Oliver Nikolic
oliver.nikolic1@hotmail.com
2015
Contents
2.9 Conservation of Probability . . .
1 Mathematical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
2
2.10 The Harmonic Oscilator . . . . .
1.1 Inner product . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 Theory of Angular Momentum
1.3 Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle
3
3.1 Orbital Angular Momentum . . .
1.4 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1.1 Spherical Harmonics . . .
1.5 Matrix Representation of Operators 4
3.2 Spin Angular Momentum . . . .
1.6 Continuous Bases . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2.1 Spin1/2 Particles . . . .
1.7 MomentumSpace Wave function . 4
3.3 Total Angular Momentum . . . .
3.4 Addition of Angular Momentum
2 Quantum Dynamics
5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
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11
11
12
12
13
14
14
In Paul Diracs formulation of quantum mechanics1 ; a physical state is fully described by an abstract
vector, i, called ket vector2 , and is defined in a so called Hilbert space. A Hilbert space H is a
linear complex vector space of dimension corresponding to the number of states that the physical
system can be in, and may be infinite. Each ket vector has its corresponding bra vector, h, in
a dual Hilbert space Hd . It is useful to think of ket vectors as column vectors and bra vectors
as complex conjugated row vectors, where these are related through the Hermitian adjoint an
operation composed of complex conjugation and vector transpose, and is denoted with a dagger
as i = h [5, pp. 8485].
1.1
Inner product
The inner product of i and i forms a bra ket, and can be represented in an orthonormal basis
as
1
n
2 X
hi = 1 , 2 , , n . =
i i .
(1.1)
..
i=1
n
The ket vectors i and i are orthogonal if hi = 0. Furthermore, its convenient to work with
normalized ket vectors, such that for any ket vector i,
hi =
n
X
i i =
i=1
1.2
n
X
i 2 = 1.
(1.2)
i=1
Operators
Physical quantities that can be measured are called observables. Each observable has its corresponding operator which produces a new ket vector when acting on a ket vector. For example,
Ai
=
i
{z}
a
{z}
a C.
(1.3)
eigenvalue eigenvector
Since quantum mechanics is probabilistic, we are forced to deal with probabilities of different
the expectation value
outcomes of measurements. For an observable represented by the operator A,
of the corresponding observable in the state i is given by hAi = hAi [6, pp. 24].
1.3
Heisenbergs uncertainty principle is a generalization of CauchySchwarz inequality for two observ which states
ables A and B and the associated operators A and B,
1
h[A, B]i,
(1.4)
2
q
2 , and analogue for B [5, pp. 95where A is the standard deviation in A, i.e. A = hA2 i hAi
96]. This inequality implies an uncertainty in the observables whos operators do not commute.
As an example, consider the onedimensional momentum operator in position representation, p =
i~/x, and the position operator x
= x. The commutator of x
and p (multiplied with a ket
vector in this case) becomes
AB
[
x, p]i = i~x
(1.5)
1.4
~
.
2
(1.6)
Completeness
(1.7)
Multiplying Eq. (1.7) with hn0  from the left gives that cn = hni due to the orthonormality of
the base vectors: hn0 ni = n,n0 , where is the Kronecker delta function. Inserting the expression
for cn back in Eq. (1.7) gives
X
X
i =
hnini =
nihni,
(1.8)
n
nihn = I,
(1.9)
where I is just the identity operator which leaves a ket vector unchanged when acting on it. Equation
(1.9) is the so called completeness relation, and is frequently used.
1.5
n0
h1A1i h1A2i
h2A1i
h2A2i
A = .
..
..
..
.
.
hkA1i
hkA2i
...
0
1.6
(1.11)
.. .
.
hkAki
Continuous Bases
So far we have only considered representations in discrete bases. In continuous orthonormal bases,
the previously discussed relations changes slightly. Here, we will denote discrete complete orthonormal bases as {ni} or {n0 i} and denote the continuous complete orthonormal bases {i}. The
orthonormality between ket vectors changes as
hn0 ni = n0 ,n hn0 n i = (n0 n),
(1.12)
where (m n) is the Dirac delta function. The completeness relation (Eq. (1.9)) changes from a
sum to an integral as
Z
X
nihn = I dih = I.
(1.13)
n
(1.14)
By expressing a ket vector in the position basis {xi}, which is obvious a continuous basis, we
obtain the familiar wave function as hxi = (x). The inner product of i and i may then be
expressed in terms of wave functions as
Z
Z
hi = dxhxihxi = dx (x)(x),
(1.15)
where it has been used that habi = hbai .
1.7
Z
(p) = hpi =
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
Z
dxhpxihxi =
dxhxpi(x).
(1.17)
hxpi,
x
(1.18)
ipx
where the solution is easily obtained as hxpi = Ae ~ . The normalization constant can be found,
for example, by requiring that the ket vectors xi are orthogonal, i.e.
Z
Z
Z
ip
0
0
0
0
0
2
(1.19)
hx xi = (x x ) = dphx pihpxi = dphx pihxpi = A
dpe ~ (x x) .

{z
}
2~(xx0 )
This shows that A = 1/ 2~. The wave functions (1.16) and (1.17) becomes then
Z
ipx
1
(x) =
dp(p)e ~ ,
2~
Z
ipx
1
(p) =
dx(x)e ~ .
2~
(1.20)
(1.21)
The wave function (x) can be viewed as the Fourier transform of (p), and (p) can be viewed
as the inverse Fourier transform of (x), or vice versa depending on the sign convention used in
defining the Fourier transform.
Quantum Dynamics
(t, t0 ), t0 i = 1 ei(tt0 )(Bz )/2 +i + 1 ei(tt0 )(Bz )/2 i.
, ti = U
2
2
2.1
(2.1)
It is easy verify that the time evolution operator is satisfying the fundamental equation governing
(t, t0 )
the dynamics of quantum mechanical systems; the Schrodinger equation4 . Differentiation of U
4 Schrodingers original development of this equation can be viewed in: Schrdinger E. Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem, Annalen der Physik, 79(6), 1926.
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
gives
1
U (t, t0 ) = H
U (t, t0 ).
t
i~
(2.2)
(t)i = H(t)i.
(2.3)
t
The position representation of (2.3) gives the wave function Schrodinger equation. If the Hamilto = p2 + V (
nian is describing a particle experiencing a potential V (
x), i.e., H
x), then
2m
i~
hxi~
p2
p2
(t)i = hx
+ V (
x) (t)i = hx
(t)i + hxV (
x)(t)i
t
2m
2m
~2 2
(2.4)
(2.5)
~
x) = V (x)hx, since p2 and V (
x) are
where we have used that hx
p2 = 2m
x2 hx and hxV (
necessarily Hermitian. This approach to obtain the timedependent wave Schrodinger equation
(2.5) can easily be generalized to obtain the multidimensional timedependent wave Schrodinger
equation as
~2 2
2
2
+
+
(x, y, z, t) + V (x, y, z)(x, y, z, t) = i~ (x, y, z, t),
2
2
2
2m x
y
z
t
(2.6)
or in shorthand notation
2.2
~2 2
(2.7)
The expectation value of an observable A in the state (t)i (putting t0 = 0, without loss of
generality) is
= h(t)A(t)i
(t)AU
(t)(0)i.
hAi
= h(0)U
(2.8)
d
d
It is easy to work out an expression for dt
hAi by using the Schrodinger equation twice; i~ dt
U (t) =
d
(t) and i~ U
(t) = U (t)H
to obtain
HU
dt
d
(t) iH AU
(t) U
A iH U
(t) + U
(t) A U
(t) (0)i
hAi = h(0) U
dt
~
~
t
d
1
A
hAi = h[A,
H]i + h
i.
dt
i~
t
(2.9)
(2.10)
2.3
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
So far, we have assigned the time dependence to the state vectors, whereas operators have been
assumed to have no time dependence. This representation of quantum dynamics is known as the
Schrodinger picture [5, p. 572].
(t, t0 )(t0 )i.
(t)i = U
(2.11)
Differentiation Eq. (2.11) with respect to time and multiplying with i~ resembles the Schrodinger
equation
d
(2.12)
i~ (t)i = H(t)i.
dt
2.4
In the Heisenberg picture, the situation is reversed, i.e. state vectors does not depend on time but
operators do [5, pp. 572573]. In this picture we will write AH (t) and iH to denote that the
operator and the ket is in the Heisenberg picture. To get the timeindependent ket vector in the
Heisenberg picture iH from the Schrodinger picture, we have to apply the inverse time translation
(t), i.e
operator U
(t)(t)i = U
(t)U
(t)(t)i = (0)i.
iH = U
(2.13)
The expectation value of an operator in the Heisenberg picture is
H hAH (t)iH
(t)AU
(t)(0)i = h(t)A(t)i,
= h(0)U
(2.14)
(2.15)
An important remark is that the expectation values are equal in both the Schrodinger and the
Heisenberg picture.
d H
A can easily be verify to become
The expression for dt
d
1
AH = [AH , H],
dt
i~
(2.16)
2.5
In the interaction picture, both ket vectors and operators possess time dependence [5, pp. 573574].
= H
0 + V (t),
This picture is very useful when the Hamiltonian can be split into two terms; H
where V (t) carries the total time dependence. The state vectors (t)iI in the interaction pictures
are defined as
(t)(0)i.
(t)iI = U
(2.17)
The time evolution of the state vectors in this picture are governed by
i~
d
(t)iI = VI (t)(t)iI .
dt
(2.18)
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
(2.19)
1
d
0 ].
AI (t) = [AI , H
dt
i~
(2.20)
2.6
Whenever an operator A commutes with the Hamiltonian and is explicitly not depending on time;
H]
= 0, and /tA = 0, then the observable A is a constant of motion as time evolves. If the
[A,
commutes with
operator A commutes with the Hamiltonian, then any function of the operator f (A)
the Hamiltonian.
In classical mechanics, conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum are consequences of homogenity of time, homogenity of space and isotropy of space respectively. In analogy,
in quantum mechanics whenever the Hamiltonian is invariant under a unitary transformation, the
generator of transformation is conserved [5, pp. 182183].
t (t) = eiHt/~
Consider the time translation operator U
, the position translation operator
x (x) = eixp/~
U
and the rotation operator U () = einJ which rotates the system around n
is the angular momentum operator (3.18). These operators are clearly unitary. The correwhere J
respectively
p and J
sponding generators of transformation for time, position and rotation are H,
[5, pp. 183187].
2.7
Commuting Operators
When operators commute; the corresponding observables can be measured simultaneously to arbitrary accuracy. If a system has a complete set of commuting operators (CSCO), then it is possible
to construct simultaneous eigenstates of these set of operators [5, pp. 175177].
2.8
In Feynmans path integral formulation of quantum mechanics5 , the probability amplitude of being
in the state x(t)i at a time t, given that the system earlier was in the state x0 (t)i at the time t0 is
given by the propagator [6, p. 128]
(t, t0 )x0 i =
K(x, t; x0 , t0 ) = hxU
x0
x0
exp
x0
hZ
t0
i
i
L(q, q,
t)dt dx1 dx2 dxn ,
~
(2.21)
where L is the Lagrangian, and the integrals are performed aver all possible connections between
the initial state and the final state in the timespace plane. By introducing D[x(t)] = dx1 dx2 ...dxn ,
5 See Feynmans original development of the Path integral formulation in: R.P. Feynman. SpaceTime Approach
to NonRelativistic Quantum Mechanics, Reviews of Modern Physics, 20(2), 1948.
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
D[x(t)]exp
hZ
x0
t0
i
i
L(q, q,
t)dt .
~
(2.22)
The propagator can also be interpreted as the Greens function for the Schrodinger equation [6,
p. 119], satisfying
K(x, t; x0 , t0 ) = (x x0 )(t t0 ).
(2.23)
i~ H
t
When the propagator is acting on an initial wave function, it produces the final wave function
as an integral transform according to [6, p. 118]
Z
(x, t) = dx0 K(x, t; x0 , t0 )(x0 , t0 ).
(2.24)
2.8.1
Theres a close relation between the propagator and the partition function in statistical mechanics.
Consider the propagator
X
where the relation (1.9) has been used for the eigenstates ni of the Hamiltonian. If we now require
that x0 = x and perform a Wick rotation, i.e. it/~ = 1/Kb T , we then find that
Z
X
X
dx
eiEn t/~ hnxihxni =
eEn ,
(2.26)
n
2.9
(2.27)
Conservation of Probability
The probability density function is in position representation (x, t) = (x, t)(x, t) = (x, t)2 .
We start by consider
Now, consider the Schrodinger equation and its complex conjugated equation,
i~
i~
i~
(x, t)
~2 2 (x, t)
=
+ V (x, t)(x, t),
t
2m x2
(x, t)
~2 2 (x, t)
=
+ V (x, t) (x, t).
t
2m
x2
9
(2.28)
(2.29)
(2.30)
QUANTUM DYNAMICS
Multipling Eq.(2.29) with (x, t) and multiplying Eq.(2.30) with (x, t) and subtracting one of
these equations from the other gives
i~ (x, t)
2 (x, t)
(x, t)
(x, t)
~2
2 (x, t)
(x, t)
(x, t)
. (2.31)
+ i~(x, t)
=
2
t
t
2m
x
x2
Combining Eq. (2.9) and Eq. (2.31) gives then the conservation law
(x, t)
+
J(x, t) = 0,
t
x
(2.32)
i~
(x, t)
(x, t)
(x, t)
.
(x, t)
2m
x
x
(2.33)
i~
(r, t) (r, t) (r, t)(r, t) .
2m
(2.34)
(2.35)
As an example, consider the plane wave wave function (x, t) = Aei(kxt) . Equation (2.33)
gives after simplifications that the probability current density becomes J(x, t) = A2 ~k
m = v,
since (x, t) = (x, t)(x, t) = A2 . This can be connected to the classical current density
Jclassical = nqv, where q is the electron charge as Jclassical = qJ.
2.10
In this section, we are going to solve the harmonic oscillator problem in an algebrac way using
creation and annihilation operators, see for example [5, pp. 239245] for details. The Hamiltonian
for the harmonic oscillator is
2
= p + 1 m 2 x
H
2 .
(2.36)
2m 2
p
By introducing x
0 = x
m/~ and p0 = p/( m~), we may rewrite the Hamiltonian (2.36) as
= ~ (p0 2 + x0 2 ).
H
2
(2.37)
1 0 2 0 2
i 0 0
(p + x ) + [
x , p ],
2
2
(2.38)
=a
and N
commute, hence these operators
where N
a
is the number operator. Its obvious that H
possess common eigenstates ni such that
ni = nni,
N
(2.40)
1
~ni.
(2.41)
Hni
= En ni = n +
2
It can be shown that n is a positive number. The creation and annihilation operators acts on the
states ni as
a
ni = n + 1n + 1i,
(2.42)
a
ni =
nn 1i.
(2.43)
0i.
n!
(2.44)
We will now represent the eigenstates ni in position space in order to obtain
the wave
p
functions.
Recall that the creation operator is defined as a
= 12 (
x0 i
p0 ) = 12 (
x m/~ i
p/ m~).
n
1 m n2
~ d n
1
0i =
x
0 (x),
n (x) = hxni = hx a
m dx
n!
n! 2~
(2.45)
where 0 (x) is the ground state wave function, which can be determined by requiring that n0i = 0
1/4 mx2
R
e 2~ .
and using the normalization condition 0 (x)2 dx = 1 to become 0 (x) = m
~
When dealing with angular momentum, we are forced to work in multidimensional space since
angular momentum doesnt exist in onedimensional space. We will discuss orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum, and how to add these together to obtain the total anuglar
momentum.
3.1
= (L
= r P,
where
x, L
y, L
z ) can be written as L
The orbital angular momentum operator L
r is the position operator and P is the momentum operator, hence L = i~r in position
are related to its components as L
2 = L
2 + L
2 + L
2 , where the components are
representation. L
x
y
z
easily found to be
x = i~ y z ,
L
z
y
y = i~ z x
L
,
x
z
11
z = i~ x
L
y
.
y
x
(3.1)
i, L
j ] = i~ijk L
k , where ijk is the antisymThese components obeys the commutation relations [L
2
commutes with any component L
i , hence its possible to find a
metric tensor. The operator L
common basis of eigenvectors ml , li of these operators. The rule for the qunatum numbers defining
2 and L
z
the eigenvectors is that ml = l, l + 1, ..., l 1, l for a given value of l. The actions of L
on the common eigenstates ml , li are
2 ml , li = ~2 l(l + 1)ml , li,
z ml , li = ~ml ml , li.
L
L
(3.2)
+ and the lowering operator L
can be written L
= L
x iL
y . These
The raising operator L
operators changes the quantum number ml by 1 and acts as
p
ml , li = ~ l(l + 1) ml (ml 1)ml 1, li.
(3.3)
L
See for example [5, pp. 283285, 301] for derivations.
3.1.1
Spherical Harmonics
sin
(3.4)
(3.5)
where Yl,ml (, ) are the so called normalized spherical harmonics. These are the solutions to the
eigenvalueeigenvector equations:
2 Yl,m (, ) = ~2 l(l + 1)Yl,m (, ),
L
l
l
(3.6)
(3.7)
and
which can be shown to be [5, pp. 303306]
s
(1)l 2l + 1 (l ml )! iml 1
dlml
Yl,ml (, ) = l
e
(sin )2l ,
m
2 l!
4 (l + ml )!
sin d(cos )lml
3.2
m 0.
(3.8)
Spin is an intrinsic angular momentum that particles possess and is a purely quantum mechanical
= (Sx , Sy , Sz ) is related to its components as S
2 = S2 + S2 + S2
effect. The spin operator S
x
y
z
and obeys the same commutation relations as the orbital angular momentum; [Si , Sj ] = i~ijk .
Furthermore, the actions of the respective operators when acting on the common eigenstates of S
and Sz are also similar,
2 ms , si = ~2 s(s + 1)ms , si,
S
12
(3.9)
S = Sx iSy ,
(3.10)
p
S ms , si = ~ s(s + 1) ms (ms 1)ms 1, si.
(3.11)
And as previously, ms = s, s + 1, ..., s 1, s for a given value of the spin quantum number6 s.
3.2.1
Spin1/2 Particles
For a spin1/2 particle (s = 1/2) ms = {1/2, 1/2}. The two different quantum numbers ms
corresponds to two different spin states
complete basis in a two which forms an
orthonormal
1
0
1 1
1 1
dimensional Hilbert space:  2 , 2 i =
and  2 , 2 i =
.
0
1
Recall the section of matrix representation of operators, which shows that we can represent an
operator as a matrix according to (1.11). In the basis {ms , si} = { 21 , 12 i,  12 , 21 i}, Sz can be
represented as
1 1
~ 1 0
h 12 , 12 Sz  12 , 21 i
h 2 , 2 Sz  21 , 12 i
=
.
(3.12)
Sz =
2 0 1
h 12 , 12 Sz  12 , 12 i h 12 , 12 Sz  12 , 12 i
Now we want to find the raising and lowering operators. Since the raising operator S+ increases
ms with 1 and ms is restricted to ms = {1/2, 1/2}, we must have that S+  21 , 12 i = 0. In analogy
for S , one concludes that S  12 , 12 i = 0. We get then, using (1.11) again and (3.11) that
S+ =
and
S =
h 12 , 12 S+  12 , 12 i
h 21 , 12 S+  21 , 12 i
h 12 , 12 S+  12 , 12 i
h 12 , 21 S+  12 , 12 i
h 12 , 12 S  21 , 12 i
h 12 , 12 S  12 , 12 i
h 12 , 12 S  21 , 12 i
h 12 , 12 S  12 , 12 i
=~
0
0
1
,
0
(3.13)
=~
0
1
0
.
0
(3.14)
Sx =
,
Sy =
.
(3.15)
2 1 0
2 i 0
This is the representation of the spin operator components in the frame of the zcomponent, which
is convention. The total spin operator vector can be related to a vector of matrix components as
~
= ~
S
i , where
2 , where each component is related as Si = 2
0 1
0 i
1 0
x =
,
y =
,
z =
.
(3.16)
1 0
i 0
0 1
These are the Pauli spin matrices for spin1/2 particles [5, pp. 297301]. To obtan the matrix
2 , one can follow the previous approaches and calculate the matrix
representation of the operator S
6 When
refering to spin (for example, an electron has spin 1/2), we mean the value of s.
13
3.3
0
1
1
0
0
1
2
~ 0
1
+
0
4 i
i
0
0
i
2
~ 1
i
+
0
4 0
0
1
1
0
3~2 1
0
=
0
1
4
0
. (3.17)
1
(3.18)
(3.19)
(3.20)
(3.21)
3.4
1 and J
2 , which are operating on different
Consider two different angular momentum operators, J
subspaces and hence commute with each other, i.e. [J1 , J2 ] = 0. Individually, each operator
obey the usual commutation relations as previously. The problem in adding angular momenta, i.e.
= J
1 + J
2 = J
1 I + I J
2 is in finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of J
2 and
finding J
2
2
, J1 , J2 all commute, its possible to find a common basis
,J
Jz . However, since the operators J
2
1
z
z
of eigenvectors where these operators can jointly be diagonalized. We will denote this common
eigenstate m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i and can be thought of as a product of the eigenstates in each subspace,
m1 , j1 i and m2 , j2 i,
m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i = m1 , j1 i m2 , j2 i,
m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i H = H1 H2 .
m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i H = H1 H2 .
(3.22)
(3.23)
The actions of the relevant operators on the common eigenstates are (see for example [6, pp. 223226]
or [5, pp. 403409])
2 m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i = ~2 j1 (j1 +1)m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i,
J
1
Furhtermore, the raising and lowering operators are related as J = J1 +J2 , where each individual
operator acts as
p
(3.26)
J1 m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i = ~ (j1 m1 )(j1 m1 + 1)m1 1, m2 , j1 , j2 i,
p
J2 m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i = ~ (j2 m2 )(j2 m2 + 1)m1 , m2 1, j1 , j2 i.
(3.27)
j2
X
m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i hm1 , m2 , j1 , j2  = 1,
(3.28)
m1 =j1 m2 =j2
and orthonormal;
hm1 , m2 , j1 , j2 m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i = j10 ,j1 j20 ,j2 m01 ,m1 m02 ,m2 .
(3.29)
We want to find the state m, ji in the basis {m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i}. Inserting the identity gives the
relation in terms of the ClebschGordan coefficients
m, ji =
j1
X
j2
X
m1 , m2 , j1 , j2 i hm1 , m2 , j1 , j2  m, ji =
(3.30)
m1 =j1 m2 =j2
j1
X
j2
X
m1 =j1 m2 =j2
ClebschGordan coefficients
The ClebschGordan coefficients (CGC) are nonzero when the condistions: m = m1 + m2 and
j1 j2  j j1 + j2 are met simultaneously. These rules are the selection rules for the CGC. The
problem in adding angular momenta is thus to find the CGC [5, pp. 406411].
So far, we have been treating particles as if we can distinguish them. In classical mechanics, this
is the proper way to treat the problem in terms of distinguishibility where its possible to track
every single particles trajectory in phase space. When describing many particle systems, we will
have to construct symmetric or antisymmetric states depending on the type of particles that we
are considering, takes into account the fact that we can not tell which particle is in which state [5,
pp. 455463].
Consider a twoparticle system and suppose we have obtained an normalized asymmetric wave
function (x1 , x2 ). It is then possible to construct a symmetric wave function as s (x1 , x2 ) as
1
s (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 , x2 ) + (x2 , x1 ) ,
2
15
(4.1)
(4.2)
4.1
A fermion is a particle with halfodd integral spin, such as the electrons, neutrons and quarks.
In constrast, bosons are particles with integral spin, such as photons and pions, to name a few.
The wave function that is describing bosons must be symmetric, and remain unchanged upon
interchaning two particle. For fermions there must be the reversed; the wave function is asymmetric
upon interchanging two particles [5, pp. 460464].
4.2
2m
For a system of two identical particles the symmetric wave function s (x1 , x2 ) and the antisymmetric wave function a (x1 , x2 ) can be constructed from the singleparticle wave functions as
1
s (x1 , x2 ) = 1 (x1 )2 (x2 ) + 1 (x2 )2 (x1 )
2
1
a (x1 , x2 ) = 1 (x1 )2 (x2 ) 1 (x2 )2 (x1 )
2
(4.4)
(4.5)
so when the permutation operator P which interchanges x1 with x2 , acts on these states, one obtains
P s (x1 , x2 ) = s (x1 , x2 )
(4.6)
P a (x1 , x2 ) = a (x1 , x2 ).
(4.7)
This is fine as long as the particles are in different states, i.e. at least one of the quantum numbers
defining the states 1 (x) differs from 2 (x). If these the particles states however are equal, the
antisymmetric wave function becomes zero, which can be considered to be a consequence of the
Pauli exclusion principle. The symmetric wave function however, needs a more general formula for
taking this into account. The appropriate formulas for a system of N identical particles with N1
particles in state 1, N2 particles in state 2 and so on becomes
s
N1 !N2 ! . . . NN ! X
(4.9)
PERTURBATION THEORY
P
where P is over the terms which gives distinct terms.
When including spin degree of freedom, we can interpret the spin state as a wave function
(s). For bosons, this implies that for a N particle system, (x1 , x2 , ..., xN )(s1 ,2 , ..., sN ) must by
symmetric, and for fermions (x1 , x2 , ..., xN )(s1 ,2 , ..., sN ) must be antisymmetric [5, pp. 467469].
Perturbation Theory
Perturbation theory can be applied when a weak perturbation is described by an extra term in
the Hamiltonian, whereas the the solutions is know or can be obtained for the unperturbed part of
Hamiltonian.
First we consider the timeindependent nondegenerate case. Assuming that we can split the
into a term of a known solution H
0 and one small perturbation term H
p as
Hamiltonian H
=H
0 + H
p = H
0 + V ,
H
1,
(5.1)
(5.2)
X hm V n i2
.
En Em
(5.4)
m6=n
5.1
(5.5)
where we know the solutions: En0 and the ffold degenerate eigenvectors n i = 1, 2, ..., f to
0 n i = En0 n i.
H
p n i
hn1 H
1
hn H
p n i
2
1
..
Hp =
.
h H
nf
p n1 i
.
(5.6)
..
..
..
(5.7)
.
.
.
p n i . . . hn H
p f i
hnf H
2
1
f
17
PERTURBATION THEORY
After diagonalizing the matrix, the eigenvalues En1 and the corresponding eigenvectors a =
(a,1 , a,1 , ..., a,f ) are found. The energy eigenvalues are given to first order by
En = En0 + En1 ,
(5.8)
f
X
a, n i.
(5.9)
=1
5.2
Consider a system described by a Hamiltonian with a timedependent perturbation term V (t) and
0 with known solutions:
a timeindependent part H
=H
0 + V (t),
H
(5.10)
0 n i = En n i.
H
(5.11)
The probability for a transition to occur from an initial state i i to a final state f i is then given
by
2
iZ t
0
hf V (t0 )i ieif i t dt0 ,
(5.12)
Pif (t) =
~ 0
where
f i =
Ef Ei
0 f i hi H
0 i i .
= hf H
~
(5.13)
hf V i i2
2 f i t
sin
.
2
~2 f i
2
(5.14)
Furthermore, a simplification of Eq. (5.12) can be madein the long time limit, i.e. when t , as
2t
hf V i i2 (Ef Ei ).
(5.15)
~
When we are considering a transition to a continuum of states, the transition probability is given
as
2t
hf V i i2 (Ei ),
(5.16)
Pif (t) =
~
where (Ei ) is the number of states per unit energy at Ei [5, pp. 576579].
Pif (t) =
18
REFERENCES
References
[1] Paul A.M. Dirac. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Oxford University Press, 4th edition,
1967.
[2] Schrdinger E. Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem, Annalen der Physik, 79(6), 1926.
[3] R.P. Feynman. SpaceTime Approach to NonRelativistic Quantum Mechanics, Reviews of Modern Physics, 20(2), 1948.
[4] R. Shankar. Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd edition, 1994.
[5] N. Zettili. Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, 2nd edition, 2009.
[6] J.J. Sakurai, Jim J. Napolitano. Modern Quantum Mehcanics, 2nd edition, 2014.
19