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Introduction to structural assessment

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Introduction : Data Collection; Platform classification; Risk Levels; Met-ocean criteria;
Platform initiators; Assessment criteria; Long and short term sea state; Estimation of Wave
height and period for reduced design life;

Assessment Procedure : Overview of existing assessment procedures from API RP 2A;


Initial screening by design level analyses; load reduction; ultimate strength principles; Reserve
Strength ratio;

Ultimate Strength Analysis: Basics of ultimate strength analysis; M-P- relationship;


Ultimate strength of circular hollow sections; Global plastic collapse analysis; Ultimate strength
of Tubular connections; Limit state principles; Ultimate and fatigue limit states;

Risk and Reliability: Introduction to probability distribution functions; Application of


probability theory to wave hydrodynamics; Weibull and Gumbel distributions; Wave force
modelling; Modelling uncertainties; Load and Resistance Factors; Code Calibration; Reliability
Index; Probability of failure;

Fatigue and Risk Based Inspection: Paris law; Crack propagation; Fatigue Reliability;
Inspection procedure and interval; Updated inspection methods; Fatigue crack measurement;
Mitigation methods;
1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Text Books
a) Nonlinear analysis of offshore structures by Bjorn Skallerud and Jorgen Amdahl,
Research Studies Press Ltd, 2002.
b) Handbook of Offshore Engineering by Subrata K. Chakrabarti, Elsevier, 2005.
c) Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Volume I & II Decision, Risk
and Reliability by A. H. Ang and W. H. Tang, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
d) Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction by Robert E. Melcher, John Wiley & Sons,
1999.
e) Structural Reliability, Analysis and Design by R. Ranganathan, Jaico Publication House,
2000.

Reference Book/Codes
a) Assessment of structural integrity for existing offshore load bearing structures,
NORSOK Standard N-006, 2009.
b) Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore
Platforms - Working Stress Design, API RP2A-WSD 21st Edition, December 2000.
Errata and Supplement 1, December 2002, Errata and Supplement 2, September 2005,
Errata and Supplement 3, October 2007
c) Guidelines for offshore structural reliability analysis Application to jackets, Report No.
95-3203, Rev 01, 5th November 1996, DNV, Norway.

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Western Offshore Field Map

Major Oil and Gas fields are


Mumbai High North
Mumbai High South
Bassien
Tapti
Heera
Mukta
Neelam
Over 200 Fixed jacket type
platforms
Many are older than 20 years

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Field Map Western Offshore, India
#

B-48

2170000

B-46

NQO

B-157#

SBM

"
16

B-59

77

km

B-

55

to

SH

Gas
trun
k lin
e Ba
ssein
Gas
to H
trun
azira
k lin
e BP
B to
Haz
ira

2180000

B-188

B-55

B-15

B-127

2150000

36"
X 2
31 k
m

BHN

2160000

MUMBAI HIGH
14" OIL

WO-24

ICW

BHS

12" GAS

Mukta
Field (JV)

BHE-1

2140000

Panna
Field (JV)

SH

B-45
2130000

B-149
B-147
B-192

2 8"

2120000

X 78
km

VASAI EAST
(BSE)

BPA
B-22# BPB

SH B

PB L
in

30

BASSEIN

BS-12

2110000
30

"

B-80
X

2100000
#

WO-15

##

WO-16

14

km

##

B-178
##

B-28## B-193
-H

2090000

D-33

EE
RA

26

"

"G

as

tru

nk
lin
et
oU
Oi
l tr
ra
n
un
kl
i ne
B-172##
to
Ur
an

20

km

B-173A#

B-23A
SH
P

BS-13 BS-16

B-121/119

WO-5

42"
X 2
44 k
m

##

B-105

##

B-179

B-180##
Li

ne

INDEX

B-28A##

OIL LINE
GAS LINE

B-37#

2080000

OIL FIELD
GAS FIELD

B-134

2060000

SCALE

710000

8/28/201
4

720000

730000

740000

750000

760000

0 km

10 km

20 km

30 km

40 km

770000

780000

790000

800000

810000

HEERA
820000

OIL & GAS FIELD

NEELAM

Marginal Fields around Mumbai High


D-18
and Bassein Fields

D-1

18
"o
il a
nd
ga
s li
ne

2070000

830000

840000

n
Ura
ne to
nk li
r an
il tru
U
O
"
to
24
e
k lin
trun
G as
26 "

850000

SOUR FIELD

##

HIGHLY SOUR FIELD

860000

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

SWEET OIL/GAS

Introduction to structural assessment


Structural Integrity Assessment
The assessment can be categorized into four cases

Existing platforms requiring recertification due to design life


extension beyond original design life.
Existing platforms that require assessment due to modified
loading/strength during service.
Existing Platforms that are damaged during an accident
New Platform Design for extreme accidental loading

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of


Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of
Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Platform Types and Exposure Categories
Platforms can be classified based on usage, type of construction and
categorized based on reserve strength
No

Usage

Types of construction

Wellhead Platforms

Jacket or template structure


Tower Structures
Tripod Structures
Monopod Structures

Process Platforms

Jacket or Template structure


Floating Structures
Gravity Platforms

Living Quarters Platform

Jacket or Template structure


Floating Structures

Flare Towers

Jacket or template structure


Tower Structures

Bridge Support structures

Tower Structures

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Minimum Structures
Minimum Structures have been successfully used in marginal field developments
across the world. The comparison between conventional jacket or template type
structure and the minimum structure is given below.
Template Structures

Minimum Structures

Three or more legs

Single Leg structures

Steel piles driven in to the seabed


sufficiently deeper.

No template or unconventional template

Can be designed to suit for various


functions such as drilling, processing
and living facility

Not feasible for large topsides and hence


used for wellhead or drilling facility

Large number of wells can be


supported

Can only be designed for minimum


number of wells for drilling and tie-back
to process platform

Adequate reserve strength and


redundant design

Non-redundant frame and hence no


reserve strength available

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Minimum structures are defined as structures which have one or more of the
following attributes:
Structural framing, which provides less reserve strength and redundancy than a
typical well braced, three-leg template type platform.
Free-standing and guyed caisson platforms which consist of one large tubular
member supporting one or more wells.
Well conductor(s) or free-standing caisson(s), which are utilized as structural
and/or axial foundation elements by means of attachment using welded, nonwelded, or nonconventional welded connections.
Threaded, pinned, or clamped connections to foundation elements (piles or pile
sleeves).
Braced caissons and other structures where a single element structural system
is a major component of the platform, such as a deck supported by a single deck
leg or caisson.
1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


CONVENTIONAL WELL PLATFORM CONFIGURATIONS
SINGLE PILE
CONFIGURATION

SKIRT PILE
(ONLY)
CONFIGURATION

SKIRT & MAIN


PILE
CONFIGURATION

Combinations of
54 SKIRT WITH 48 MAIN PILE
54 SKIRT WITH 54 MAIN PILE
60 SKIRT WITH 54 MAIN PILE

Main Pile of
60 INCH
68 INCH
72 INCH
84 INCH
90 INCH

Skirt Piles of
84 SKIRT WITH 48 LEG
84 SKIRT WITH 60 LEG
FULL BRACING 84 SKIRT WITH 60
LEG

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10

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


CONVENTIONAL WELL PLATFORM CONFIGURATIONS

1/8/2014

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Minimum Structures

UK
8/28/201
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Norway
12

Australia

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Minimum structures concepts
Mono Pile Concepts

Braced Conductor legs

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13

Guy Supports structure

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


1(a)

Mono Pile Concepts

1(b)

1(c)

Mono
pile
concepts
involve driving of large
diameter
pile
and
supporting the deck from
the single leg. This can
be
augmented
by
additional skirt piles in
order to reduce large
bending of mono piles.
The mono pile houses 3
or 4 conductors inside
thus reducing the wave
loads.
Another alternative to
this
is
to
have
conductors outside the
mono pile.
8/28/201
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Mono Pile
without
Guy Wire
14

Braced Mono
Tower (Inside
Conductor)
Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Braced Mono
Tower (Outside
Conductor)

Introduction to structural assessment


2(a)

Jacket Type Concepts

2(b)

2(c)

Jacket type concepts


involves 3 or 4 legs with
conductors inside the
jacket
framing.
The
jacket legs are either
battered
or
vertical.
Three alternate scheme
are proposed are shown
in figure.
The above concepts can
be extended to water
depths exceeding 30m
and has the flexibility of
increase in number of
wells
or
topside
configurations.
8/28/201
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4 Legged Jacket
Structure
15

4 Legged Jacket
Structure with Batter
Piles

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

3 Legged Jacket
Structure

Introduction to structural assessment


Braced Conductor Leg Concepts

3 (a)

3 (b)

In this concepts four conductor cum


legs are braced to form frame which
will be fixed to the seabed by skirt
piles.
The advantage of these concepts is
that the wave loads is reduced
considerably since the jacket legs and
framing near water level is reduced.

Braced Leg
Jacket (4 Piles)
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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Braced Leg
Jacket (3 Piles)

Introduction to structural assessment


Guy support Structures
4(a)

4(c)

4(b)

4 Legged Jacket with


Hollow Base Steel
Caisson

4 Legged Jacket with


Steel Caisson with
Each Legs

Mono Pile with


Guy Wires

The slender structure as proposed earlier are transversely supported by guy


wires to reduce lateral deflection and bending stresses. Further the support
reaction in terms of pile loads will be reduced considerably.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Jacket Platforms

Minimum Structures

Design life varies from 25 - 30


years.
No. of wells varies from 4 16.
Water depth ranges from 20m
100m.
Two level deck with the dimension
of 20m x 40m.
Large space (40 x 20) for CTU
operation
Separate Helideck is provided.
Platform crane provided.
Boat landing is provided.
Total topside weight is in the order
of 2000 2500 Tonnes
Modular rig such as Sundowner VI
or VII is allowed.
Unmanned platform with temporary
two or four man bunk house
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Design life varies from 5 10


years.
No. of wells varies from 2 - 4.
Water depth ranges from 20m
60m.
Two level deck with the dimension
of 20m x 20m.
No separate Helideck is provided.
Main deck can be used as helideck.
No Pedestal crane provided.
V notch ladder type Boat landing is
provided.
Total topside weight is less than
750 Tonnes
No Modular rig is allowed.
Unmanned platform.
No temporary bunk house
provided.

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Exposure Categories
Platform exposure can be categorized in to three types based on life safety
and consequences of failure.
Exposure
category

Life Safety

Failure Consequences

L-1

Manned Non-evacuated

High

L-2

Manned - Evacuated

Medium

L-3

Unmanned

Low

The exposure category to be used for the design of the platform shall be
based on most critical from life safety and failure consequences.
During the design life of the platform, exposure category can be modified
based on operational data at that time.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu Department of


Ocean Engineering Indian Institute of
Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Life Safety Categories
L-1 Manned Non-evacuated : The platform such as process or living quarters
platform occupied by personnel for the operation of the platform is classified
under this category. It may not be possible to evacuate the personnel from the
platform due to practical reasons or it is not intended due to operational
requirements.
L-2 Manned Evacuated : The platform used for non-production purposes
such as water injection, or non-critical processing platforms can be classified
in to this category. In case of design environmental event, platform can be
shut down and evacuation is feasible. Some process platforms can also come
under this category as the design can be planned for shutdown in case of
emergency.
L-3 Unmanned : Remote wellhead platforms or satellite platforms connected
to processing platform in the field comes under this category. Normally no
manning is required as all the operations can be controlled from the process
platform or from the control centre on land. This type of platform may have
day shelters for visitors occasionally.
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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Failure Consequence Categories
L-1 High Consequences : Major process platform or large well platform
with no planned shut down during design environmental event comes under
this category. Further, platforms connected with large trunk pipelines with
for transporting oil or gas to the land shall be included under this group.
L-1 Medium Consequences : Wellhead Platforms planned for shut down
during design event will be coming under this category. Normally provided
with subsea control valves for isolation and will have provision to shut the
wells. No oil storage will be available in such platforms.
L-3 Low Consequences : Minimum platform structures planned for
marginal field can be grouped under this category. Normally planned to shut
during any design event. Such remotely operated platforms will have
certified subsea valves to isolate the platform from subsea pipeline
connection to the other platforms thus reducing the spread of risk to other
platforms.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Platform Assessment Initiators
An existing platform even during its service may require to undergo the
assessment process if one or more conditions exist.
Design life exceeded due to operation beyond planned life. This may happen
due to continuing oil an gas production beyond original reservoir planning
during initial estimation.
Change in platform category due to addition of living facilities in a platform
originally not designed with living facility.
Addition of facilities due to change in production profile of well fluid during the
life time.
Increased loading on structure due to change in environmental loading from
wind, wave or current. Better defined recently than earlier.
Inadequate deck height due to increased water levels due to change in
environmental parameters such as wave, storm surge and tides.
Damage found during inspection due to collision or fire
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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Data Collection
The following information shall be available for assessment:
as built drawings of the structure;
new information on environmental data, if relevant;
permanent actions and variable actions;
previous and future planned functional requirements;
design and fabrication specifications;
original corrosion management philosophy;
original design assumptions;
design, fabrication, transportation and installation reports which should include
information about material properties (e.g. material strength, elongation
properties and material toughness test values or concrete strength
development), weld procedure specifications and qualifications, modifications
and weld repairs during fabrication, non-destructive testing (extent and criteria
used), pile driving records (action effects during pile driving and number of
blows);
weight report that is updated during service life;

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Data Collection
weight report that is updated during service life;
in-service inspection history including information on marine growth, corrosion,
cracks, dents and deflections, scour, damages due to frost, impact, dents,
erosion/abrasion, chloride intrusion, leakages, sulphate attacks;
information on in-place behaviour including dynamic response (measurements
and observations);
information and forecast for seabed subsidence;
information on modifications, repair and strengthening to the structure during
service;
oil conditions, pore pressures and consolidation;
experience from similar structures.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Platform Assessment Category

A-1

- High assessment category

A-2

- Medium assessment category

A-3

- Low assessment category

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


ASSESSMENT CRITERIA-U.S GULF OF MEXICO
Assessment
Category

Exposure Category

Design level
analysis
(see notes 1 & 2)

Ultimate
strength
analysis

Consequence
of failure

Life safety

A-1

High

Manned-NonEvacuated,
Manned
Evacuated or
Unmanned

High
Consequence/des
ign level analysis
loading

High
Consequence
ultimate strength
analysis loading

A-2

Medium

MannedEvacuated or
Unmanned

Sudden hurricane
design level
analysis loading

Sudden hurricane
ultimate strength
analysis loading

A-3

Low

Unmanned

Minimum
consequence
design level
analysis loading

Minimum
consequence
ultimate strength
analysis loading

1/8/2014

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
26 Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras36

Introduction to structural assessment


ASSESSMENT CRITERIA- OTHER U.S AREAS
Assessment
Category

Exposure Category

Design level
analysis
(see notes 1 & 2)

Ultimate
strength
analysis

Consequence
of failure

Life safety

A-1

High

Manned-NonEvacuated or
Unmanned

85% of lateral
(RSR)=1.6
loading caused by
100-year
environmental
conditions

A-3

Low

Unmanned

50% of lateral
(RSR) =0.8
loading caused by
100-year
environmental
conditions

Notes:
1. Design level analysis not applicable for platforms with inadequate deck height.
2. One-third increase in allowable stress is permitted for design level analysis (all
categories)

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


CODES AND STANDARDS
Following codes can be used for platform reassessment
API RP 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, designing
and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, Errata and
Supplement 3, October 2007.
N-006 Assessment of structural integrity for existing
offshore load-bearing structures.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


ASSESSMENT PROCESS
Assessment of existing structures shall be undertaken if any of the initiators
specified are triggered. The purpose of such an assessment is to demonstrate
that the structure is capable of carrying out its intended functions in all phases of
their life cycle.
The assessment process shall include or be based on

Design, fabrication and installation resume and as-built drawings.


Documentation of as-is condition,
Planned changes and modifications of the facility
Updated design basis and specifications
Calibration of analysis models to measurements of behavior if such
measurements exists.
The history of degradation and incidents
Prediction of future degradation of future performance of the structure
A documentation of technical and operational integrity
Planned mitigations
A plan or strategy for the maintenance and inspection

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


The assessment of life extension shall conclude on a safe life extension period
with respect to technical and operational integrity of the facility.
The assessment shall further identify the circumstances that will limit the life of
the faculty without major repairs or modifications, and specify criteria defining
safe operation (e.g. permissible cracks lengths, permissible corrosion or
remaining thickness, remaining anodes, degrading anodes, degrading of paint
protection, subsidence, deteriorating compounds (such as H2S, stagnant water),
changed load conditions, deteriorated mechanical outfilling) including appropriate
factors of safety.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


DOCUMENTATION OF STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT
The general requirements to documentation as given in NORSOK N-001 applies also for
assessment of existing structures. In addition the following aspects should be documented,
if relevant:
Reason for the assessment (assessment initiator)
Basis for the condition assessment:
Performance history;
As-is condition;
Expected future development based on experience.
Reference documents for the assessment including how the integrity of maritime systems
and structures relates to regulations and standards.
Assessment analyses and results
Maintenance plans for ensuring sufficient integrity including how to monitor and identify
degradation and ageing, and the necessary future mitigations as a result of such
degradation
Description of necessary mitigations, including plan for replacement and need for future
repairs of structures and maritime systems.
Plans for how to ensure sufficient competence being in place to operate and maintain the
facility.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


ASSESSMENT PROCESS
The assessment process consists of
following steps.

Platform selection
Categorization
Condition assessment
Design basis check
Analysis check
Consideration of mitigations

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ANALYSES
The structural analysis to be performed on the existing structure to determine its
structural integrity and ability to sustain the future loading can be done in stages.
Design level analysis
Ultimate strength analysis.
The design level analysis is a simpler and more conservative check, while the
ultimate strength analysis is more complex and less conservative. It is generally
more efficient to begin with a design level analysis, only proceeding with ultimate
strength analysis as needed.
However, it is permissible to bypass the design level analysis and to proceed
directly with an ultimate strength analysis.
If an ultimate strength analysis is required, it is recommended to start with a linear
global analysis proceeding to a global inelastic analysis only if necessary.

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


DESIGN LEVEL ANALYSES
Design level analysis procedures are similar to those for new platform design,
including the application of all safety factors, the use of nominal rather than mean
yield stress, etc.
Category

Design Safety

Deviations

Loads

Load as per API RP 2A

Reduction in environmental criteria is


allowed as per risk analysis

Structural
Behaviour

Linear Elastic Analyses

Member
Design

As per section 3 of API


RP 2A

K factors may be considered from practice


instead of stick compliance with code

Joint Design

As per section 3 of API


RP 2A

50% strength check on tubular connections


waived

Fatigue

As per section 3 of API


RP 2A

Can use the information from latest


inspection and survey to update the fatigue
assessment

As per API RP 2A

Can use as-built information

Foundation
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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


ULTIMATE STRENGTH ANALYSES
Global inelastic analysis is intended to demonstrate that a platform has adequate
strength and stability to withstand the loading criteria with local overstress and
damage allowed, but without collapse.
At this level of analysis, stresses have exceeded elastic levels and modelling of
overstressed members, joints, and foundations must recognize ultimate capacity
as well as post-buckling behaviour, rather than the elastic load limit.
Ultimate Strength analysis procedures are similar to those for new platform
design, including the application of all safety factors, the use of nominal rather
than mean yield stress, etc.
Static Push Over analysis using non-linear material and geometric properties
will be carried out.
Loads corresponding to ultimate limit state shall be used
Alternate procedures with static linear elastic analysis is also acceptable with
all the conservative factors in loading is removed including material safety
factors.
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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Platform assessment procedure
SCREENING OF
PARAMETERS

DESIGN LEVEL
ANALYSIS

ULTIMATE
STRENGTH
ANALYSIS

FATIGUE
ANALYSIS AND
INSPECTION
UPDATE

Reduced Design
Life

MITIGATION
MEASURES
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36

PLATFORM
ACCEPTABLE
FOR
ADDITIONAL
OPERATIONS

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


MITIGATION MEASURES
Once the assessment procedure shows that the platform does not have adequate strength
against envisaged loads in future, it may be necessary to activate the mitigation measures
including any one or more of the following.
Load shedding to reduce the topside loads (either redundant or removal means
reduced functional capability).
Removal of redundant components of substructure to reduce hydrodynamic loading
such caissons, risers or boat landing etc.
Removal of marine growth which reduces the hydrodynamic loading considerably.
Reduced design life instead of longer expected design life which may require longer
return period for environmental loading, a shorter period can be considered.
Strengthening of members and joints which have shown their inability to sustain the
loads.
More frequent Inspection and monitoring so that the assumptions made during the
assessment can be verified especially with regards to the fatigue life and associated
joint cracks.
Reduce acceptance criteria - Reduced Safety Margin. This may require additional
risk analysis and will be a decision by the owner.
Hence, for each platform, combination of the above measures may be required.
1/8/2014

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


LOAD SHEDDING PROCESS
Load shedding may be initiated if the existing platform does not satisfy the design
requirements
Removal of redundant topside facilities
Periodical removal of marine growth
Removal of redundant caissons, risers and boat landing

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Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

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39

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Acceptance criteria for Assessment
Acceptance criteria for existing platforms needs to be established considering several
factors including

Original Design Criteria


Latest Environmental Data
History of incidents in the platform
Revision codes and procedures

The intention of structural integrity assessment of existing structures is to verify their


adequacy against fit for purpose for few more future years. Hence it shall be verified against
the latest information!.
Existing platforms designed based on earlier revision of codes such as API RP 2A (18th and
19th Edition) may not pass through the code checks and procedures based on 21st Edition
code checks especially for tubular connections as the code has gone through several
changes during the past years. Hence a suitable mechanism must be established in such
cases of very old platforms (> 20 years).
Similarly, the design environmental data such as wave height and current speed might have
changed due to better measurement and awareness of the information and may have to be
treated carefully.
1/8/2014

40

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Structures Designed Using ASD Format
Allowable stress design approach uses a concept of Factor of Safety in Design.

RD
DD LD E D
FOS
In which RD is a Design Resistance of the structure and DD, LD and ED are design load effects
due to dead, live and environmental loads. FOS is the design factor of safety and varies
between 1.5 to 2.5 depending on the design category. If the FOS is taken as one, the
stresses in the structure reaches yield of the material. This is the reserve strength
available in the structure components against failure.
However, it does not guarantee the overall system Behaviour as the structural analyses
were carried out using linear elastic principles and ultimate strength assessment has been
made.
System redundancy and its Behaviour at increased loads beyond yield of the material has
not been taken in to consideration.

1/8/2014

41

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Structures Designed using LRFD Method
LRFD method uses partial material and load factors as shown in the equation and are
called Partial Safety Factors in Design.

Rn Dn Ln En
In which Rn is a Nominal Resistance of the structure and Dn, Ln and En are nominal load
effects due to dead, live and enviornmental loads. is the material factor. The overall
Margin of safety can be taken as

Rn

Dn Ln En

in which =

Typical values of varies from 0.8 to 0.9 and values varies from 1.2 to 1.5. Hence the
overall safety margin available also varies from 1.2 to 1.5.
However, in this method also overall system Behaviour is not considered especially strength
beyond yield point of the material and redundancy in the system is not evaluated.

1/8/2014

42

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Verification using Plastic Collapse Analysis
The ultimate strength analyses are useful in assessing the overall capability of the structure
against the loads that may be subjected to during its design life. The structure will be
subjected to loads from both gravity and the environmental effects until first mode failure is
called Collapse Capacity.
Ultimate strength analysis will be used and hence the structural components and connections
will be subjected to stresses beyond yield until plastic hinge formation. Instability of the system
will be checked and multiple modes of failure may be verified.
Since the dead load effects are considered to be constant throughout the design life and can
be considered to be a non-variant and the overall system redundancy is taken as

R D L E

Design Environmental load (100 year storm) will be increased until the structure
collapse by increasing the factor from 1.0 to a higher value in increments.
This factor is called reserve strength ratio or redundancy of the system
1/8/2014

43

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Limiting Displacement and Strain
The ultimate strength analyses are based on plastic collapse method and hence limiting
displacement and rotation will be the governing parameters in deciding the ultimate strength of
the structure.
A limiting rotation of 0.3 radians and deflection of 1.0 is specified as the failure of the
joints and members.
Overall collapse of the structure is considered when the load transfer is unable to
proceed when one or more members exceed the limits of end rotation and deflection as
specified above.

1/8/2014

44

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

1/8/2014

45

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Probability Distributions
Under certain simplified assumptions, the parameters of a random wave
follow known probability distribution functions. Following variables of
interest shall be assigned with suitable probability distribution function.
Variable

Distribution

Remarks

Wave surface
elevation

Gaussian

Zero mean process for


long term sea state

Wave amplitude

Rayleigh

Fully developed sea

Wave height

Rayleigh

Wave period

Weibull

Extreme wave height

Gumbel Type I

8/28/201
4

46

Short term extremes

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Gaussian Probability Distribution of
Gaussian (Zero mean process, =0) or normal distribution can be used to represent
the surface elevation if the mean is zero.
2

f
exp

The probability of the water surface elevation exceeds the given value of 1
can be determined using

P 1 f dx
a
2

exp

2 1
2

8/28/201
4

47

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Rayleigh Probability Distribution of
The Rayleigh distribution is used to represent the surface elevation
and the corresponding probability density and cumulative probability are
given by

2
f 2 exp 2
s
2s

where

2
4

The probability of the water surface elevation exceeds the given value of a can
be determined using (approximating ( = s))

P 1 f dx
1

12
2 exp
d exp 2

1
2
2

8/28/201
4

48

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Rayleigh Probability Distribution of H
The probability of wave crest elevation can be N
used to express the crest to trough wave
height (Hw).
100

H w2
P ( H w H ) exp 2
2 H

Hmax / Hs

1.534

200

1.641

500

1.772

The relationship between Hs and


standard deviation can be used to relate 1000
the Hw and Hs. i.e. Hs = 4H
2000

1.866

H w2
P ( H w H ) exp 2

H
s

5000

2.097

10000

2.150

20000

2.228

50000

2.328

100000

2.401

The storm duration of 3 hours with a


minimum of N=1000 waves, will give a
probability of 1/1000 and the
relationship will give a ratio of 1.86
8/28/201
4

49

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

1.956

Introduction to structural assessment


Gumbel Type I Probability Distribution of H
The Gumbel type I distribution is used to represent the extreme value of
H in a short term data such as storm and the corresponding probability
density and cumulative probability are given by

f H exp H u e

F H exp e

H u

H u

where

H u

2
2
6
2

The value of is 0.577215, Euler constant. has to be determined from


data recorded earlier.

8/28/201
4

50

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


ESTIMATION OF WAVE HEIGHT FOR FUTURE
Hmax100 18 m

Wave height

TR 100 yr

The probbability of exceedance of the above wave height in next 10 years i


TF 10 yr

TF
P 1 exp

TR

P 9.516 %

8/28/201
4

51

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


If the structure is to be designed for another 50 years, what will be the maximum wave heigh
be considered for the future 50 years.
TF1 50 yr

TF1

TR

P1 1 exp

H 15 m

P1 39.347 %

H 2 m

0.641

6 H

uH H

1
m

0.5772
uH 14.1 m

TR

P1 yr

HF uH

ln

Estimation based on Method 1

TR

T
F1
HF1 Hmax100

HF 22.736 m

ln

Alternate method

8/28/201
4

52

HF1 19.081 m

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Risk Analysis for Environmental Conditions
Environmental conditions (Wave, Wind and Current) to which the platforms will
need to be designed or verified can be assessed depending on the life of the
platform. Typical design environmental return period of 100 years is
recommended. However, this can be reduced depending on the life of the
platform. In order to assess this, a risk analysis can be carried out by including the
following parameters:

Historical experience.
The planned life and intended use of the platform.
The possible loss of human life.
Prevention of pollution.
The estimated cost of the platform designed to environmental conditions for
several average expected recurrence intervals.
The probability of platform damage or loss when subjected to environmental
conditions with various recurrence intervals.
The financial loss due to platform damage or loss including lost production,
cleanup, replacing the platform and Re-drilling wells, etc.
1/8/2014

53

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Short Term Sea State
Short Term Sea state describes the sea surface variation during a storm typically over a period
of 3 hours. From the measured records of sea surface elevation, wave statistics such as Hmax,
Hrms, Hs and associated periods can be calculated. However, this represents only short term
wave climate.

This may not represent the design wave for the offshore structure as the structures will be
required to survive the future years. This may depend on the design life of the platform.
Hence, from the short term wave statistics, long term wave parameters needs to be obtained.
This can be done using wave prediction using Gumbel extreme value distribution (Type I).
1/8/2014

54

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Long Term Sea State
Long Term Sea state describes the sea surface variation during longer exposure period
typically a year. From the measured records of sea surface elevation, wave statistics such as
Hmax, Hrms, Hs and associated periods can be calculated. The joint distribution of wave height,
period and direction will be used to describe the sea state in terms of wave scatter data.

The measured time history of wave record typically for a year can also be used for fatigue
analysis for repeated cyclic loading.
Usually it is assumed that the annual exceedance data for each year will be repeated. This
may not be true though such assumptions are made in the design process.
1/8/2014

55

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Encounter Probability (Probability of exceedance)
Encounter probability is required to determine the probability associated with the risk of
consideration of the design loads. It can be calculated using

DL
P ( E ) 1 exp
T
R

Where
L - Design lifetime
TR - Return Period of environment
For Example

DL
TR
ln 1 P ( E )

- Design lifetime = 30years


- Assume 10% chance that the design wave is exceeded once
- Return period of the environment can be estimated

DL
30
E 0.1 1 exp
1 exp
T
T
R

R
TR 284 years
1/8/2014

56

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Reduced Sea State for Short Design Life
ORIGINAL Design

API RP 2A suggests a return period of


100 years for a design life of offshore
platform of 20 years.
Most platforms in India are designed for a
design life of 20 to 30 years with a 100
year return period environmental criteria.
Typically, extreme waves with 100 year
return period is used for design for
survival of the platforms.

Hence, for future additional design life of


10 years, with the same encounter
probability, the reduced return period is
calculated as 50 years.
57

DL 20 yr

Return period of storm

TR100 100 yr

Encounter Probability

E 1 exp

Encounter probability
expressed in terms of %
of exceedance

E 18.127 %

DL

TR100

E 0.181

Recertification

The encounter probability of the platform


with 20 years design life is calculated as
18% or 0.18.

1/8/2014

Original Design Life

Original Design Life

DL1 10 yr

Return period of storm

TR50 50 yr

Encounter Probability

DL1
E1 1 exp

TR50

Encounter probability
expressed in terms of %
of exceedance

E1 18.127 %

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

E1 0.181

Introduction to structural assessment


Reduced Sea State for Short Design Life

1/8/2014

58

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Reduced Sea State for Short Design Life
Return period for specific encounter probability can be calculated for 30 years design life and
10 years design life extension as illustrated in the table below.
DL

100
TR

Pe

1/8/2014

50
TR

30

20

10

TR

TR

TR

TR

0.00001

9999950

4999975

2999985

1999990

999995

499997

0.0001

999950

499975

299985

199990

99995

49997

0.001

99950

49975

29985

19990

9995

4997

0.01

9950

4975

2985

1990

995

497

0.1

949

475

285

190

95

47

0.2

448

224

134

90

45

22

0.259

334

167

100

67

33

17

0.3

280

140

84

56

28

14

0.4

196

98

59

39

20

10

0.5

144

72

43

29

14

0.6

109

55

33

22

11

0.7

83

42

25

17

0.8

62

31

19

12

0.9

43

22

13

59

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Introduction to structural assessment


Reduced Sea State for Short Design Life

1/8/2014

60

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36