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TWO MARKS

1. Define scalar field?

A field is a system in which a particular physical function has a value at each and

every point in that region. The distribution of a scalar quantity with a defined position in

a space is called scalar field.

Ex: Temperature of atmosphere.

2. Define Vector field?

If a quantity which is specified in a region to define a field is a vector then the

corresponding field is called vector field.

3. Define scaling of a vector?

This is nothing but, multiplication of a scalar with a vector. Such a multiplication

changes the magnitude of a vector but not the direction.

4. What are co-planar vector?

The vectors which lie in the same plane are called co-planar vectors.

5. What is an identical vector?

Two vectors are said to be identical if there difference is zero. Thus A and B are

identical if A B = 0,i.e, A = B . Such two vectors are also called as equal vectors.

6. Define base vectors?

The base vectors are the unit vectors which are strictly oriented along the

directions of the coordinate axes of the given coordinate system.

7. What is a position vector?

Consider a point p(x, y, z) are Cartesian coordinate system. Then the position

Vector of point p is represented by the distance of point p from the origin directed

from origin to point. This is also called as radius vector.

8. Define scalar product of vectors?

The scalar of the two vectors A and B is denoted as A.B and defined as the

product of the magnitude of A and magnitude of B and the cosine of angle between them.

9. Define Divergence.

Divergence is defined as the net outward flow of the flux per unit volume over a

closed incremental surface.

10. State Divergence Theorem.

The integral of the normal component of any vector field over a closed surface is

equal to the integral of the divergence of this vector field throughout the volume enclosed

that closed surface.

11. Define curl of a vector.

The maximum circulation of F per unit area as area tends to zero whose direction

is normal to the surface is called curl of F.

F = Curl of F

12. State Stoke Theorem.

The line integral of F around a closed path L isquale to the integral of curl of F

over the open surface S enclosed by the closed path L.

Mathematically it is expressed as

F. dL = ( F).dS

Where dL -perimeter of total surface S.

Curl gives rate of rotation. Curl F gives work done per unit area.

14. What is physical significance of divergence?

Divergence of current density gives net outflow of current per unit volume

.Divergence of flux density gives net outflow per unit volume. In general, divergence

of any field density gives net outflow of that field per unit volume.

15. State the conditions for a field to be a) solenoidal b) irrotational.

a) Divergence of the field has to be zero.

b) Curl of the field has to be zero.

16. Define scalar and vector quantity?

The scalar is a quantity whose value may be represented by a single real number

which may be positive or negative.e.g, temperature, mass, volume, density

A quantity which has both a magnitude and a specified direction in space is called

a vector.e.g.force, velocity, displacement,acceleration.

17. How to represent a vector.

A vector can be represented by a straight line with an arrow in a plane. The length

of the segment is the magnitude of a vector while the arrow indicates the direction of a

vector. A

18. What is a unit vector? What is its function while representing a vector?

A unit vector has a function to indicate the direction. Its magnitude is always

unity, irrespective of the direction which it indicates and the coordinate system under

consideration.

19. Name 3 coordinate systems used in electromagnetic engineering?

1) Cartesian or rectangular coordinate system.

2) Cylindrical coordinate system.

3) Spherical coordinate system.

20. How to represent a point in a Cartesian system?

A point in rectangular coordinate system is located by three coordinates namely x,

y and z coordinates. The point can be reached by moving from origin, the distance x in x

direction then the distance y in y direction and finally z in z direction.

The distance vector is also called as separation vector. Distance vector is

nothing but the length of the vector.

22. State Distance formula?

Distance formula give the distance between the two points representing

tips of the

vector.

23. What are differential elements in Cartesian system?

dl =

dv= dxdydxdydz ds

= dsan

24. What are the differential elements in cylindrical system? dr-differential length

in r direction

rd -differential length in

direction dz-differential length

in z direction

dl

dv = rdrddz

25. What are the differential elements in spherical coordinate system? drdifferential

length in r direction

rd -differential length in direction

r sind -differential length in direction

dl = (dr) + (rd ) + (r

sind)

dv = r sindrdd

26. Which are the surfaces used to define the cylindrical coordinate system?

dsr = differential vector surface area normal to r direction

= rddzar

Ds = differential vector surface area normal to direction

= Drdza

dsz = differential vector surface area normal to z direction

= Rdrdaz

system?

x = r cos

y = r sin

z=z

28. Show how a point p represented in a spherical coordinate system.

The point p can be defined as the intersection of three surfaces in

spherical coordinate system.

r - Constant which is a sphere with centre as origin

axis as z axis.

29. State the relationship between Cartesian and spherical system?

x=r sin cos

y= r sin sin

z=r cos

29. What is dot product?

Dot product is also called as scalar product. It is defined as the product

of the magnitude of A and magnitude of B and cosine of the smallest angle

between them.

A.B =| A || B | cosABan

31. State dot product properties.

1) It obeys commutative law. A.B = B.A

2) It obeys distributive law. A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C

3) If the dot product with itself is performed the result is square of the

magnitude

of that vector A.A =| A |

4) Any unit vector dotted with itself is unity. ax.ax = ay.ay = 1

32. What is called as cross product?

Cross product is also called as vector product. It is defined as the product

of the magnitude of A and magnitude of B and sine of the smallest angle

between them.

A B =| A || B | sinABan

33. State cross product properties.

1) Cross product is not

cumulative i.e. A B

BA

2) Reversing the order of vectors, reverse its direction.

A B = | B || A |

1) To determine the angle between the two vectors,

2) To find the component of a vector in a given direction.

35. Give the application of cross product.

1) The cross product is used to determine the direction of force.

F = IL B

2) Another physical quantity which can be represented by cross product is

moment of force.

M = r F =| r || F | sinan

35.

The scalar triple product is

A.(B C) = B.(C A) = C.(A B)

1) The scalar triple product is distributive.

2) If two of the three vectors are equal then the result of the scalar triple

product is

zero.

A.(A C) = 0

38. Define vector triple product.

The vector triple product of the three vectors A, B,C are mathematically

defined as,

A (B C) = B(A.C) C(A.B)

39. State vector triple product properties.

The vector triple product properties are

1. B (C A) = C(B.A) A(B.C)

C (A B) = A(C.B) B(C.A)

This is because dot product is commutative.

2. (A.B)C A(B.C) And

(A.B)C = C(A.B)

40. Convert Cartesian to cylindrical system.

cos

sin

Ar

0 Ax

A

Az

= sin cos

0

The spherical coordinates of a point in the ISO convention (radius r, inclination ,

azimuth ) can be obtained from its Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) by the formulae

Cylindrical coordinates (radius , azimuth , elevation z) may be converted into

spherical coordinates (radius r, inclination , azimuth ), by the formulas

Conversely, the spherical coordinates may be converted into cylindrical coordinates by the

formulae

These formulae assume that the two systems have the same origin and same reference

plane, measure the azimuth angle in the same sense from the same axis, and that the

spherical angle is inclination from the cylindrical z axis.

43. Expression of Integration and differentiation in spherical coordinates.

The line element for an infinitesimal displacement from

to

is

where

44. What are the types of integral related to electromagnetic theory? 1. Line

integral

2. Surface integral

3. Volume integral

45. Give the curl vector of the Cartesian system.

a

y

ax

az

y

F

y

F =

x

F

x

z

F

z

ar ra

1

r r

F

r

az

z

F

z

ar ra r sina

1

F =

r sin r

F

r

rF r sinF

48. Given two points in Cartesian coordinate system as A (3,-2, 1), (-3,-3, 5).find

distance

from B to A.

BA = A B = [3 (3)ax + [(2) (3)]ay + [1 5]az

=6ax + ay 4az

BA =

1. Line charge

2. Point charge

3. Surface charge

4. Volume charge.

11 MARKS

1. Explain the concept of orthogonal system and derive the carterisien and spherical

Coordinates system.

Cylindrical coordinates are a simple extension of the two-dimensional polar

coordinates to three dimensions. Recall that the position of a point in the plane can be

described using polar coordinates (r,). The polar coordinate r is the distance of the

point from the origin. The polar coordinate is the angle between the x-axis and the line

segment from the origin to the point.

with the usual z coordinate of Cartesian coordinates. To form the cylindrical coordinates

of a point P, simply project it down to a point Q in the xy-plane (see the below figure).

Then, take the polar coordinates (r,) of the point Q, i.e., r is the distance from the

origin to Q and is the angle between the positive x-axis and the line segment from the

origin to Q. The third cylindrical coordinate is the same as the usual z-coordinate. It is

the signed distance of the point P to the xy-plane (being negative is P is below the xyplane). The below figure illustrates the cylindrical coordinates (r,,z) of the point P.

You can further explore the properties of the cylindrical coordinates with the follow

applet. You can observe how changing the coordinates (r,,z) changes the position of the

point P. Just as with polar coordinates, we usually limit 0<2 and r0 to descrease the

non-uniqueness of cylindrical coordinates. However, when r=0, there is a nonuniqueness since the point P is on the z axis when r=0, independent of the value of .

Cylindrical coordinates. Given the values for cylindrical coordinates r, , and z,

which you can change by dragging the blue points on the sliders, the large purple point

shows the corresponding position in Cartesian coordinates. The blue point is the

projection of the purple point in the xy-plane. This projection gives perspective and

helps in visualizing and r. The coordinate r is the length of the cyan line segment from

the origin to the blue point. The coordinate is the angle the cyan line segment makes

with the positive x-axis. The coordinate z is the same as the z-coordinate of Cartesian

coordinates. On the sliders, is written as .

The line element is

The volume element is

The surface element in a surface of constant radius (a vertical cylinder) is

The surface element in a surface of constant azimuth

(a vertical half-plane) is

Cylindrical coordinates (radius , azimuth , elevation z) may be converted into

spherical coordinates (radius r, inclination , azimuth ), by the formulas

3. What is mean by spherical co-ordinate system and mention the relationship between

Spherical and Cartesian system.

The surface element in a surface of polar angle constant (a cone with vertex the

origin) is

The surface element in a surface of azimuth

The volume element spanning from to

, to

, and

to

is

4. Derive and explain the concept of vector field, gradient and divergence.

5. Define curl vector and determine the Cartesian coordinates of curl vector.

6. Derive the stokes theorem and derive the expression of stokes theorem.

7. State columbs law and explain the electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity

of columbs law with neat diagram.

9. Derive the expression of electric fields due surface charge and volume charge

distributions:

UNIT II

TWO MARKS

1. Define point charge.

A point charge means that electric charge which is separated on a surface or

space whose geometrical dimensions are very very small compared to other dimensions,

in which the effect of electric field to be studied.

2. Define one coulomb.

One coulomb of charge is defined as the charge possessed by (1/1.602x10 -9) i.e

18

6x10 number of electrons.

3. State Coulombs law.

The coulombs law states that force between the two point charges Q1 and Q2

i) Acts along the line joining the two point charges

ii) is directly proportional to the product of the charges

iii) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

F=

Q1Q2

R2

The constant is called the coefficient of proportionality or proportionality

constant. If one variable is always the product of the other and a constant, the two are

said to be directly proportional. x and y are directly proportional if the ratio is constant.

5. Define electric field intensity at a point.

The electric field intensity is defined as force exerted per unit charge.

Where p-position of any other charge around Q1

.

6. What are the various types of charge distribution? Give an example for each.

1. Point charge-Ex. Positive charge

2. Line charge -Ex. A sharp beam in a cathode ray tube.

3. Surface charge-Ex. The plate of a charged parallel plate capacitor.

4. Volume charge-Ex. The charged cloud.

7. State the assumptions made while defining a Coulombs law.

1) The two charges are stationary.

2) The two charges are point charge.

A surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between

differing media, usually as a gravity wave between two fluids with different densities. A

surface wave can also be an elastic (or seismic) wave, such as Rayleigh wave or Love

wave. It can also be an electromagnetic wave guided by a refractive index gradient. In

radio transmission, a ground wave is a surface wave that propagates close to the surface

of the Earth.

9. State the expression for electric field intensity due to infinite line charge.

Electric field is defined as the electric force per unit charge. The direction of the

field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test charge. The

electric field is radially outward from a positive charge and radially in toward a negative

point charge.

10. State the expression for electric field intensity due to charged circular ring.

It should be apparent from symmetry that the field is along the axis. The field dE

due to a charge element dq is shown, and the total field is just the superposition of all

such fields due to all charge elements around the ring. The perpendicular fields sum to

zero, while the differential x-component of the field is

A vector field

such that

Here

denotes the gradient of . When the above equation holds, is called a

scalar potential for . The fundamental theorem of vector calculus states that any vector

field can be expressed as the sum of a conservative vector field and a solenoidal field.

An equipotential surface is an imaginary surface in an electric field of a given

charge distribution, in which all points on the surface are at the same electric potential.

13. What is an electric flux?

The total number of lines of force in any particular electric field is called electric

flux. It is represented by the symbol . Similar to the charge, unit of electric flux is also

Coulomb.

14. Define electric flux density.

The net flux passing normal through the unit surface area is called electric flux

density. It is denoted as D . It has a specified direction which is normal to the surface area

under consideration hence it is a vector field.

The Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux density (the rate of

energy transfer per unit area) of an electromagnetic field. The SI unit of the Poynting

vector is the watt per square metre (W/m2). It is named after its inventor John Henry

Poynting

16. Derive the relationship between D and E.

The polarization density P yields the electric displacement field D

Here 0 is the electric permittivity of empty space. In this equation, P is the

(negative of the) field induced in the material when the "fixed" charges, the dipoles, shift

in response to the total underlying field E, whereas D is the field due to the remaining

charges, known as "free" charges. In general, P varies as a function of E depending on the

medium, as described later in the article. In many problems, it is more convenient to work

with D and the free charges than with E and the total charge.

17. State Gausss Law.

The electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge

enclosed by that surface.

18. State the mathematical representation of Gausss law.

Gauss's law may be expressed as

Where E is the electric flux through a closed surface S enclosing any volume V, Q is the

total charge enclosed within S, and 0 is the electric constant. The electric flux E is

defined as a surface integral of the electric field:

[note 1]

and represents the dot product of two vectors.

Since the flux is defined as an integral of the electric field, this expression of Gauss's law

is called the integral form.

1) The Gausss law can be used to find E and D for symmetrical charge

distributions.

2) It is used to find the charge enclosed or the flux passing through the surface closed

20. What is Divergence? Explain its physical meaning.

The mathematical operation on A is called a divergence. It is denoted as divergence

A. The physical meaning is, Let A be the flux density vector then, the divergence of the

vector flux density A is the outflow of flux from a small closed surface per unit volume as

the volume shrinking to zero.

21. State the Divergence theorem.

The integral of the normal component of any vector field over a closed surface is

equal to the integral of the divergence of this vector field throughout the volume enclosed

by that closed surface.

22. What is an equipotential surface?

An equipotential surface is an imaginary surface in an electric field of a given

charge distribution, in which all points on the surface are at the same electric potential.

23. What is the formula for coaxial cable using gauss law?

Gausss law in electrostatics relates the integral over a closed surface of the

electric field to the integral over the enclosed volume of the charge density.

Where it is important to note that the integral on the left is over the enclosing surface

(often called the Gaussian surface), while that on the right is over the volume enclosed

by that surface.

24. What is the formula for spherical shell of charge using gauss law?

For r<a, E=0

For r=a, E= Q/(4a2) ar

For r>a, E= Q/(4r2) ar

25. What is the formula for uniformly charged sphere using gauss law?

r>a, D = a3R/3r2 ar

r=a, D = va /3 ar

r<a, D = r/3 v

ar

The surface charge density on a solid is defined as the total amount of charge q

per unit area A,

The unit of potential difference is Volt. One Volt potential difference is one Joule

of work done in moving unit charge from one point to other in the field E.

28. Define potential difference.

The work done per unit charge in moving unit charge from B to A in the field E

is called potential difference between the points B to A.

A

v = E.dl .

B

29. Define relaxation time.

The relaxation time is defined as the time required by the charge density to

decay to 36.8% of its initial value.

= RelaxationTime =

sec.

The rate of change of potential with respect to the distance is called potential

gradient.

31.

What is Gaussian surface? What are the conditions to be satisfied in special

Gaussian surface?

The surface over which is the Gausss law is applied is called Gaussian surface.

Obviously such a surface is a closed surface and it has to satisfy the following conditions.

1) The surface may be irregular but should be sufficiently large so as to enclose

the entire charge.

2) The surface must be closed.

3) At each point of the surface D is either normal or tangential to the surface.

4) The electric flux density D is constant over the surface at which D is normal.

32.

What is Gradient of V?

The maximum value of rate of change of potential with distance dv/dL is called

gradient of V.

33. Define Absolute potential.

The absolute electrode potential is the difference in electronic energy between a

point inside the metal (Fermi level) of an electrode and a point outside the electrolyte in

which the electrode is submerged (an electron at rest in vacuum).

where:

E is electrode potential

V is volt

M denotes the electrode made of metal M

(abs) denotes the absolute potential

(SHE) denotes the electrode potential relative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

34. What is the relationship between V and E?

The potential energy of an electrical supply stored in the form of an electrical charge.

Voltage can be thought of as the force that pushes electrons through a conductor and the

greater the voltage the greater is its ability to push the electrons through a given circuit.

As energy has the ability to do work this potential energy can be described as the work

required in joules to move electrons in the form of an electrical current around a circuit

from one point or node to another.

35. Define line charge density.

The term linear density is most often used when describing the characteristics of onedimensional objects, although linear density can also be used to describe the density of a

three-dimensional quantity along one particular dimension. Just as density is most often

used to mean mass density, the term linear density likewise often refers to linear mass

density. However, this is only one example of a linear density, as any quantity can be

measured in terms of its value along one dimension.

36. Write the formula for electric field intensity due to infinite line charge using gauss

law.

An infinite long straight charged line having uniform linear charge density () and

a point P located at a perpendicular distance r from the linear charge distribution. The

electric field intensity at any point P and all the other points like P situated perpendicular

distance from the line will be equal as the line is of infinite length (L).

37. What is the value of electric flux density when the charge is distributed outside

the Gaussian surface?

The value of electric flux density is zero

38. What is dot product?

Dot product is also called as scalar product. It is defined as the product of the

magnitude of A and magnitude of B and cosine of the smallest angle between them.

A.B =| A || B | cosABan

39. What is physical significance of divergence?

Divergence of current density gives net outflow of current per unit volume

.Divergence of flux density gives net outflow per unit volume. In general, divergence of

any field density gives net outflow of that field per unit volume.

40. Write the formula for electric field intensity due to infinite sheet of charge using gauss

law.

E = (s/20) az v/m

41. What is the application of Cartesian divergence?

The divergence of a continuously differentiable vector field F = U i + V j + W k is

equal to the scalar-valued function:

transformations, as the physical interpretation suggests.

The common notation for the divergence F is a convenient mnemonic, where the dot

denotes an operation reminiscent of the dot product: take the components of (see del),

apply them to the components of F, and sum the results. Because applying an operator is

different from multiplying the components, this is considered an abuse of notation.

42. What are the properties of divergence theorem?

The following properties can all be derived from the ordinary differentiation rules

of calculus. Most importantly, the divergence is a linear operator, i.e.

There is a product rule of the following type: if

is a vector field, then

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space

per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy.

Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that chemically

inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored.

44. Mention the Energy density of electric and magnetic fields components.

Electric and magnetic fields store energy. In a vacuum, the (volumetric) energy density

(in SI units) is given by

Where E is the electric field and B is the magnetic field. The solution will be in Joules per

cubic metre. In the context of magneto hydrodynamics, the physics of conductive fluids,

the magnetic energy density behaves like an additional pressure that adds to the gas

pressure of a plasma.

conserved quantity. Since mass, energy, momentum, electric charge and other

natural quantities are conserved under their respective appropriate conditions; a variety of

physical phenomena may be described using continuity equations.

46. What are the applications applicable in continuity equation.

The continuity equation is applicable when there is some quantity q which can flow or

move, such as mass, energy, electric charge, momentum, number of molecules, etc. Let

be the volume density of this property, i.e., the amount of q per unit volume.

47. Write the expression of integral form of continuity equation.

The integral form of the continuity equation states that:

The amount of q in a region increases when additional q flows inward through the

surface of the region, and decreases when it flows outward;

The amount of q in a region increases when new q is created inside the region,

and decreases when q is destroyed;

Apart from these two processes, there is no other way for the amount of q in a

region to change.

By the divergence theorem, a general continuity equation can also be written in a

"differential form":

Where

is divergence,

j is the flux of q,

t is time,

is the generation of q per unit volume per unit time. Terms that generate ( > 0)

or remove ( < 0) q are referred to as a "sources" and "sinks" respectively.

49.

A point charge means that electric charge which is separated on a surface or space

whose geometrical dimensions are very very small compared to other dimensions, in

which the effect of electric field to be studied.

50. Define one coulomb.

One coulomb of charge is defined as the charge possessed by (1/1.602x10 -9) i.e

18

6x10 number of electrons.

51.

What are the various types of charge distribution? Give an example for each.

a. Point charge-Ex. Positive charge

b. Line charge -Ex. A sharp beam in a cathode ray tube.

c. Surface charge-Ex. The plate of a charged parallel plate capacitor.

d. Volume charge-Ex. The charged cloud.

52.

1) The two charges are stationary.

2) The two charges are point charge.

11MARKS:

1. Define electric field intensity and derive the expression with neat diagram.

2. Draw the electric potential diagram and mention the low level potential and high level

Potential relation with expression.

3. Explain the concept of potential gradient and determine the potential of electric field

Intensity.

5. Derive and explain the concept of dipole and dipole moment with neat diagrams.

6. Define polarization and explain the types of polarization with neat diagrams.

7. Explain the concept of dielectrics and conductors with suitable diagrams and write the

expression.

A capacitor can store energy, so capacitors are often found in power supplies.

A capacitor has a voltage that is proportional to the charge (the integral of the

current) that is stored in the capacitor, so a capacitor can be used to perform

interesting computations in op-amp circuits, for example.

Circuits with capacitors exhibit frequency-dependent behaviour so that circuits

that amplify certain frequencies selectively can be built.

10. What are the types of capacitor and explain the combination of capacitor.

UNIT III

TWO MARKS

1. state Biot-savarts law.

The BiotSavart law is an equation describing the magnetic field generated by an

electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction, length, and

proximity of the electric current. The law is valid in the magnetostatic approximation, and is

consistent with both Ampre's circuital law and Gauss's law for magnetism.

2. write the expression of electric current of Biot-savarts law.

The BiotSavart law is used for computing the resultant magnetic field B at

position r generated by a steady current I (for example due to a wire): a continual flow of

charges which is constant in time and the charge neither accumulates nor depletes at any

point. The law is a physical example of a line integral, being evaluated over the path C in

which the electric currents flow.

The BiotSavart law can be used in the calculation of magnetic responses even at the

atomic or molecular level, e.g. chemical shieldings or magnetic susceptibilities, provided

that the current density can be obtained from a quantum mechanical calculation or theory.

4. Write the expression of Point charge at constant velocity.

In the case of a point charged particle q moving at a constant velocity v,

Maxwell's equations give the following expression for the electric field and magnetic

field

where is the unit vector pointing from the current (non-retarded) position of the particle

to the point at which the field is being measured, and is the angle between and .

5. State Uniqueness Theorem.

The Uniqueness theorem can be stated as,

If the solutions of Laplaces equation satisfy the boundary condition then

that solution is unique, by whatever method is obtained.

The solution of Laplaces equation gives the field which is unique

satisfying the same boundary conditions, in a given region.

1) To obtain potential distribution over the region.

2) To obtain E in the region.

3) To check whether given region is free of charge or not.

4) To obtain the charge induced on the surface of the region.

7. Define current density.

The current density is defined as the current passing through the unit surface area,

when the surface is held normal to the direction of the current. The current density is

measured in A/m2.

8. Define a current and its unit Ampere.

The current is defined as the rate of flow of charge and is measured as Amperes.

A current of 1 Ampere is said to be flowing across the surface when the charge of

1 coulomb is passing across the surface in 1 second.

9. What is drift current and convection current?

The current constituted due to the drifting of electrons in metallic conductor is

called drift current.

While in dielectrics, there can be flow of charges, under the influence of electric

field intensity. Such a current is called convection current.

10. State the principle of conservation of charge.

The principle of conservation of charge is, the charges can neither be created nor

be destroyed.

11. What is drift velocity?

Under the effect of applied electric field, the available free electrons start moving.

The moving electrons strike the adjacent atoms and rebound in the random directions.

This is called drifting of the electrons. After sometime, the electrons attain the constant

average velocity called drift velocity.

12. Define the unit of Potential difference.

The unit of potential difference is Volt. One Volt potential difference is one Joule

of work done in moving unit charge from one point to other in the field E.

1joule

1Volt =

.

1coulomb

13. Define dielectric strength.

The minimum value of the applied electric field at which the dielectric breaks

down is called dielectric strength of dielectric.

14. What is Polarization?

The applied field E shifts the charges inside the dielectric to induce the electric

dipoles. This process is called Polarization.

R

The work done per unit charge in moving unit charge from B to A in the field E

is called potential difference between the points B to A.

A

v = E.dl .

B

16. Define magnetic flux density.

The magnetic fluxthrough a surface is the surface integral of the normal

component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic

flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the CGS unit is the maxwell.

Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and

electronics, that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the

magnetic flux.

17. Define relaxation time.

The relaxation time is defined as the time required by the charge density to

decay to 36.8% of its initial value.

= RelaxationTime = sec.

Polarization of dielectric means, when an electron cloud has a centre separated

from the nucleus. This forms an electric dipole. The dipole gets aligned with the applied

field.

The relationship between JandE can also be expressed in terms of conductivity

of the material. Thus for metallic conductor,

J = E

Where - conductivity of material. And the equation is called point form of

Ohms law.

20. Write the expression of magnetic flux through a closed surface?

Gauss's law for magnetism, which is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states

that the total magnetic flux through a closed surface is equal to zero. (A "closed surface"

is a surface that completely encloses a volume(s) with no holes.) This law is a

consequence of the empirical observation that magnetic monopoles have never been

found.

In other words, Gauss's law for magnetism is the statement:

The conditions existing at the boundary of the two media when field passes from

22. What is Gaussian surface? What are the conditions to be satisfied in special Gaussian

surface?

The surface over which is the Gausss law is applied is called Gaussian surface.

Obviously such a surface is a closed surface and it has to satisfy the following conditions.

5) The surface may be irregular but should be sufficiently large so as to enclose

the entire charge.

6) The surface must be closed.

7) At each point of the surface D is either normal or tangential to the surface.

8) The electric flux density D is constant over the surface at which D is

normal.23. What is Gradient of V?

The maximum value of rate of change of potential with distance dv/dL is called

gradient of V.

24. How is electric energy stored in a capacitor?

In a capacitor, the work done in charging a capacitor is stored in the form of

electric energy.

25. What are dielectrics?

Dielectrics are materials that may not conduct electricity through it but on

applying electric field induced charges are produced on its faces .The valence electron in

atoms of a dielectric are tightly bound to their nucleus.

26. What is a capacitor?

A capacitor is an electrical device composed of two conductors which are

separated through a dielectric medium and which can store equal and opposite

charges ,independent of whether other conductors in the system are charged or not.

27. What are the factors does the capacitance depends on?

1. The permittivity of the dielectric used.

2. The area of cross section of the plates

3. The distance of separation of the plates

28. Write the expression of Magnetic flux through an open surface.

While the magnetic flux through a closed surface is always zero, the magnetic

flux through an open surface need not be zero and is an important quantity in

electromagnetism. For example, a change in the magnetic flux passing through a loop of

conductive wire will cause an electromotive force, and therefore an electric current, in the

loop. The relationship is given by Faraday's law:

where

is the electromotive force (EMF),

B is the magnetic flux through the open surface ,

is the boundary of the open surface ; note that the surface, in general, may be

in motion and deforming, and so is generally a function of time. The

electromotive force is induced along this boundary.

d is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ,

v is the velocity of the boundary ,

B is the magnetic field.

29. Which expression can compare the Comparison with electric flux?

Gauss's law for electric fields, another of Maxwell's equations, is

where

E is the electric field,

S is any closed surface,

Q is the total electric charge inside the surface S,

0 is the electric constant (a universal constant, also called the "permittivity of free

space").

Note that the flux of E through a closed surface is not always zero; this indicates the

presence of "electric monopoles", that is, free positive or negative charges.

30. Define solenoid.

The term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a

metallic core, which produces a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where

some experiment might be carried out) when an electric current is passed through it. A

solenoid is a type of electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic

field. If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the electric current, a

solenoid can be more specifically classified as an inductor rather than an electromagnet.

31. What is meant by displacement current?

Displacement current is nothing but the current flows through the capacitor

32. What is the energy stored in a capacitor?

W= cv2 J

33. Write the expression for spherical capacitance?

C= (4)/(1/a -1/b) F

34. Write the expression for isolated spherical conductor coated with dielectric?

C= 4/(1/1(1/a -1/r1) + 1/0r1 ) F

35. Write the expression for dielectric boundary normal to plates?

C= 1A1/d + 2A2/d F

36. Write the expression for dielectric boundary parallel to plates?

C= A/(d1/1 + d2/ 2 +..) F

37. What is meant by multiple dielectric capacitors?

The multiple dielectric capacitor is one in which the space between the plates is filled

with more than one dielectrics

38. What are the two situations of the boundary conditions based on nature of the media?

1. Boundry between conductor and free space.

2. Boundry between two dielectrics with different properties.

39. What meaning would you give to the capacitance of a single conductor?

Single conductors also possess capacitance. It is a capacitor whose one plate is

at Infinity.

40. Define dielectric strength of a dielectric?

The minimum value of the applied electric field at which the dielectric breaks down is

called dielectric strength of that dielectric

41. Write the inductance expression of solenoid.

The magnetic flux density

where 0 is the magnetic constant, the number of turns, the current and the length of

the coil. Ignoring end effects, the total magnetic flux through the coil is obtained by

multiplying the flux density by the cross-section area :

Electromechanical solenoids

Rotary solenoid

Rotary voice coil

Pneumatic solenoid valves

Hydraulic solenoid valves

Automobile starter solenoid

Ampre's law relates magnetic fields to electric currents that produce them.

Ampre's law determines the magnetic field associated with a given current, or the

current associated with a given magnetic field, provided that the electric field does not

change over time. In its original form, Ampre's circuital law relates a magnetic field to

its electric current source.

44. Write the expression of integral form of amperes law.

In terms of total current, which includes both free and bound current, the line

integral of the magnetic B-field (in tesla, T) around closed curve C is proportional to the

total current Ienc passing through a surface S (enclosed by C):

where J is the total current density (in ampere per square metre, Am2).

Alternatively in terms of free current, the line integral of the magnetic H-field (in ampere

per metre, Am1) around closed curve C equals the free current If, enc through a surface S:

magnitude equal to the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction

given by the tangent to the curve C)

dS is the vector area of an infinitesimal element of surface S (that is, a vector with

magnitude equal to the area of the infinitesimal surface element, and direction

normal to surface S. The direction of the normal must correspond with the

orientation of C by the right hand rule), see below for further explanation of the

curve C and surface S.

Both contributions to the displacement current are combined by defining the

displacement current as:[4]

where 0 is the electric constant, r the relative static permittivity, and P is the polarization

density. Substituting this form for D in the expression for displacement current, it has two

components:

The first term on the right hand side is present everywhere, even in a vacuum. It doesn't

involve any actual movement of charge, but it nevertheless has an associated magnetic

field, as if it were an actual current. Some authors apply the name displacement current to

only this contribution.

An inductor with a closed-loop core can have a higher magnetic field and thus

higher inductance and Q factor than similarly constructed coils with a straight core

(solenoid coils). This is because the entire path of the magnetic field lines is within the

high permeability core, while in an inductor with a straight core the magnetic field lines

emerging from one end of the core have a long air path to enter the other end.

47. What is meant by Magnetic force on moving charge?

The force on a moving charge in a magnetic field is equal to the cross product of

the particles velocity with the magnetic field times the magnitude of the charge. The

direction of the Magnetic Force is always at right angle to the plane formed by the

velocity vector v and the magnetic field B. (Right-hand rule)

48. What are the properties of Properties of the Magnetic Field acting on a Moving

Charge at one moment?

When q < 0, F is in the opposite direction. If the sign of the charge on the particle

is inverted, then the direction of the magnetic force will be opposite that of a

positive charge. The magnitude of the magnetic force remains the same, only its

direction is inverted.

When v is parallel to B, then F = 0.There is one direction in space where the

moving particle will experience no magnetic force acting on it; this direction is

along the direction of the magnetic field.

49. Write the any two points of Free Charge Moving in Uniform Magnetic Field.

The general path of a moving charge in a constant magnetic field is that of a helix

If

you stand in such a way that you are looking directly into the oncoming

magnetic field, the a positively charged particle will be seen to rotate in clockwies

circle where as a negatively charged particle will rotate in counterclockwise

circle. See Charge Particle moving in a Uniform B-Field IP Simulation.

The component of velocity of the charged particle that is parallel to the magnetic

field is unaffected, i.e. the charge moves at a constant speed along the direction of the

magnetic field.

11 MARKS:

charge.

3. Derive the expression for electric field intensity due to a circular surface charge.

7.Derive an expression for electric field due to an infinite long charge from its

principles.

8. Derive the boundary conditions at the charge interfaced of two dielectric media.

9. Derive an expression for energy density and energy stored in electrostatic fields.

UNIT-IV

TWO MARKS

1. Define Magnetic flux density.

The total magnetic lines of force i.e. magnetic flux crossing a unit area in a plane

at right angles to the direction of flux is called magnetic flux density. It is denoted as

B .Unit Wb/m2.

2. State Amperes circuital law.

The line integral of magnetic field intensity H around a closed path is exactly

equal to the direct current enclosed by that path.

The mathematical representation is H.dL = I .

3. Define Magnetic field Intensity.

Magnetic Field intensity at any point in the magnetic field is defined as the force

experienced by a unit north pole of one Weber strength, when placed at that point. Unit:

N/Wb (or) AT /m.It is denoted as H .

4. What is rotational and irrotational vector field?

If curl of a vector field exists then the field is called rotational. For irrotational

vector field, the curl vanishes i.e. curl is zero.

5. State Stokes Theorem.

The line integral of a vector A around a closed path L is equal to the integral of

curl of A over the open surface S enclosed by the closed path L.

6. Give the application of Stokes theorem.

The Stokes theorem is applicable for the open surface enclosed by the given

closed path. Any volume is a closed surface and hence application of Stokes theorem to a

closed surface which enclosed certain volume produces zero answer.

7. Define Inductance.

In general, inductance is also referred as self inductance as the flux produced by

the current flowing through the coil links with the coil itself.

8. What is fringing effect?

If there is an air gap in between the path of the magnetic flux, it spreads and bulges

out. This effect is called fringing effect.

9. What are boundary conditions?

The conditions of the magnetic field existing at the magnetic field existing at the

boundary of the two media when the magnetic field passes from one medium to other are

called boundary conditions.

10.Define self inductance.

Self inductance is defined as the rate of total magnetic flux linkage to the current

through the coil.

The Biot Savart law states that,

The magnetic field intensity dH produced at a point p due to a differential current element

IdL is

1) Proportional to the product of the current I and differential length dL

2) The sine of the angle between the element and the line joining point p to the

element

3) And inversely proportional to the square of the distance R between point p and

the element

12. What is Magnetostatics?

The study of steady magnetic field, existing in a given space, produced due to the

flow of direct current through a conductor is called Magnetostatics.

13. What is Magnetic Field?

The region around a magnet within which influence of the magnet can be

experienced is called Magnetic Field.

14. What are Magnetic Lines of Force?

The existence of Magnetic Field can be experienced with the help of compass

field. Such a field is represented by imaginary lines around the magnet which are called

Magnetic Lines of Force.

15. Define Right hand Thumb Rule and where it is used?

Right hand Thumb Rule states that, hold the current carrying conductor in the

right hand such that the thumb pointing in the direction of current and parallel to the

conductor, then curled fingers point in the direction of magnetic lines of flux around it. It

is used to determine the direction of Magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct

current.

16. Define Right handed Screw Rule.

It states that, imagine a right handed screw to be along the conductor carrying

current with its axis parallel to the conductor and tip pointing in the direction of the

current flow. Then the direction of Magnetic field is given by the direction in which

screw must be turned so as to advance in the direction of current flow.

17. Give any four properties of Curl.

1. The Curl of a vector is a vector quantity.

2. (A + B) = A + B .

3. The curl of a scalar makes no sense.

i.e = No Sense if is scalar.

4. The Curl of gradient of a vector is Zero.

V = o

v

0

18. Give the relation between Magnetic flux and Flux density.

The relation between Magnetic flux and flux density is obtained through

the property of medium and permeability . This is given by,

B = H .

19. State Law of conservation of Magnetic Flux.

It states that, the integral B.dsR over a closed surface is always zero.

R

R

B .ds = 0.

s

This is also called Gausss law in integral form for magnetic fields.

20. Give Gausss law in differential form for magnetic fields.

The divergence of magnetic flux density is always zero.

R

.B = 0 .

The scalar magnetic potential Vm can be defined for source free region where J

i.e. current density is zero.

22. Define Magneto static energy density.

The magneto static energy density function is defined as

Wm = lim wm = 1 H 2 .

v 2

23. Define Mutual inductance.

The mutual inductance between the two coils is defined as the ratio of flux

linkage of one coil to the current in other coil. Thus the mutual inductance between

circuit 1 and circuit 2 is given by

12 = N212 H .

I1

24.State Kirchoffs Flux law.

It states that the total magnetic flux arriving at any junction in a magnetic circuit

is equal to the magnetic flux leaving that junction. Using this law, parallel magnetic

circuits can be easily analyzed. Mathematically, Kirchoffs flux law at a junction can be

expressed as

= 0.

Kirchoffs MMF law states that the resultant mmf around a closed magnetic

circuit is equal to the algebraic sum of products of flux and reluctance of each part of

the closed circuit. For closed magnetic circuit,

MMF = R.

26. What is Magnetization?

The field produced due to the movement of bound charges is called

Magnetization represented by M .

27. Define Reluctance.

Reluctance R is defined as the ratio of the magneto motive force to the total flux.

28. What is Lorentz force equation?

Lorentz force equation relates mechanical force to the electrical force. It is given

as the total force on a moving charge in the presence of both electric and magnetic

fields.

F = Fe + Fm N .

29. Define Moment of force.

The Moment of a force or torque about a specified point is defined as the vector

product of the moment arm R and the force F . It is measured in Nm.

T

T = R FNm .

30. Define Magnetic dipole moment.

The Magnetic dipole moment of a current loop is defined as the product of

current through the loop and the area of the loop, directed normal to the current loop.

31. Give any two dissimilarities between electric and magnetic circuits.

1) In electric circuit the current actually flows i.e. there is a movement of

electrons whereas in magnetic circuit, due to m.m.f, flux gets established and

doesnt flow in the sense in which current flows.

2) The electric lines of flux are not closed. They start from positive charge

and end on negative charge and the magnetic lines of flux are closed lines.

32. What is Curl?

The curl is a closed line integral per unit area as the area shrinks to a point. It

gives the circulation per unit area i.e. circulation density of a vector about a point at

which the area is going to shrink. The curl also gives the direction, which is along

the axis through a point at which curl is defined.

33. Give the relation between H and in tangential component.

The tangential component of H are continuous, while tangential component of B

are discontinuous at the boundary, with the condition that the boundary is current free.

The tangential component of H are not continuous at the boundary. The field

strengths in two media are inversely proportional to their relative permeabilities.

35. What is permeability?

In magnetostatics, the BandH are related to each other through the property of the

region in which current carrying conductor is placed. It is called permeability denoted as

. It is the ability with which the current carrying conductor forces the magnetic flux

through the region around it.

B = H .

36. Distinguish between solenoid and toroid.

Solenoid is a cylindrically shaped coil consisting of a large number of closely

spaced turns of insulated wire wound usually on a non magnetic frame.

If a long slender solenoid is bent into the form of a ring and there by closed on itself it

becomes a toroid.

37. Write the expression for inductance of a toroid?

L = N2A/(2R) H

38. Write the expression for inductance of a solenoid?

L = N2A/ l H

39. Write the expression for inductance of a coaxial cable?

L = d/2 ln (b/a) H

40. Describe what are the sources of electric field and magnetic field?

Stationary charges produce electric field that are constant in time, hence the term

electrostatics. Moving charges produce magnetic fields hence the term magnetostatics.

41. Define current density.

Current density is defined as the current per unit area. J= I/A Amp/m2

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that

describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum. It

is a three-dimensional form of the wave equation. The homogeneous form of the

equation, written in terms of either the electric field E or the magnetic field B, takes the

form:

where

To obtain the electromagnetic wave equation in a vacuum using the modern

method, we begin with the modern 'Heaviside' form of Maxwell's equations. In a

vacuum- and charge-free space, these equations are:

and where

Localized time-varying charge and current densities can act as sources of

electromagnetic waves in a vacuum. Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of a

wave equation with sources. The addition of sources to the wave equations makes the

partial differential equations inhomogeneous.

46. What is the condition of plane wave solutions?

Then planar traveling wave solutions of the wave equations are

These solutions represent planar waves traveling in the direction of the normal vector n.

If we define the z direction as the direction of n. and the x direction as the direction of E,

then by Faraday's Law the magnetic field lies in the y direction and is related to the

electric field by the relation

1) In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized

cable or other structure designed to carry alternating current of radio frequency,

that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be

taken into account.

2) Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters

and receivers with their antennas, distributing cable television signals, trunklines

routing calls between telephone switching centers, computer network connections

and high speed computer data buses.

48. Write the expression of telegraph transmission line equations.

The line voltage

domain as

The characteristic impedance Z0 of a transmission line is the ratio of the

amplitude of a single voltage wave to its current wave. Since most transmission lines also

have a reflected wave, the characteristic impedance is generally not the impedance that is

measured on the line.

The length of the line is one quarter wavelength long, or an odd multiple of a

quarter wavelength long, the input impedance becomes

Zo- output impedance

ZL- load impedance

11 MARKS:

1. State and explain Biot-Savarts law.

2. Obtain an expression for the magnetic field intensity at any point due to infinitely

straight

9. Derive an expression for the inductance per meter length of two transmission

lines.

10.Give the expression for attenuation constant and phase shift constant for a wave

propagating in a conducting medium.

The attenuation constant for a wave propagating in a conducting medium is,

2

1

2 2

The phase shift constant for a wave propagating in a conducting medium is,

2

1

2 2

UNIT V

TWO MARKS

1. Define a wave.

If a physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced

at other places at later times , the time delay being proportional to the space separation

from the first location then the group of phenomena constitutes a wave.

2. Mention the properties of uniform plane wave.

i) At every point in space ,the electric field E and magnetic field H

are perpendicular to each other.

ii)The fields vary harmonically with time and at the same frequency

everywhere in space.

3.Define intrinsic impedance or characteristic impedance.

It is the ratio of electric field to magnetic field.or It is the ratio of square root

of permeability to permittivity of medium.

4.Give the characteristic impedance of free

space. 377ohms

5.Define propagation constant.

Propagation constant is a complex number

= + j

where is propagation constant

6.Define skin depth

It is defined as that depth in which the wave has been attenuated to 1/e

or approximately 37% of its original value.

7.Define Poynting vector.

The pointing vector is defined as rate of flow of energy of a wave as it

propagates. P =E X H

8. State Poyntings Theorem.

The net power flowing out of a given volume is equal to the time rate of

decrease of the the energy stored within the volume- conduction losses.

9. Give the difficulties in FDM.

FDM is difficult to apply for problems involving irregular boundaries and

non homogeneous material properties.

10. Explain the steps in finite element method.

i) Discrimination of the solution region into elements.

ii) Generation of equations for fields at each element

iii) Assembly of all elements

iv) Solution of the resulting system

11. State Maxwells fourth equation.

The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero.

12. State Maxwells Third equation

The total electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to

the total charge within the volume.

The total electric field at a point is the algebraic sum of the individual

electric field at that point.

14. Define pointing vector.

The vector product of electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity at a

point is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.

15. Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by

four orthogonal points in FDM.

V0= (V1+V2+V3+V4)

16. Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by six

orthogonal points inFDM.

V0= (V1+V2+V3+V4 +V5+V6)

17. Define loss tangent.

Loss tangent is the ratio of the magnitude of conduction current density

to displacement current density of the medium.

18.Define reflection and transmission coefficients.

Reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the reflected field

to that of the incident field.

19. Define transmission coefficients.

Transmission coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the

transmitted field to that of incident field.

20.What will happen when the wave is incident obliquely over dielectric dielectric

boundary?

When a plane wave is incident obliquely on the surface of a perfect dielectric

part of the energy is transmitted and part of it is reflected .But in this case the transmitted

wave will be refracted, that is the direction of propagation is altered.

21. What is the fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic field

lines?

There is a fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic field

lines. The tubes of electric flux originate and terminates on charges, whereas magnetic

flux tubes are continuous.

22.What are uniform plane waves?

Electromagnetic waves which consist of electric and magnetic fields that are

perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation and are uniform in

plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation are known as uniform plane waves.

23.What is the significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric ?

The only significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric

compared to that in a perfect dielectric is the attenuation undergone by the wave.

24.What is the major drawback of finite difference method?

The major drawback of finite difference method is its inability to handle

curved boundaries accurately.

The replacement of the actual problem with boundaries by an enlarged region

or with image charges but no boundaries is called the method of images.

26.When is method of images used?

Method of images is used in solving problems of one or more point charges in

the presence of boundary surfaces.

27. Define power density.

The power density is defined as the ratio of power to unit

area. Power density=power/unit area.

28. What is called wave velocity?

The velocity of propagation is called as wave velocity. It is denoted as .

= 1 .

For free space it is denoted by c and its value is 3x108m/s.

29. What is called as intrinsic impedance?

The ratio of amplitudes of EandH of the waves in either direction is called

intrinsic impedance of the material in which wave is travelling. It is denoted by .

30. Why dielectric medium is lossless dielectric.

For perfect dielectric medium, both the fields EandH are in phase. Hence there is

no attenuation .Hence there is no loss.

31. What is mean by lossy dielectric?

The presence of attenuation indicates there is a loss in the medium. Hence such

medium is called as lossy dielectric.

32. What is mean by skin depth?

The distance through which the amplitude of the travelling wave decreases to

37% of the original amplitude is called skin depth or depth of penetration.

33. What is called skin effect?

For the frequencies in the microwave range, the skin depth or depth of penetration

is very small for good conductors and all the fields and currents may be considered as

confined to a thin layer near the surface of the conductor. This thin layer is nothing but

the skin of the conductor and hence it is called skin effect.

34. What is Normal Incidence?

When a uniform plane wave incidences normally to the boundary between the

media, then it is known as normal incidence.

35. What is normal Incidence?

When a uniform plane wave incidences obliquely to the boundary between the

media, then it is known as normal incidence.

36. What are Waves?

Basically the waves are means of transporting energy or information from

source to destination. Also a wave is function of both space and time. The typical ex of

EM waves are radio waves, TV signals, radar beams.

37. Give Wave equation in differential form.

2 E x

t2

2 E x

= 2

.

z2

When a wave propagates in the medium, it gets attenuated. The amplitude of the

signal reduces. This is represented by attenuation constant . It is measured in neper per

meter (NP/m). But practically it is expressed in decibel (dB).

39. What is phase constant?

When a wave propagates, phase change also takes place. Such a phase change

is expressed by a phase constant . It is measured in radian per meter (rad/m).

40. Define standing wave ratio.

The standing wave ratio is defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum

amplitudes of voltage.

E

s =

.

E

1s max

1s min

In general voltage minima are separated by one half wavelength. Also the voltage

maxima are also separated by one half wave length.

42. What is the condition for perfect dielectric?

For perfect dielectric, the conductivity is zero and hence the loss of the system is

also zero.

43. What is the condition for practical dielectric?

Fir practical dielectric, there is some conductivity, that is its value is not zero and

hence there is some loss in practical dielectric but its value is very small.

44. Define group velocity.

If a stone is thrown into the middle of a very still pond, a circular pattern of

waves with a quiescent center appears in the water. The expanding ring of waves is the

wave group, within which one can discern individual wavelets of differing wavelengths

travelling at different speeds.

45. Define phase velocity.

The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave

propagates in space. This is the velocity at which the phase of any one frequency

component of the wave travels. For such a component, any given phase of the wave (for

example, the crest) will appear to travel at the phase velocity. The phase velocity is given

in terms of the wavelength (lambda) and period T as

The maximum electric field intensity that a dielectric material can stand without

break down is the dielectric strength of the material.

47. Define wave impedance.

The wave impedance of an electromagnetic wave is the ratio of the transverse

components of the electric and magnetic fields (the transverse components being those at

right angles to the direction of propagation). For a transverse-electric-magnetic (TEM)

plane wave traveling through a homogeneous medium, the wave impedance is

everywhere equal to the intrinsic impedance of the medium. In particular, for a plane

wave travelling through empty space, the wave impedance is equal to the impedance of

free space.

48. Write the expression of wave impedance in free space.

In free space the wave impedance of plane waves is:

For any waveguide in the form of a hollow metal tube, (such as rectangular guide,

circular guide, or double-ridge guide), the wave impedance of a travelling wave is

dependent on the frequency , but is the same throughout the guide. For transverse

electric (TE) modes of propagation the wave impedance is:

Where fc is the cut-off frequency of the mode, and for transverse magnetic (TM) modes

of propagation the wave impedance is:

Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel. With respect to the

direction of the oscillation relative to the propagation direction, we can distinguish

between longitudinal wave and transverse waves. For electromagnetic waves,

propagation may occur in a vacuum as well as in a material medium. Other wave types

cannot propagate through a vacuum and need a transmission medium to exist.

11 MARKS:

1. Derive an expression for pointing vector.

2. Obtain the electromagnetic wave equation for free space in terms of magnetic field.

6. Explain the concept of magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity

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