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WRITING TASK • Sharp / sharply

• Considerable / considerably
Description of graphs • Significant / significantly

VERBS/EXPRESSION TIME EXPRESSIONS

• For the period …


• To rise • Since 1970 …
• To increase • For the years …
• To go up • Over the five years period …
• To double • Between 1980 and 1990 …
• To reach a peak / dip • In 1987 …
• To drop • By the beginning of …
• By the end of …

• To decrease
• To decline
• To fall
• To reach the lowest point / to hit the
lowest point
• To reach a decline

• To hold / remain steady


• Remain the same
• To be constant

• To reach a plateau
• To level off

• To fluctuate
• A fluctuation

ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS

• Gradual / gradually
• Steady / steadily
• Slight /slightly
• Gentle / gently

• Dramatic / dramatically WRITING TASK


• Steep / steeply
Making a short essay – Linking  Secondly, …
words & useful language  Next, …
INTRODUCTION
 One / an example /
• First of all, I would like to say that … Illustration of this is …

 A clear example of this


• The first thing to consider when
is, …
discussing about x is that …

• There’s no doubt that …

• One of the main arguments put


forward for x is that …

• I strongly agree / disagree with the


statement that …
BODY (follow)
o Expressions for giving
• Although some people say that, … ,
I believe that … reasons and examples from
knowledge or experience
BODY (follow):

o General expressions:

 It can generally  I can illustrate this with


observed that … an example from my
 However … own experience such
 In addiction to … as …
 In support of …
 In fact …  A clear demonstration
 It has been observed of the fact arise from …
that …

o Expressions for giving o Expressing point of views,


reasons and examples from opinions:
knowledge or experience:
 I (firmly) believe that …
 I’m convinced that …
 I believe in …
 Firstly, …  It seems to me that …
 I tend to think that …
 Firstly I want to  It is generally accepted
consider that, … that
 I’m strongly inclined to
 The most important believe that …
point is
o Rejecting or refusing an
 The next most argument:
important point is …
 I’m unconvinced that …
 I don’t believe that … [Final summary]
 It is hard to accept that
… But, you must often use the passive
 There’s little evidence form:
to support the fact that
… [positive sentence] To be + Past
 It is unjustifiable to say participle
that
 [argument]. But I’m [negative sentence] To be + not + Past
strongly inclined to participle.
suspect that …
________________________________
o Defining / explain better:
EXAMPLES OF USE OF THE LINKING
 By this I mean … WORDS:
 By … I mean …
 In other words … 1 ) I don’t believe that Internet is a
 On the other hand … useful source for children. There’s too
much uncensored material.
 This is to say that …
 To be more precise … 2) I don’t believe that running is good
 Here I’m (not) referring for you. Your body will get many
to … physical injuries

3) On the past working life of the people


was focused around a single career
CONCLUSION path. By this I mean that, for example,
after the graduation the people got a
• To sum up … job in their sector and…
• Overall …
• In the final analysis … 4) Nowadays the life of all mothers
• Finally … tends to be very busy by the work, and
• In conclusion … their child need of day care assistance,
• To conclude … although a good stuff should be the
• Ultimately … special attentions that a mother only
• While … can give.
Or: … assistance. Certainly, is it true
• Although …
that a good stuff … .
• Despite the fact that …
• Admittedly 5) A benefit of having too much cars in
• Certainly cities is a fast building of more road,
• I would conclude by saying that … despite of an increase in car users.
Or: … more road, despite the fact that
o Describing a process: an increase in car users makes the
cities very busy.
When you describe a process from a
pictorial form like diagram, tables and DON’T FORGET WHEN YOU
so on, you must keep the same WRITE AN ESSAY
structure for the essay:

[Intro]
DON’T GO OUT OF TOPIC
!
Important is :
[Body]
• Splayed
- reading carefully the topic • Lexicon
- organize ideas • Siege
- make sure of having an intro, • Warfare
body and conclusion. All in • Digging
250 words. • Saps
- avoid repetitions • Dug
• Pummeling
DON’T FORGET WHEN YOU
WRITE, IN GENERAL

MAKE SURE OF HAVING:


LISTENING TASK
[INTRO]1*

[BODY]
Basic concept
[FINAL SUMMARY]2*
In listening you must be very careful
*for a graph: in getting these things:
1*
: you must write what the graph is
showing about;
2*
: you must summarizing the • Who’s speaking?
information and make comparisons if • Where’s the conversation?
relevant. • What’s the topic?
________________________________________ • Why are they speaking?

VOCABULARY: IMPORTANT: during a conversation


you must get the speaking
• Wickedness: situation (i.e: study moment,
• Astride during a lesson, walking on a road),
• To sink who are the speakers (i.e:
• Stake students, strangers, principal’s
• Nest school), the topic of the
• Whom conversation (i.e: the main reason
• Crackle for speaking)and the reason for
• Scorched deck getting a conversation, for example
• To slip (slipped) asking for the hours of the next
• Tremble lecture, and this is you can note into
• Dreadful a conversation by the tone of the
• Fractious voice (voice calm, voice of a people
• Shards in a hurry), something emotive
• Unceasingly related.
• Jabbed
• Bewailed Getting specific information
• Siege
• To stifle In a conversation, when we’re
• Hallmark
looking for some particular
• Likelihood
information, we must getting
• Redoubts
obviously:
• Cusp
• The context
• Slanted
• Who’re the speakers TIPS
• The topic for solving the task we must:

But not only, in fact we must listen • Underline the infos


carefully for: • Look at the pics
• Names • Make an association infos - pics
• Nouns
• Places Identifying main ideas
• Numbers (i.e.: phone numbers,
driving licence, home address) This is the “core” of a
• Dates conversation. In fact for getting
• Hours (from … to …) am, pm. the main ideas of a conversation,
we must “enter” ideally into the
conversation and replacing one
of the people speaking: you are
TIPS one of the listeners!
for solving the specific task, we
must:

• Look at the table and seeing if


there’re pics or logos, these are
useful for getting the context;
• Look for the type of infos, like So, as previous seen, very
numbers and so on. important:

Identifying detail • Getting the context or situation


• You are one of the listeners!
During a conversation there’re • Selecting the interested
some other specific information information
like details.
Listening describing words we The intonation of a speech
can get specific details about a
topic or an object. During a conversation pay attention
So, some describing words are to the intonation of speech.
related to: Different intonation = different
meaning of a speech.
o Size
o Color Signpost words
o Age
o Shape In written task you’ve the linking
o Type of material words, here you’ve the signpost
o Number of x (x= people, words. Their function is to introduce
ideas, to make comparisons and so
cars…)
on.
Here we go:
Some words like: stripes, spots,
handle, curved, straight, point,
- Leading towards a comparison
pointed are useful for describing
- Leading towards a contrast or
or identifying an object.
opposite
- Introducing an example of what Getting information from
was said earlier the text
- Suggesting cause and effect or
result As in listening task you must be able
- Providing additional information to get some specific information by
- Setting out the stage of a talk. recognizing the so called key
words, here is the same, by key
Summarizing, into a conversation sentences.
we’ve to consider:
o Match the headings
- CONTEXT
- WHO ARE THE SPEAKERS
 Look at the title and,
- INTONATION AND VOICE
if there’re, sub -
STRESS
headings, pictures
- SIGNPOST WORDS.
 Ask yourself the 5
questions
 Go to the exercise
section and ask
yourself: “
what must I do?”
 Read the instruction
very carefully
 Go to the text and
paraphrase
Reading task  Underline the key
words / sentences
Every time that you must deal with who may help you
a reading situation don’t forget the  Come back to the
5 main basic questions to ask exercise (list of
yourself: headings) and match
the suitable one.

THE 5 QUESTIONS Skimming process must be use


always, but very useful in
- What type of text is it? paragraphing exercise.
(scientific, novel, newspaper
article…) Labelling a diagram
- Who was it written for?
(everyone, special public …) In some exercise you must give a
- What the subject? demonstration of getting very
- Why was the text written? specific details and, therefore,
(divulgation) completing a diagram.
- Why would somebody read the
text? (the reason for reading it) So, here are some tips:
These are important questions to  Look the text for
ask yourself at every article, pictures, headings …
here start a sort of text
 5 questions
interaction!
 go to the exercise on. However,
section: What must I something that give
do? you a more clear
 Back to the text explanation.
 You must isolate the
portion of the article
where spoken about Identifying opinion/attitudes
the diagram (save and making inferences
time)
 Skim the selected The second hardest part is this
portion one, but with if we stay very
 Underline any key concentrated and calm, the
words or sentence game is well done!
who can help you
 Put the keyword into o Identify fact, opinion and
the diagram claim:

Identifying main supporting TIPS


ideas
 Look at the text for
This is the first hardest part of the title, pictures,
test. In fact you must, quickly as you headings, sub –
can, recognize ideas and supporting headings and so on
points (examples that make more  Ask the 5
clear a previous idea). questions
 Underline key
So, here some tips: sentences or words
who can helps you in
 Look at the article to do so.
for pictures,  A fact is
headings, sub – recognizable, for
headings (if there example by: “is a
are) variation in…”, “it is
 Ask the 5 a reflex caused by
questions …”, “that’s not
 Identify main ideas under…”;
and related  An opinion by: “I find
supporting points by playing to X very
key words or different from …”
sentences. Usually a  A claim by: “Based
supporting point is on our findings…. :
an example or a are likely to be
sentence that helps minimal”.
you make more clear
the text.
So it can begin with:”
For example…”, “It
could be seen by X
process…” and so
Reading task (continue) - Come back to the text and get
the related information for doing
o YES , NO AND NOT GIVEN: the task

TIPS:

 Read very carefully


the rubric task
instruction
 NO = claim
expressed in the
question is the
opposite of the view
in the passage
 NOT GIVEN = you
can find nothing
about this idea in the
passage
 The questions will be
presented in the
order in which the
answers occur in the
text
 Underline the key
words on the
questions
 Come back to the
text and look for the
keywords
 If you find them, in a
paraphrasing way as
well, check if is YES
or NO
 If you don’t find
information, then is
NOT GIVEN

Summarizing, into a reading


situation we must do, for every
article:

- Look at the title, pictures,


headings, sub – headings
- Ask yourself the 5 questions,
this help you to interact with the
text
- Go to the rubric instruction and
read it very carefully