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Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are also called repetitive stress injuries (or

illnesses or syndromes). CTDs refer not to one disorder, but to a large category of
disorders thay may be caused by repeted movements of the body, which
often affects the wrists of computer keyboard users, elbow pains, forearm or shoulder
complaints.These symptoms can occur while working or resting and they appear by forcing
the body to behave in ways that wasnt designed to..
CTDs cases may take months or years to develop and the symptoms may persist even
after days abreast. Extreme cases may require medical attention. However such extreme cases
are avoidable the early the symptoms are detected. Some people get CTDs for non-work
reasons, because home activities may also lead to discomfort.
How are CTSs treated?
Usually the best treatment for CTDs is rest from the activities that caused the problem, or a
change in work practices. Also managers could reduce these disorders by educating the
Hearing Impairment it is widely recognized that loud noise can lead to loss of
hearing. However, the exposure to loud noise has also been found to be related to high blood
pressure and digestive, allergic, and muscular disorders. Exposure to loud noise has also been
found to lead to disorientation and reduction of eye focus, also to an increase in the rate of
accidents and injuries.
Some studies said that less than 50 % of employees who should wear hearing
protectors actually wear them. More than this, many employees who wear hearing protectors
dont wear them correctly. Part of the problem in dealing with the prevention of hearing loss
is getting employees to recognize and take this kind of problem. Also,people with highfrequency hearing loss have trouble hearing sounds at high frequencies and people with lowfrequency hearing loss have trouble hearing sounds at low frequencies. People with these kind
of problems can hear noise but they are unable to understand it. There are many good
treatment options to choose.
The best way to prevent this is: reducing the amount of noise in the work environment
being a direct and primary way of preventing this problem. Although, noise reduction isnt
always possible, many organizations are finding that new machinery often offers the
advantage of quieter operation. Efforts to prevent hearing loss need to be based on system
(machinery) and person (employee) factors.
Fetal Protection, Hazardous Chemicals, and Genetic Testing
During the 1970s and 1980s, many U.S. firms developed workplace policies designed
to prevent pregnant employees exposed to chemicals that might damage the baby. These
policies they tended to restrict womens access to some of industrys better-paying jobs.
The reproductive health is an important workplace issue with the potential to affect
thousands of employers and millions of workers. Approximately 20 million workers (mostly
women) were potentially affected by some form of workplace exclusion from employment
opportunities. Moreover, it has been estimated that 20% of American companies and at least
15 % corporations were using FPPs, and those numbers were growing. It appears that
reproductive injuries are included among the ten most common work-related illnesses as well.
Since not all women who can become mothers wish to become mothers (or will
become mothers), it would appear to be illegal discrimination to treat all the women who are
capable of pregnancy. Some people are saying that women have the authority to do as they
want with their bodies. Each individual employee can decide if a womans reproductive role is
more important to herself and her family than her economic role. FPLs simply do not work.
They are concentrating on the unborn at the risk of ignoring those who are born.What we

understand is that pregnancy discrimination is sex discrimination because most of companies

chose to treat all its female employees as potentially pregnant.
Hazardous chemicals
Many thousands of workplace accidents and injuries reported each year have been
attributed to exposure to toxic chemicals. In the past, workers were often required to handle
chemicals without being so informed about the hazards involved.. Nowadays the companies
need to identify the chemicals, providing information about them, and train employees how to
work in this kind of situations..
Haz-Map is a useful tool for preventing toxic exposures and also is used for
identifying the occupational diseases.
Genetic testing
A new tool is genetic testing , which can be used to identify employees who are genetically at
risk of illness or disability.
According to one report, 390,000 workers are diagnosted with diseases each year; 100,000 of
these workers die. With this kind of tool and with the information obtained, workers could
avoid work environments that would be toxic for their health, saving workers and their
families the physical, emotional, and financial costs of not having diseases and premature