You are on page 1of 91

# EE201 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits

Instructor:
Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, Office: 2C20, eltamaly@ksu.edu.sa
Phone: 4676-828
Website: faculty.ksu.edu.sa/eltamaly

al
y

Text Book:
Prentice Hall, 2001.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

## Mid term tests:

First mid-term Exam:
Tuesday, 22/11/1430 H (10/11/2009)
Second Mid-Term Exam:
Sunday, 26/12/1430 H (13/12/2009)
Third Mid-Term Exam:
Tuesday, 26 /1/1431 H (12/1/2010)
Notes:
1. The best two mid-term exams will be counted
2 All mid-term
2.
id t
exams will
ill bbe performed
f
d after
ft Maghreb
M h b prayers
3. If you miss any mid-term exam, there will be no make up test for any given reasons
g Policy:
y
Mid-Term Exams:
Home Works + Quizzes
Final Exam

50%
10%
40%

Chapters

1-4

analysis

5-8

al
y

Topic

13-14

Al

iM

.E

lta

15 17
15-17

## Network Theorems (AC) circuits

18

Power ((AC))

19

Polyphase Systems

22

r.

Series/Parallel
S
i /P ll l (AC) circuits
i it
analysis

Course outline:

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## Texas Instruments TI-89 calculator.

FIG. 1.5

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

POWERSOFTEN

Chapter2
Current and Voltage
CurrentandVoltage

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

ATOMSANDTHEIRSTRUCTURE

FIG. 2.1

## Hydrogen and helium atoms.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

Shellsandsubshells oftheatomicstructure.

2n

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## The atomic structure of copper.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

CURRENT

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

If 6.242 * 1018 electrons drift at uniform velocity through the imaginary circular cross
section
sec
o oof Fig.
g. 2.7
.7 in 1 seco
second,
d, thee flow
ow oof ccharge,
a ge, or
o cu
current,
e , iss said
sa d too be 1 aampere
pe e ((A))

VOLTAGE

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

A potential difference of 1 volt (V) exists between two points if 1 joule (J) of energy
is exchanged in moving 1 coulomb (C) of charge between the two points.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

## Potential: The voltage at a point with respect to another point in the

electrical system. Typically the reference point is ground, which is at
zero potential.

.E

lta

al
y

## Potential difference: The algebraic difference in potential (or voltage)

between two points of a network.
network Voltage: When isolated,
isolated like potential,
potential
the voltage at a point with respect to some reference such as ground (0
V).

r.

Al

iM

## Voltage difference: The algebraic difference in voltage (or potential)

between two points of the system. A voltage drop or rise is as the
terminology would suggest.
Electromotive force (emf): The force that establishes the flow of
charge (or current) in a system due to the application of a difference in
potential. This term is not applied that often in todays literaturebut is
associated primarily with sources of energy.

3 1 Introduction
3.1
The resistance of any material with a uniform cross-sectional area is
determined by the following factors:
Material
Length
Cross-sectional Area
Temperature

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 3.1

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 3.25

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

Color coding.

Example 3.13.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 3.27

12 * 10 = 12 k
3

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## Five-band color coding for fixed resistors.

FIG. 3.29

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

Chapter4 OhmsLaw,Power
andEnergy

## Developed in 1827 by Georg Simon Ohm

OhmsLaw

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

E
I=
R

Where:

I=current(amperes,A)
E=voltage(volts,V)
R=resistance(ohms,)

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

Defining polarities.

FIG. 4.3

4 4 Power
4.4

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

F Powerisanindicationofhowmuchwork
(
(theconversionofenergyfromoneformto
gy
another)canbedoneinaspecificamount
;
,
ofdoingwork.
g
oftime;thatis,arate

Power

.E

lta

al
y

W
P=
t
D

r.

Al

iM

## 1 Watt ((W)) = 1 jjoule / second

PowercanbedeliveredorabsorbedasdefinedbyF
th
thepolarityofthevoltageandthedirectionofthe
l it f th
lt
d th di ti
f th
current.

4 5 Energy
4.5

lta

al
y

F Energy(W)lostorgainedbyanysystemis
determinedby:
y

r.

Al

iM

.E

W= Pt
F Sincepowerismeasuredinwatts(or
joulespersecond)andtimeinseconds,the
unitofenergyisthewattsecond (Ws)or
joule (J)

Energy

lta

al
y

Thewatt
The
wattsecond
secondistoosmallaquantityformost
is too small a quantity for most
practicalpurposes,sothewatthour (Wh)and
kilowatthour (kWh)aredefinedasfollows:

r.

Al

iM

.E

## Energy (Wh) = power (W) time (h)

power (W) time (h)
Energy (kWh) =
1000
Thekillowatthourmeter isaninstrumentused
formeasuringtheenergysuppliedtoa
residentialorcommercialuserofelectricity.
id i l
i l
f l
i i

4 6 Efficiency
4.6

al
y

Efficiency()ofasystemisdeterminedbyF
thefollowingequation:
g q

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

= Po /Pi
=efficiency(decimalnumber) Where:
Po =poweroutput
Pi =powerinput

## Chapter 5 Series dc Circuits

Series connection of resistors.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 5.4

RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ... + RN
FWhen series resistors have the same value

RT = NR

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 5.5

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FIG. 5.6

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## Schematic representation for a dc series circuit.

FIG. 5.12

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

5.5 VoltageSourcesinSeries

## F Voltage sources can be connected in series to increase or

decrease the total voltage
g applied
pp
to the system.
y
F Net voltage is determined by summing the sources
having the same polarity and subtracting the total of the
sources having the opposite polarity.

KirchhoffsVoltageLaw
F Theappliedvoltageofaseriescircuitequalsthe
sumofthevoltagedropsacrosstheseries
g
p
elements:
m

al
y

= Vdrops

lta

rises

.E

r.

Al

iM

FThesumoftherisesaroundaclosedloopmustequal
the sum of the drops.
thesumofthedrops.
F WhenapplyingKirchhoffsvoltagelaw,besureto
concentrateonthepolaritiesofthevoltageriseordrop
ratherthanonthetypeofelement.
th th
th t
f l
t
F Donottreatavoltagedropacrossaresistiveelement
differentlyfromavoltagedropacrossasource.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to a series dc circuit.

FIG. 5.26

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE5.4
Determine the unknown voltages for the networks of Fig. 5.14.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## EXAMPLE 5.5 Find V1 and V2 for the network of Fig. 5.15

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

Notation
FDoublesubscriptnotation
F Becausevoltageisanacrossvariableandexists

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

betweentwopoints,thedoublesubscriptnotation
b
i
h d bl
b i
i
definesdifferencesinpotential.
F ThedoublesubscriptnotationVab specifiespointaas
thehigherpotential.Ifthisisnotthecase,anegative
signmustbeassociatedwiththemagnitudeofVab .
F ThevoltageV
The voltage Vabb isthevoltageatpoint(a)
is the voltage at point (a) withrespect
with respect
topoint(b).

Notation

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

F Singlesubscriptnotation
F ThesinglesubscriptnotationV
The single subscript notation Va specifiesthe
specifies the
voltageatpointa withrespecttoground(zero
volts).Ifthevoltageislessthanzerovolts,a
negativesignmustbeassociatedwiththe
magnitudeofVa .

Notation
F GeneralRelationship

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

F Ifthevoltageatpointsa
g
p
andb areknown
withrespecttoground,thenthevoltageVab
canbedeterminedusingthefollowing
equation:

Vab =Va Vb

5 7 VoltageDivisioninaSeriesCircuit
5.7
Voltage Division in a Series Circuit

al
y

F Thevoltageacrosstheresistiveelementswill
divideasthemagnitudeoftheresistancelevels.
iM

.E

lta

F Thegreaterthevalueofaresistorinaseriescircuit,
themoreoftheappliedvoltageitwillcapture.

r.

Al

FV lt
FVoltageDividerRule(VDR)
Di id R l (VDR)
FTheVDRpermitsdeterminingthevoltagelevelsofa
circuit without first finding the current.
circuitwithoutfirstfindingthecurrent.

E
VX = R X
RT

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

Chapter6 ParalleldcCircuits
FTwoelements,branches,orcircuitsareinparallel

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

iftheyhavetwopointsincommonasinthefigure
below

## Insert Fig 6.2

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

al
y
m
lta
.E
iM
Al
r.
D

GT = G1 + G2 + G3 + ... + GN

1
RT =
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
R1 R2 R3
RN

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.3 Determine the total resistance for the network of Fig. 6.8.

Parallel Resistors
ParallelResistors

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FF
FForequalresistorsinparallel:
l i
i
ll l

WhereN=thenumberofparallel
resistors.

EXAMPLE6.4

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

FindthetotalresistanceofthenetworkofFig.6.9.

EXAMPLE6.4

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

CalculatethetotalresistanceforthenetworkofFig.6.10.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

ParallelResistors

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.7 Calculate the total resistance of the parallel network of Fig. 6.13.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.8 Determine the value of R2 in Fig. 6.15 to establish a total resistance of 9 k.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

6.3 ParallelCircuits

Is = I1 + I 2

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## F Voltage is always the same across parallel elements.

V1 = V2 = E
The voltage
g across resistor 1 equals
q
the voltage
g across resistor 2,, and both equal
q
the voltage supplies by the source.

E E
Is = I1 + I 2 =
+
R1 R2

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

## EXAMPLE 6.12 Given the information provided in Fig. 6.23:

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

a. Determine R3.
b. Calculate E.
c. Find Is.
d. Find I2.
e. Determine
D
i P2.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

KirchhoffssCurrentLaw
Kirchhoff
Current Law

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

## F Most common application of the law will be at the junction of two or

more paths
h off current.
F Determining whether a current is entering or leaving a junction is
FIf the current arrow points toward the junction, the current is entering the
junction.
F If the current arrow points away from the junction, the current is leaving
the junction.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.15 Determine the currents I3 and I5 of Fig. 6.29 through applications
of Kirchhoffs current law.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

lta

al
y

6.6CURRENTDIVIDERRULE

r.

Al

iM

.E

V RT IT
Ix =
=
Rx
Rx
RT
IT
Ix =
Rx

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.17 Determine the current I2 for the network of Fig. 6.35 using the current
divider rule.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.18 Find the current I1 for the network of Fig. 6.36.

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

Currentseeksthepathofleastresistance.

RT
Ix =
IT
Rx

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

OPENANDSHORTCIRCUITS

r.

al
y

lta

.E

iM

Al

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

Determine the unknown voltage and current for each network of Fig. 6.48.

r.

Al

iM

.E

lta

al
y

EXAMPLE 6.25 Determine V and I for the network of Fig. 6.52 if the
resistor R2 is shorted out.