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17.02.

2015

NDGLinuxEssentialsChapter1IntroductiontoLinux

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO LINUX

1.3.1 Role of the Kernel

Introduction (1.1)

LinuxThe
Essentials
Objectivessystem
(1.2) is like an air traffic controller at an airport. The kernel
kernel ofExam
the operating
which
which pieces of memory, it starts and kills programs, and it
Linuxdictates
Evolution
andprogram
Popular gets
Operating
handles
Systems
(1.3)displaying text on a monitor. When an application needs to write to disk, it must ask
theofoperating
system
to do it. If two applications ask for the same resource, the kernel decides
Role
the Kernel
(1.3.1)
who gets it, and in some cases, kills off one of the applications in order to save the rest of the
Applications (1.3.2)
system.
Role of Open Source (1.3.3)
The kernel also handles switching of applications. A computer will have a small number of
Linux
Distributions
CPUs
and a finite(1.3.4)
amount of memory. The kernel takes care of unloading one task and loading
aWhat
new task
if there are more
tasks than CPUs. When the current task has run a sufficient
is a Command?
(1.3.4.4)
amount Platforms
of time, the(1.3.5)
CPU pauses the task so that another may run. This is called pre-emptive
Hardware
multitasking. Multitasking means that the computer is doing several tasks at once, and preChoosing an Operating System (1.4)
emptive means that the kernel is deciding when to switch focus between tasks. With the tasks
Decision
(1.4.1)
rapidly Points
switching,
it appears that the computer is doing many things at once.
Microsoft
Windows may
(1.4.2)
Each application
think it has a large block of memory on the system, but it is the kernel
that OS
maintains
this illusion, remapping smaller blocks of memory, sharing blocks of memory
Apple
X (1.4.3)
with(1.4.4)
other applications, or even swapping out blocks that havent been touched to disk.
BSD

When
the computer
starts(1.4.5)
up it loads a small piece of code called a boot loader. The boot
Other
Commercial
UNIXes
loaders job is to load the kernel and get it started. If you are more familiar with operating
Linux (1.4.6)
systems such as Microsoft Windows or Apples OS X, you probably never see the boot loader,
but in the UNIX world its usually visible so that you can tweak the way your computer boots.
The boot loader loads the Linux kernel, and then transfers control. Linux then continues with
running the programs necessary to make the computer useful, such as connecting to the
network or starting a web server.

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*Startingdomainnameservice...bind9[OK]
WelcometoUbuntu12.04.5LTS(GNU/Linux3.17.7+x86_64)

*Documentation:https://help.ubuntu.com/

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