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Sedimentary reinforcing

Possibilities for reinforcing and refining grain solid solution are limited .
Further strengthening can be achieved in the two-phase alloys. Extremely
large reinforcing effects are achieved in alloys in which one secondary phase
is finely dispersed in base metal . Such alloys can be prepared in several
ways but one of the best known is a process of precipitation heat treatment ,
which is based on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution.
Depending on the type of base and alloying metals , decomposition of the
supersaturated solid solution is carried out by immediately allocating the
equilibrium sediment particles , or by allocating one or more metastable
precipitates before the equilibrium particles. This second case is usually
defined as a deposition in a row. The most famous example is the Al- Si
alloy, in which the reaction of deposition is carried out by repeatedly
creating of four types of deposits: coherent GP zone , Q ' ' sediment, partly
coherent Q ' sediment and incoherent Q sediment. Reinforcing effects of the
alloy are depending on the kind of the sediment. The division of the particles
is usually carried out according to the nature of the boundary surface
between the particles and the substrate. Since the boundary surface can be :
coherent , partially coherent and incoherent particles are divided into a
coherent , partially coherent and incoherent.
Coherent and partially coherent particles causes the greatest hardening
effects in alloys in which secondary phases are formed by thermal
deposition. Reinforcing , obtained by thermal deposition method , is known
as the sedimentary reinforcing.
The goal of sedimentary reinforcing is to create the densely and finely
divided precipitated particles in a plastic basis. Precipitated particles act as
barriers to dislocation motion and therefore they reinforce heat-treated alloy.
The stages in the process of sedimentary reinforcing:
1. dissolving annealing is the first stage in this process. Sometimes this
process is referred to as dissolution. Samples of alloys that can be
plastically deformed are heated up to the temperature between the
temperature of Solidus and temperature of Solvus line and held until
they forms a homogeneous structure of the solid solution. Tt
temperature at point C is chosen for the alloy xt because it is located
midway between the phase boundaries of Solvus and liquidus lines for
solid solution.

2. Hardening is the second stage in the process of sedimentary

reinforcing. The samples are rapidly cooled to a lower, typically room
temperature, and the cooling medium is usually water. The structure
of the alloy x1 after hardening to a temperature T3 at point D, consist
of a supersaturated - solid solution .
3. Aging is the third stage in the process of sedimentary reinforcing. Fine
dispersed sediment is main objective in this process. Fine sediment in
the alloy slows down the movement of dislocations during
deformations, forcing dislocations to cut all of the precipitated
particles. By restricting the movement of dislocations during
deformation, alloy become reinforced.

Dispersed reinforcing
Incoherent particles that occur in alloys, in which secondary phases are
formed by thermal deposition , usually caus small reinforcing effects.
However, incoherent particles are very important in alloys in which the fine
dispersion of secondary phases is achieved by these procedures: internal
oxidation, carbonization and nitriding. Secondary phases are in that case,
usually , a stable compounds , e.g., oxides , carbides , nitrides, borides
Reinforcing by dispersion od secondary stable phases is known as dispersed
reinforcing. Special alloys , which are obtained by thermal deposition of
internal oxidation makes up only a small part of the total production of
alloys containing secondary phases. The largest part of production is related
to alloys in which the secondary phases are formed by eutectic reaction (cast
iron, steel, Al - Cu, Pb - Sn). In this case, secondary phases are not dispersed
so well, and thats why the reinforcing isnt on the high level. In alloys that
contains a dispersed second phases, dislocations must be stored between the
particles. If the distance between the particles is short, dislocations must be
Dispersed phase affecting the movement of dislocations in two ways:
1. The coherent and partially coherent particles cause elastic deformation
of the basic grid, also called coherent internal voltages. Coherent
voltages react with the stress field around the dislocations and oppose
their movement. Since that there are reacted fields elastic voltage, and
the reaction may be defined as the elastic reaction.
2. Same particles represent a physical barrier that redeployment should
be overcome. Dislocations can react with particles in two ways:
cutting mechanism, or circumvent mechanism. Cutting mechanism is
defined as a chemical reaction, and circumvent mechanism is defined
as the dispersed reaction. The chemical reaction occurs most
frequently between dislocations and coherent or partially coherent
particles. However, incoherent particles can also to enter into a
chemical reaction with the dislocation. Disperse reaction usually
occurs between dislocations and incoherent particles of high strength.