rt. capacitors and other components. If you have induction motors or transformers~ they will also be adversely affected by any DC that reaches them.ll arrangement. depandin~ upon load reactance. L=1000 turns rriin. Littell. C=500 uf. C. 4 illustrates two approaches of overcoming this problem. at all times. OH 453C4. To get the voltage coil into the act. I) DC LOADS DC Loading is the hardest to accomplish but it is the most effective method. CAUTION: Line and induced volta~s can killl For all ehctrical projocts. and if its energy is high enough. will cause the rotor to behave erratically. three major problem areas have ari#n. Cl are PaFr-Oil typss or Fig. frequency techniques are applied to the current thru the mster.000 uf. 5.rare-free psrformanres of semiconductors. Iike-new. U# sensible. 5 Amp. They sell a real nice. 5 . safe and accurate wiring techniques and procedures. In our figurss. ~ represents line neutral. Jr. keepwell insulated and don't U# a core that can be touched (eg leg of a drill press). 1 lelectrolytics.. Fast load surges will be far underr~istered primarily due to he rotor inertia. 6 and 7 do a good job. YOUR SAFETY IS TOTALLY UP TO YOU. This is becau# th e meter's voltage coil is across the outputs of the two rectifiers. and a re 1000 to 100. Mixed frequencies. For better transient suppression. ripde. With the DC Method. even with the Fig. overly bulky or difficult to realize. Dept. good transient and riwle eliminstion protects induction motors and transformers. either can be obtained legally. 400 PIV. We obtained satisfactory results with both approaches. If you do not have a power or KW-HR meter to practice on. 3. Add fu#/drcuit breaker protection as required. PIV designates peak inverse or reverse voltap. home-type auto-battery charger. Our RIPPLED OFF pamphlet explains transients. Arcanum. KW-HR meters can be obtained by mail from ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES. simpy bcause most of its harmonic energy is in freqwncies not very far from 60 Hz. (513) 692-5641 . All figures are simplified circuit diagrams. See Fiq. With a DC current of about 5 Amps. insulated wire on'about a l" soft-iron core. Even without our methods. GE. Problems involving the kickback of rectified AC into the DC power supply are evident. a substantial permanent decrea# in meter indication will result with time due to permanentlyinduced malfunctions. all meters should have tNnsient suppression. Transient suppression is required to assure long lasting. As with all suggested homemade inductors. rebuilt. 115 VAC KW-HR meter for ONLY $2011 Owner's narne is Charles C. can more than handle worse case voltages currents and powers before proceeding to construct any drcuit. The Fig. Harmonically-rich waveforms require more energy to stop a meter than DC or RF.

$~ II ~ ''' Fig. becau# the loads on any other meters will probably not be DC isolated. 3: Direct Current Method. 6: Frequency Method using capacitative coupling. Stoppin~ Power Meters P ~ Gt~ rl~t or IN~ _ n I Uni~er~ ~br 12-24 VDC~L 24) ~C lR1198~ B-ttery 6 ~ ch-rs~r. ~ DC ~ r-\~R ~ $Rect . ~Rect T ~rRect. 5: Alternate DC Method. Fig. Rect. See ~S teYt Fig. 3. Other meters sharing the same power transformer #condary will also be slowed down. Ls and Rects. C and C1s. See text. havoc could result in their operations. . ~' a.~U vAC loads in #ries. Cs. Rs are 120V heater elements. I3nDocf +allHaapproaches~ Each oth~r~[ ~= load block above repre#nts two ~ Lo~d~ r~L. L=100 turns. 400 PIV. Inductor must be large. See text. See text. Be careful when using the DC mathod.approach. C 1 ~.~ ~ 1 hlc~d~ ht- 1 SFii9. 3 (SPM) DC Method. However. Rect. L~ ~ I I ~ Blocl~U c p~cltor Cl~ ~DC ~ ~C Lo d. are two t N 11 98A. same as n Fig. 9: Alternate Harmonic Method. See text. |X.anly Lo d4 Fig. CCs are Current Coils of meter. L=1000 turns minimum. approximately equal l. is 1N1198A. (1N1198A) are the same as for Fig. C is between 0. suggested by many readers but resulting in no real reduction in our experiments. Voltage Coil (VC) is in the Q DC circuit.001 uf.01 and 0. RectS~ppl~ r~ Xf rmr ~ ~-~IC1 Fig. 4: Two ways to overcome the back voltaging problem of O Fig. T ~ Rect. R is a 120 Volt heater element load. See text. 3. C1=2' uf polypropylene.

7. more safe. Very good shielding should be NOTE: All figures are simplified circuit diagrams. See text. 6 circuit with the rn~r passing only a few 60 Hz amps. Fig. Add fu#s or circuit breakers where necessary. Our TONE DEAF pamphlet conbins many useful designs. L1=100 turns. 6 and 7. 6. but we have had good results using them. However. Why? We are not absolutely certain about the mechanism involved but believe that the revelsals are caused by a combination of voltage coil flux irregularities and voltage to current phase . Use Cautionl 2) HIGH FREQUENCY LOADS High frequency loading is more easily accompished but less effective and consistent than the DC Method and will require "tuning. See FiF. DC rated electrolytics are not recommended by manufacturers for this type of application. Suitable capacitors may have to be found by a trial and error process. swell and possibly even explode under these conditions. Optimum frequency is emdrially determined. the meter will indicate in reverse at everal frequency points. Fig.~ RG SB or 5 ~. _ ~ ~ ~ ~1+ ~l~ Fig. Tones may be steady or in bursts. ~ ~i~l ~3 1 Other Clr C~ _ Fig. 11: An equivalent circuit for using electrolytic capacitors to do the job o f SCR or paper-oil types. couple with an audio amplifier) to the meter. The big advantage here is that electrolytics are considerably cheaper and smaller and more available for large capacitances. or transformer ooupled to it. the latter. Some may overheat. 7: Alternate Frequency Method using inductive coupling.~. audio. All other values are the same as Fig. frequency or function generators. The signal an be either hardwired to the meter. Meter will stop at certain "resonant" tones but run at higher tones. Most well designed units with shorted output protection and the ability to deliver at least 5 amF (if necessary. The former appears more effective. 6." Tone generators are also called signal. Radiated RFpowerbyonda small amount pnerally roquires prior FCC approval. DC Pa~e ~ supply ~: Calp~ IIC l~dFig. 10: Momentary Current Surge Method. See text. We found in certain cases that by using the Fig. ~ ShppinS~ provided and all signal lines should b of minimal len~th and ~with good impedanoe matchin~.

veen 100 Hz and 1 KHz are vcry effec. 6 and 7). phasos and amditudes. air cores are not nearly as good but will work if tone generator voltage and windings are high. be sure to use heavy enough wiring to withstand. Rectifier surge current rating should b at least three times the combined sur~e currents for all loads. rhis method has no observabletween our resul ts and the results of ot I do believe that permanent effects on meters. tightly packed.~ Rectifier must be rated such that its steadY state current ratin~ is at least twica the sum of all universal or DC motors. 8 90t mixed reviecau# some custochanged our limit frQm 100 Irlz to 10 KHz. DC may haw to be filtered out for some univarsal motors. unless you are in a high lightning strike area.Edition. filter out all AC components for a DC motor. Ferrite coras are preferred. We tested it and found no observable nat reduction in tive in reducing meter indication.loading. Ll inductors are made from at least 100 turns each of both insulated meter lines and insulated tone pnerator lines. mer feedback on successes of the 100 Hz to 1 KHz 'are-. a arel 2 uf (non41ectrolytic) polypropylene capacitors. 400 PIV capacitor across the motor terminals. DC and 60 Hz components are produced ' along with an infinite number of harmonics that raddly diminish in power content. 2" dia. we .. and all harmonics fw an AC motor. This resulted in custoI have not yet been able to pinpoiy particular meter type mer complaints of filtering'pro~lems! Therefore. Use a 2 uf non electrolytic. In our Ist Edition of SPM. However.(to accommodate mer~ noticed a n et INCREASE in meter inion by using it.relationships. because of custo ~ metar i ndication even thous~h someomers more by it. audio generators~ in our ?rd . This method has very little effect on the ~most high frequency energy components very affectivelv. even though some ~ower Meters P. ' ' A number of people wggested the circuit of Fig. The power lines and transformer will dissipate Blondel~s'Theorem). we recommended RF signals of 1 KHz to 1~0 KHz ~Figs. choose what. If there is a lot of motor brush sparking. POSSI8LY RESULTING IN SHOCK OR FIRE. 8 BECAUSE IT RESULTS IN A FLOATED LINE NEUTRAL. USE GREAT CARE IN APPLYING THE CIRCUIT OF FIG. Whan a 60 Hz sine wave is half wave rectified. ~ ~r-egistration for loads NOT in the rectifier circuit. LslOO turns.I ~nder different loads to yross violations of Blondel's Theorem meters on the same transformer is usually nota problemwitH '~ ~See our~ KW-HR METERS book for an explanation of ~this method. incandescant lighting and heater elemant steady state load currents. THIS CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS. 7 fre~uencies.ng tho 60 Hz Line comPonent. 9 as an easier alternative because it raquires only single 120 VAC/DC frequency points btl. then 8~0 PIV ue better. use polyc~rbonate or polyester capacitors. If polypropybne capacitors are not available.The circuit of Fig. The DC component will brake the meter movament while the harmonics will diminish tha total mater reading by making the meter bahave in an e~rrabc fashion. Minimum PIV should b 800 volts. Transient suppression is highly recommended. We recommend 400 PIV ratings. .. the answer lies in the different effects on dif ferent meter tyFs The DC method problem of adver#lY affecting ~o~er '. Frequency components below 1 KHz are difficul~-to filter ~ut without significantly attenuat.~ loads.or circuit fact or that explains therant differences beever range suits YOll beR.

others will work. C-lOvv uf 400 PIV rn. drcuit should b desi8ned to best fit Vour needs. anoodly amount of sient removal because transient eliminators much reduce~the total impedance as seen by the incoming transiNlts . According to Fourier Theory. SCRs or Motor Star~r Relays should have minimum of 25 amp surge current rating. The author has received only one input from this method a person claiming that this method could permanently slow down meters by causing damage to the meter's current coils. costing under S20 for you tn make. The timers "the meter runs more slowly becaus~ transients cause meters .would be rnuch groater substantially u nderre8ister. 3~ HARMONIC LOADS This method is most practical and easiest toachieve.A nurr~ar of firms today are peddling trarlsient elimina'' 4~ HIGH SURG E. -their rflasoning is tDtally false ~usin~ theit owri-h~gicl1: minimiz e the power meter readhile also minimizing load ~iltering~wt all line transients on the -meter'~ LOAD side Variations.95~ describes transient and ripple eliminator circuits. MAGNO-BRAKE TECHNIQUE An anonymous contributor. Our RIPPLED OFF 11 pamphlet (S3. This methquires the mnst than that absorbed by the meter and the load without tra~ knowledge.~ If this were so the frequency method des. all waveforms are composites of simple sine waves of certain time to maintain.and it ~loes not require special equipment or filtering of other loads. This . of 'coursej ' Fig. time and money to effect. In fact.if not better .Fig. 10 depicts several powertchin~ circuits. Other substantial enerDy savings result because induction motors and transformers operate far more efficiently with clean electrical inputs. lUls a su~ested circuit. for spot welders simdy because their watthneters energV then absorbed by the' neter. either manuallv or autcally (more circuitry aibed herein would cause your. They state that by filtering out line ~ transients (usin~ their 0ossly overpric~d c~rcuits. R~ watt minimum heater elements or incandescem bulbs. made us aware of the technique described in Fig. Thi s same effect is prodin spot weldin~ simply means that ALL of the incomin~ transient energy ~ operations and it is a fact that utilitick on an extra use fee dissipated BY THE METER ALONEI In fact~ the tran~ient . whom I alll "The Flasher" (See our KW-HR METERS Book). the meter DOES SLOW DOWN USING JRAN c SIENT ELIMINATORS .thus greatly increasing transient current levels inside the metcr.because such filterinD INCREASES-~ and not decreases . LOW DURATION LOADS tors as energy savers. 12 .neters to overregistul ~Ow_ ~ JS required). See Fig.meter transientsll Thus. However. and their reliability and longevity also substantially increases.inimum.~ conditioning.than the $200 or $12w ones peddled by these firms. under a very high transient environment.can be adiUSte d in combination with ener diodes for load to overregister. much greater h~rmonic power is required for the same effects. 8. load side line filtering essentially duplicates our Frequency Method. that are as good . to provide switching charistics that will ever.

it can be made so effective that it would permanently wreck your meter by disrupting its carefully balanced mechanical system and/or by shorting out the voltage coil windings. When using any of the four methods desaibed.. Plate transformers are cheap surplus items. Be sure that other circuit components can easily and safely handle the voltage and power produced by whatever transformer you choose. effective home made "photoflash" circuit. Points A and B correspond to Fig. 12: Our infamous Magno-Brake Technique. 1 to 50 msec. "The Flasher" managed to accidentally wreck his utility meter in this fashion. Englewood. R211~wirewound with bolt insert. different timing schemes can be used. Transformers with higher step-up voltages result in a greater dramatic effect on meters. we suggest that you disconnect all other AC loads from the rneter's circuit.0 uf 600 PIV. Check with your amera store on vsrieties. Colo." The circuit of Fig. z .02 ufl n U ~ C~p. The result of this damage can usually be physically observed . Inc. Why utilities would react to this in an hysterical manner is beyond me since they cavalierly inject line ripple onto your power line with no regard to the destructive effects it has on YOUR equipment and on YOUR lifel As with the DC Method.the meter either fails to indicate or its action is erratic often with scraping sounds. Our unit outputs about 400 Volts. You should be able to control voltage level with a rheostat.). We used a commercial photoflash unit alled a SYNCHRO TESTER (National Camera. Voltage level duration and repetition rate should initially be low anri slowly inaeased until the desired results are realized. there may be some Friods that you find it highly advantageous to stop or even reverse your power meter while restoring it to .. Ls are same as Fig. Control ~nk Circuit t Xfrm~. 13: Simple. Fig. The former two can be electronically controlled to provide consistent and programmable results. C-5. 12. C1=50 uf. 6. 2000 West Union Ave. See text. 1 H ~ r lOK ~ lOW~tt 0. duration per "flash. Patience and perserverance are musts to get optimum results and to gain valuable experience and knowledge about meters. 13 would work just as well. Mkter 240 V~C PhotoFln~h CircUl t Fig. See text.technique is easier to apply than the DC Method and can be more effective. The storage capacitor discharge can be controlled by an electromechanical or solid state relay (SSR~ or even a telegrapher's key. In fact. 600 PIV polypropylene or other "poly" type upacitors. 50 Watts. For instance. The minimum stepup value of the plate transformer is 250 VAC.

CA 92705 Sprague Electric Co. However. 70 0ak St. NY 10550 Cornell Dubilier Elec. on ripping off the utilities.h~ in mind. . Or you may feel more oontent to remove your circuit completely between applications. & Cable Corp. gaups and lengths. Several past customers. O. Div. in which ca# you will need magnet wire to wrap your own. Daburn Elect. &nta Clara. MA 01247 Corning Glass Works Electronics~Prod. N. Elect. costs. length or coating. Box 13i7 Norwood. We recommend the follnwing sources (of the many available) for capacitor information . P. or provide more detail on the sFcifics of these circuits. IN 47374 Essex Magnet Wire & Insul. Also. 8 capacitor tyFs suggested in our applications. NJ 07648 Richmond. the values you need are not commonly available.sFcifications. upon their request. NY 14830 Panasonic Co. 645 Marshall St. (It is usually helpful if you provide them with the capacitor types and sFcifications needed. SORRYI We do not make or sell any of the described circuits. Magnet wire is available in various coatings. whom. Sandford Mt. Belden CorD.) ELPAC Components Div. even though we have reFatedly stated that we absolutely are against any illegal applications whatsoeverl Many electronic retail outlets do not carry an adequate supply or selection of capacitors and many SPM lcustomers have written to us to supply them information on the SrOPPING POWER ME~ERS P.some very heavy. 250 E. Edis. t 50 Avenue L Newark.. Commerically available AC timers are excellent here. The author has found that surplus sources are a good start. distri_utors. Vernon. Houghton Park A2 Corning. 313t S. Div. we do not answer questions presented us. Standard Ave. but magnet wire heavier than 18 gauge is almost never available in stores. Div. Elec..normal opeNtions during other Friods. Industrial Components 1 Panasonic Way Secaucus. Listed below are some very good sources of magnet wire of virtually any gauge. McGraw Edison Co. ELPAC Electronics Inc. we INNOCENTLY provided more detailed information tried to rip us off with the complaint that we provided them "how to" info. and the electrical parameters of the applia~tinn~ v~-. NJ 071-1 Most of the awlications described herein require power inductDrs . etc. Adams. NJ 07094 Del Electronics Corp.

MDVR Book. NH 03101 Rea Magnet Wire Co. insights and experiences have been integrated into it. X-RAY TO DEATH. IN 46804 Manchester. including our infamous MAGNO-BRAKE TECHNIQUE. STOPPING POWER METERS is brought to you by: CONSUMERl~RONlCS GO.C.000 copies have sold nationwide and it continues . Wayne. Wayne. V. RIPPLED OFF. F.2ND TO NONE?. THE TESLA CONNECTION.I.A. 3600 E. IN 46801 STOPPING POWER METERS 3rd Edition is the culmination of years of work in the vital area of meter re#arch. etc. LOADFINDER. Wayne. Alamogordo. X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X Another file downloaded from: The NIRVANAnet(tm) Seven & the Temple of the Screaming Electron Burn This Flag realitycheck Lies Unlimited The New Dork Sublime The Shrine Planet Mirth Taipan Enigma Zardoz Poindexter Fortran Mick Freen Biffnix Rif Raf Simon Jester 510/935-5845 408/363-9766 510/527-1662 801/278-2699 415/864-DORK 206/794-6674 510/786-6560 "Raw Data for Raw Nerves" X-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-X . ' Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire Co.O. FIREBREATHER. HOLOCAUST AMERICA.. useful and money saving publications we offer.. LIBERATE GAS AND WATER.with ever increasing popularity to be our very best #ller. P.D. Grenier Fld. Send for our brochure with $.M. well over 10. This 3rd Edition contains all of the information found in the 2nd Edition (Copyrighted 1977) and STOPPING POWER METERS ADDENDUM (Copyrighted 1979). Since then.FACT OR FAIRY TALE?. Box 600 Ft. Lots of luck and greates?of successes. IN 46806 Ft. Other topics include: SURVIVAL GUNS & AMMO. Munip. Many customer contributions. DrawerS37. 88310 It is but one of the very informative. Inc.1510 Wall St. SILENCE IS GOLDEN (Silencers). KILLER WATTS. The first edition of STOPPING POWER METERS W85 copyrighted in March 1976.' design and testing. . 1978. "Power Pilferage"~ and many important subsequent media coverages.Pontiac St. . VORTEX GENERATOR and our newest and most controversial one of all: IRON GONADS. GOOSY MOTHA'S FAIRY TALES. AirpDrt Ft. Our other energy publications include: KW-HR METERS Book. N. It resulted in the author's infamous CBS "60 MINUTES" interview with Mike Wallace (March 5.30 in stamps or coin.