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Table of Content

No.

Content

Pages

1.

Introduction

2-8

2.

Focus of Investigation/Issue of concern

3.

Objective/Research Question

16

4.

Target group/ Participants

16

5.

Recommended Action

17-24

6.

Implementing Plan of Action

24-25

7.

References

26-27

8.

Appendix

8-15

28-

ACTION RESEARCH PROPOSAL


KHALIDA AZRINA BINTI KAMARUDIN
IPG KAMPUS ILMU KHAS
1

USING SONGS TO IMPROVE YEAR 5 HAZIM AVERAGE PROFICIENCY PUPILS


USE OF SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

1.0

INTRODUCTION
Ellis (2006) has stated that there are several studies that shown that
instructed learners who get more form-focused grammar teaching achieve better
results and progress faster than those who do not get the same form-focused
grammar teaching. That is why second language users have lots of error in using
language. Therefore, we can conclude that grammar teaching plays an essential
role in second language acquisition. The teacher must able to identify which
grammar points to focus on and how to teach it to his/her students. When
develop activities for pupils, teacher should look into the pupils knowledge and
most common errors (Ellis, 2006). Most of the pupils do not have strong
foundation in Grammar especially in subject-verb agreement. This is why it is
important to detect errors made by them and analyse students most common
errors in order to help them improve their English in term of grammar point and
acquire a higher level of grammatical knowledge.
Hartsuiker and Barkhuysen (2006) reported that students make a lot of
subject-verb agreement error. This shows that in majority of the pupils have
problems with grammar especially in the using of subject-verb agreement. In the
presence of an increased memory load, individuals with low speaking span
committed more agreement errors than high span individuals. For subject-verb
agreement, based on English Language rules, the subject must agree with the
verb. For example, singular subject needs singular verb and plural subject
requires plural verb. The form of the verb has to match the number of things in
the subject. This kind of grammar rules also applies in simple present tense. That
is why when students are making mistakes or error, it is noticeable.
In Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (KBSR), grammar was taught
implicitly and grammar module is not included in the teaching, but in Kurikulum
2

Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR), grammar was taught separately and


explicitly, whereas the module is provided in the Dokumen Standard Kurikulum
dan Pentaksiran. Teaching of Grammar in KSSR was taught explicitly for Year 3
pupils till Year 5 for the year of 2015. For year 1 and year 2 pupils for KSSR,
grammar was taught overtly to introduce pupils to basic grammar rules. Besides
that, we teach grammar overtly in year 1 and year 2 so that they engage in a fun
technique and develop their interest in learning grammar. Chitravelu et al., (2005)
stated that grammatical errors that go uncorrected become fossilized and lead to
inappropriate use of grammatical items. This proved that grammar teaching
should be taught to the students repeatedly so that the students will be able to
use grammar correctly and they can correct their own mistake in using grammar.
In KSSR Year 4 Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran (DSKP),
grammar should be taught in context as well as explicitly so that pupils learn the
rules of grammar and how to apply these rules in speech and writing. Here, we
see subject verb agreement as an important element of grammar area that helps
pupils to meet the objective of the curriculum. Subject verb agreement can also
be seen as a completion to all of grammar aspects and also in all the skills
involve in English language learning. The use of subject verb agreement can
influence ones communicating skills as well as in other skills. If there is wrong
using of subject verb agreement, the interpreter cannot get the message that the
speaker or the writer wants to convey or they may misinterpret the meaning of
the message. Winer (2015) stated that to communicate clearly in the English
language, we have to match a singular subject with a singular verb and a plural
subject with a plural verb.

1.1

Reflection on teaching experience


I have encounter 3 different backgrounds of students in 3 different
schools and there are quite a number of pupils who can use English very
well. However, the pupils have a lot of problem in grammar, especially in
using Subject-Verb Agreement. Based on my observation during teaching
3

and learning process in SK Taman Rakan, I found that my pupils have


difficulties in using subject-verb agreement. In their writing task (appendix
1), I found that they are able to convey the message, but they are
struggling to use the correct subject verb agreement and sometimes, the
structure of their sentences makes the interpreter to misinterpret their
message and get confused easily. This means, my pupils have a bit
fluency both in speaking and writing, but they could not use the subject
verb agreement rules correctly equivalent to their speaking and writing
skill mentioned. My students are from Year 5 Hazim, which is the best
class in SK Taman Rakan. Year 5 Hazim consists of 37 pupils. They came
from families of the middle and upper socio-economic status and some of
them even use English in the daily conversation with their family members
and friend. There were 28 Malay students, 1 Chinese student and 8 Indian
students (appendix 2). Based on my observation during teaching, I found
that some of Year 5 Hazim pupils especially the Malay pupils are using
direct-translation method in English and mostly when doing their tasks.
The use of subject verb agreement becomes the main problem
encountered by the pupils across the classes. This problem occurs in both
speaking and writing. This error may bring negative impacts on the pupils
in which they will have low self-esteem in speaking and they cannot
perform well in writing.

1.2

Related Theory / Literature Review


The main theory derive this research is behaviourism. John B.
Watson (1878-1958) and B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) originate the theory of
behaviourist approaches in learning. Watson believed that human
behaviour resulted from specific stimuli that produced certain responses.
Watson's basic idea was that conclusions about human development
should be based on observation of overt behaviour rather than assumption
4

about subconscious motives or covert cognitive processes (Shaffer, 2000).


As a behaviorist, learning takes place when knowledge is divided into
smaller parts. Students are rewarded for correct answers. Instruction
focuses on conditioning the learner's behavior. Learning involves repetition
and association and is highly mechanical. Behaviorist leaning teachers
focus on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes
automatic. Chomsky in Chitravelu et al. (2005) stated that language
learning is an active process in which the learners continuously thinking
and relate the thinking process with the new information, find and discover
the fundamental rules as well as the applications of the rules.
The pupils have to apply correct grammatical rule and look closely
to the choices of words. The pupils were second language users and they
have difficulties in dealing with correct sentences by using correct SubjectVerb Agreement rules because they use their mother tongue (Bahasa
Melayu) in their daily conversation and they are not familiar with the rules
because in Malay Language, there are no such rules as Subject-Verb
Agreement. As an example:
Chaya
mandi
(singular subject) (verb)
Chaya dan Siti
(plural subject)

mandi
(verb)

di sungai.
(expansion)
di sungai.
(expansion)

Wee (2009) stated that Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA)


poses the most difficulty for Malaysian students. Bahiyah and Basil
Wijayasuria (1998), as cited from Surina Nayan (2009), proved that
learners who use Bahasa Melayu as their first medium of instruction have
difficulty in Subject-Verb agreement because Bahasa Melayu does not
discriminate between person and it is not compulsory that the verb must
agree with the subject. But, in English, the subject (person) needs to be
complimenting to the verb because if not, it can create confusions among
the pupils. This will lead to error and doing mistakes in writing. Even
though the pupils were introduced to grammar and subject-verb
5

agreement since primary school, they still have the problem to distinguish
the real meaning of subject-verb agreement. It may be because the
teacher teaches grammar in isolation and did not give the pupils wide
range of example and they did not explain much about that.
Nor Hashimah et al. (2008) identify subject verb agreement, affixes,
adverbs, adjectives, plural forms, and copula as the most common
mistakes made by students. Surina and Kamaruzaman (2009) claim that
majority of the Malaysian students still facing a lot of problems with their
subject verb agreement. The pupils have problem in discriminating the
singular subject and singular verb with plural subject and plural verb and
they are not able to apply correct rule of subject-verb agreement. As an
example, in writing, in order to construct meaningful sentences, the pupils
must adhere to the rules of subject-verb agreement. Bautista and
Gonzales (2006), state that the English spoken by Malaysians have
common errors which are misinformation and omission. For examples,
Malaysians students use He sick, Can, It missing, etc. Subject and
verbs are the two important elements that complement each other to
produce complete and correct sentence (Siti Hamin et al. 2010; Surina &
Kamaruzaman, 2009). They provide the very important aspect of language
production. This is why subject verb agreement needs to be stressed in
language learning. Subject verb agreement has been listed as an
essential grammatical component to be taught in all forms in school. It is
specified in the syllabus for the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum
for English language outlined by the Curriculum Development Center
(Ministry of Education, 2000).
Since the meaning is an important tool in teaching grammar, it is
important to contextualise any grammar point. Therefore, I decided to use
song as an intervention for my pupils problem. Foster (2006) has listed
some compelling reasons on why songs and chants should be used in the
language classroom. One of the reasons is song and chants valuable
6

because rhythm speaks to a very basic part of our emotional selves, so


musical or rhythmic content may enter memory with fewer distractions.
That is why I choose to use song and chants as my intervention as it helps
boost teaching and learning process as children are musically or
rhythmically motivated. Regarding my intervention, I have decided to use
songs. Songs can become one of the most enjoyable ways to practice and
develop language skills. Bourke (2006) state that any syllabus designed
for teaching English for young learners mostly contains songs, chants, and
rhymes. Musical expression is an important part of the gaining experience,
and children respond eagerly to songs and welcome them rather than
using other ways. Chitravelu (2005), agree that the use of songs provide
good grammar activities. Songs are one of the most fascinating and
culturally rich resources that can be easily used in language classroom.
Songs proposed a change from repetitive classroom activities. They are
one of the most valuable resources to develop pupils ability in listening,
speaking, and reading and in writing. They can also be used to teach a
variety of language items especially in teaching Subject-Verb Agreement.
Songs also can be used to present cultural effectively. Since they
provide authentic materials, songs help in motivating pupils to learn. There
are many advantages of using songs in the classroom. Through
contemporary songs, which the pupils are familiar with, both teacher and
pupils can meet the challenges of the pupils needs in the classroom.
Since songs can be memorise easily and helps in motivating children in
many ways, they may establish a powerful subculture in learning process.
A teacher should make use songs in all stages of teaching
grammar. Songs can be used for the presentation or the practice stage
after grammar lesson. They may motivate pupils in listening, and motivate
creativity and used of imagination and to create a relax classroom
atmosphere. When selecting songs, the teacher should consider pupils
age, pupils interest, and the language being used in the song and the
appropriateness of the song lyrics. To enhance pupils learning, it is also
7

beneficial to allow pupils to take part in the selection of the songs. By


using songs to teach subject verb agreement, the teacher has already
able to add variety to the lesson, increase pupils motivation and extends
their attention span in the classroom during lesson.
2.0

FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION / ISSUE OF CONCERN


The focus of my research is to improved students use of subject verb
agreement. Since the pupils are in national public school, they use Bahasa
Melayu or Malay Language as their first language. The use of Malay Language in
their daily life becomes the main problem for students as they used to translate
the words or sentences directly from what they know. Maros (2007) stated that
one of the common grammar mistakes committed by such students is SubjectVerb Agreement this is due to the transfer of knowledge from Malay Language
into English. In Malay Language, the grammar rules do not applied. The verbs
remained unchanged even if the subject changes to plural from a singular
subject.
To be able to produce a high quality product of English especially in using
subject verb agreement, pupils need to have a clear understanding of the usage
of the rules so that they are able to produce grammatically correct sentences for
interpreter to interpret and convey message. Any grammatical errors may lead to
misinterpretation of the ideas the pupils want to convey. It is importance for the
pupils to understand the subject-verb agreement rules. They are always
confused with the rules because in their daily lives, they often use Malay
Language which does not apply the same rules where it does not require the
verb to always agree with the subject when creating sentences. Lack of
knowledge about the subject verb agreement rules in learning somehow lowered
the students motivation to learn the language.
2.1

Problem Statement
Based on the pupils exercise (appendix 1) and tasks given to them,
as well as during the pre-test (appendix 3), some of the pupils are not

clear or do not understand the rules of Subject-Verb Agreement and how


to use it in their learning process in classroom. The reason for the subject
verb agreement error happened because pupils use of their mother
tongue in daily conversation makes them to use incorrect subject-verb
agreement. Without the knowledge of subject verb agreement rules,
students cannot do well in every aspect of language skills. The students
would not be able to write and speak well in English if they do not have
enough knowledge of the rules.
2.2

Preliminary Investigation
This investigation carried out to help pupils to use correct subject
verb agreement. The subject for this research is Year 5 Hazim. The pupils
were chosen based on who met the criteria that will be valuable for the
research. For that, a preliminary investigation was carried out to identify
which pupils suits the criteria of having problem with using and practising
correct subject-verb agreement. Among 37 pupils, a sampling was done to
specifically choose six pupils only to complete the research. Interview,
document analysis method and diagnostic test were used to identify the
problem in pupils in using subject-verb agreement.
2.2.1 Interview
An interview takes place with my supervisor to have clearer
view of pupils that have problems on subject-verb agreement and
suit the criteria to carry out the investigation. However, based on
the interview, the pupils cannot be pointed out easily because there
was almost each and every pupil facing the problem. Based on the
interview, there are 2 most critical students who need helps in using
subject verb agreement (appendix 4). That is one of the reasons
why the method of observation dropped. Observation can only help
to identify the surface issue of the investigation and not the overall
issue. Now, the target group can be identifying to carry out
investigation.
9

2.2.2 Document Analysis


As the selection with the pupils going on, document analysis
was carried out with the identified participants to make sure that the
pupils made Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Pupils written works
and exercises (Appendix 1) were collected and error analysis was
used to choose six pupils who have subject-verb agreement
problem. In narrowing the scope to choose the pupils, their activity
and exercises given during lesson were analysed. The pupils
writing tasks that they did before with their original English teacher
also analysed. Choosing own teaching classroom helps to makes
the process of selecting and implementing the intervention easier.
2.2.3 Test (Pre-test)
After both methods carried out with the pupils, final method
was taken into a measure that is doing the test for the remaining
pupils that have been identified before (appendix 3). The diagnostic
test is conducted to narrow the number of participant selected. 2
writing test were carried out for the pupils to select the final six
pupils to carry out the investigation.
2.3

Analysis of Preliminary Investigation (Appendix 5)


The three methods mentioned helped to identify the subject or the
target group to carry out the investigation. In table 1, it shows how the
selection was conducted via interview, document analysis methods and
test to identify the target group. The O mark shows the pupils who
passed the first and second round of choosing the participants and X
mark shows pupils that did not passed the observation. After the interview,
only 10 pupils passed and another 27 participants continue to the next
stage of the selection. The 10 pupils were said to make few mistakes and
error in subject-verb agreement. Those 27 remaining pupils were
10

continuing their way to the next stage of selection because they did many
subject verb agreement error. For the second method that was document
analysis method, 9 pupils were found to have made some subject-verb
agreement errors in their exercise books. The remaining 18 pupils also
made subject-verb agreement errors, but they make more mistakes in
other grammar area, and this shows that they can grab better input for
subject-verb agreement. After finished with the document analysis method
stage, the last method carried out by conducting test and the six final
participants were identified and will participate in the intervention. The
remaining 3 pupils did only few errors during the test, so they were
excluded in taking part in the research. The six pupils were chosen so that
attention and focus can be given to each pupil when applying the
intervention.
2.4 Criteria of Selection
Six criteria has been analysed to carry out this investigation. The
criteria are as below:
2.4.1 Administrability
Abubakar and Hailaya (2004), claim that administrability is
the ability of the test or tool to be managed easily. Thus, using
songs to teach the use of subject-verb agreement to pupils was
administrable since there are only six pupils to carry out the
intervention on and it is easier to gather the data. Teacher can put
more focus on six pupils in teaching subject verb agreement rather
than focusing on teaching 37 pupils. Additionally, using songs helps
the pupils to create fun environment in the classroom. The
effectiveness in learning subject verb agreement using songs can
be shown in the pupils works and exercises.

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2.4.2 Significance
In the Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran
(DSKP) Year 5, grammar is being emphasized by the Ministry of
Education. The investigation will be significant for both pupils and
school itself as it enables teachers to improve their pupils use of
subject verb agreement in a more fun ways that is using songs.
Teachers will take an initiative to use songs to teach subject verb
agreement. Teachers can change or adapt the songs or teaching
style to suit the needs of the pupils. When the teacher starts to use
songs for teaching, pupils will be more attracted towards learning
and feel motivated to learn and improve their academic
achievement. The school will also get the benefits as it develops
the schools academic performance.
The intervention help pupils to use correct subject verb
agreement rules in learning. That means using correct use of
subject-verb agreement rules are necessary to help pupils to
achieve perfection in every skill. This study can be a starting point
for other teachers to make use of songs to teach subject-verb
agreement in their class later or to teach other grammar point as
well. Besides that, this strategy of using songs also helps to build
teacher-students relationship, increase pupils motivation, and helps
in using correct rules of subject verb agreement. Use of repetitive
words in songs in the intervention helps pupils to engage in a fun
way of learning subject verb agreement and help them to
remember the rules better.
2.4.3 Practicality
As said by Rosov (2007), we are not sure why songs are
powerful, but from a personal angle they are. Songs have provided
pupils with a comfortable atmosphere and help them learn English,
their target language better. To make the intervention more practical
12

and to attract pupils, they should be given chances to choose their


own suitable songs. Songs are practical because it can be easily
downloaded from the internet and costs-free tools for both teachers
and pupils. There are certain songs that can be use; and some are
not. To overcome this, adaptation is a better choice in providing
pupils better view of subject verb agreement. Bella (2002) claims
that familiar songs can be taken and replace several words to suit
the pupils need. The songs can be adapted to be used in other
activities. It helps pupils to memorise difficult vocabulary and it
make pupils engage with the lesson.

2.4.4 Control
Controlling the investigation is easy as there is only one
researcher who will carry out the investigation. The problem of this
faced by pupils in this investigation is the wrong use of the subject
verb agreement rules. The main aim of the investigation is to
improve pupils use of subject verb agreement by using songs.
Douville (2004) argues that the rhythm and repetitive characteristics
of songs helps to reinforce students' oral language development
and motivation. So, using of songs can help to improve pupils use
of subject verb agreement as they have repetitive lyrics. Songs can
be used explicitly as it is a fun and engaging tools that contain a lot
of repetitive words, and it helps me a lot as a researcher to control
the investigation.

2.4.5 Collaboration
In order to carry out this research, I am collaborating with
both the schools management and also the English teacher that
13

teach Year 5 Hazim. I interviewed the teacher about the issue of the
investigation. Both teachers and the school authorities are willing to
help and give their cooperation whenever I need help in my
investigation. The use of songs to teach them can be received well
by the teacher as he knows that pupils have lots of interest in
music.

2.4.6 Relevance to school


S. Nayan and K. Jusoff (2009) claims that pupils have higher
tendency to make subject verb agreement errors in their learning
especially the second language learners. Therefore, effective and
exciting ways have to be discovered in order to help the pupils to
master the rules of subject verb agreement. The research and the
intervention later not only help the pupils to improve their subjectverb agreement problem, but also benefit teachers and school in
order to overcome the subject-verb agreement problem and other
grammar points later for other pupils in the school, and even for
other schools.

2.5 Definition of terms


Songs: Tools that help students to develop confidence for language
learning. (Sahin, 2008) The students are encouraged to actively involved
in the learning process by making use of their musical knowledge. The
songs for pupils contain simple and repetitive vocabulary. Sometimes
about objects around, so it makes pupils familiar with English word. Songs
also can be used to teach English subject verb agreement. By using song,
pupils can enjoy the lesson, because song is considered as a medium of

14

desire learning. It can help pupils to enjoy the songs to learn the teaching
point and easy to memorize the songs.
Subject-Verb Agreement: Siti Hamin et al. (2010) stated that subject and
verbs are the two important elements that complement each other in
producing complete and correct sentence. Subject verb agreement is a
grammar rules which requires the subject to agree with the verb.

3.0

OBJECTIVE / RESEARCH QUESTIONS


This research aims to improve participants use of subject-verb agreement
through songs. The objective of this research is to find out the effectiveness of
using songs to reinforce the learning of subject-verb agreement and it helps to
measure whether the intervention can be used successfully to help pupils to
master subject-verb agreement rules. Besides that, the research aims to find out
how pupils feel towards learning subject verb agreement through songs. The
research questions are as follows:
1. Can songs help improve pupils use of subject-verb agreement?
2. How do songs improve pupils use of subject-verb agreement?
4.0 TARGET GROUP / PARTICIPANTS
This study involves pupils from primary five pupils from Year 5 Hazim from
SK Taman Rakan. There were 37 pupils in the classroom. Year 5 Hazim consists
of eight Indian pupils, one Chinese pupil and 28 Malay pupils. My target group is
6 pupils from Year 5 Hazim. The six pupils were chosen as they have shown lots
of errors and wrong use of subject verb agreement in their written exercises and
the diagnostic test (appendix 1 and 3). This action research employed
quantitative and qualitative research specifically quasi-experimental since I have
limited time and resources to deal with the subject and it might distracting the ongoing teaching and learning process. Data were collected from a set of pre-test
and post-test questions answered by target group or the target subject and by
the observation during class time. The data was also collected from the pupils
written exercises and based on the interview with the teacher.
15

5.0 RECOMMENDED ACTION


5.1 Plan of Action
I have chosen Stephen Kemmiss model of the cyclical
nature of the action research process. There are two cycles in the
model, and each cycle consists of 4 steps, which are plan, act,
observe and reflect. In the second cycle, the original plan becoming
revised plan as we improve certain thing on the intervention to
make the objective of the research achieves.

Based on this model, I went through the issue of subjectverb agreement problem in pupils. I came out with a plan and
designing a plan of action on how to overcome the issue. Kemmis
(2009) states that an action research aims at changing three things
that are, practitioners practices, their understandings of what they
are practicing, and the conditions in which they practice. By using
this action, I believe that I can achieve my aims and objective in
order to improve the teaching strategies and also improve the
16

pupils knowledge on subject-verb agreement. Based on Kemmis &


McTaggart (2005), a spiral or cyclical of self-reflecting cycles
involved steps as mentioned:
Planning a change
Acting and observing the process and consequences

of the change
Reflecting on the process and consequences
Replanning
Acting and observing again
Reflecting again

Kemmis and McTaggarts (1988) as cited in Denzin and


Lincoln (2007) claims that the criterion of success is whether the
pupils have a strong and authentic sense of development and
evolution in their practices, their understandings of their practices,
and the situations in which they practice. In implementing the
intervention, I, first, need to plan what action should I take and how
should I apply it on the pupils. Then, I have to apply the intervention
that I have built in order to measure the effectiveness on the pupils.
After that, I will observe what happen to the pupils as well as my
own intervention; whether it worked out or not or do they need
improvement in certain extent. Finally, I have to reflect what I
suppose to do in order to improve my first cycle of the
implementation of the cycle. For the second cycle, I have to replanning what I have done before and the same steps going on
after that.

Method of data
Phase

Action taken

collections
17

Plan

A pre - test (appendix 1) carried

Interview

Identify the aspect

out in order to see the initial

Document Analysis

of teaching and

performance of the pupils before

Diagnostic test

learning practice

the intervention.
There will be 3 sessions of the

to be improved.
Collect and
analyse data.
A pre - test

pupils will have enough time for

(appendix 1)
3 sessions of the

the post test.


One song (Appendix 6) used in

intervention.
One song

intervention to ensure that the


practice as well as drilling before

order to expose the pupils to


correct use of subject verb

(Appendix 2) used

agreement.

Date: 4th-13th of
February 2015
Act

The intervention

process start.
Pupils will sing the

song.
Teach the subject
verb agreement.
Task given to the

more detail to the pupils by

pupils.
Drilling
Second session, new

subject as well as the verb used by

song with SVA errors.

Data collected
At the end of the

substitution table.
Task given (appendix 7) for the

cycle one, pupils will

identify the subject and verb in the

be given a post-test
Interview

Conduct and

The intervention process will start

Songs

with the pupils reading the songs

Exercises

lyric provided for them.


Pupils will sing the song.
Explain subject verb agreement in
teaching pupils to identify the
giving some examples and using

pupils where they will have to


lyric of the song.
Pupils will be drilled by using all
the verbs found in the lyric to

18

implement the plan


within a time frame.

construct simple sentences.


In 3rd session, new song (appendix
6) with some subject verb

Date: 16th-27th of

agreement errors will be used

February 2015

where the pupils need to identify

and make the correction.


At the end of the cycle one, pupils
will be given a post-test as to see

their progress.
Pupils were interviewed involved
individually as data collection.

Observe

Observing the pupils involved

Songs

Observing the

carefully throughout the process in

Checklist

pupils involved

order to check on the changes or

carefully.

response of the pupils.

Observe the

Observe the effectiveness of using

effectiveness of

songs to improve the use subject-

using songs.

verb agreement error.

Date: 3rd March


2015 18 April
2015
Reflect
Reflect on the strength Upon completing the intervention as Songs and exercises
and drawback of the
whole process
Analyse the data and
findings from the
observation
Implement an improved
activity
Report writing

well as post-test, I will reflect on the


strength and drawback of the whole
process

so

that

can

make

improvement for the next cycle.


Reflect the activity whether it is a
success or not and I have to
identify weaknesses and strengths
19

Date: 20th-24th April

from the activity.


Modification to the activity need to be
done if the outcomes do not meet
the specification of the research
and

the

same

cycle

will

be

repeated.

5.2 Data Gathering Methods


I use three data collection method that are:
5.2.1 Observational Checklist (Appendix 8)
Observational checklist will be used to measure
pupils performances in suing subject verb agreement. The
data of changes of the pupils in using subject verb
agreement will be measured through their answers as well
as their ability in using the correct subject verb agreement.

5.2.2 Pupils exercise and tasks (Appendix 1)


At first, I compile few pupils exercises as I pick them
randomly and when I have identified those pupils who really
need help in subject-verb agreement, I then compile their
exercise books and Im going through all the exercise given
by me or the previous teacher.
5.2.3 Test (pre-test and post-test) (Appendix 3)
In pre-test, I have given a simple test to pupils and
ask them to identify underline correct verbs. The sentences
consist of five simple sentences, three compound sentences
and two complex sentences. For post-test, it was just similar
20

with the pre-test in terms of format. The differences that I put


in the sentences was the subjects and verbs used. I also
used pictures in complimenting the sentences as questions.
5.2.4 Interview (Appendix 9)
After three sessions of the intervention, the pupils will
have sessions of interviewed that talk about their perception
towards the songs used to improve their use of subject verb
agreement. The interview will be using semi-structured
format of interview. The data collected will answer the
second research question.

5.4

Data Analysis Methods


There are four methods of data collection. It helps to explain more
about the use of subject verb agreement by pupils through qualitative and
quantitative method. In order to obtain data from test method, we usually
use statistical data. Both cycles require different set of data analysing.
Both pre-test and post-test data were present in a table. For observation
method, the collected data also presented in a table form and the data
were presented separately because in the table, the data of changes in
pupils about subject verb agreement can be seen clearly. Finally, for
interview method, both interviews were conducted at the end of each
session, in which either cycles or sessions, the questions are almost
similar. I use similar questions because it helps me to interpret better data
at the end of cycle 2.

5.4.1 Pre-test and post-test (Appendix 10)


Both the tests (pre-test and post-test) will be applied during
the intervention process. The pre-test will be carried out once in the
21

first session in the first cycle and the post-test will also be carried out
once after the intervention is used in the research. The pupils score
in these two tests will be used and tabulated in a table form to
analyse the pupils progress and performance in using subject verb
agreement for each session.

5.4.2 Observation (Appendix 11)

The data collected will be presented in a table form. The


frequency of the changes will be analysed in every session so that
teacher can plot the changes in students in using subject verb
agreement. The method used try to answer the first research
question and the result will be analysed qualitatively.

5.4.3 Interview (Appendix 12)


Interview will be carried out at the end of each session. This
method attempts to answer the second research question. The
interview questions are focusing on the pupils perception as well as
to measure the effectiveness of using the songs in learning subject
verb agreement. The interview will be semi-structured so that pupils
will feel comfortable and not tied to voice out their opinions and
views regarding the songs used to measure their use of subject verb
agreement. The interview questions will be prepared early and the
pupils answers will be recorded.

6.0 IMPLEMENTING PLAN OF ACTION

22

6.1 Schedule for action plan


N
o
1

Date
16/02/15
27/02/15

Action

Identify issue to be improved in Year 5 Hazim.


Teacher tries to identify the language problem
faced by the pupils by observing the interactions

02/03/15

of the pupils.
Carried out the preliminary investigation on the

issue identified.
Collecting and analysing data about the issue.
Designing an intervention for the observed

06/03/15

09/03/15
13/03/15

problem.
Constructing

data

collection

tools

and

intervention.
Teacher carried out grammar lessons by using

intervention tools for the first session.


Teacher carried out grammar lessons by using

the intervention tools for the second session.


Teacher carried out grammar lessons by suing

the intervention tools for the third session.


Teacher collects and analyses the data.

Reflection on action taken

Teacher identifies the strength and weakness of


the intervention.

Teacher improves and prepares for second


cycle.

6.2

Budget
My budget is as below:

23

Items

Price (per unit)


RM 0.80
RM8.40
Rm 25
Rm 5

Manila card
A4 papers
Printer Ink
Photocopy
TOTAL

24

Quantity
5
2 reams
1
10
RM 50.80

REFERENCES
Corder, S.P (1967). The significance of learners errors. IRAL Vol. 5, No. 4. Pp.161-169
Bahiyah Abdul Hamid & Basil Wijayasuria. (1998) English Grammar for Malaysians.
Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Dorn, D. (2000). Building Essays: A reader centered writing guide: New Jersey: prentice
Hall.
Munir Shuib (1991). An analysis of Malaysian learners English agreement errors.
University of Essex.
Chitravelu, N, Sithamparam, S., & The, S.C. (2001). ELT Methodology: Principles and
Practice. Selangor: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.
MOE. (n.d). Year 4 Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran. Retrieved February
10th, 2015, from http://www.kssronline.com/p/kssr.html
Idek, S., Fong, L., & Sidhu, G. K. (2013). The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in
Learning and Teaching Subject-Verb Agreement. English Language Teaching, 6(6),
p113.
Hinkel, E. (2012). Cognitive-Code Learning. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.
Retrieved April 25, 2012 from http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/48/prt%253A9781-4419-1428-6%252F3.pdf?
auth66=1398543314_28a043e55f2ae8bd001120aa4c2077cfa&ext=.pdf
Foster, E. (2006). The Value of songs and chants for young learners. Encuentro, 16, 6368.
Chitravelu, N. et. at (2005). ELT Methodology: Principles and Practice. Selangor: Fajar
Bakti.

Lo, R. & Fai Li, H. C. (1998). Songs enhance learner involvement. English Teaching
FORUM, 36/3:8-11

25

Maros, M. Hua, T. K., & Salehuddin, K. (2007). Interference in learning English:


Grammatical errors in English essay writing among rural Malay secondary school
students in Malaysia. Jurnal e-Bangi, 2(2), 1-15
Writing Commons, (n.d.). Subject-Verb Agreement. Retrieved 11th March, 2015 from
http://writingcommons.org.open-test/style/grammar/*/06-subject-verb-agreement
Nuttall, C. (1996). Selecting Text. In Underhill, A. (5 th ed.). Teaching Reading Skills: In Foreign
Language (pp 170). United Kingdom: Macmillan Education

Kemmis, S., (2009). Action research as a practice-based practice. Educational Action


Research, 17(3), 463-474
Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R, (2005). Communicative action and the public sphere,
Denzin, NK & Lincoln, YS (red.), The Sage Handbook of qualitative research, 3, 559603.

26

Table 1 Selection Process of Participants

Student
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Interview
X
X
O
X
X
X
O
X
X
X

O
X
X
O
X
X
X
O
X
X
X
O
X
X
O
O
X
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
O
X
X
O = Students passed
X = Students failed

27

Document Analysis
O
O
X
X
X
O
X
O

Test
O
O
X
X
-

O
O
X
O
O
X
O
O
X
O
O
O
O
X
O
O
X
O
O

O
X
X
X
X
-