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The Vacuum Triode Amplifier (VTA) invented by Floyd Sweet consists of two
ferrite magnets and two to four coreless wire coils. It is self powered in the
preferred configuration and produces in excess of one KW of 120 VRMS 60 HZ
power in the form of energy that resembles electricity. This energy is referred to
as negative energy. The VTA development history, its anti-gravity characteristics,
negative energy proper- ties, and some of the personalities involved are


by Walt Rosenthal

This is a story of Floyd Sweet's trials and tribulations involving a mystery

wrapped in an enigma. God revealed to Floyd sufficient information to build a
machine to provide energy that resembles electricity. However, God did not
provide solutions to the frustrating string of problems that would surface in
converting the idea into a working device. There are several people in this story
that have provided help and some who have hindered.
When Tom Bearden met Floyd, the device Floyd had developed was producing a
few watts of alternating current at 28 volts. Tom saw in Floyd's device the
physical embodiment of a principle he had theorized many years before. Tom
had never designed or constructed a physical device to access this elusive
energy source. Tom's name for the extraction process is 'Four Wave Phase

Conjugate Mixing'. The energy source is the intense non-cohered energy that is
thought to be present everywhere in the universe. Various researchers through
the years have given this energy different names, such as "Zero Point Energy",
"Gravity Field Energy", "Radiant Energy", and others.
Tom Bearden gave Floyd's device the name "Vacuum Triode Amplifier" or VTA.
The machine provides a small amount of its output fed back to the equivalent of a
grid which gates or coheres a large amount of energy which appears at the
device output terminal as something that resembles electricity! Negative
This energy can be utilized by devices designed to convert electricity to light,
heat, or mechanical work or anything else for which normal electricity is used.
The properties of this energy, although superficially resembling the 120 VRMS 60
HZ power we normally use, are unique and sufficiently different from
conventional electricity, so that it should be classified as an entirely new energy
form. It will require careful extended study by a wide range of people in order to
document its properties in the manner scientists have done with conventional
Tom Bearden refers to this energy as negative energy, and he states that
negative time must be utilized. In negative time according to Bearden, gravity is a
repulsive force.
Floyd's experiments demonstrated that the VTA loses weight in proportion to the
amount of generated "Negative Energy". This was carefully documented by Floyd
on a kitchen scale. The machine weight was observed decreasing with increased
load in a quite orderly fashion until a point was suddenly reached when Floyd
heard an immense sound, as if he were at the center of a giant whirlwind but
without actual air movement. The sound was heard by his wife Rose in another
room of their apartment and was heard by others outside the apartment. The
experience was very frightening and the experiment has not been repeated.
Some observers of the light emanating from ordinary 120 volt 100 watt
incandescent bulbs powered by the VTA claim the light is different, softer, than
normal incandescent light. The VTA magnets and coils when powering loads of
over a kilowatt become cold and temperatures of 20 degrees Fahrenheit below
ambient have been observed. Similar reports of below ambient temperature of
energy machine components have been reported by other inventors, such as
John Bedini and John R.R. Searl.
When the VTA output wires had been accidentally shortened, first an extremely
brilliant flash occurred. When the wires involved were examined shortly
afterward, they were found covered with frost. Unfortunately this also caused the
VTA magnet to fracture and the machine ceased operating. In one instance the

machine operation ceased during a local earthquake. The physical shacking was
not believed to be sufficiently severe to disrupt the machine magnet/coil relative
placement or physical shock to the magnet such as a hammer blow might impart.
The best speculation is that the machine was affected by the intense
electromagnetic pulse known to originate from earthquakes.
Conventional instruments used to measure volts, amps, or watts appear to
correlate machine output as coupled to loads, but only up to approximately 1 KW;
above that value they may indicate zero or some other value not related to the
known actual load. Floyd's attempts to use conventional electrical design
formulas relating number of coil turns, amp turns on drive coils, and any other
parameter to predict observed outputs have all resulted in failures with
calculations. Empirical formulas based on actual tests have been documented.
Observation of machine output voltage of approximately 120 VRMS while the
load was changed in 100 watt increments from 100 watts to 1000 watts has
shown no observable output voltage change, which suggests an extremely low
internal equivalent impedance. The 20 gauge magnet wire in the output coils
consisting of several hundred turns has significant DC resistance which is not
correlated with the unvarying output terminal voltage at different loads. It is
speculated that this energy does not travel within the copper wire or its passage
through the copper wire does not generate a voltage drop- a most useful feature
when transferring energy from one place to another.
One frustrating aspect of the VTA has been its failures, evidenced by the output
voltage slowly decaying to zero over a few seconds or minutes. There also has
been spontaneous in- stances of the voltage rising above 120 VRMS as
observed by the increased lamp load bank brightness. The volt meters, ammeter,
and power meter did not correlate with the brightness change except when the
machine would the fail to produce any power.
Many times the VTA was normally left on powering a lamp load bank 24 hours a
day. During a period of time when it appeared to be functioning properly all day
long, Floyd got up at 3:00 AM to go to the bathroom. As he walked past the room
where the VTA was located, he noticed that the lights appeared dim. He
measured the voltage at 70 VRMS. Being tired at the moment, he returned to
bed. The next morning when he rose, the voltage was back to the normal 120
VRMS and stayed there all day. The next night Floyd got up at 4:30 AM. The
voltage was measured at 85 VRMS. Floyd returned to bed. The voltage was
normal the entire next day.
A possible clue to this anomaly has appeared in an article by E.W. Silvertooth
title 'Motion Through The Ether' where Silver- tooth describes a dual path laser
interferometer experiment that conclusively demonstrated the presence of an
ether that flows through our portion of the universe at greater than the speed of

light with its vector in the direction of the constellation Leo. Floyd's VTA may be
orientation sensitive to this ether velocity vector.
The VTA consists of two 4" X 6" X .5" grade 5 or grade 8 ferrite magnets spaced
3 inches apart in the attractive orientation, with the output and drive coils in
between. The output coils are wound with 20 gage magnet wire. Their axis is
parallel to the magnetic lines of force between the two magnets. The two drive
(or excitation) coil axes are positioned at 90 degrees to the output coil axis. The
VTA excitation coils may be driven by the VTA output voltage or a separate sine
wave oscillator source.
The "SECRET" to the machine is the process that "conditions" the magnets. This
conditioning process determines the output frequency and also prepares the
machine for operation. The same machine could be just as well "told" to output
50 HZ or 400 HZ. The conditioning technique is so novel, it is doubtful anyone
would ever guess how it is done. Oscilloscope observation of the VTA output
voltage waveform shows an apparently perfect sine wave that is not phase
locked to the local 60 HZ power line voltage.
The VTA can be started by momentary connection of a 9 volt battery to the drive
coils when the machine is operated in the self-powered mode. The operation is
stopped by momentary interruption of power to the power coils.
The VTA "likes" to always see a minimum load of 25 watts.
Electrical shock to humans from the VTA may be more damaging than contact
with a 120 VRMS 60 HZ conventional powerline volt- age. Floyd has accidentally
had VTA current pass from his thumb to his smallest finger. It appears to freeze
the flesh and was extremely painful for at least two weeks.
The mechanism by which negative energy makes copper conductors cold but will
also heat light bulb filaments is not understood. Tom Bearden has coined the
term "Gravito Stiction" for this process and has described how he believes it
On the human side of the VTA development, some incidents are worth telling.
Two people from Australia, who claimed they wanted to help Floyd, stole his note
book and promptly asked John Bedini for help in replicating the VTA based on
the notebook contents. John recognized the notebook as belonging to Floyd and
promptly asked them to leave. However, the notebook was never recovered.
Floyd has received many death threats over the phone, and some threats face to
face. A well dressed gentleman in a expensive suit, tie, hat, and hundred dollar
shoes approached Floyd on the sidewalk of the street where he lives and

introduced himself as Cecil Brown. He showed him a picture of Floyd inside his
apartment. Cecil then told him that he represented a conglomerate that did not
want Floyd's device to appear in the world at this time. He further stated that
sometimes unfortunate things happen to people who do not comply with the
wishes of others. He then retrieved the picture and departed. Incidences like this
do impart significant concern in Floyd's mind!
One real unsung hero of the human side of this story is Al Margolin, who for
many years has provided test equipment, fabrication help, and transportation for
Floyd and Rose whenever needed, and it was needed many times.
Floyd's long time friend and former employer Bill Lawry has provided living and
project expenses and fabrication help when needed.
The reliable conditioning of the magnets in a manner that assures long time
operation is the Achilles heel of this device. With the help of enough of the right
people this device may change our world and open a new field of physics! This
adventure of course is an on going and the final goal of powering the world with
the VTA is still a long ways off.

Vacuum Triode Amplifier by Floyd Sweet

Since April the 30th 1987 Floyd Sweet has had a device to annul our dependence on fossil fuels. Like
most of the R and D principles mentioned in this section, Floyd sweet's device can also be categorized in
the energy suppression section.

Floyd Sweet - Solid-State Magnet Pioneer

"There is suppression launched against any free-energy inventor who succeeds or is very close to
succeeding." - Ret. Lt. Col. Thomas Bearden. The late Floyd "Sparky" Sweet created a breakthrough
magnetic solid-state energy generator. For complex reasons, he did not develop his device into a
commercially viable product. However, as a magnetics specialist with a distinguished industrial career,
Sweet was not a man whose technical claims could be easily dismissed by critics.
Sweet's story is important for three reasons. First, creditable witnesses saw his invention convert the
invisible energy of space into useable amounts of electric power without fuel, batteries, or connection to
an outlet. Second, he was subjected to the same kinds of harassment that the inventors we met in Part I
had to face, including threats on his life. Third, and most important, Sweet's research has inspired the
work of other space-energy inventors, some of whom may well produce a useful stationary-magnet
Floyd Sweet (1912-1995) grew up in Connecticut, in an era when radios were home-built crystal sets. At
the age of nine, his intense interest in how things work was directed into building and disassembling
radios and other electrical apparatus, such as a small Tesla coil (see Chapter 2) energized by a Model T
spark plug.
When Sweet was eighteen, a family friend helped him find work at the nearby General Electric plant
while he went to college. He got the nickname "Sparky" after he Disconnected some wires one day,
which resulted in an instrument exploding in a spectacular spray of sparks. Despite this incident, his
employers were pleased with his work especially his intuitive gift for coming up with answers to
electrical problems.

Sweet stayed with GE after completing his education. He worked in the company's Schenectady, New
York, research and development center from 1957 to 1962 a dream job in which he could use a well
equipped laboratory to follow his hunches on intriguing magnetics projects. That line of research
fascinated him. In 1969, he obtained a master's degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
By the mid-1970s, Sweet and his wife, Rose, had moved to the Los Angeles area to enjoy
semiretirement. Besides serving as one of GE's preferred consultants, Sweet designed electric equipment
for other customers.
Floyd Sweet was more than a professional scientist who worked with magnets. He had a passion for
magnetism, and for the concept that the entire universe is permeated with a magnetic field. Once he fully
retired in the early 1980s, he would have happily spent many hours each day building a device that could
tap into the energy of that magnetic field. But Rose fell ill, and was an invalid for the last seven years of
her life. This demanded Floyd's attention and forced him to dip into their savings. He also had to cope
with his own ill health, including a period of near blindness. Despite these problems, he worked on his
device when not preparing meals and tending to his wife's needs.
For decades, new-energy researchers talked about the possibility of treating a magnet so that its magnetic
field would continuously shake or vibrate. On rare occasions, Sweet saw this effect, called selfoscillation, occur in electric transformers. He felt it could be coaxed into doing something useful, such as
producing energy. Sweet thought that if he could find the precise way to shake or disturb a magnet's
force field, the field would continue to shake by itself. It would be similar to striking a bell and having
the bell keep on ringing.
As usual, Sweet-who said his ideas, came to him in dreams turned for inspiration to his expertise in
magnets. He knew magnets could be used to produce electricity, as we learned in Chapter 4, and wanted
to see if he could get power out of a magnet by something other than the standard induction process. That
process involves either moving a magnet past a wire coil a coil of conductive wire, such as copper or
moving a coil through the field of a magnet. This changing magnetic field causes an electric current to
flow in the copper wire.
What Sweet wanted to do was to keep the magnet still and just shake its magnetic field. This shaking, in
turn, would create an electric current. One new-energy researcher compares self-oscillation to a leaf on a
tree waving in a gentle breeze.
While the breeze itself isn't moving back and forth, it sets the leaf into that kind of motion. Sweet thought
that if space energy, discussed in Chapter 4, could be captured to serve as the breeze, then the magnetic
field would serve as the leaf. Sweet would just have to supply a small amount of energy to set the
magnetic field in motion, and space energy would keep it moving.
By 1985, he had come up with a set of specially conditioned magnets, wound with wires. To test his
device, Sweet discharged a current into the wire coil around the magnet. As a result, the coil disturbed
the magnet's field. It was as if Sweet had snapped the magnet's Held out of position to set it in motion.
Sweet then connected a twelve-volt lightbulb the size used in flashlights to the coil. If the device was
producing electricity, the bulb would light. The results were more than Sweet expected. A surge of power
came out of the coil and there was a bright flash from the bulb which had received so much power that it
melted. Years later, Sweet remembered that Rose had seen the flash and called out, "What did you blow
up now?"

The inventor was baffled by the dazzling flash of light why so much energy ? He returned to his
workbench to make further models. Needing a theory to explain his startling discovery, he remembered
hearing about Thomas Bearden, retired Army officer and nuclear physicist, and John Bedini, an
electronics expert, on a local radio show. Sweet called Bedini, who arranged for Bearden to visit Sweet.
Bearden saw the curious device pull nearly six watts of electric power out of the air with only a tiny
fraction of a watt going into the machine. Bearden ran tests to his heart's content, and was delighted to
see a little unit embodying the unorthodox concepts that he had written about over the years, the concepts
behind space energy. He called Sweet's assembly of magnets and wire coils the Vacuum Triode
Amplifier (VTA). Bearden decided that the device was serving as a gate through which energy from
space was being herded into a electric circuit.
The most amazing aspect of Sweet's device was that it put out so much more power than it took in. How
much more? In a 1988 model, Sweet found that 330 microwatts 330 one-millionths of a watt of input
power made it possible for the VTA's wire coils to put out more than 500 watts of usable energy, or
about one and a half million times the input power.
The VTA's Special Effects and Difficult Development
The VTA turned out to have some very odd effects, but Bearden's research background prepared him for
that. So in 1987, Bearden asked Sweet to perform an antigravity experiment. Bearden calcu1ated that the
six-pound machine would levitate when about 1,500 watts of power were drawn out of it, but that the
magnets might explode at about the same power level. He warned Sweet to limit the output to no more
than 1,000 watts. A VTA would be placed on a scale so that its weight could be carefully monitored
while it was hooked up to a box of light bulb sockets. Screwing bulbs into the sockets would draw off the
About a week later, Sweet excitedly read off results over the phone to Bearden who was home in
Alabama as Sweet screwed in ten 100-watt bulbs, one at a time. The device gradually lost weight until it
was down to 90 percent of its original weight. For safety reasons, Sweet and Bearden stopped the
experiment before the device could begin to hover or fly.
Why did the VTA lose weight? According to Bearden's theory, gravity becomes a pushing force rather
than a pulling force under certain conditions. Bearden also says that space energy has a pressure, referred
to as energy density. If the pressure above an object is decreased while the pressure under the object is
increased, the object will be drawn upwards. The VTA may have changed the energy density by drawing
on space energy.
The technology could sometimes do spooky things. Walter Rosenthal of California, a test engineer who
has helped many struggling inventors test their devices, recalls an incident that Sweet had told him about.
The incident occurred while Sweet was trying to document his antigravity experiment: "The machine's
weight was observed [to be] decreasing with an increased load [of lighibulbs], in a quiet orderly fashion,
until a point was suddenly reached when Floyd heard an immense sound, as if he were at the center of a
giant whirlwind but without actual air movement. The sound was heard by Rose in another room of their
apartment and by others outside the apartment."
This experience has been confirmed by a Canadian space-energy researcher, who heard a similar
whirlwind sound during one of his experiments. Another unusual effect of Sweet's VTA was the fact that
it produced cold, instead of the heat usually generated by electric equipment. The inside of the VTA was
as much as twenty degrees cooler than the surrounding air. The greater the load put on the device, the
cooler it became. When VTA wires were accidentally shorted out, they flashed with a brilliant burst of
light, and were found to be covered with frost.

One time, a brief contact with the equipment froze some of Sweet's flesh, causing him pain for ab out
two weeks afterward.Sweet discovered other interesting effects. But development of the VTA was
slowed by trouble with materials and processes, and by financial entanglements. Sweet had to find
magnets that could hold the self-oscillation effect. That required magnets with force fields that didn't
vary much across the face of the magnet.
Also, standard mathematical calculations didn't work with the VTA. In 1991, Sweet produced a math
theory for the VTA an engineering design model that showed how factors such as the number of turns of
wire in the coils affected the device's behavior. Producing this theory was an important step. Without it,
other researchers would not reproduce Sweet's work.
Sometimes it was difficult for Sweet to reproduce his own work. As with first models of any new
technology, the VTAs he built were very unreliable. For example, at times their output went down at
night and picked up again during the day. Sometimes, they just plain stopped working for no apparent
reason. But when the VTA worked, the power it put out for its size was unprecedented.
Sweet Challenges the Laws of Physics
Bearden contributed to the theory that explained Sweet's invention. Much of the theory that Bearden used
to explain how the VTA worked came from advances in the field of phase conjugate optics, a specialized
study of light used by laser scientists and weapons researchers. Using information from this field,
Bearden said that the VTA was able to amplify the space energy it took in.
The science establishment requires that an invention be explained by accepted laws of physics, and so
much output from so little input seems to violate those laws, which do not allow for such a thing.
However, Sweet and Bearden recognized that these laws apply to ordinary, or closed systems, systems in
which you cannot get more energy out than what you put in. Because the VTA allowed energy to flow in
from the vacuum of space, it was not operating in a closed system, but in an open one. (See Chapter 1 for
a discussion of closed versus open systems.) A VTA operating in the flow of space energy is like a
windmill operating in the wind.
Both receive excess energy from an outside source. But since neither operates m a closed system, neither
violates the laws of physics. In 1991, a paper by Sweet and Bearden was read at a formal gathering of
conventional engineers and physicists in Boston. Neither Bearden nor Sweet were able to attend Bearden
was called away on business, and Sweet was recuperating from heart surgery. Walter Rosenthal went
The paper said that the VTA had the signs of being a true negentropy device, or a device that was able to
turn random space energy into usable electricity (see Chapter 4). How did this work? It helps to think of
a handful of marbles on a tabletop. You can either roll them all in one direction, or you can scatter them
in all directions. If you scatter the marbles into a reflector, the reflector will roll them back to you in an
orderly fashion. Although the language they used was quite technical, what Sweet and Bearden basically
said is that the VTA was able to take energy "marbles" and keep rolling them back and forth, building
energy as they went along.
After Bearden's paper was read, Walter Rosenthal stood up and startled the audience of skeptical
engineers: "I have personally seen Floyd Sweet's machine operating. It was running those small motors
you saw in the video. It was jump-started with a ninevolt battery. There was no other electrical input
required... There was no connection to the power line whatsoever." And, no, there were no moving
parts. Although most of the audience listened politely, it was too much for one engineering professor. He
stalked out of the room, saying, "To present such a remark at an engineering conference is the height of
irresponsibility! It violates virtually every conceivable concept known to engineers."

Could activity at the Sweet home been secretly watched by strangers? Sweet told the story of a time in
the late 1980s when a man accosted him as Sweet was leaving a supermarket. Sweet remembered the
man's expensive-looking shoes, and the fact that he was immaculately dressed. But in the stress of the
moment, Sweet couldn't focus on much else.
What made the inventor nervous was the photograph that the man held, a photograph showing Sweet at
work on his tabletop-model VTA in the supposed privacy of Sweet's own home. In what Sweet said was
a remarkably clear photo, he was sitting in the dining room on the second story of the apartment building
where he lived with Rose.
"He walked me all the way to my building, telling me what would happen to me if I didn't stop my
research," Sweet recalled. "How they took that picture through my window, I'll never know." As Sweet
remembered it, the man claimed to be connected with a conglomerate that did not want the VTA to come
onto the market at that time. He told Sweet, "It is not beyond possibilities to take you out of the way."
Sweet said that afterward he called the FBI in Los Angeles. He believed that two agents staked out his
house for a couple of weeks, but that nothing came of it. Around the time of the photo incident, Sweet
was getting telephone calls and death threats from strangers. He said there were "people calling at all
hours. The police put a tap on my line and over a six-month period, over 480 calls came in from all parts
of the United States. But they were from pay stations." Thus, the police could never find the callers.
Early in the VTA's development, someone broke into Sweet's apartment and stole his notes. He then
began to code his notes. Sweet temporarily stopped work on his invention, out of concern for his ill wife.
"They must have known I stopped; they didn't torment me any more."
On July 5, 1995, Floyd Sweet suffered a fatal heart attack at the age of eighty-three. A couple of weeks
before his death, Sweet said that the automotive industry was testing his power unit for use in cars, and
that they had a unit running for 5,000 hours. He said he was dealing with people at General Motors, but
no one has been able to confirm Sweet's claims.
The VTA itself is bogged down in legal problems. But Tom Bearden, who put much of his own time and
money into the project, hopes that the VTA can be resurrected so that the world will realize what a
pioneer Floyd Sweet was. And despite the confusion surrounding Sweet's affairs at the time of his death,
other researchers are continuing this line of research.
Confusion and Secrecy
The automotive industry may not have been the only potential investor that Sweet was dealing with. At
the time of his death, there was some confusion concerning the rights to Sweet's hardware and papers,
held by Sweet's second wife, Violet. Bearden says that Sweet signed a number of agreements with a
number of backers, and that some of these people have claimed rights to the invention. At least two of
these investors say they want Sweet's laboratory equipment, inventions, and technical papers to go into a
proposed Floyd Sweet Museum so that other researchers could study the technology. Walter Rosenthal is
trying to help all parties work towards an agreement.

Despite Bearden's urging, Sweet never had the VTA certified by independent testing. "He feared that his
life would be snuffed out immediately if he even attempted such a thing," Bearden says. Sweet also
frustrated his fellow researchers by keeping secret his most important process how he conditioned the
magnets that are at the heart of the VTA. Did he pump the magnets with powerful electromagnetic pulses
to shake up their internal structure? He refused to give details, and said it wasn't likely that other
researchers would learn his secrets: "The odds against them finding out is like trying to open a safe with
100 dials set from zero to a hundred, without knowing the combination."
Sweet not only feared for his life, but once said he feared that if he described how he made his device
work, unscrupulous people would build models without giving him his due. He was also concerned about
what would happen if the VTA was widely sold everywhere at once, replacing many other electric
devices. "If it all came out at once, the stock market would collapses'' he said. "The government doesn't
want it." To be fair to Sweet, I would point out that he is not the only inventor who has been
uncomfortable in disclosing key aspects of his work.
Other Researchers and the VTA
Other inventors are trying to carry on Sweet's work. The VTA is well-known on computer bulletin
boards that list "free energy" as a topic of discussion. Experimenters scramble for details of how the
device was built.
One researcher who has claimed some success is Don Watson, a self-educated inventor from Texas.
Watson says he has built a working device similar to Sweet's VTA, which he works on at night after
working during the day as a telephone systems installer.
In Somerset, England, electronics expert Michael Watson (no relation to Don) built a replica of Sweet's
VTA, but claimed no success in the experiment. Despite that, he says, "In my opinion the inventor of the
VTA, Floyd Sweet, has made a scientific discovery of [the] greatest importance."
Watson thinks that attempts to reproduce Sweet's results may run into problems because the type of
magnets Sweet used are no longer available. But he says, "The important point about the VTA is that a
form of magnetic instability exists that can act as a significant energy source."
When this fledgling space-energy science reaches maturity, what could the VTA do for the lives of the
rest of us? Bearden speculates that the new physics will change our lives in undreamed-of ways:
"By mastering, controlling, and gating the vast, incredible energy of the seething vacuum [of space], we
can power our automobiles, flying machines, and technology inexhaustibly. Further, it can be done
absolutely cleanly; there are no noxious chemical pollutants.
With practical antigravity, ships can be developed to cross the solar system as readily as one crosses the
ocean today.... The inexhaustible vacuum fills every system, everywhere, to overflowing."
Despite the difficulties that Sweet ran into in his attempts to perfect his invention, he helped science take
a leap into the future. It perhaps could have leaped further if he had cooperated more freely with other
researchers in the last decade of his life, and if he had been tidier in his business dealings. But Sparky
Sweet deserves praise for charting a new course.
Many engineers possess the capacity to ressurect this technology, and it is Panacea's goal to assimilate
all into a resourced backed environment in the Panacea proposed granted research and development
center to study and perfect Floyd sweets technology.

Vacuum Triode Amplifier Drawing and Schema

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

By Barry Beasley:
September 2001
In an attempt to ease the task of replicating the VTA work of the late Floyd Sweet, I decided that
as a first step, a better understanding of the dynamics of the orthogonal conditioning process
was desirable.
The Past
To begin to understand the thought processes employed by the late Floyd Sweet, it is
necessary to review the past, in particular the area of magnetics research carried out over last
40 years or so, in related subjects.
Transductors (Variable Inductors)
Transductors are generally considered to be a forgotten technology. The general concept is
simple, namely the means of altering the inductance of a cored coil and therefore the ability of
the magnetic material to support flux, by virtue of DC bias field applied either to a parallel or
orthogonal winding.
This is how transductors operate..
For that portion of the material whose magnetic poles are parallel with the DC bias field, the flux
moves along the hysteresis curve towards saturation. As the flux approaches saturation, the
permeability of the material decreases but the AC component of the flux becomes nonsymmetrical, which is how saturable cores are used for frequency multipliers.
For that portion of the material whose magnetic poles are 90 degrees to the DC bias field, the
poles become progressively saturated, causing the hysteresis curve to shear, or rather flatten,
which causes the permeability to decrease. The AC component of the flux remains symmetrical.
Some Transductor Terms
Incremental Current:
The DC bias current flowing through the inductor which causes an inductance drop of 5% from
the initial zero DC bias inductance value. This current level indicates where the inductance can
be expected to drop significantly if the DC bias current is increased further. This applies mostly
to ferrite cores in lieu of powdered iron. Powdered iron cores exhibit "soft" saturation
characteristics. This means their inductance drop from higher DC levels is much more gradual
than ferrite cores. The rate at which the inductance will drop is also a function of the core shape,
i.e. air gap.
Saturation Current:
The DC bias current flowing through the inductor which causes the inductance to drop by a
specified amount from the initial zero DC bias inductance value. Common specified inductance
drop percentages include 10% and 20%. It is useful to use the 10% inductance drop value for
ferrite cores and 20% for powdered iron cores in energy storage applications.
The cause of the inductance to drop due to the DC bias current is related to the magnetic
properties of the core. The core, and some of the space around the core, can only store a given
amount of magnetic ~ density. Beyond the maximum flux density point, the permeability of the
core is reduced. Thus, the inductance is caused to drop. Core saturation does not apply to 'aircore' inductors.
The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

Normal Permeability:
The ratio of the normal induction to the corresponding magnetizing force.
In the cgs system, the flux density in a vacuum is numerically equal to the magnetizing force
and, consequently, the magnetic permeability is numerically equal to the ratio of the flux density
to the magnetizing force. Thus:
= B/H
Note: In a non-isotropic (anisotropic) medium the permeability is a function of the orientation of
the medium, since, in general, the magnetizing force and the magnetic flux are not parallel.
Incremental Permeability:
The ratio of change in magnetic flux density to change in magnetic field (magnetizing force).
inc = (1/o)DB/DH in MKSA units
inc = DB/DH in CGS units
The magnetic field variations are small or incremental and can be in addition to a steady (DC)
bias field. For magnetic powder core data, permeability is incremental permeability unless
otherwise noted. Because of the distributed air gap in powder cores, the initial permeability and
incremental permeability, without bias, are essentially the same.
With small parallel bias, inc decreases with increasing orthogonal bias. At higher parallel bias,
inc increases from an initial value to a peak value and then decreases. Behaviour of magnetic
material under an AC exciting field while simultaneously under the action of a DC bias field may
be mathematically modelled.
In this the permeability along the direction of the field Ha is:

( H0 , Ha ) =

(0, Ha )

where Ho is the orthogonal field strength and Ha is the applied field strength along the direction
that is measured.
Initial Permeability:
The limit of incremental permeability as a changing unbiased magnetizing force approaches
zero. Note: Because of the distributed gap in powder cores, the initial permeability and
incremental permeability without bias are essentially the same.
Orthogonal magnetization in soft magnetic material:
Some of the effects of orthogonal magnetization in soft magnetic material are described in the
U.S. patent No 4,210,859 titled Inductive Device Having Orthogonal Windings, Meretsky et al
July 1, 1980.
I decided to replicate one of the hardware configurations necessary to observe the effects
described in the above mentioned patent. A design utilising a ferrite pot core was chosen for
ease of manufacture and repeatability, the main aim being to achieve flux levels that would
partially saturate the core material, so better to observe the changes of permeability when
orthogonal fields were applied.

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

Fig 1. Pot Core With Two Sets of Orthogonal Windings

Fig1 shows a 30mm diameter pot core, wound with two sets of windings on the enclosed
bobbin, designated B windings and two sets of windings at 90 degrees though the center hole
and around the outside of the core designated A windings. During all of the tests the applied
signal is 40V Pk-Pk @20KHz (approx), unless otherwise noted. Input and output windings
consist of 30 turns 1mm wire. In the initial setup, DC is applied to both orthogonal windings from
two isolated and de-coupled sources. As the DC windings have only 30 turns of 1mm wire, to
achieve partial saturation, 2A was applied. With more turns on the winding, current could be
reduced. DC has to be applied to both orthogonal windings for any appreciable coupling of the
input signal to the output. Typically electrostatic coupling is less than 2%.

Fig 2. Test Set-Up

Fig 2 shows the test set-up. The DC to each orthogonal winding is supplied via two 22 ohm
current limiting resistors mounted on the large heat-sink. The DC lines are also de-coupled with
inductors at the respective power supplies, to ensure that any AC signal that may be present on
the windings, is not cross coupled in any way. The input B winding and output A winding
amplitudes are monitored on the scope.

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

Fig 3. No A & No B DC Field. 40Vp-p In 20mVp-p Out

Fig 3 shows the small amplitude residual electrostatic coupling present between the orthogonal
input (top trace) and output (bottom trace) windings.

Fig 4. Plus A & No B DC Field. 40Vp-p In 20mVp-p Out

Fig 4 shows only a very small amplitude signal at the output (bottom trace), with only the A DC
field (60A/T) present.

Fig 5. No A & Plus B DC Field. 40Vp-p In 500mVp-p Out

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

Fig 5 shows a slightly larger but still small amplitude signal at the output (bottom trace), with
only the B DC field (60A/T) present.

Fig 6. Plus A & Plus B DC Field. 40Vp-p In 38Vp-p Out

Fig 6 shows the coupling of almost all the input signal (top trace) to the output winding (bottom
trace), when both A & B fields (60A/T) are applied. This is quite remarkable and appears to
contradict conventional theory that orthogonal fields do not couple. Most engineers are
not aware of the Meretsky patent and I have found that those that I have directed towards the
patent, are noticeably silent after reading it.
The output level is proportional to the DC bias through both A and B windings, although the
B winding has greater amplitude control for the same range of DC.

Fig 7. Plus B DC field, A Field Provided by Permanent Magnets

Fig 7 shows 500mV of output from the A winding, with the A field provided by external
magnets (bottom trace). In this case because of the construction of the pot core, it is not
possible to apply the flux from the magnets into the circular A winding plane, however enough
flux was coupled in a radial direction to illustrate that permanent magnets could provide the
biasing field substituting the DC field supplied via the orthogonal coils. The distortion to the
wave form is caused by the uneven distribution of flux from the magnet.

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

Fig 8. 2KHz Half Sine Wave Coupled to Orthogonal Coil

Fig 8 shows a half sine wave applied to a B winding (top trace). It is not necessary to apply DC
bias to the second B winding, because as the half sine wave only traverses the 1st & 2nd
quadrants, the signal effectively provides its own bias to allow the half sine wave to couple to
the A winding. The second A winding still needs a DC bias to allow coupling. Note that the
signal induced in the A winding is in anti-phase (bottom trace).
If a second half sine wave is applied to an A winding, once again with no DC bias on the
second A winding, this signal is also cross-coupled to the B winding. If the A & B windings
have the same polarity then the signal undergoes partial cancellation due to both cross coupled
components being anti-phase to the applied signal. If one winding polarity is reversed then the
signal is reinforced as then the cross-coupled components will be in phase with the applied
Due to the architecture of the pot core, it is not possible to apply a third orthogonal field
however, from the data presented in the Meretsky patent, it is clear that a block core will support
three orthogonal fields, and a the third field may be used to modulate the other two, assuming a
DC bias field is present in the third plane.
Contrary to popular belief, it is possible to couple signals between orthogonal coils as
demonstrated in this document. The exact mechanism of coupling is still unknown, but it is likely
to be a second order effect i.e. permeability modulation. The next logical step is to try and verify
if any of the effects observable in soft magnetic material described above , were observable in
hard magnetic material. In the meantime, some postulation follows..
Orthogonal magnetization in hard (permanent) magnetic material:
In a non-isotropic (anisotropic) permanent magnetic materials the permeability is a function of
the orientation of the material, therefore resistance to magnetization in directions orthogonal to
the easy axis may be extremely high. For example, the coercive force required to completely
magnetize a particular ceramic ferrite in the preferred direction is about 10,000 G. The same
material when exposed to a field of 20,000 G in an orthogonal direction may not effect it at all
and some materials reportedly require 100,000 G to magnetize it in that direction.
It is postulated that this changes when simultaneous magnetization of the material in two or
three orthogonal planes occurs. The applied magnetizing force in one plane alters the
permeability of the magnetic material in the orthogonal planes, therefore when a magnetizing
The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets

force is applied to two orthogonal planes, the flux levels generated are much higher in each
plane respectively, for a given magnetizing force, compared to the same magnetizing force
applied in one plane. The ferrite pot core setup demonstrates that the two applied half sine
waves add constructively if the phase of one winding is reversed.
In the case of a block anisotropic magnet that is magnetized through the easy axis, the
remanence provides the bias field, required for the 60Hz sine wave to modulate the two
orthogonal planes which at the same time have magnetizing pulses (half sine waves) applied
via coils.
It is postulated that permeability of the other two planes is modulated during the magnetization
pulse period, by the 60Hz sine wave. Timing is important because the conditions where all
three fields couple, is only present during the magnetization pulse period, after which the bias
field provided by the remanence in the anisotropic plane disappears or is highly modified by the
orthogonal magnetization. A full cycle of the 60Hz sine wave has to be completed during the
magnetization pulse, as this is the only time it can influence the orthogonal fields. Sweet found
that the 60Hz sine wave peak (voltage) or zero crossing (current), has to coincide with the start
of the magnetizing pulse. The application of the three signals simultaneously, allows the
formation of a highly stressed three dimensional domain pattern related to the 60Hz signal
applied waveform.
It is this pattern that we know can be stimulated by a small external tickler signal at the
programmed frequency, to produce large flux variations external to the magnetic block. This is
the point at which over unity becomes possible.
I hope this document will prove to be stimulating and help sponsor further activity within the
group. I believe the research now needs to be extended to determine why and how certain
magnetic materials will support domain patterns.

The Dynamics of Orthogonal Coil Conditioning of VTA Magnets









1. NumberOneandmostimportant,theGeometry.





2. TheFactthatFloydwasabletostarttheVTAwithonlyaflickoftheswitchbytheHP201CR


3. IntheVideo,FloydSweetsSecrets,publishedandforSaleontheTomBeardenWebSite,it

4. FloydhadatleastfiveversionsoftheVTAbeforehediedonJuly5th,1995atageof83years






5. PermanentMagnetswereusedintheDevice.InallversionsexceptGeneration1,the6Watt

6. Weknowtheapproximatedimensionsandshapeofthestructure.Thispartisobviousbut

7. WeknowtherewereWirescomingfromthedevice.InmanycasesthereweremoreWires



8. Ibelievethisisalsoveryimportant,theremusthavebeensomesortofMagneticFlux


9. TheoutputfromtheVTAwasasinewave,60Hzandat120vrms.


1. IbelieveoneofthemostimportantspeculationsistheonebyWaltRosenthal:TheVTA

2. AlsofromWaltRosenthal:TheVTAcanbestartedbymomentaryconnectionofa9volt

3. ItiswellknownthatFloydSweetwasaTransformerExpert.Sweetsawthiseffect,called

4. OutputfromtheVTAwasNegativeEnergyandpositiveenergymixed.InTomBeardens

5. FluxMovementinthedesiredconfiguration.Weknowwehavesomethingthatisnotinthe








1. DanielMcFarlandCookImprovementinInductionCoils.USPatent119,825
2. LesterHendershotFuellessGenerator.(ThisisthemostsimilardevicetotheVTAIcan
3. EddLeedskalninsPerpetualMotionHolder.
4. EvenTomBeardensMEGresemblestheVTAsgeometryinsomeways.






1. IworkedwithFloydSweetintheearlydaysbeforeBeardenandWaltRcamealong,Igave

2. Thatiswhynobodycanmakeit,SweetdevicealsoMagneticAmplifier.

3. NowI'mgoingtosaysomethingIshouldnot.FloydSweetwasprivilegedtoworkwiththe



















The Sweet VTA

(SQM) Details
By Mike Watson

Compiled By
William S. Alek

From: "Mike Watson" <mike@s...>

Date: Tue Feb 26, 2002 11:54 am
Subject: Re: [Sweet-VTA] Re: New to the Board Re Sweet
Sorry for the delay the file bounced due to attachments being too big.
I am not under any non-disclosure agreement. I am attaching information in Sweet's own hand
on the construction of the coils. He sent this as a fax in 1992. He had discovered that bifilar
windings were not necessary provided the magnet were conditioned in a "multipolar" layer-like
fashion. What this means is that each conditioning impulse squeezes the field into the magnet
so that if you looked at it from the side with this magnet viewing paper; in Sweet's words it
looks like plywood, that is alternate sandwiched N-S poles as layers. This requires a dextrous
impulsing of the magnet slowly compressing the field. When it is ready the surface flux density
is only about 100 gauss, most of the field is interiorised into the body of the magnet. I found
this very difficult. I never saw his conditioning machine but I assume it used flat pankcake
About 18 months ago Graham Gunderson reported a sort of storage effect in magnets by
conditioning them over a long period. The magnet suddenly released its stored energy and
burnt out a lamp bulb he had as a load. It seems similar to the magnetic compression used by
Sweet. I have not seen anything from Graham for some time. Perhaps he has got
You notice Sweet's reference in the attachment to demonstrating video-wise this effect. This
refers to the famous (infamous?) use of an old colour TV set. The method is at the end of the '
87 Bearden video. Sweet holds a magnet against the tube face. The shadow mask becomes
magnetised of course. The TV displays the field in colour but the picture follows the H field not
the B field, so a bar magnet gives a figure of eight image. Sweet attributes a lot to this image,
and this is what makes me wonder about him, he never once thought of it as a useless
artefact of the TV tube. When I tried it I could not get the same image and told him so. He was
perplexed. Shortly after I realised that he might have been using a trinitron tube whereas mine
was the triple dot sort so I looked for a scrap TV with a trinitron tube and sure enough I got the
same picture as Sweet. To me it looks pretty but means nothing.
Right or wrong the VTA was built on what his TV tube showed him. So you hear of Sweet
talking about the neutral point between two opposite magnetic poles, this is what the trinitron
shows, fortuitously it shows more or less the H component. Sweet was scientifically pretty
literate and spend years designing and testing power transformers so he knew about these
things. His whole approach was to switch off all this knowledge and work as though the
magnetic charge really existed.
I have rambled on a bit, but the attachments might be useful.
Mike Watson

Space Quanta Modulator

Clean Propulsion Power Now! Automotive Propulsion Tomorrow
By Floyd A. Sweet. Ph.D.
Document restored by

The days of the rotating electrical energy producing machine, the alternator, are
about over. A static version of the Space Flux Alternator is on the drawing board.
A working prototype, a 10 kW, 3-phase, 240 V machine, excited by low power
oscillatory means is planned. It's expected isolated feed-back techniques will
provide closed loop source of low level oscillator power, thus eliminating a 100%
duty cycle battery.
A concept of a unique type of electric motor with efficiency approaching unity is
in the realm of possibility, soon replacing the primitive energy hogging series type
With innovative state-of-the-art controls, by means of phase shift techniques and
phantom poles, (induced) by superimposed polarized rotating field operating at
400 Hz fundamental frequency with sub-harmonics providing many poles. Slow
speed hi-h torque and smooth acceleration to maximum high speed, high
horsepower lower torque provided by induced 2, 4, 6 poles, 8, 10, 12 pole
intermediate speed, medium hp, medium torque, and 14, 16, 18 pole slow speed
high torque.
A slip cycle effect provides smooth transition as poles change either in the
negative or positive direction. A foot pedal the same as the gas pedal on
contemporary cars completely controls acceleration or deceleration. No cooling
system is required, and it is estimated the motor would weigh no more than 150
lb. to produce 150 hp at 80 mph.

The Space-Quanta Modulated Mark 1 Static Alternator

Laboratory experiments dealing with magnetic fields support the concept that
magnetic flux may be modulated by low level oscillatory means. However there is
no lateral movement of flux. Rather, what happens is that the individual packets
of quanta are polarized by the initiating and sustaining coherent force the field of
the primary magnets or in special cases, electromagnets.
As the low level oscillatory frequency (modulating frequency) from the oscillators
pass through zero reversing polarity during
. The quanta, being polarized, flip
in synchronism with the modulating frequency, presenting a change in flux
polarity varying with time determined by the period of the oscillator frequency.
Stationary field and stationary stator coils are featured in the machine. Except for
a possible low level 60 Hz hum, the alternator is noise-less. There are no bearings
or moving parts.
The single phase machine is obviously simple electrically and mechanically to
build. The three phase machine may consist of one integral unit or three single
phase units mechanically integral, but electrically isolated and interfaced by
interconnection. At this point in time it appears that three separate oscillators are
needed but special electronics may provide multiplexing techniques whereby only
one oscillator will be needed. In as much as multiplexing techniques are out of my
field, consultation with a multiplexing electronics specialist will be necessary.
Frequency Stability: It is essential for compatible interfacing to existing 60 Hz
power system grids that the oscillator output frequency must not vary more than
that of the power system. If the frequency does vary more than minimum
fluctuations, then a "hunting condition" exists. Such an asynchronous condition
would "trip out" affected parts of a system, causing power outages, until the
system frequency could be stabilized. Consultation with an electric power
engineer may be needed to determine a means of utilizing the power grid system
frequency to "sync" the low level oscillator frequency to that of the grid.
And <Name Blanked Out> may be able to contribute an optimized design for the
mechanical architecture for the machine. A team effort is surely the way to go.

My guess is that in order to sustain a sinusoidal output wave form, the modulated
quanta field will need to be switched electronically in a complete circle
configuration to be compatible for paralleling operation with existing sine wave
As you can see, there is more lab work to be done on the non-rotating machine.
Probably three months to verify the ideas in mind.

The Space Quanta Modulator: How it Works

First a time varying magnetic flux must be produced. This must be caused to vary
in sync with three modulating signals displaced in time phase 120 electrical
degrees. The magnets producing coherent quantizing of the incoherent quanta
packets comprising the surrounding space field, providing a continuous stream of
energy from an infinite source.
As the time varying flux of a period of 1/400 or 2.5 milliseconds sweeps over the
stationary armature coils, voltage is induced defined by Faraday's law.
Very low power is needed to modulate the quanta, which is in a coherent state
under the influence of the residual effects of energy initially consumed in the
so-called magnetization process. This energy is steady state and is actually
orientated space quanta, which is not a property of the magnet, but initiated by
the initial magnetizing force.
The architectural configuration of the windings and their relationship to the
magnets will be best understood by observing the construction of a prototype.
The defining equations are similar to those of the dynamic Space Flux Coupled
alternator. A working prototype should be ready about Easter.
As you know the first prototype will be a 6-pole, single phase, 7 - 10 kW
machine. The data in the folder applies to a 3 phase machine. The underlying
principles are the same.
The 3 phase windings are conventional. For a 6 pole machine there would be 6
magnets per phase, totalling 18, and there would be 6 coil groups per phase at 2
coils per group, also totalling 18 groups. The area of a pole-phase group would
approximately equal the area of one magnet. There would be 36 individual coils
arranged in a lap configuration.
The number of turns per coil is determined by Faraday's law as quantized by
Neumann. Stranded wire is used for ease of winding. This wire is specially
insulated, and over this insulation is wound a current feedback winding spirally
traversing the total length of the coil conductor. Also a voltage winding of

considerably smaller wire and more turns is also wound axially, traversing the
total length of the coil conductor. The respective leads are brought out to
terminals, and to these terminals is connected the output of the current and
voltage sensing transformers. We now have, when the current and voltage
windings are excited, another set of fields virtually in quadrature with the fields
(alternating) initiated by the load current flowing in the power phase coils. The
current and voltage initiating fields are in such a direction to either accelerate or
decelerate the rate of flow of charges depending on the applied polarity and
voltage amplitude.
As polarity may be maintained constant , that polarity of acceleration should be
chosen so charges move at faster rates, lowering copper duty factor, and at the
same time opening the gates wider so more coherent field entities may enter for
The conversion process. Its obvious; we have a self-regulating machine whose
inherent magnetic proper ties will provide energy conversion conservation to the
Nth degree.

Magnetic Resonance
By Floyd A. Sweet. Ph.D.
Document restored by

Electrons revolve about the nucleus of an atom and spin around their axis. In addition, the
nucleus has a spin of its own. All of these moving charges have associated magnetic fields
(magnetic moments), and magnetic resonance is concerned with the interactions of some of
the fields with each other, and with at least two external magnetic fields applied to the
Consider an electron circulating about the nucleus. The electron has angular motion
and is a charged particle held in orbit by the oppositely charged nucleus. Applying Keplers
law (the radius vector of the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times) and that
angular momentum,
, is conserved and quantized,
(L = orbital
quantum number, and h = Planks constant/2 ). The area swept out in one period, t, is:

Finding the equivalent magnetic dipole moment, , produced by a closed current loop, I, to
And eh/2m is defined as the Bohr magneton,

Eq. (1)

Consider the electron spin about its own axis. The derivation of the spin moment
similar to the above produces and electron spin moment of two Bohr magnetons. Diracs
relativistic quantum theory of the electron and many experiments give the correct value of
one Bohr magneton, for which the spin quantum number of the electron is .
The total angular momentum
angular momentum of the electron,

, is found by adding vectorially the orbital and spin


And the total magnetic moment becomes:


and , which can be thought of as precessing about , contribute to the average

magnetic moment, vectorally adding the moments gives:

( )

( )]

Using a more rigorous wavemechanics approach,


is replaced by S(S + 1), etc, to

Eq. (2)



g = Lande`-g factor and for an atom on the ground state, L = 0, S = J, and g becomes equal to
If we add the nuclear spin and its magnetic moment to this, the vector problem
would become overwhelmingly complex. There is a simpler way which will be evident later,
but for simplicity now, we will just add the external magnetic field H.
Just as a spinning top will precess in the intergalactic space field surrounding the
earth, so will the magnetic moment vector of the electron precess in the magnetic field. The
torque in the electron case being produced by the interactions of the dipole and the
external field.
Equating the time rate of change of angular momentum to the torque on the dipole,
one can derive the precessional frequency in complete analogy to the tops behaviour. The
precessional frequency can be derived from an energy standpoint and will give more insight.
The potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field is

if we confine ourselves to an atom in the ground state then J = S and S =

, the spin

being either parallel or antiparallel with the external field.

The magnetic moment is defined as positive or negative according to the condition
of parallelism or antiparallelism, respectively. Thus, the energy difference between the two
possible electron spin states can be equated to
where is the frequency of precession

Eq. (3)

Electromagnetic radiation at
freq, with the correct polarization will be absorbed
by dipoles in the lower state, making transitions to the higher state.
Electron spin resonance is a technique used in the lab for measuring this splitting
using radio freq, technologyFib. 1 (b) Since the nucleus carries a charge, its angular spin

does produce a nuclear magnetic moment. A nuclear magneton, , is defined the same as
the Bohr magneton, except the mass of the electron is replaced by the mass of the proton.
A nuclear g factor (
) is alsodefined where I is the spin of the nucleus. The protons
magnetic moment is 2.7935 nuclear magnetons while the neutrons moment is -1.9135
The + or sign refers to the condition of weather the angular momentum vector has the
same or opposite directions as the magnetic moment.
A nucleus with spin I, will have QI + 1 possible orientations in a magnetic field and 2J
+ 1 energy levels. For simplicity, consider a hydrogen atom in a molecule. The nucleus is a
proton with a spin of and its magnetic moment is either parrallel or antiparrallel to the
field this produces energy levels as shown in Fig. 1(c), Fig. 1(b) electron spin moment in a
magnetic field.
Referring to the Jensen machine stated: natural magnetic resonance freq = 2.80GHz
the nuclear magnetic resonance of a free electron when charges in magnetic states are
induced by magnetic field the changes in states causes a condition called electron
paramagnetic resonance, or EPR. The EPR of a free electron is 2.80 H MC. Where H is in
gauss. This should be the initial state of the defining mathematical format.
Dealing with Resonance at High Power Levels.
Resonance frequencies may be maintained quite constant at high power levels so
long as the load remains constant. We are all familiar with AM and FM propagation, where
in the case as AM, the voltage amplitude varies, and with FM, the frequency is modulated.
However, the output power sees a constant load impedance, that of the matched
antenna system. If this changes, the input to the antenna is mismatched, and standing
waves are generated resulting in a loss of power. The frequency is a forced response and
remains constant. Power is lost and efficiency becomes less and less, depending on the
degree of mismatch. Lets assume the Jensen amplifying transformer is in a resonating
condition. Its output is connected to a transmission line which is X number of miles long.
Without any customer load at all, power will be required to change the line. This will
present capacitive reactance,

. The power factor cos angle

will be leading,

though negligible on short systems. The effect must be reckoned with on multiple grid long
systems operating above 60 KV. What we have is a capacitor and the effects are evident as
line impedance. Another parameter is varying power factor due to changing inductive loads.
Taken together this forms a complex impedance load continually varying and this is what
the Jensen machine will see when connected to power distributing network grids. Such
a resonant machine will never sustain resonance as shown in the sketch. The circuit consists
of a capacitor in series with an inductor and this is a series resonant circuit of minimum
impedance and maximum current. Theoretically, the current limiting is effected by series
resistance in the circuit including the resistance of the inductor,

Resonance freq,




As load power factor and complex impedances continually vary, reflected impedance in the
secondaries reflect back into the primary and then reflect back to the resonant network, L
and C, which fall out of resonance and the machines output falls virtually to zero.
For this machine to work, some means would have to be formulated to
instantaneously vary the frequency to match varying load impedances. Surely a most
challenging task. First, the capacitor should be removed and the inductor designed with
sufficient distributed capacitance to prove integral LC. Then calculate what frequency will
resonate the R.C.L. network. This will not cure the impedance problem, but will provide a
more stable experimental set-up. The concept has merit but if pursued further R & D should
be in the 60 Hz power frequency area.












Cosmic Rays, Natural Magnetic Fields,

Coherent Quanta Energy and Aurora Borealis
By Floyd A. Sweet Ph.D.
Document Restored by -

Cosmic Rays are of two classes, Primary and secondary, according to scientific speculation.
The primary rays, scientists postulate, consist for the most part of charged particles of extraterrestrial origin, while the secondary rays are the products resulting from collisions of the
primary rays with atmospheric molecules.
Nothing could be more distant from the truth. Cosmic rays are truly high energy particles
coherently orientated quanta of energy, permeating all space approaching infinity. The
orientating force is the magnetic field of force resulting from the auroral electric current, or
so-called electro-jet, which actually encircles the Earth with a south terminal at the North
Pole. The north and south magnetic poles are a property of the earths, only as a result of
induction properties of the universal space field interacting with the earths ferromagnetic
The universal space magnetic field is an orientated entity, extending through all space
approaching infinity. It is a closed loop of an infinite number of abstract and dimensionless
N & S ploes strung together as an infinite number of pearls on a cord of infinite length. It
extends through an x, y, z, axis thus filling all three-dimensional space with fundamental
quanta packets of coherent potential energy. This is distinct from the incoherent quanta
referred to previously. The coherent space field is of insufficient magnetizing force to have
very much polarising effect on the incoherent entities. As the length of the closed magnetic
path approaches infinity, the magnetic potential drop per unit length of one light year, or
5.8829 x
miles is possibly less then H =
oresteads. This would have little effect on
an equal unit length of incoherent quanta energy packets.
The question arises then, where is the source and pole terminals of this field? If we are to
believe the universe is expanding at the speed of light, then we must deduce, this field must
be lengthening and the poles must be located at opposite points on the expanding bubble.
From magnetic theory, lines of flux weaken as they lengthen but the same time tend to
shorten and strengthen. If this is true then the field strength remains virtually constant, if
the fluctuations linear and proportional.
Let us examine the earths so called magnetic field and that of any other celestial body in
space anywhere, for the moment disregarding magneto-hydrodynamic activity in space.
First, the earth is not a magnet on its own account and the source is not the molten iron
core, as magnetic effects can not exist or be generated in a thermal environment. Heat
destroys the integrating process of fundamental magnets, due to Curie limits. Then why are
we able to detect the field surrounding the earth?
The answer to this is: the earth is situated in space and due to its ferromagnetic properties,
certain minerals offer less reluctance and greater permeability to the space field than

proximity space. Thus the flux density per unit area is greater than the density per unit area
of proximity space, and a weak magnetic field is induced in compatible parts of the earth. It
is indeed weak and in measured in gammas, , where one =
The Magnetic field surrounding the sun is another matter. Although probably due to
magneto-hydrodynamic activity, there is also the thought that the radiant heat of the sun is
attempting to destroy the proximity space magnetic field. In opposing this, the space field
becomes enormously strong, so intense that it is easily detectable, and thought to be the
suns magnetic field. One can not say heat destroys magnetism and in the same breath say
the sun is a magnet and generates its own magnetic field.
The Aurora Borealis: some interesting papers are available on the subject, including the
publication in the 2/4/86 New York Times by Walter Sullivan. The effect which I call the
Gossamer Effect due to whispy cloud-like appearance, which easily produced in the
electrical lab on a small scale. The phenomena may be described as vastly diffused, charged
particles, probably irons, in a state of incandescent nebulosity, under the influence of a
magnetic field. The shimmering and pleat-like structure appears to be a form of modulation
from an unknown source. As little is known about the phenomena, a wide avenue of further
research will reveal much more.
Some very strange effects were produced by the writer and another researcher. During an
experiment with vector video displayed cycloids, a highly magnetically amplified charged
particles exhibiting bipolar, but predominantly negative charge, were displayed on an
ordinary color picture tube. Merely for effect the colors were modulated by external low
frequency square wave generators. At the start, the color modulating generators were
activated, producing the expected effect, and when the generators were turned off,
naturally the color modulation ceased. After several days of observation of all the displayed
effects, the system and all the instrumentation, except the color modulating generators,
was accidentally turned on. The display came on with all colors modulating at a frequency of
300 hz, and to our surprise, the modulation maintained a constant 300 hz. Puzzled by this,
the generators were turned on and failed to have any effect on the colors at all until tuned
to 300 hz, at which point the generators took control and the frequency could be varied
over a normal spectrum. Returning the generators frequency to 300 hz immediately
followed by turning off the power resulted in the continuation of the constant 300 hz
frequency from an unknown source. At this point the puzzle has not been solved, but well
be investigated further as time permits.

Flaws in the Ecklin Theory

by Floyd A. Sweet
Document restored by

Ecklin speaks of spin flipping of the electron. This thought is a misconception due to the
overwhelming force associated with the axial spin of the electron that maintains its Free
State in the orbit about the nucleus positively charged proton. Ecklin means, as I believe he
implies in his concept of spin flipping, instantaneous reversal of the spin direction. If this is
what happens, then the electron must come to a complete stop on its axis during before
reversing rotational direction. The electron is supported by mass, though infinitesimally small
to our senses, extremely large relative to the diameter and charge on the particle.

What would happen during period of ? The electrons inertal mass =

, an infinitesimally
short time relitive to our sense of time, but to the time frame of inner space, the world of the
electrons may appear to be an eternity. If the spin velocity of the electron was reduced to
Zero, the free electrons would probable fall out of orbit towards the nucleus, which is the
predominating mass with the atom. Ecklin is confusing charged particles with molecules
which are reversing in direction in the ferromagnetic circuit in synchronism with frequency,
lagging behind the current producing the flux. The molecular friction of the molecules against
one another produces the loss called hysteresis loss in the magnetic circuit, which presents
itself as heat.

The ball, paper clip and magnet is not a new phenomenon. It is well known in electrical labs
and has little to do with the case at hand. It is useful in calculating magnetic circuits where
the cross sectional area is not constant and in determining flux density of a small area. I might
suggest that the flux-switch alternator is better suited to high frequency, small, low dutyfactor space vehicle applications. As a unity N Machine at standard power frequencies, its
application is next to useless.

Inter-Galactic Space Travel

By Floyd A. Sweet. Ph.D.
Document restored by

The present rocket propulsion technology is more primitive than the jungle drum and smoke
signal to the communication technology. Not only is the rocket technology archaic it is
fraught with danger to space travellers as the recent tragedy bears out. This technology
should be applied to making better skyrockets for fireworks displays. The present and future
efforts should be applied to the development of a magnetic antigravity machine then
develop a technology that will by magnetic means ride on the existing intergalactic space
field at velocities many times that of the speed of light.

Gravitation is a physical effect produced by the curvature of a four-dimensional

space-time continuum. The effect tells space how to curve and matter how to move within
the influence of gravity waves produced by a mass of matter warping near space.

The generalisation of Newtons gravitational potential is the metric tensor

terms of which the four-dimensional distance, and hence the geometry of space-time, is

The curvature of space-time is defined in terms of a four index tensor

the curvature

tensor. The vanishing of the curvature tensor means no real gravitational field is present.
The field equations are ten linear combinations of the curvature components which are of
the second order in the derivatives of the metric tensor and are a generalisation of Poissons
equation: where
gravitational potential which determines the field through a gradient
for a spherical earth:
and gravitational field
and the magnitude
of the force on mass, M, at point, P, is F = MG. Strangely, this Newtonian theory assumes a
gravitational field fills all space, the force acting on any mass is determined by the field in its
proximity and the field exists at any point (P) even in the absence of mass, M. This
postulate, with all due respect to Newton, is self-contradictory and relates to Einstein
theory very vaguely. However, in general, will satisfy Poissons equation:

Where = density of matter. The potential energy of mass,

, in the field is expressed in
terms of
in the Newtonian concept the field has no independent dynamical
behaviour as does the electromagnetic waves, at any time (t) the Newtonian gravitational
field is determined by mass configuration at that instant and does not depend on previous
history or state of motion. Thus, if the Sun should vanish, the Earths gravitational forces
would also vanish.
Yet, Newtonian theory implies the gravitational field fills all space, surely the Sun
only a medium star and only of importance to a relatively insignificant solar system on the
rim of the Milky Way galaxy in fact the solar system could entirely vanish with less
significance to the Galaxy than a pail of sand taken from the Sahara Desert. What Newtons
postulate should say: The Universal space field (gravitational) should vanish then,
gravitational forces of all matter in all space would vanish.
In abstract mathematical format, such a property as Newtons postulate implies,
may be thought of in terms of an infinite velocity of propagation for the gravitational field,
letting the velocity of light become infinite in Maxwells equations eliminating all dynamical
behaviour for the electromagnetic frequency. In this case, there could be no radio, or TV
Einsteins special theory of relativity is based on the velocity of light in a vacuum being the
maximum velocity for transmission of energy in our three-dimensional awareness and fourdimensional cosmos. It is evident Newtons theory needs modifying.
The Quantum Viewpoint:
The gravitational interaction among elementary particles is down by a factor of
the electromagnetic or strong nuclear interactions. Thus, we cannot expect to see the
quantum effects at the level of ordinary experiments.
The gravitational field equations are complicated by nonlinear nature. However,
from linear approximation the quantised field may be expected to be a spin 2 boson field
due to its connection with geometry of space-time, the field is a line among all particles and
all interactions.
Einstein statesas an object approaches the speed of light, its inertial mass
approaches infinity, as we do not possess infinite power then an object cannot surpass the
speed of light or even reach it. This is relative to a three-dimensional frame of reference.

But, as an object approaches the speed of light it proceeds to lose one dimension, at
the speed of light the object would be two-dimensional with zero mass, the passage of time,
as we sense it, stops.
Now, space that exists beyond the speed-of-light barrier is solid and matter is
massless and passes through solid space. Then, if three-dimensional space as we conceive is
expanding, and a massless two-dimensionless entity has entered solid space existing in
another time frame in which all matter is two-dimensional at zero mass, then an
interchange of state exists whereby energy has converted to mass. Thus Einsteins
is valid and


Thus, on the far side of the speed of light, the energy is converted to mass. Mass becomes
now dimensionless energy. The limiting velocity of energy through solid mass is mass itself
and absolute velocity is . Thus, intergalactic travel is possible withinthe relitive time frame
and a point in space could be reached in
of the time of lightwould take to reach
it. People would age relative to their environmental time frame.
First man must conquer gravity. Then the means of magnetic propulsion will fall into
place. Navigation is something else which will evolve with time and new technologies.
Starting here the latter part of this though was inspired by Gene Hamblins idea that
the Universe is collapsing and time is eternal. On this basis the Universe will collapse forever
towards negative infinity but will never reach it. Credit for this part of the idea should go to
Gene Hamblin.

The Space-Flux Coupled Alternator:

An Abstract Approach to Abstract Phenomena.
By Floyd A. Sweet. Ph.D.
Document restored by

The reader of this concept of an infinite source of infinite energy should try not to think in terms of
so called rational concepts of scientists of the past or present. When dealing with magnetic
phenomena; keep in mind, things are not what they may appear to be. A rash statement will be
made here that surely will offend many members of the scientific community: A magnetic field
consisting of so called abstract lines of force or flux, contrary to popular belief is not a property of an
electromagnet or a permanent magnet, any more than water is a property of the pipe it flows
through. It is a property of a universal space field consisting of incoherent individual packets of
energy, magnetic in nature. These packets or quanta, are magnetic ash, a spin-off of the Big Bang
some 15-20 billion years ago. All space is permeated by these dimensionless quanta as related to our
three dimensional space.
However, these bits of energy are not absolute fundamental particles of matter, but do reflect force
on all other particles of matter within a field of influence. Thus the very recent discovery of a flaw in
Galileos work regarding the acceleration of falling bodies is explained. The challenging of both
Galileos and Einsteins concepts is based on the existence of a fifth force recently discovered to
exist. This force is called hypercharge, it is described as weak and local, weak due to incoherency,
local due to the primitive state of the art in dealing with abstracts outside the realm of three
dimensional entities. Science is trying to measure things in other dimensions with three dimensional
rulers, an impossible task.
One has only to observe the behaviour of matter in outer space to understand whats going on in
inner space. One is a mirror of the other one approaching negative infinity, the other positive
infinity. Neither will ever reach the respective infinities, therefore the ultimate fundamental particle
will never be isolated. Neither will the expanding universe reach positive infinity. Infinity is as far
away from the farthest galaxy as it is from us.
Why the field of a magnet is not the property of the magnet: First the electromagnet it takes
power from a source to initiate and bring to steady state the field of the magnet. Once the field is
stabilised and the exciting current is no longer changing, no further power is needed from the
source. The only power required is that needed to support the
losses due to the ohmic
resistance of the conductor comprising the coil of the magnet. This loss appears as heat.
Now we have a magnetic field, a potential source of energy in existence without support of the
source of power to the coil. True, the moving charges through the copper conductor are
accompanied by a magnetic field, also true this field requires no power from the source. As stated,
the only power is that supporting the
losses. Then the field due to the moving charges is not a
property of the current drawn from the source but a property of incoherent energy quanta in the

surrounding space interacting coherently with fields produced by moving charges on the electrons in
motion through the coil.
Current is deemed as a quantity or number of charged particles moving from to in time t, or as
the charge transferred in one second by a current of one ampere. The coulomb is the charge on 6.24
electrons. Electric fields are due to the presence of charges. Magnetic field effects are due to
the motion of charges. Current is the net rate of flow of positive charges. This is a scalar quantity.
In the specific case of positive charges moving to the right and negative charges to the left, the effect
of both actions is positive charge moving to the right. Current to the right is:

Negative electrons flowing to the left contribute to the current flowing to the right.
Voltage: The energy transfer capability of flow of electric charge is determined by the potential
difference or voltage through which the charge moves. A charge of 1 coulomb receives of delivers an
energy of one joule or watt-second in moving through a voltage of 1 volt or

Electric field strength: The field is a convenient concept in calculating electric and magnetic forces.
Around a charge we visualise a region of influence called an electric field. The electric field
strength, a vector, is defined by magnitude and direction of the force on a unit positive charge in
the field. In vector notation
where could be measured in newtons per coulomb. Bearing in
mind, however, the definition of energy and voltage. Note: force/charge = force x distance/charge x
distance = energy/charge x distance = voltage / distance. The electric field strength in newtons per
coulomb is just equal and opposite the voltage gradient or

Magnetic Flux Density: As defined by accepted, derived and in some cases postulated assumptions
of the behaviour of an abstract entity. Around a moving charge we visualise a region of influence
called a magnetic field. In a bar magnet the current consists of spinning electrons in the atoms of
the iron. The effect of the current on the spinning electrons of an un-magnetised piece of iron
results in the familiar force of attraction.
The intensity of the magnetic effect is determined by the magnetic flux density, a vector defined by
the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on a moving charge in the field. In vector notation:
. A force of 1 newton, is experienced by a charge of 1 coulomb, moving with a velocity
(u) of 1 meter per second, normal to a magnetic flux density of 1 tesla (1 tesla = 10,000 gauss).
Magnetic flux: Magnetic fields were first described in terms of lines of force, or flux. There are
convenient abstractions which can be visualised in the familiar iron filing patterns. Magnetic flux in
webers is a total quantity obtained by integrating magnetic flux density over an area by
. Flux density may be considered a derived unit and expressed in:
. In this

paper, the tesla is used as the primary unit.

Power and energy: As the writer will be expected to predict, power and energy transformations in
terms of current and voltage outputs of the space-flux-coupled alternator, the following defining
equations of instantaneous power and total energy are in order:


and instantaneous power

and total energy is

Note: This writer does not agree in respect to method regarding Millikans oil drop experiment
determining charge of a single electron. A flaw in the derivation will affect a change in the concept.
Underlying Principals of the Space Flux Coupled Alternator.
Neodymium-Iron Boron permanent magnets of extremely high energy product are arranged on a
rotating field structure. Two such field structures are assembled on a common shaft. The stationary
armature windings are arranged using modular construction between the field structures. The
magnets are positioned on the shaft so a N pole is opposite to a S pole in attraction mode. The cross
flux is very intense, and the source of this flux is not a property of the magnet itself but a property of
the space field. There for, the energy product of the magnets is not the limiting factor of the
machines output, but is only the limiting factor on the influencing coherent force on the incoherent
quanta comprising the universal space field.
Thus the Gauss-orsteads or energy product level determines how much of the existing incoherent
quanta are influenced into a coherent energy state. If the universal space field did not exist, even
fundamental magnets would not exist, and the motion of fundamental particles would not produce
a magnetic field. Electrical energy as we know it would not exist.
The source of all energy exists in space. A natural magnet was not magnetised by any source on
earth. The power of the universe controls all. When the rotor magnet assembly is driven by a prime
mover the rotating magnetic field sweeps over the conductors comprising the coils in the stationary
armature, sometimes called the stator. As the direction of the flux reverses during , the induced
output waveform is sinusoidal. The induced voltage in the winding obeys Faradays law as quantified
by Neumann

. This is average value and must be multiplied by 1.11 form factor RMS

effective volts.
Another feature of the Space Flux Coupled machine is that the load current is sensed simultaneously
with the output voltage. This power product is feed back coupled to the ampere turn product of the
stator windings, as the machine sees all loads at unity power factor. Changing power factor loads has
no effect on voltage regulation and there is zero loss due to reactive loads. This is due to the fact
there is no ferromagnetic flux path, as the stator contains no iron. Thus there is zero eddy current
and hysteresis loss as far as the stator assembly is concerned.
The load current flowing in the stator coils will have some effect on the close proximity field
magnets, but the field produced by the moving charged through the coils is small relative to the
exciting fields. Its doubtful induction coupling of the stator to the magnets will have very much
Now let us consider the losses. Copper or
losses remain but may be minimized by using wire
of larger than usual cross-sectional area. There will be some bearing friction loss unless magnetic
bearings are employed. There is windage loss, which may be minimised by good configuration
architecture. How does the Space Flux Coupled Alternator appear to operate beyond unity? An
approximate analogy, not by any means perfect, is as follows:

Picture a side-wheel paddle steam boat making its way down stream in the same direction as a fairly
strong tidal flow. Assume the steam engine to be highly efficient, say 80%. Now assume the engine
to be working at this efficiency and that the tidal energy integrates with that of the engine in
propelling the ship. The acceleration increases to a point where the horsepower increases beyond
that equivalent energy consumed by the engine. If one were not aware of the tidal flow energy
integrated with that of the consumed energy, one would conclude the engine efficiency was greater
than unity. This is hypothetical. As the momentum of the tide relates only to the mass of the
steamboats displacement of the medium, water. Actually if the forward momentum of the tide was
able to relate only to the paddle wheel the forward or positive force would tend to force the wheel
to turn in the opposite of negative direction.
Then in the hypothetical case, the force of the tide on the mass of the ship would equal the force
acting on the paddle wheel and the ship would be motionless. In order to move in the forward
direction, the engine would need to overcome the negative force of the tide on the wheel. Little
engine hp would be needed, as it would integrate with the positive flow of the tide, acting on the
displacement mass of the ship. The above is not achievable in practice, as the only way the tide
could relate to the paddle wheel in such a manner, the mass of the ship would have to be
completely out of the water and only the wheel within the flow of the tide would turn, as the
momentum of the flow of the tide would not be in effect. This is reactive power no work is done.
The wheel turns but the ship is motionless. Conversely, if this were a possibility, then a ship moving
against a strong tide, would be able to traverse a river without either engine of sail, by means of the
force of a moving mass of water against the wheel paddles. As stated, the force of the mass of water
flowing against the displacement mass of the ship predominantly opposes the positive motion of the
ship. The analogy though far from perfect, suggests that if one were not aware of the visible force
acting on the movement of the ship, at times, assuming all parameters were measurable, the
indication might be that the engine was capable of greater than unity efficiency.
In the case of the Space Flux Coupled machine, there is no visible entity. Its abstract. A steady state
coherent force is present when brought under the influence of the electromagnetic controllable
forces. It returns to an incoherent state when the initiating magnetic forces are absent (except in the
case of a permanent magnet).
The feedback loop: Previously mentioned, you will more clearly see how the loop functions at the
time you see the physical construction of the stationary armature of stator assembly. The underlying
principal (forget Millilkans experiment) has been derived in that magnetic effects vary on the square
of the current. As the load on the machine increases, the volt-ampere product increases. The rate of
flow of charges increases. Quantum mechanics state not all electrons in copper are free to carry
charges. Then its time to set the wheels in motion to free them from binding magnetic forces. Once
this is done, conductivity will improve and resistance decrease as we are dealing only with electrons.
Copper will not change to another metal as atoms which are mostly empty space would have many
electrons to spare anyway. To free enough electrons to effect conversion would require magnetic
forces approaching infinity.
An illustration will help to clarify how the feedback principal counters the magnetic force binding the
electrons in orbits, restraining them from motion as charged as particles in the form of an electric

Assume a load on the machine draws a measured current of 1.0A at a terminal voltage of 240 V. At a
power factor of unity, the current and voltage are in phase. The power output is in watts and
)( )
watts. The current is sensed by conventional current

transformers having a 1:1 ratio, rectified by a three phase full wave bridge. This D.C. output is
applied to a current winding closely coupled to the power-phase windings, but isolated to a degree
that prevents transformer action from including voltage in the D.C. winding. This winding produces a
magnetic field that varies in intensity as the square of the load current on a 1:1 isolation ratio. This is
the same magnitude as the load current peak value. The D.C. flux varies as the square of the current
and not sinusoidally as does the voltage and current of the power phase windings, with proper
capacitors across the D.C. control voltage. The D.C. flux remains constant sustaining a constant flux
during . The flux produced by the moving charges comprising the load current goes through zero,
thus the complimentary flux, that is integrated with the coherent flux, aiding the cross flux between
the attracting magnets. Thus the system is self-regulating. As the load current increases, the
complimentary flux adds to the cross flux. The voltage output remains constant. The primary limiting
factor is the cross sectional area of the phase winding conductor.
Function of the voltage feedback: To provide a means of capturing more incoherent quanta to
complement the existing integrated flux densities and
or energy product. More feedback in the
form of volt-ampere product at a cos of = 1 or unity of watts in the form of D.C. potential. This is
obtained by potential transformers sensing the output terminal volts as this is virtually constant. The
transformers are needed for isolation and for providing a much lower voltage that is rectified by a 3
phase full wave bridge and applied to a special potential winding in the stator assembly. How both
the current and potential windings are assembled into the stator winding assembly is proprietary.
The current and potential windings require relatively little power, and are applied in such a manner
that rate of flow of moving charges may be accelerated beyond

. Thus the duty factor of the copper changes.

Losses diminish and more charges drawn from the now coherent space field flow at a faster rate as
current to the load. This means as more current is required by varying loads more feedback
magnetomotive forces free more electrons from binding forces complimented by potential magnetic
forces of the orientated, coherent space field. Thus a conductor that formerly had a temperature
rise above ambient labelled as a factor of 10 would now operate at a temperature of 1.0. Thus the
same gauge wire would carry 10 times more current at the same temperature.
Even better results may be forthcoming. The energy conversion conservation is fantastic. On a
separate sheet will appear a derived equation of long series of partial differentials that dispute many
textbook expressions defining fields produced by moving charges. The equation is simplified to a
point that may be understood by most rational people.