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Personal Log

Other group 4 projects


Andres bereznev
Global warming, involve the 3 sciences. They came up with how the
albedo affects the melting glaciers in Cotopaxi and perito Moreno. The
albedo effect is a measure of reflecting of a surface, is a measure of how
much of suns energy is reflected to space, it has a cooling effect. For
chemistry what causes they change in molecules, salt water and fresh
water, biology what is the ecological effect, physics an experiment
consist of how much energy is required to melt ice cube in different
background. See different factors trying to put black dust to see
different changes.
Earth is dying
Investigating the idea of food production and distribution basically
turned into a question, to what extent does the packaging as part of the
food distribution change is unsustainable to some resources. 3 different
experiments which consider the packaging as independent variable,
dependent of second was the temperature, how an apple decomposes
though time depending of its packaging different types of packing,
aluminum, black plastic, vacuum. Same packaging in the first one but
second one they will change the temperature. Weight differences of the
part of the apple that is decomposed. The benedict measures the
different starch levels and how much turns into glucose before and after.
Measure the PH levels and see how it changed.
Question
To what extent does the packaging as part of the food distribution change
unsustainable to some resources.
Concept of Investigation
When an apple decomposes and is exposed to oxygen it turns brown and releases
ethylene gas and there is a change in a starch to sugar ratio
Investigation
An (a quarter)apple will be put through different packaging
aluminium,
transparent polythene bag,

black polythene bag,


no packaging,
vacuum.
There will be 3 experiments under different temperature conditions (Independent)
room temperature
fridge
under lamp light
To measure decay we will do 3 main tests before and after (dependent)
PH test
Destructive Method (mass before compared to after decay has been scrapped off)
Benedict Test (Sugar Starch ratio)
Control variable
time
roughly mass
roughly surface area exposed to air
coverage of packaging

Our group 4 project


Everything up to June 4 (experimentation day) is collaborative
everyone participated, meaning no one had an specific job, we
worked as a team discussing and creating conclusions.
Now you know

First plan June 1:


Oil Cleaning:
Surfactant
We need different surfactants
Surface tension of oil vs surface tension of water, That is what causes the separation ( It is
so difficult)
Obesity ( Ketchup, coke, Juices ):
Measure the
General Information still deciding what our topic will be and how we are going to
investigate it
Did a concept/Mind map of our ideas.

June 2: Decided we are going to do obesity


-

OBESITY:
Level of obesity in ecuador
ASK the consumption of, sales revenue of natura, mc donalds orange jucie and homemade
juice in markets
See the energy calories, measure them in each of the juices
Impact on obesity, the amount required for the three drinks to balance in energy calories
Calories per day do people burn, link it to different exercises
Provide an alternative drink that provides energy with the less amount of sugars posible
Prove how homemade juice by itself, without any added sugar, compares to the artificial
juices. Different recommendations on obesity. The amount needed to fulfill calories needed
HOMEMADE: ORANGE, BLACKBERRY, LEMONADE-INDEPENDENT VARIABLE,
ADDED OR NOT ADDED
SAME BRAND FOR THE THREE FLAVOR OF JUICES MUST BE BOUGHT
VARIABLES, WATER+SUGAR
Weight it
Burn, heat produced, caloriemetre, heat wter mcp deltat=delta heat, energy with work
done
APPARATUS:
100ML BEAKERS X12
4 THERMOMETRES
CALORIEMTRE
3L WATER
HALF POUND SUGAR
6 PIPETTES
WEIGHING BALANCE
UNIVERSAL INDICATOR, ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY , MORE SUGAR, LESS ACID
AND ALKALI
10 ORANGES
10 LEMONS
HALF POUND BLACKBERRY
JUICE EXCTRACTOR
BLENDER
BUNSEN BURNER
TRIPOD
STIRRING PODS
3 different types of juices, supermaxi NATURA, mc donalds, homemade no sugar, wter
with sugar
Boil the three juices, how much of the sugar is left and then weight

INSULATED TIN OF WATER


Provide which one is the best
Calories, caloriemetre

June 3 Developing an introduction, abstract and


hypothesis
INTRODUCTION:
Obesity is defined as An increase in body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal
and physical requirement, as the result of an excessive accumulation of fat in the
body. Nowadays, obesity has become a global issue in Ecuador. 59% of the
adults in Ecuador, suffer from obesity and 12% of the children age 8 and above are
obese as well. One cause of this obesity is due to the excess of sugar people now
take, the excess of sugar becomes fat if the minimum amount of exercise done per
day is not met. Hence, this investigation wants to explore by comparing drinks at a
Supermarket, Vivant with added sugars with homemade juices of the same flavour;
blackberry, orange and lemon.
ABSTRACT
The aim of this investigation was to establish the calorific value between artificially
sweetened drinks with homemade fruit juices. Vivant Brand was used with the
flavours of Blackberry, lemon and orange. The same fresh fruit was used for the
homemade juices. An scale was used to compare the same amount of sugar in the
artificial drink with the amount of sugar in the homemade drink. The two types of
drinks were burnt until concentrated sugars were left, this remainder was then
grinded into powder until it had a mass of 0.60g. This powder was then heated and
put in the calorimeter to measure the calories for each drink. After this, the calories
were then put in the potential energy=mgDelta H to see the work that has to be
done to burn the sugars in order to prevent them from turning into fat. All of this
relates to obesity as when there is not enough exercise done, the sugars will turn
into fat.
HYPOTHESIS:
The following hypotheses were predicted:
Homemade juices will have less calories than vivants artificial flavoured juices
due to the fact that artificial flavoured drinks use sweeteners such as sucralose.
Vivants artificial flavoured juices will require more energy to prevent the sugars
from becoming fat due to the fact that there will be the need to burn more calories
to burn the sugars.
All of this relates to obesity as people in Ecuador consume artificial flavoured
drinks more and less homemade juices, despite this the exercise done per day per

people is not the required amount of exercise that needs to be done to burn the
calories in the sugar. Hence leading this excess of sugar turning into fat.

June 4 experimentation day and writing the


experiment
Emilio Yarad in charge of all research (obesity
levels, how much calories a person burns in a
day etc.)
Jhosue and Wagner (me) making the homemade
juices and helping extract the concentration of
sugar after boiled.
Patricia and Emilia creating the samples in order
to boil them and developing specific calculations
to have a fair investigation with same amounts
of sugar

Apparatus:
APPARATUS:
100ML BEAKERS X12
THERMOMETRE
CALORIMETER
3L WATER
HALF POUND SUGAR
6 PIPETTES
WEIGHING BALANCE
UNIVERSAL INDICATOR, ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY , MORE SUGAR, LESS ACID
AND ALKALI
10 ORANGES
10 LEMONS
HALF POUND BLACKBERRY
JUICE EXTRACTOR
BLENDER

VIVANT JUICE, FLAVOUR; BLACKBERRY, LEMON AND ORANGE


6 SPATULAS
6 CERAMIC BASES
6 PETRI DISHES
6 MORTARS
30 CM RULER
6 100ml measuring cylinders
Method:
Prepare the homemade juices
Take 10 oranges, using the juice extractor extract the orange juice
Using the measuring cylinder, measure 30ml of orange juice
Pour the orange juice into the 100ml beaker
Using the measuring cylinder, measure 30ml of water
Pour the water in the same beaker of the orange juice
Using the stirring pod mix, the water and orange juice for 15 seconds
Using the weighing balance, measure 5grams of sugar
Pour sugar and mix well in the beaker with the orange juice
Label this beaker HM Orange Juice
Take the blackberry, put it in the blender
Blend the blackberry for 1 minute, no water must be added
Using the sifter, sift the blackberry juice until no seeds are left
Using the measuring cylinder, measure 30ml of blackberry juice and pour it in the
100ml beaker
Using the measuring cylinder measure 30ml of water and pour it in the same
beaker
Mix it well using the stirring rodf for 15 seconds
Using the weighing balance measure 4,25 grams of sugar
Pour it in the same beaker, mix it well for 30 seconds
Label this beaker HM Blackberry juice
Using the juice extractor, extract the 10 lemons, no water must be added
Using a measuring cylinder measure 30 ml of lemon juice and pour it in the 100ml
beaker
Using a measuring cylinder measure 30 ml of water and pour it in the same beaker
Mix it well using the stirring rod for 15 seconds
Using the weighing balance, measure 4,25 grams of sugar
Pour it in the same beaker, mix it well for 30 seconds
Label this beaker HM Lemon Juice
Open the three bottles of Vivant Juices
Pour 60ml of every drink using the measuring cylinder to three 100ml beakers
Label each of the beakers, depending on the flavour as; Vivant Lemon Juice,
Vivant orange juice and Vivant Blackberry juice
Once the 6 solutions are ready, light up 6 bunsen burners
Put the six solutions on top
Wait for the until all of the liquid has evaporated and concentrated sugar is left

Meanwhile set up the calorimeter


Once the solutions have evaporated and the condensed sugar is left use clamps to
hold the beaker and pour it into a ceramic base, let it dry until it is hard
Transfer this onto a petri dish
Using the mortar, grind the remaining substance until it is powdery
Using the spatula take the powder
Using the weighing balance measure it has a mass of 5grams
Light the powder by burning it with the bunsen burner
Put the powder 3cm away from the calorimeter using a ruler
Record initial and final temperature onto data table
Repeat the same process for the 5 remaining substances
Record any observations on data table

June 7 everyone collaborating in the Scientifict


poster, created an evaluation table and a
definitive conclusion.
CONCLUSION:
As it was expected, Vivant juices have more calories than homemade juices as it
was seen, the graph shows all of the homemade juices to have less calories than
Vivant juices.
In the work done table, it was able to observe that more work done needs to be
done to burn the calories in the artificial flavored juices than homemade juices.
Error

Improvement

Distance from substance in fire to the

calorimeter
The time wasted in setting the substance

on fire
Assuming that the remaining substances
mass from the juices was the same when
it was put for the calorimeter

Measuring the juices volume, error of +/0.5


Assuming that the homemade juice had
the same amount of water and juice as
the artificial flavoured juice
Some substances were burnt more than
expected

Using a ruler next to time to see that the


substance had the same distance from
the spoon to the calorimeter
Placing the bunsen burner closer to the
calorimeter so that the remaining
substance can be lit correctly, leading to
less time wasted
Using a weighing balance to measure that
the mass was the same for all of the
tested samples
Repeating the experiment for the same
sample, three times to compare the
results and get an average
If more time is able, go to the company of
the artificial flavoured drinks and see the
process and the amount of water put.
Have one person in charge of every

substance in the bunsen burner, in order


to avoid any extra burning.