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(Edexcel Chit edexcel advancing learning, changing lives 5 ‘Notes Note: Edexcel Unit 4 ond 5 encompasses materia found in both Unit and Unit 2 (synoptic. This pack does not cover the ‘materi fund inthe later two units and so shouldbe uzed in conunction with the pack that were designed for those nts Do not frge that ascent artes published every ear which you wil be required to read and answer questions ‘on ia the exam, TOPIC 7 Difference in muscle fibres ~ 3.7.2 Slow muscle fibres Enable sustained muscle contraction to take place Fast muscle fibres Allow immediate, rapid muscle contractions to take place ‘Many mitochondria present Few mitochondria present, Depend mainly on aerobic respiration forthe | Depend mainly on glycolysis for the production of ATP production of ATP ‘Small amounts of glycogen present Large amounts of glycogen present Colour Darkred/ brown Pale white Myoglobin More Less Mitochondria More Less Capillaries More Less Kerbeycle enzyme High Low content Glycogen content Low High Resistance to fatigue High Low ‘Type ofrespiration Aerobic ‘Anaerobic involved in Creatine phosphate Low High Sarcoplasmic Little Extensive reticulum ‘¢ Muscle is made up of myofibrils lying parallel to each other. ‘= Each myofibil is made up of sarcomeres, ‘© Actin and myosin ate proteins that make up a large part of the sarcomeres, ‘+ The cytoplasm of myofibrils is called the sarcoplasm, ‘¢ There are alot of mitochondria to provide energy. ‘= The sarcoplasmic reticulum is @ network of membranes that stores and releases calcium Slow muscle fibres in athletes ‘+ Endurance athletes exercise for long periods of time; + Respire / release energy aerobically: ‘+ Ortoo much lactate would accumulate; ‘© Slow twitch fbres adapted to aerobic metabolism; ‘© Ashave many mitochondria; Site of Krebs cycle; ‘+ And electron transport chain; ‘© Much ATP formed; ‘+ Also are resistant to fatigue; Short-distance athletes (fast muscle) © reffto fast twitch muscle fibres; ‘+ ref creatine phosphate / eq in these fibres; + refto storage of ATP; ‘© idea that energy obtained from ATP (from creatine phosphate); ‘© Idea that athlete would need to respire anaerobically; ref to glycolysis producing atp rapidly; Idea that glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm; ‘© idea of some aerobic respiration because of oxygen present; ‘© description of lactate fermentation: (Pyruvate obtained from glycolysis is reduced to lactate) (This regenerates NAD by oxidising the reduced NAD formed in glycolysis) (The NAD can then be re-used so glycolysis can continue and form ATP) The contraction of muscle with its components —3.7.3 Function of Calcium ions ‘+ reference to {calcium fons / eq} released by sarcoplasmic reticulum ; ‘+ activate myosin / cause myosin to hydrolyse ATP ; ‘= bind to / cause change in shape of troponin ; ‘© cause tropomyosin to detach from actin filament / expose binding site (in actin); Function of actin ‘+ reference to shape producing myosin binding sites ‘© myosin globular heads fit / eq: Function of myosin ‘+ reference to globular heads (on the polypeptide chains); ‘+ reference to ATP on these heads ; ‘+ reference to phosphates ; ‘© Idea that head may be able to act as ATPase enzyme ; Troponin attached to tropomyosin; ref to 3 sub units ; ref to binding properties; (one binds to actin, one to tropomyosin, one to calcium ions) Tropomyosin Long chain / ea ; ‘covers the myosin binding sites ; onactin ‘Muscle contraction* Calcium ions bind to troponin; Remove blocking action of tropomyosin / exposes actin binding sites; ATP allows myosin to jin / bind to actin / form erass-bridge; allows sliding of the actin & myosin filaments; Re-cocks myosin cross bridge / allows detachment from actin (due to binding of ATP); Enables calcium ions to be pumped back in; hydrolysis of ATP releases energy / eq; hich changes configuration of myosin head / eq; Phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP without respiration; Phosphocreatine releases Pi to join ADP; Sliding filament hypothesis we tropomyosin covers binding site on actin; calcium ions remove tropomyosin; ‘myosin binding sites exposed on actin; binding / calcium ions increase ATPase activity; breaks down ATP yielding energy; used to re-cock myosin head ATP attachment cause actomyosin head to break /ATP required for separation of actin and myosin/cross bridges; Myosin & actin filaments slide over one another; Idea that sarcomere contracts; ref to simultaneous contraction; idea that myofibrils / muscle fibres contract; Idea that sarcomere returns to original length at relaxation; ‘Acbands stay the same length, -band gets shorter, H-zones get shorter, sarcomere overall {gets shorter (at contraction) Structure of a sarcomere ‘+ A//dark band is mainly due to myosin thick) filaments; ‘© Hone only myosin laments; ‘© darker band has both types of filament; ‘© light band has only actin (thin) filaments; Visual representation of muscle sarcomere iva Atel ise oon ik Samet HE ih, Memstowtn wa mite te T Secu Acti tn Stet ‘Muscle movement ~3.7.4 ‘Antagonistic muscle action ‘© motor area of brain involved; ‘+ impulses from brain; ‘+ idea of antagonistic muscles; ‘© One muscle contracts; (accept correct reference to extencor muscles) ‘+ reference to sliding filaments in correct context; ‘© Other muscle relaxes; (accept correct reference to flexor muscles) ‘+ action of lever explained in terms of muscle, joint and bone Tendons ‘© Attach muscles to bones Ligaments ‘© (Connective tissue that) attaches bones to bones Joints, ‘= ref to contraction/relaxation of muscles to move bones ‘Skeleton ~ itis made up of bone. Its strong and hard. Made up of bone cells embedded in a matrix ‘of collagen and calcium salts. Itis strong under compression but not dense. This isto reduce the ‘weight moved about Tendon vs ligaments ‘+ tendons join muscle to {bone / another muscle} whereas ligaments join bone to bone ; ‘+ at the joint, tendons move bone whereas ligaments restrict movement of bones / €q ; ‘+ tendons are less elastic than ligaments / eq; Inelasticty of tendons ‘© (tendons) attach muscle to bone / eq: ‘© donot stretch when muscle contracts / all force transferred to bone / eq; ‘+ 50 {bone / skeleton } is moved / eq Why muscles need to be antagoni ‘© idea that muscles cannot extend themselves ; ‘+ need opposing muscle to extend / eq: ‘+ antagonistic muscle allows control (of movement) / eq ie Respiration reaction ~ 3.7.5, CiH0s+ 602-9 6CO:+6H:0 + ATP Glucose + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water + energy Phosphorylation of ATP ~ 3.7.6 + refto energy from glucose; ‘+ refto ADP + the inorganic phosphate / eq ; ‘+ energy (from glucose) stored phosphate bonds ; © refto ATP synthase ; ‘+ idea that ATP diffuses to cells needing energy: ‘+ ref to hydrolysis breaking down ATP; ‘+ energy released from bonds; © refto aTPase; GiycoWsis-3.7.7 ‘Phosphorylation of substrate / glucose} /ea; + Toactvate the glucose / make the glucose reactive; ‘+ ATP then phosphorylates glucose; + Formation of fructose {biphosphate / diphosphate /6C sugar; + (phosphorylated sugar split into two (three-carbon sugar phosphates /triose phosphates / GAL); + (then) converted to pyruvate by (oxidation / dehydrogenase / dehydrogenation / removal of hydrogen); + Produces reduced NAD ; + (net) 2TP (formed for each sugar phosphate ‘© Occursin the cytoplasm; ‘+ Reduced NAD goes to oxidative phosphorylation:* ‘+ Pyruvate goes to link reaction then the kreb's cycle in oxygen; ‘+ Pyruvate undergoes lactate fermentation without oxygen; 4. Transfers electrons / H+ / hydrogen (ions), to electron transfer chain / FAD; 2. Reference to inner membrane of mitochondrion / cristae ; 3. Oxidative phosphorylation ; 4, Generation of ATP (from ADP) ; Krob’s cycle ~ 3.7.9 (simple mark scheme) ‘+ reference to involvement of 6C, (SC) and 4C compounds ; ‘© C02 formed / reference to decarboxylation / eq ; © ATP formed / eq; ‘+ reference to dehydrogenation ; ‘+ reduced {NAD / FAD / coenzyme} produced ; ‘+ reference to substrate level phosphorylation ; ‘+ Idea of 4C compound used to regenerate 6C compound (which allows eycle to continue) ; (CGP mark scheme ‘+ Acetyl coA (from link reaction) combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate ‘+ Coenzyme returns to link reaction for re-use © 6Ceitrate converted to SC ‘+ Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occurs ‘+ Hydro used to produce NAD from FAD ‘© 5Cmolecule converted to 4c ‘+ Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occur to produce 1 FAD and 2 NADH ‘+ ATP made when phosphate directly transferred to the constituent ADP (substrate-level phosphorylation} ‘© The citrate Is then converted to oxaloacetate (regeneration of 6C from 4C) ction + pyruvate (decarboxylated / eq); ‘+ hydrogen joins (from pyruvate) to NAD to reduce it; + pyruvate > acetate ; ‘+ acetate (combines / joins with / eq} coenzyme A; ‘* ref to formation of acetyl coenzyme A; ‘+ ref to products (two acetyl coenzyme A, two CO2 molecules, two reduced NAD); © no ATP made; Oxidative phosphorylation 3. 110 ‘+ (H+ fons) from reduced NAD / ea; ‘+ He ions pumped into inter membrane space / eq; ‘+ reference to energy needed (for pump) [from electron carrierss) / eq ; ‘© reference to movement of electrons along ETC /eq; (€1C on) inner membrane / cristae; ‘+ H+ ions follow diffusion gradient / eq; ref to ATP synthase; Electron transport chain '* electrons/hydrogen combine with NADH or FADH // hydrogen atoms/electrons released by NADH/FADH as they're oxidised to form NAD/FAD ‘+ electrons passed through series of carriers; Idea of oxygen being final acceptor; ‘+ H#/ protons passed into intermembrane space; ‘+ H+/ protons flow back through stalked particles/enzyme; ‘© energy released in transfer; ‘© energyused to make ATP; from ADP and inorganic phosphate/ using ATPase Chemiosmosis ‘* NADH and FADHzcontain stored chemical energy # Energy is used to pump H-ions into the mitochondrial membrane, against a concentration gradient ‘+ The inner membrane is impermeable to protons creating a concentration, electrochemical and pH gradient idea that this causes an energy change or makes energy available ; [ATP is formed when inorganic phosphate joins ADP/ eq ; Idea that this occurs on stalked particles; ref to chemiosmosis (movement of H+ ions across a membrane to generate ATP) ; ‘+ Heleaves the envelope through ATPase proteins. The energy generated is used to phosphorylate ATP. ‘Statement Stage of respiration ‘ATP ‘Carbon | Reduced NAD Produced dioxide | converted to produced NAD “Gucose — pyruvate Zz Pyruvate acetylesenzyme A v Krebs cycle Zz v Electron carrier chain v ~ Why oxygen is needed in ETC/Oxidative phosphorylation ATP formed as electrons pass along transport chain; ‘oxygen is terminal electron acceptor / accepts electrons from electron transport chain; electrons cannot be passed along electron transport chain if no O2 to accept them; forms H20 / accepts H+ from reduced NAD/FAD / oxidises reduced NAD/FAD; How mitochondria supply energy for muscles the final product of glycolysis enters mitochondrion ATP isthe energy source (for muscle contraction) / eq; ‘cortect ref to role of (mitochondrial membranes / eq); ref to ATP produced in((mitochondrial) matrix / Krebs cycle} ; (NADH / reduced NAD/ FADH/reduced FAD) transfers (H+ / electrons} to the ETC hydrogen splits into H+ and electrons ; correct ref to (proton gradient / chemiosmosis}; electrons are passed from one carrer to the next from higher to lower energy levels / eq [ATP produced from ADP and Pi / ref oxidative phosphorylation ; mitochondria only work in aerobic conditions Fate of lactate~3.7.11, reference to lactate in the blood / eq; (transported to / broken down in / eq) liver; lactate Is {converted to pyruvate / eq) ; this involves (oxidation / production of reduced NAD / eq}; pyruvate is then (oxidised / eq}; reference to Krebs cycle ; {this requires extra oxygen / reference oxygen debt) /eq 5 Idea that carbon dioxide and water are produced ; Heart-3.7.11 ‘Musele contraction reference to (Sinoatrial node / SAN}; Initiates heart beat & depolarisation / eq ; passes through (wall of) atria eq ‘causes atrial systole / eq); impulse sent to AVN & conducts to ventricles / eq; [AVN allows atria to fully allow blood to be emptied; Impulse sent through {Purkyne fibres / bundle of His) ; ventricular {systole / eq) follows (from apex) / eq; atrioventricular valves closed (and prevent flow to atria) ; semilunar valves opened by pressure / eq; blood forced into arteries / eq; ‘changed pressure in (diastole / eq) closes semilunar valves ; Myogenic ‘© idea that stimulation generated from within (muscle) e.g. no external stimulation ; ‘+ idea of brings about depolarisation ; ECG ‘© The peak at p represents an atrial systole. A wave of depolarisation has been sent from the SAN causing the atria to contract. ‘+ The time between P and the QRS complex is known as the PR interval. During this time, the impulse is at the atrioventricular node. This delay allows for atria to completely empty blood Into the ventricles ‘© The electrical impulse travels from the bundle of histo the Purkyne tissue. The Purkyne tissue passes the impulse to ventricles, and the ventricles contract base up. This is known as the ventricular systole. The QRS complex represents the ventricular systole. ‘+ The T wave represents the rapid repolarisation ofthe Purkyne tissue in the ventricles. This Is also known as diastole, How ECGs can aid the diagnosis of CVDs and other heart conditions ‘+ AMECG is used to investigate the rhythms of the heart by producing a record of the electrical activity of the heart. The depolarisation in the heart causes tiny little electrical changes on the surface of the skin, Electrodes attached to the skin measure these changes. ‘© Usually, when an ECG is taken, the patient is Iving down. However, some heart conditions are only shown when the patient is exercising, Therefore, during a stress test, the patient is exercising. Tachycardia ‘+ Heart rates beats too fast ‘+ Heart can't pump blood efficiently [AVN problems ‘+ The ventricles will not contract (although the atria will) ‘+ Impulses do not travel from atria to ventricles Fibrillation ‘+ Irregular heart beat © Contraction of atria and ventricles not correct Ventilation ete. ~ 3.7.12 Tidal Volume ~The volume of air that enters and leaves the lings at each natural resting breath Ventilation Rate ~ Tidal volume X frequency of inspiration ~It is a measure of the volume of ait breathed in per minute Calculating mean tidal volume and mean breathing rate from graph Volume of air/ den" 10 20 30 Time /sees For tidal volume, take the peak of a wave and subtract the bottom from it (s0 for points marked above, 47-2. |-For the breathing rate, take a specified amount. For example, in questions they ‘may ask to find out the mean breathing rate during 30 seconds ~ count the number of breaths (50 10, or 10.5). Divide that by 30 and multiply by 60 to get the breathing rate (20 or 21). Else, count the entice breaths given in the diagram for 60 secs. Physiological effects of exercise ‘+ faster and deeper breathing, which increases the rate at which oxygen enters the blood in the lungs and carbon dioxide leaves it ‘© faster and stronger heart beat, which increases the rate at which blood moves through the blood vessels, delivering oxygen to muscle tissues and removing carbon dioxide and lactate from them The control of heart rate ‘© Adrenaline causes SAN to increase Its rate of contraction ‘+ Action potential sent across motor neurone (part of sympathetic nervous system] from the cardiovascular centre to the brain (medulla) to the SAN ‘+ The neurone releases neurotransmitter (norandrenaline) which further raises SAN ‘contraction rate ‘© Reasoning: C02 concentration in blood rises; this decreases pH; the low pH stimulates ‘cardiac centre to generate higher frequency of action potentials along sympathetic nerve Further information The cardiovascular centre in the medulla controls the heart rate ‘+ Chemical and stretch receptors inthe lining of blood vessels and chambers of the heart send impulses to the cardiovascular centre ‘+ Nervous control ofthe heart is autonomic and is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Sympathetic is excitatory and parasympathetic is Inhibitory. ‘+ Impuises travelling down the sympathetic nerve increase the frequency of impulses from the ‘SAN. The parasympathetic does the opposite Heart response to low oxygen content in muscles ‘© Blood vessels in muscles secret nitric oxide ‘+ Arteriole walls relax and dilated so will carry more blood ‘© Blood returns to right atrium faster ‘© Muscle in atrial walls stretch, ‘+ Soheart contracts with more force and SAN contracts faster ‘The control of ventilation rate ‘= Nerve impulses sent from ventilation centre to medulla oblongata in brain to muscles in diaphragm and intercostal muscles © They contract rhythmically ‘© Stretch receptors in lungs (stimulated in inhalation) send impulses to ventilation centre ‘* This information is used to regulate breathing rate ‘= Chemoreceptors in ventilation centre and aortic body sense pH fall, which is caused by more €O2 inthe blood ‘+ Another set of chemoreceptors in the wals of the carotid arteries, called carotid bodies, sense oxygen concentration, as well as carbon dioxide concentration, in the blood ‘+ Nerve impulses are sent from the aortic body and carotid bodies to the ventilation centre, and this then sends impulses to the breathing muscles, causing them to contract harder and faster. ‘© This increases the rate and depth of breathing, Breathing rate rising (mark scheme) ‘+ concentration of carbon dioxide inthe {alveol/ lungs /eg)is higher / ea: + concentration of carbon dioxide inthe blood is higher / eq ‘+ Idea of pH of blood falls (ue to increased CO?) + (CO2/pH levelsin blood) detected by chemoreceptors + In {arotid body / carotid artery / aortic body / aorta}; + reference to (ventilation / respiratory centre ‘idea of contro is in medulla; ‘sends (more / eq} impulses along (neurones / nerves) * tointercostals muscles / siaphragm ; Negative feedback 3.7.15 ‘A negative feedback system isa system enabling the body to maintain a condition within a narrow range. For example if one factor goes up, system instigates change to bring it back down again. ‘© Change in normal level ofa factor ‘+ Receptor detects change ‘+ Receptor sends a communication hormonally or via the nervous syste, ‘+The effector carries out a response to bring about corrective change ‘= Return to normal level of factor Negative Feedback system in the heart -1 ‘© Baroreceptors are sensitive to pressure, They detect changes in pressure in the carotid arteries. An increase in blood pressure in the arteries stretches the baroreceptors Baroreceptors send impulse to the cardiovascular centre ‘= Cardiovascular centre sends impulses through the parasympathetic nerves to slow down the heart rate and widens the blood vessels, thereby lowering the blood pressure Negative feedback system in the heart -2 ‘© During exercise, adrenaline ilates the blood vessels causing the blood pressure to fall ‘+ The baroreceptors stop sending impulses ‘+ The cardiovascular centre detects this and sends impulses down the sympathetic nerve to stimulate the heart and increase blood pressure. Negative feedback system in the lungs ‘+ Chemoreceptors detect fallin pH of the blood ‘+ Impulse sent to respiratory centre ‘© Respiratory centre sends impulse sent to diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract harder and more rapidly to increase breathing rate Homeostasis ete. - 3.7.16 Homeostasis ‘+ The maintaining of a constant internal environment Importance of homeostasis temperature / pH; optimum for enzymes / effect of pH / ‘temperature on enzyme activity; oR water potential / blood glucose; effect of osmotic / blood glucose imbalance on cells; How body returns to normal temperature if too high ‘+ thermoreceptors in hypothalamus / eq ‘© detect the increase in (core) blood temperature /eq ; ‘© reference to heat loss centre activated ; ‘© reference to autonomic nervous system ; ‘+ reference to impulses down motor neurones ; © to effectors / named effector} /eq ; detail of method of heat loss / eq ;* ‘vasodilation of blood vessels, sweat released, heat loss from blood through radiation If too low ‘= hypothalamus (contains the thermoregulatory centre); ‘+ has receptors which detect temperature changes of blood; ‘© receives impulses from receptors in skin; ‘+ nerve impulses transmitted (from hypothalamus / brain); ‘© refto heat gain centre activated ; ‘+ results in vasoconstriction / constriction of arterioles / dilation of shunt vessels; ‘+ diversion of blood to core / specified organ / less blood to skin; ‘+ muscular contraction /shivering generates heat via respiration; ‘+ release of thyroxine / adrenaline; ‘© Increase in metabolic rate / respiration; ‘© correct reference to negative feedback mechanisms -Acaptation kesping warm Keeping co ‘apiaries dose whe in spnincter muscles contract so ‘Sphincter muscesrtaxso more ‘The transcription factors Thyroxine affects protein synthesis ina cel by binding to transcription factors in the nucleus. of a cell The activated transcription factors bind to specific regions of DNA (genes), and either increase or decrease the ability of RNA polymerase to attach to the DNA and catalyse ess blood fowsinto supertkial_ | blood fows into superfkcial capilanes cleze tothe sun's | capilries surface ‘Less blood flows through deeper + More blood tows through shunt vessels eeper shunt vessels “store soos is Mowing closer to + Lessblood flows cose tothe | the body surtace bodys surface ‘Temperature gradient between ‘Temperature gradient between | body surface and envionment ogy surace and envronment’ | mcreates secreases, ‘Therefore mote eat ost by 1 Therefore lessheatislostby | conduction and radiation. conduction and radition Tae aes stand erect ar erecor pil | Fae Wat because eect pil Insulation layer that strapped | minimises any insulation air layer next to the shin ‘that strapped nest tothe skin Sweat No sweat produced ‘More sweats produced as temperature increases. Heat ost ‘se water evaporates trom the surface ofthe sin acerca ‘Ware subawianeous fatto provide | Physically active people Pave TRE Insulation and reduce heat os by | subeutaneous fatto reduce Conduction and radiation Insulation Thus increasing the amount of heat oss by conduction Mewborem Tea rte Seer ‘Metabo rate inreaces Mules ‘Shiverng- seletal muscies ‘contract voluntary, When ‘muscles contrac, they produce heat the production of a complementary strand of mRNA from that gene. ‘© This may increase the transcription of a particular gene, called up-regulating, or it may decrease transcription, called down-regulating. Most steroid hormones, such as oestrogen ‘and testosterone, actin this way. ‘= Transcription factors may bind with 2 large number of different areas of DNA, so they can switch many different genes on or off. Thyroxine, for example, is known to affect the expression of at least 20 genes. Anabolic steroids ‘© Steroid hormone enters the cell and binds to receptor © Hormone raceptor complex enters nucleus and acts as a transcription factor, switching @ gene linked to enzyme synthesis on or off ‘+ Synthetic forms of testosterone stimulate more protein synthesis, this leads to more muscle being made Erythropoietin ‘+ Peptide hormone binds to receptor in the cell surface membrane ‘+ Membrane bound complex triggers protein kinase cascade ‘© Transcription factor moves into the nucleus ofthe cell and switches on a specific gene resulting in the production of new proteins Keyhole surgery etc. -3.7.19 Advantages ‘+ idea of smaller incision reduces chance of infection / eq ; ‘© Idea of smaller incision reduces recovery time ; ‘© idea of smaller incision reduces likelihood of osteoarthritis /knee joint replacement later / ea; Idea of smaller incision so less scar tissue / eq; Idea of smaller incision so less blood loss / eq ; Idea of smaller incision so less pain / eq ; use of local anaesthetic means less (associated) risk / eq Idea of cheaper related to fewer staff needed ; Surgery ‘© Afibre optic tube with a small camera and light attached is used to look inside the joint ‘+ Small incisions are made around the joint to fit in small surgical instruments Prosthetics ‘© Damaged joints can be completely replaced ‘+ This frees patients from pain and restores mobility ‘+ Replacement joints wear out more quickly if you exercise a lot ‘+ Forathletes, prosthetics are designed so they are able to give good performance. For example, the dynamic prosthetic foot changes shape as the body weight presses down on it, returning back to shape as it lifts off the ground, Sterolds ~ 3.7.20 Disadvantages ‘© (unfair / competitive} advantage ; ‘+ may damage athlete / thrombosis / heart attack / stroke / death ; ‘© Idea of unacceptable role model; ‘Advantages of using erythropoietin © Can be used to treat anaemia ‘+ Improves performance of athletes as they are able to carry more oxygen Disadvantages of using erythropoietin ‘© Leads to serious health problems and death ‘+ Excoss red blood cells thicken the blood and can lead to stroke and heart attacks. Ethical sues © Agree ‘= canno longer compare weight-lifters/competition is no longer fait; + illegal; ‘© uninformed decision taking; possibility of death © health risks; © Disagree ‘+ Individual has right to make own decision re health risks; ‘© drug free sport is not fair anyway; ‘© due to differences in training resources; ‘© pressures from coach / sponsors / public; ‘+ financial rewards; OPIC 8 Plants and photoreceptors ~ 4.4.2 Phytochromes are proteins that are sensitive to light with wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm — that i, red light, They exist in two forms, which are changed from one form to the other when they absorb light. Phytochrome red, Pr, absorbs red light (wavelength about 660 nm) and is changed to phytochrome far-red, Pr, which absorbs far-red light (wavelength about 730 nm). This changes it back to Pr. Location ‘© Leaves / seeds/ roots/ stems/ petioles/flowers/ f 5: shoots/ coleoptiles / buds ; Conversion ‘+ (imdark) slow conversion in darkness (PFR) to PR ; ‘© (Infar ced light) fast conversion (PER) to PR; ‘+ (ined light}fast conversion PFR to PR son/Weather ‘© Daylight: More red light than far-red so more PR -> PFR than PFR > PR ‘+ Many plants require PFR to germinate ‘= Season doesn’t matter Short-day / long-day plants ‘+ Short-day plants need a lot of Prin their tissues in order to flower ‘+ only happens when they have long, uninterrupted nights. ‘+ If white or red light is shone on them even very briefly during the night, they will not flower, because this converts the Pr to Pf. ‘= Long-day plants need a lot of Pfr in ther tissues in order to flower, which only happens when they have short nights — not long enough forall the Pfr to be converted to Pr. Importance of plants adapting to changes in day length ‘+ idea of {flowering / development /eqh happens atthe right time ; ‘+ therefore flowers when insects available / leaf fallin autumn / same species flower at the same time / seeds germinate at the right time / eq ; ‘© Idea that day length changes to a set pattern e.g, always (short days in winter /Iong days in summer}: ‘© comparison with other less regular stimuli e.g. temperature Neurones ete.— 4.4.3 Sensory vs relay vs motor neurone ‘sensory neurone (stimulated / eq) by {receptor / sense organ / eq}; + sensory neurones caries (impulses / eq) to (relay / motor / CNS / 24} neurone / (relay / motor / eq} neurones receive impulse from sensory neurone ; + relay neurone {synapses / connects / eq with sensory and {motor neurones / lots of neurones} / + idea of allowing coordination of reflex; + motor neurone {caries impulse / stimulates / eq) (effector / muscle / gland / eq) Longer, more detailed mark scheme of the above Sencory 4. transmits {impulses / action potentials) from sense organ to CNS / eq; 2. pseudo-unipolar cells / cell body in centre of {cell/ axon} / single dendrite ; 3, myelinated ; Relay 4, correct reference to (relay neurone transmitting impulses) {between sensory end motor neurone / to other neurones}; 5. short axons ; 6, no myelination / eq ; Effector (motor) 7. transmits {impulses / action potentials} from CNS to {effector / named effector} /eq ; £8, multipolar cells/ short dendrites / many dendrites from cell body / cell body at end of cell; 9. long axon ; 10. myelinated ; General 11. reference to (Schwann cells / nodes of Ranvier}; 12, reference to myelin causing faster impulse / eq; 13, reference to synapses (between neurones); 1. reference to secretion of {neurotransmitter / named neurotransmitter}; 15, credit structural detail of synapse e.¢. mitochondria in presynaptic knob / receptor molecules on. postsynaptic membrane / sodium channels in postsynaptic membrane ; Structure of myelin sheath © Schwann cells; ‘+ Wrap /fold /rol, around axon ; ‘+ Fatty /liid / phospholipid, nature ; ‘© Reference to nodes as, gaps in the sheath, / naked /exposed / uncovered, axon ; ‘AMotor Neurone Crayton ane foe) Myelination ‘© L{peurone (cel) surface membrane exposed / no myelination / eq) at nodes of Ranvier; +2. Nodes are the site of clusters of {sodium-gated channel proteins / potassium channels}; ‘© 3. Which {open / close} when impulse arrives / eq j ‘+ 4.Allowing depolarisation at nodes / eq; ‘© 5. idea that myelin/eq acts as an (electrical insulator (on neurone surface between nodes) © 6 reference to Schwenn cell; ‘+ 7. idea that impulse/depolarisation “jumps! to next node ; ‘+ 8 Reference to this being soltatory conduction ; ‘+ 9,idea that this happens between the myelin layers of the Schwann cell; ‘Action potentials ete.—4.4.8 Events: Before action potential © Stimulus ‘= Sodium channels open making membrane more permeable ‘+ Sodium ions diffuse into neurone down electrochemical gradient ‘+ Inside of neurone less negative Potential difference is -70mV Depolarisation ‘© Potential difference reaches threshold (around -SSMv) ‘* More sodium channels open ‘© More sodium ions diffuse Repolarisation Potential difference reaches +30Mv ‘The sodium channels close Potassium ions channels open Mebrane becomes more permeable to potassium “More potassium ions diffuse out of neurone down the electrochemical gradient Membrane approaches resting potential Hyperpolarisation ‘© Potassium channels slow to close ‘© Overshoot / to many potassium ions diffuse out of neurone. ‘+ Potential difference becomes more negative than resting potential Resting potential ‘+ active transport/pumping of sodium (ions across membrane); ‘© out of neurone/higher concentration outside; ‘© differential permeability to K+ and Nat; Refractory period ‘© no (new) action potential/nerve impulse be produced in ths time; ‘+ impulse/action potential can only move in one direction ‘© channels are recovering / Na+ closed at repolarisation & K+ closed during hyperpolarisation; Role of nodes of ranvier Gap in the myelin sheath /eq ; Enables {depolarisation/action potential/eq} (of axon) ; ‘Causes impulse to jump from node to node / saltatory conduction ; ‘Speeds up (transmission of Jimpulse ; ‘Synapses ~ 4.4.5 — Wl ee i Be I. cvecctoce Tyenatine — semi tte ren-pregte eae kee - fig 0.2.12 the srvctare of the aynapse (oad on information revealed Se cecron roars ‘Synapses and synaptic transmission ‘© (impulse causes) calcium ions/Cas+ to enter axon; ‘vesicles move to/fuse with (presynaptic) membrane; © acetylcholine (released); ‘© (acetylcholine) diffuses across synaptic cleft/synapse; ‘+ binds with receptors on (postsynaptic) membrane; (reject active site disqualify point) ‘+ sodium ions/Nas enter (postsynaptic) neurone; ‘+ depolarisation of (postsynaptic) membrane; ‘© If above threshold nerve impulse/action potential produced; inced mark scheme ‘© diffuses across (gap /eq) ; ‘+ binds to (receptors on) post-synaptic membrane / eq; ‘© Idea of gated-channels opening or Na travels through post-synaptic membrane ; ‘+ causing a depolarisation /eq ; ‘© _(ifsufficent present) an action potentials setup in {post-synaptic membrane/adjacent cell / eal: details such as temporal or spatial summation ; Idea that allows coordination / one way flow of information ; Idea that it allows integration in post-synaptic cell neurotransmitter broken dawn (by enzyme) / eq s0 that do not get (prolonged /eq) action potential in post- synaptic membrane / make receptors available again ; credit reference to fate of products g, reabsorbed through pre-synaptic membrane OR to be re-synthesised into neurotransmitter substance Role in nervous system ‘When one neurone connect to many neurones, information can be dispersed to different areas in the body (synaptic divergence) When many connect to one neurone the information can be amplify (synaptic convergence) Summation When a stimulus is weak, only a small bit of neurotransmitter is released. This may not be enough to stimulate an action potential ‘Spatial summation accurs when excitatory potentials from many different presynaptic neurons cause the postsynaptic neuron to reach its threshold and fr. ‘Temporal summation occurs when a single presynaptic neuron fies many times in succession, causing the postsynaptic neuron to reach its threshold and fe, Rods, cones, ete. 4.4.6 Rod cells ‘+ In the dark Nat flows into the outer segment through specific cation channels, + Nat move into inner segment and the pumps continue to transport them back out of the cell + Influx of Na produces a slight depolarisation of cell (to-4OmV) which triggers the release of an NT from the rod cells + The NT binds to the bipolar cell and stops it depolarizing In the light rhodopsin absorbs light, changes shape & breaks down into retinal and opsin Opsin causes a series of membrane bound reactions and ends in the hydrolysis of the ‘molecule attached to the cation channel in the outer segment. ‘This closes the cation(+ve} channet ‘The Nat into the rod decreases and the inner segment continues to pump Na+ out The inside ofthe cell becomes hyper polarised (more -ve) the release of the glutamate NT stops ‘The bipolar cell depolarises The neurones of the optic nerve are depolarised and this sets up the AP “The cone cells give information in colour. They are found in the fovea, whereas cones are found in the peripheral parts of the retina Rods and cones in nocturnal mammal vs human more rods and no / fewer cones present; rods atthe fovea / rods not mainly at periphery; rods have high sensitivity /show retinal convergence /converse for cones; ‘hodopsin ‘bleached’ at low light intensities /iodopsin ‘bleached’; at high light intensities ‘The contraction/dilation of pupils 4.4.7 ‘Antagonistic muscles ~ the pupil reflex circular muscles contrac (and radial muscles relax to (constrict / eq) pupil; radial muscles contract and creular muscles relax) to (late / eq} pupil; need for fine contol of aperture to allow pupil to be reset toacifferent size / allow changing to take account of varying light intensity; (these) muscies can only shorten / a ; antagonistic muscles have opposite effects /eq idea that contraction of one muscle set steetches the other; Pupil size / light details of impulse e.g, depolarisation; ref to light hitting photoreceptors / eq; send impulses via bipolar cells; to optic nerve; ref to sensory neurone; reference to (motor / eq) neurone connected to (radial) muscles ; reference to contraction of radial muscle n ‘© Wight hits) photoreceptors (on the retina}; ‘+ impulses pass tothe brain ; © ref.to sensory neurone ; ‘© ref.to innate / inborn / autonomic response ; ‘+ Impulses along parasympathetic nerve ; ‘© refto motor neurone ; ‘© circular muscles contract / radial muscles relax; pupil {contracts /constricts / becomes smaller); Dim Light ‘ Light falling on cones causes impulses to travel along neurones ‘* Dim light means the frequency of action potentials decrease ‘This is detected by a control centre in the midbrain ‘* Nerve impulses synapse with the sympathetic cranial nerve ‘© The muscles in the iris are stimulated ‘+The citcular muscles relax and the radial muscles contract «= Pupils are wider, increasing the amount of light entering the eye ‘= This allows as much ligt as possible to fall on the rods and cones to maximise what you can see Phototropism etc. 4.4.8 Hormonal vs nervous response ‘© hormonal coordination is (chemical / via blood) whereas nervous coordination is electrical / along axons ; ‘+ hormonal slow whereas nervous fast / eq; ‘+ hormonal longer term action whereas nervous short term / eq: ‘+ idea that hormone action is widespread whereas nervous action is localised ; Phototropism IAA is made in the growing point at the tip ofthe shoot and then moves down the shoot. ‘When blue-light receptors pick up unidirectional ight, they make the IAA accumulate on the shady The IAA switches on genes for expansins, which make cell walls stretchy so the cells can get longer. This makes the cells on the shady side get longer than the cells on the light side, so the shoot bends towards the light Brain 4.4.9 Frontal lobe (also referred to asthe higher centes ofthe bran) ~ concerned with the higher brain functions such a decision making, reasoning, planning and consciousness of emations. Its also concerned With forming associations (by combining lformation from the rest ofthe cortex) and with ideas. It Snclades the primary motor cortex which has neurones that connect directly tothe spinal cord and brain stem and from there tothe muscles, It sends information tothe body via the motor neurones to eamy out ‘movements. The motor cortex also stores information about how to cerry aut different movements Parietal lobe - concerned with crientation, movement, sensation, Caleuation, some types of recognition and memory. Occipital tobe (visual, cater) ~ concerned with processing information fiom the eyes, including Vision, colour, shape recognition and perspective. Temporal lobe ~ concerned with processing auditory information, Le. hearing, sound recognition and speech (lft temporal lobe) Aso involved in memory. ae ‘The account ofthe location and functions of each of the following areas of the mammalian brain: cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla. 1. Receives information from sensory organs / reference to sensory input ; 2, Idea of {interpretation / coordination} of information ; 3. {nitiates / transmits) impulses (to effector) ; Cerebral hemispheres / cerebrum 4. Atthe front ofthe brain / frontal lobes / fre brain: 5. Reference to voluntary action 6. Reference toa named sense: 7. Reference to {thought / learning / intelligence / memory / personality / emotion J speech / language): Cerebellum 8. Atthe back ofthe brain / hind brain; 9. Idea of (controls skeletal / muscular movement: 10, Reference to (modification of movement / named example eg. tlkng) 11. Balance / posture / muscle tone ; Medulla 22, Attop of spinal cord / hind brain / below pons ; 413, Reference to involuntary action ; 14, Involved in homeostatic control / correct named example ; 16, Reference to (simple reflex centre / named example} ; scans~ 4.4.10 fuRt Idea that fMRI can allow brain activity to be seen in real time ; Idea that fMRI uses radio waves / magnetic field); ‘+ increase supply of oxygenated blood in active areas /eq ; that (reflects/does not absorb) (MAI signals / eq ; Idea of seen as a white area (Tscan ‘* Thousands of tiny X-ray beams are passed through the area to be observed ‘The strength of the beam is reduced as it passes through tissue. Denser tissue reduces the strength of the beam more, ‘* The X-rays that make it through are detected and measured ‘+The data is put into a computer to produce a cross-sectional image ofa thin slice of the body ‘= Occasionally, special dyes are injected into the blood to make areas X-ray opaque so they show up more clearly '* Positives: able to identify major structures in the brain; can identify bleeding inthe brain ‘+ Downside: can’t pick up fine structural details; images are frozen in time so can't detect changes in brain with changing or other activities Example: blood has lighter density from brain tissue; revelation of extent and location of bleeding: work out damaged blood vessels and which affected Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ‘= Uses magnetic fields and radio waves, ‘¢ Hydrogen atoms are imaged as they have a strong MRI signal «The signals produced are used to produce an image by a computer. + Different tissues respond differently to the magnetic field due to the amount of water in the structure. ‘Thin slices are imaged to produce 20 images. However, these can be put together to form 3D, images ‘+ Positives: Reduces risk of damage from X-rays; produces detailed images; can be used to diagnoses brain injuries, strokes, tumours and infections of the brain or spine; enables doctors and scientists to make links between structures in the brains and patterns of behaviour seen in their patients ‘* Downside: Doesn't show how the brain works; noisy so can be distressing forthe patient 44.11t04.413 There's far too much information to put here and it essentially wll be from the textbook. However, here are a few mark schemes/basic notes. How the study of animals has helped humans ‘+ _allanimals have common evolutionary origin / share genes /eq OR human and mammal brains ave similar + {nervous system / neurones / synapses /neurotransmiters/ eq} work na simitar way inal animals; ref. to studies of (Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler); detals of (Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler) studles; ref to limitations of animals in explaining learning in hurnans Visual cortex. ‘+ Axons grow from the retina to the thalamus and synapse with the neurons in the thalamus ina particular arrangement. ‘+ The axons from the thalamus then grow towards the visual cortex in the occipital lobe, They synapse onto the column cells of the visual cortex. ‘+ The adjacent columns of cells receive stimulation from the same area ofthe retina in the left and right eye and the pattern repeats across the visual cortex. ‘© Crowley and katz injected labelled tracers into ferrets. They found the visual cortex forms before the critical period for visual development. The column cells are also seen in new born monkeys. Therefore the formation ofthe visual cortex must be genetically determined not ue to the environmental stimuli. There are postnatal periods when the NS needs specific experiences to develop properiy. These are critical windows or sensitive periods. What happens during the critical window? > Visual stimulation is needed for the refinement of columns and the full development of the visual cortex. > Each time a neurone fires into a target cell inthe visual cortex, the synapses of the other neurones sharing the target cell are weakened and release less NT If this competition ‘continues then only the synapses on axons receiving light stimulation wil fre until stimulations from the light deprived eye willbe lost. More neurones are produced than are required in the nervous system. In the retina 80% of the original neurones are pruned and die. ‘There isa critical window for the development of the mature visual cortex. ‘+ The eyes of new-born kittens and monkeys were sutured, The age at which the animals were deprived of vision and the length of time the eye remained closed was varied + One eye of akitten was sutured before its eyes opened. The open eye developed normally, however, the kittens were blind in the closed eye; very few cells in the closed eye were firing ‘© One eye of a four month old kitten that could see normally was sutured. There was no effect ‘on the vision ofthe sutured eye ‘+ closing the eye ofa kitten for a short period during the critical period for visual evelopment has as much effect as closing the eye from birth. ‘+ Similar results were achieved when monkeys were used. Human Genome Project What i it? ‘To map (human) chromosomes / to find where each gene is located on (human) ‘chromosomes 5 ‘To determine base sequence ; International project (about human genes) ; Benefits of identifying people in tests to determine diseases ‘To warn people at risk to take precautions / make life-style changes ; ‘To plan medical provision (forthe individual); ‘To determine NHS priorities /eq ; To warn people when there is a rsk that if they have children they may have genetic disorders ; Will make it easier to develop (ways of treating genetic deficiencies / gene therapy) Ethical sues May mean people put under (undue) pressure to {have abortions / not have children}; May lead to discrimination over (jobs / Insurance premiums) ; May lead to (other ethically questionable) developments such as ‘designer babies’ / eugenics Limmigration ; (Stress / anxiety) — knowing something might happen may cause psychological stress even if Itnever happens in your life-time / people may not believe testis reliable / people may not want to know ; (Civil rights / personal freedom) ~ who should decide who should have genetic tests? / who decides who deserves very expensive treatment on the NHS? ; Data protection issues - who will have access to genetic information about inividuals ; [this marking point could be a development of marking point 2] Serotonin ete. Why L-dopa is used as a treatment Dopamine cannot enter the brain/L-dopa can be converted to dopamine/L-dopa is {easier/cheaper} to make/converse Parkinson's ref to non-functioning of synapses; idea that {substantia nigra/basal ganglion/mid brain} cells not active; Idea that these release dopamine; Idea that neruones release dopamine in {cerebellum/motor cortex/ parietal lobe} ref to loss of motor function / muscle movement / eq; Depression The NT serotonin Is secreted by cells in the brain stem, whose axons extend into the cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord. This is a huge area of the brain ‘A lack of serotonin leads to depression - feelings of sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, a loss of interest in pleasurable activities, decreased energy levels, insomnia, thoughts of death. ‘The cause is multifactorial - several genes and environmental factors are involved eg stress. ‘The S-HTT gene codes for a transporter protein that controls serotonin reuptake into the presynaptic neurones. Those with the short version of S-HTT are susceptible to depression if an environment trigger occurs. Other NTs may be involved and the lack of serotonin may be the cause OR the result of depression. In depressed people there are fewer nerve impulses transmitted around the brain. The pathways involved in in serotonin synthesis are often present in low ‘concentrations but the serotonin binding sites are more numerous than normal Treating Depression Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRis) inhibit the uptake of serotonin. This leaves ‘more serotonin n the synaptic cleft. Therefore, more impulses travel along the post synaptic axon. This results in the relief of the symptoms ‘Tricylic antidepressants (TCAs) increase the levels of serotonin and noradrenalin inthe brain, Monoamincoxidase inhibitors inhibit the enzymes that break down serotonin, Developing new treatments for Parkinson's - Gene Therapy Results from the Human Genome Project help to develop gene therapies Scientists are investigating inserting healthy genes into the affected cells ‘The two main approaches are: adding genes to prevent cells from dying: adding genes to ‘enhance dopamineproduction ‘The problems are that safety is of prime concern, so gene therapy like this is stil ears away Habituation Less calcium (ions) enter into neurone /fewer calcium channels open Fewer neurotransmitter vesicles (move to/fuse with} (presynaptic/neurone 1) membrane/less neurotransmitter released (into synaptic cleft) Less neurotransmitter diffuses (across the synaptic cleft) Less neurotransmitter binds to {receptor/sodium channel} on (postsynaptic/neurone 2) membrane Fewer sodium (ion) channels open/less sodium (ions) enter Less membrane depolarisation/{fewer/no} action potentials initiated {in neurone 2) At wnonswen spon smut \arer cones be peonte Lr reotninter . 3 Ther es deptariaton 1 ier sel mits ested : ‘oe acon petit ‘ial ome soho Samed Oe eter {Ho ge anes, rouore Fontes eg water et wu Fare 8.58 Sinling te pho ae te lf gt be wth, Animal testing Clinical trials stage 1 involves animals. Without animals we would be unable to discover new drugs ‘Animal testing is better than nothing and does, in some cases avert potential loss of human, lite ‘Animal testing is for the greater good ‘Machines like MAI were tested using animals Animal testing has advanced our understanding of human physiology Computer simulations can be used in clinical trials ‘Animal physiology i diferent to human physiology. Therefore animal testing is unhelpful Animals have rights too Animals have no informed consent Testing on animals when potential side effects are unknown is immoral Animals can't tell you if they are suffering ‘Animals are often treated poorly in labs Genetic modification How to modify bacteria ‘© (Restriction enzyme / endonuclease} to cut out (cellulose) {gene / section of DNA} (from fungus) ; ‘© Obtain plasmids from bacteria ; ‘+ Open plasmid using (same restriction enzyme / endonuclease}; ‘+ Insert (cellulose) gene into plasmid ; ‘+ Reference to sticky ends ‘© (Ends joined by) ligase ; ‘+ Insert plasmid into bacteria; ‘= Reference to method such as (electroporation / treatment with calcium chloride / electrical shocking / salt shocking) How to modify plants 1. Idea: transferring {gene / DNA) from another species tothe rape plant; 2. (identiy / find /isolate} gene inthe donor plant; 3, Reference to cutting DNA / restriction enzymes; 4 Splicing ONA / reference to sticky end 5. insert {gene / DNA) into plasmid / ligase enzymes 6 Plasmid isa circle of DNA from bacteria 7. {The bacteria / Agrobacterium / a vector} is used to transfer the (gene /ONA}into the (rape) cells; 8. Correct reference to antibiotic resistant marker gene ; 9. Corect reference to use if protoplasts allowing easier entry of vector Benefits and risks of GM crops © positive less crops lost to insect damage/ diseases spread by insects; ‘+ can spray herbicide with no loss to crop/reduce competition from weeds; ‘+ more saleable product; ‘© less use of insecticide; ‘+ possibly cheaper food; max 3 + negative: ‘© gene transfer to non-crop species; ‘© consumer resistance to “un-natural” products; ‘+ transfer of genes into food chains/etfect of food chains/examples; ‘© creation of “plague” weeds/uneconomic plants; ‘+ excessive use of herbicides; ‘© Reject disadvantages of selective breeding How to identify the resistant gene ‘© expose cells to the fungus/named example; ‘© non-resistant ones die, resistant ones survive; OR identity by adding marker gene/gene probe/(qualified) marker probe; escription of postive result e.g. radioactivty/fluorescence / complementary base pairing; How to modify animal cells ‘+ The gene for protein is injected into the nucleus ofa fertilised animal egg cell ‘© Egg cell implanted into an adult animal cells—it grows into a whole animal ‘© So these contains a copy of the gene in every cells, ‘© The protein made from the gene is purified from milk of animal Ways genes are inserted into host cell ‘* Microinjection ~ DNA injected into cell witha fine micropipette ‘* Microprojectle ~ DNA is shot into the cel at high speed carried on a minute gold, tungsten pellet ‘Virus Infects the cells with the desired gene + Liposome wrapping ~ gene is wrapped in liposomes which fuse to membranes and Ethical isues of GM crops {An issue about antibiotic resistance ; ‘Antibiotic markers could lead to antibiotic resistance in (human) (pathogens /microbes / bacteria}; May cause allergy Possible example of such an allergy / attempt to describe what is meant by an allergic response ; Could make crop harmful to consumers Reference to presence of possible toxic substances ; May (affect / spread to} fother (non-GM) crops wild plants Pollen may spread to {non-GM / organic farms} / may transfer herbicide resistance to other {weeds / wild plants} Loss of genetic diversity / increases reliance on fewer and fewer strains ; (World's human food supply) vulnerable to {climate / environmental} change /newly emerged {disease / pathogen} of the crop plants ; International biotech companies cannot be trusted Could make developing world / the worid in general too dependent on a small number of suppliers / issues too complex for public to understand therefore easily misled ; Inadequate testing of GM products Until the recent concern many GM products were released onto the market untested / adequate international protocols for testing do not exist ; ‘GM may have unforeseen {environmental medical] consequences; Reference to the precautionary principle (the risk may be small) but the dangers could be too catastrophic to take the risk / when we find a problem it could be too late; (Ethical / religious} objections to tampering with nature / GM difficult to control / current research might be harmless but where wilt all lead? ; Economic factors may force people to adopt GM to compete (even if they are opposed to it) / (in the ‘wrong hands) risks of promoting (biological warfare / eugenetics / designer babies} Nervous system (NS) Cental nervous system (CHS) Peripheral nerous system consisting cessing of brio 1 Sersry nerves = carying spina core Sensory infomation Frm the recep to the (NS 1 ota neves earying the ‘motor commands rom Ue MS tothe effectors, Atonomie neous sytem Somatic nervous system Tnvoluntary vountany stimulates smooth muscle, 1 Simulates steal ‘arlac muscle ad ands muscle sbeivted into “Sympathetic nenous system Parasympatnetie neous sytert + repates boy for Fat or ‘+ prepates boy for vest and cies” Fgh responses (eg. speeds up eat at, se Topi 7) 18.4 The oranisation ofthe renous syste. Experiment-based questions Spirometer ‘+ idea of calibration for volume ; Idea of calibration for time ; ‘© description of how to calculate tidal volume {from trace) / ea ; ‘© Idea that one peak = one breath ; ‘+ reference to breathing rate is number of peaks per minute ; ‘© idea of standardised group of males and females e.g. same age, non-smokers; ‘© idea that traces taken at rest; © reference to replicates ; ‘+ description of how to calculate the mean from the trace; inspiratory reserve volume vital capacity ‘eda volume expiratory reserve volume Lung volume/dm? Time—> Rate of respiration ‘+ ref to {soda lime / potassium hydroxide) to absorb (C02 / carbon dioxide} ; ‘+ ref to control and reasoning e.g. results only due to {woodlice / named organism) respiring ; ‘+ named example of control e.g. {beads / stones / eq} which have same mass ; ‘+ syringe set the fluid in the manometer to known level / eq © Idea oftime e.g. 30 minutes ; ‘+ ref to volume of air decreasing / woodlice/named organism consuming oxygen ; ‘+ Idea that pressure reduced in in tube; ‘© idea that the pressure: ‘+ distance moved by liquid ina given time is measured to calculate the volume of oxygen in by the woodlice per minute; + refto controls e.g. temperature ; be reduced / liquid in manometer moves towards test tube; wn ‘* reference to constant temperature ; + use of water bath / eq; ‘+ reference to {suitable / stated / fixed time / eq); ‘+ Reference to measuring (volume / distance) ; ‘+ description of how to obtain volume ; ‘+ calculation of rate described / eq ; © reference to replicates; ‘© description of control e.g. no woodiice ; ‘+ idea of welfare of animal important; 1+ reference to {mass / eq} of woodlice ; ~— . ren to 2 eae 7 =. A ceeeeeue ~~ 1 Collect one giant Aftican land snail, and place it on a clean, firm surface. Allow the snail to get used to its new surroundings for a few minutes until it has fully emerged from its shell 2 Dampen a cotton wool bud with water. 3 Firmly touch the snail between the eye stalks with the dampened cotton wool bud and immediately start the stopwatch. Measure the length of time between the touch and the snail being fully emerged from its shell once again, with its eye stalks fully extended. 4 Repeat the procedure in step 3 for a total of 10 touches, timing how long the snail takes to re-emerge each time. 5 Record your results in a suitable table. 6 Present your results in an appropriate graph