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DESIGN PROJECT

(KE38493)
GROUP 10
LUGGAGE ANTI LOSS ALARM (L.A.L.A)
NAME

MATRIX NO.

Celson Leesoon

BK12110042

Ho Whai Chun

BK12110112

Jeseka Manahan

BK12110122

Nurul Anis Ahmad

BK12110284

Wong Koi Shang

BK12110380

DECLARATION
We hereby declare that this project report entitled Luggage Anti Loss Alarm is the result of
our own research except as cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any
degree and is not concurrently submitted in the candidature of any other degree.

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Name

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Date

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NAME : WONG KOI SHANG

NAME : NURUL ANIS AHMAD

MATRIK NO. : BK12110380

MATRIK NO. : BK12110284

NAME : JESEKA MANAHAN

NAME : CELSON LEE SOON

MATRIK NO. : BK12110122

MATRIK NO. : BK12110042

NAME : HO WHAI CHUN


MATRIK NO. : BK12110112

TITLE
DEGREE

: LUGGAGE ANTI LOSS ALARM

: BACHELOR DEGREE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC


ENGINEERING
VIVA DATE : 10 JUNE 2015

CERTIFIED BY

1. SUPERVISOR

Signature

MR. KENNETH TEO

________________

2.

SUPERVISOR

IR. PUNGUT IBRAHIM

________________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regard
to our Project Design Advisors, Mr. Kenneth and Mr. IR. Pungut,for their exemplary guidance,
valuable feedback and constant encouragement throughout the duration of this project design.
Their valuable suggestions were of immense help throughout our project work. Their perceptive
criticism kept our group working to make this project in a much better way. Working under them
was an extremely knowledgeable experience for us. Finally, we wish to thank our parents for
their support and encouragement throughout our study.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In this era of technology, usage of radio frequency has become very common in the field
of navigation, wireless control, data transmission, security, identifications and etc. With the
combination of microcontrollers and programming, radio frequency (RF) is highly potential in
the field of security application. Due to the issue that community losing their belongings is
getting serious, especially losing packages or luggage, we opt to design a system that helps to
protect the belonging to the owner as well as to avoid from being stolen and getting lost. This
system has two microcontroller devices, a transmitter for the user and a receiver for the luggage.
Therefore, we can know if the luggage is within the range of transmitting or receiving signals
from microcontrollers using radio frequency. The device has an alarm that will ring if the
luggage is out of the range, which is when the signals stop transmitting. With this device, users
will easily get notified and directly prevent inventory list. The usage of radio frequency
technology is believed to be better than those commonly used in the market, which is using
Bluetooth. This is mainly because Bluetooth has shorter in range and Bluetooth only connects
one to one. To achieve all this, we do a simulation of the system in the PSpice software before
completing the system with the prototype. With a help from this new system, it could reduce the
issues of stolen luggage/bag for the communities.Besides using radio frequency, to improve the
security of the luggage, we include we will include a trigger alarm that will ring if there is
intruder open the users luggage. Also, the trigger alarm will be controlled by using a
microcontroller
Contents

Chapter
Chapter 1.0: Introduction
1.1: Overview
1.2: Problem Statement
1.3:Project Scope and Objective
Chapter 2.0: Background Study
2.1: Literature Review
2.2: Impact to Society and Environment
2.3: Project Sustainability
Chapter 3.0: Methodology
3.1: Project Structure and Design
3.2: Software Tools for Project Design and Testing
3.3: Hardware Design
3.4: Methodology Flow Chart
3.5: Gantt Chart
3.6: Project Cost Estimation / Budget
Chapter 4.0: Project Development
4.1: Software Simulation and Process Flow
4.2: Hardware Development and Block Diagram
4.3: Additional Information
Chapter 5.0: Result and Discussion
5.1: Simulation Result and Discussion
5.2: Project Experiment and Result
5.3: Future Potential Development
Chapter 6.0: Conclusion
6.1: Summary
6.2: Work Distribution List
6.3: Lesson Learned / Individual Course Impression
Reference
Appendices

page

List of figures
Chapter
Chapter 3.0: Methodology
3.3.1: (a) The assembled transmitter module
(b) The receiver module
3.4.1: Flow chart of luggage anti-lost alarm
3.4.2: Flow chart of transmitter and receiver modules
Chapter 4.0: Project Development
4.1.1: RF Transmitter circuit diagram
4.1.2: RF receiver circuit diagram
4.1.3: The assembled transmitter model.
4.1.4: (a) circuit connection for receiver
(b) the assembled receiver model
4.1.5: Force opened model
4.1.6: The complete model of Luggage Anti Loss Alarm
Chapter 5.0: Result and Discussion
5.1.1: Transmitter circuit with decoder
5.1.2: Receiver circuit with encoder

page

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
This idea of luggage anti lost alarm is generated based on the needs of the surrounding
community whom always used the public transport and flight. Due to this, often occurrence bag
snatching at the bus station and the airport also people leave without their luggage. So this kind
of project can solve this problem. As we know, there are various types of luggages on the market
that are less focused features - security features. Almost all the luggages in the market using the
same way of security system. Our design luggage is different to others because we use an alarm
to alert the user when the bag is opened or taken away. This project is designed to improve the
security features that existing luggage on the market.
In this project, we will use radio frequency. Radio frequency (abbreviated RF, rf, or r.f.) is
a term that refers to alternating current (AC) having characteristics such that, if the current is
input to an antenna, an electromagnetic (EM) field is generated suitable for wireless broadcasting
and/or communications. The RF spectrum is divided into several ranges, or bands. With the
exception of the low-frequency segment, each band represents an increase of frequency
corresponding to an order of magnitude (power of 10). The table depicts the eight bands in the
RF spectrum, showing frequency and bandwidth ranges. With the use of radio frequency we can
do data transmission among microcontrollers which is the main concept we use in the security

system.In this project, we use microcontroller as a core of the whole design. A microcontroller
(sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit
containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program
memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on
chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded
applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general
purpose applications.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as
automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office
machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and
cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output
devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and
processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to
control non-digital electronic systems. We also use immediate triggers. A trigger is an external
stimulus that initiates one or more instrument functions. Trigger stimuli include digital edges,
software, functions, and analog levels. The trigger can be derived from the attributes of the signal
to be acquired, such as the level and slope of the signal. Immediate triggers occur when the
digitizer triggers itself2. There is no external signal that triggers the acquisition-the acquisition
simply begins immediately after being configured by the driver software. Immediate triggering is
the default option on NI high-speed digitizers. Therefore, we can omit using this function if we
never change triggering modes.

1.2 Problem Statement

This luggage anti lost alarm is designed for safety, especially for students during their
journey through train, bus or airplane. They carry many important things and all the time they
have the fear that someone might leave their luggage. So to protect our luggage, we normally
lock our luggage through old ways with the help of chain and lock. After all locks, we still
remain in fear that someone may slash the chain and take away our valuable material. To
overcome with these fears, this security alarm can solve this problem. When someone tries to lift
your luggage, it will generate a warning alarm which is very much helpful during your travel in
the bus, train or airplane even at the night.
The main vision of this project can prevent the occurrence of the theft of valuable
material in the luggage and the users more alert when somebody tries to approach or open the
luggage caused by this security alarm. Nowadays often cases of luggage theft while in airports,
bus terminals, and train. Besides that, often resulting in cases where someone tries to put inside
the bag a prohibited substance on the luggage, especially when they are at the airport. Hence, this
luggage security alarm can solve this problem. When someone tries to lift or open the luggage, it
will generate a warning alarm which is very helpful during your travel in the bus, train or
airplane even at the night.

1.3 Project Scope and Objectives


1. To design and construct a luggage security system for prevention of stealing and missing
luggage. This will give the owner a peace of mind during the travel.
2. To design and provide an alarm device that prevents thief from opening the luggage.
3. To apply the Radio Frequency tracking device knowledge in tracking luggage.

CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND STUDY

2.1 Literature Review


RFID Systems has been developed approximately 30 years ago. They originally were
viewed as niche products and typically used for Radio Tracking of wild and agricultural
animals, and later evolved into a technology which is used in many industrial applications today.
For instance, all car keys of major car manufacturers contain a small transponder (RFID tag)
which can send a radio signal to the car to lock the steering wheel and the cars electronics,
resulting in a very efficient theft control. Also, RFID systems are used for building access
control, with smart cards (RFID tag) for identification at the doors. Another popular
application is Easy-Pass (RFID tag) used on toll highways and bridges
.
Using the similar technique, a system is developed where the use of such technology is
applied to luggage or hand carry bag and so on for security purposes. Signaling between the
reader and the tag is done in several different incompatible ways, depending on the frequency
band used by the tag. Tags operating on LF and HF bands are, in terms of radio wavelength, very
close to the reader antenna because they are only a small percentage of a wavelength away . In
this near field region, the tag is closely coupled electrically with the transmitter in the reader. The
tag can modulate the field produced by the reader by changing the electrical loading the tag
represents. By switching between lower and higher relative loads, the tag produces a change that
the reader can detect.

The newest technology, there is nowadays has a few security features such as motion
sensor alarm, loud sound to alert the owner as well as to scare the thief. The Doberman Security
Products for instance has develop a portable security device called Bag Protector Alert with
such features . However, if the thief manages to take the luggage away the owner will not be able
to track down the luggage. With that in mind, the RF system is included in this project for
tracking purpose on certain range.

2.2 Impact to Society and Environment


The main vision of LALA is to prevent the occurrence of our luggage from being stolen
or lost when travelling. The sound produced by the luggage anti loss alarm is like a police horn
to get attention of people when someone attempt to snatch the luggage or suitcase. By taking the
safety features advantages of the product, it can help to reduce the rate of stealing crime, thus
helps the individual and society as a whole to have some peace of mind when they are going to
public places without having to worry about the safety of their luggage/belonging. Since the
component use in the designing of this product is very basic and minimal, it does not harm the
environment. The radio frequency signal used also do not contribute to pollute the environment.

2.3 Project Sustainability


The application of LALA is to prevent the loss of luggage from being stolen or lost, especially
when travelling or in an open place such as the airports, shopping malls, bus/train station and etc.
This design is very affordable in terms of price since it is only uses the basic electronic
components therefore the component to maintain and to design the product is always available.
The target group of this product is people who are keen to keep the safety of their belonging, the
commercial potentialities are higher, so the market life span will be longer.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Project Structure and Design


Our team comes out with the idea of Luggage Anti - Lost Alarm which prevent luggage
from getting lost. This alarm will ring when the luggage is away at a certain range from the
owner, opened by an unauthorized user, and when the owner wants to find their luggage in the
crowded area. We use two microcontroller devices with radio frequency transmitter and receiver
respectively.
To design this Luggage anti-lost alarm that solved all the cases need follow all the
procedures. Firstly, design the transmitter and receiver circuit, then using the PSpice and Proteus
software to simulate the circuit. The design tool that we used in this project design is a flowchart.
Flowchart is a graphical representation of this project design. From this flowchart we can see the
flow how to design this product that solved all the cases.

3.2 Software Tools for Project Design and Testing


For software and programming part in this project design, PIC Kit is necessary for
programming the microcontroller. We use the C programming language to program the
microcontroller, PIC Microchip 16F877A. This microcontroller receives commands and

translates them into hardware control logic. For circuit simulation, we use PSPICE or Proteus to
simulate the circuit before proceeding to circuit construction part. The circuit is constructed in
this simulation software to identify and analyze the circuit. Besides that, to analyze the output
waveform.

3.3 Hardware Design


For hardware design, as shown in figure 3.3.1 (a) and (b), we put the transmitter and
receiver modules inside the box. It can be easier for the user to hold the transmitter module. The
receiver module will be installed inside or put on the top of the luggage.

(a)
(b)
Figure 3.3.1: (a) The assembled transmitter module (b) The receiver module
The user will hold the transmitter modules, microcontroller will trigger the transmitter to
continuously transmit a signal to the receiver (luggage). That continuously transmitted signal in
analog will be received by the receiver and the microcontroller from the receiver will not turn on
the alarm, which means the user and the luggage is in that safe range. However, radio frequency
wave has certain of transmission. This means that receiver will not receive signals from the

transmitter modules if they are too far away. If so, microcontroller of the receiver will trigger and
ring the alarm to notify the user.

3.4 Methodology Flow Chart

Start

Luggage is taken away

Luggage is open by an
authorized user

Microcontroller

Transmitter
(Microcontroller triggers the
transmitter to continuously
transmit a signal to receiver)
Alarm not
ring in safe
range

Valid range of
signal?

Receiver
(Receive continuously
transmitted signal in analog
from transmitter)
Alarm ring
in risk
range

Output
(Alarm ring)

End

Figure 3.4.1: flowchart of luggage anti-lost alarm

User wants to find the


luggage

Figure 3.4.2: flowchart of transmitter and receiver modules.

3.5 Gantt Chart


1

1
0

Deciding

Problem

Statement
Formation of Project
Design Group
Meeting with the
client
Project

Proposal

Submission
Finalizing

Project

Proposal
Ordering
Components
Circuit Construction
Software Coding
Presentation 1

11

12

13

14

Testing

and

improving of product
Presentation
and
Exhibition
3.6 Project Cost Estimation / Budget

Item

o
1
V-shape Indoor TV Antenna
2
9V Battery Snap
3
9V Battery
4
RF Module
5
22pF 50Vdc Ceramic Caps
6
MTS102 (SPDT) Toggle Switch
7
PIC 16F877A MPU
8
104(0.1uF) 50Vdc Ceramic Caps
9
40 Pins Contact-Strips
10 12MHz (12mm)Crystal Resonator
11 7805(L7805CV) Reg-IC
12 W Carbon Film Resistor
13 2N2222A Si-N
14 100uF 16Vdc Electrolytic Caps
15 10uF 25Vdc Electrolytic Caps
16 5k 1/16W Trimmer
17 2.5mm Mono Phone plug
18 2.5mm Mono Chassis Mount Phone Jack
19 Piezo Buzzer 20mm (6~15V)
20 DS211 Green (On/Off) Press Button Switch
21 HT12E IC
22 HT12D IC
Total

Quantity

Price per unit Price

1
4
4
1
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
9
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

(RM)
8.35
0.60
2.25
17.00
0.50
3.50
33.00
0.90
4.00
7.00
2.50
0.30
0.90
0.50
0.50
1.40
1.50
1.50
5.50
2.80
3.30
3.30

(RM)
8.35
2.50
9.00
17.00
2.00
14.00
66.00
1.80
8.00
14.00
5.00
2.70
0.90
1.00
1.00
2.80
1.50
1.00
5.50
2.80
3.30
3.30
173.45

CHAPTER 4
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

4.1 Software Simulation and Process Flow


The construction of the Luggage Anti Loss Alarm model mainly consists of reassembling
subcomponents together to make the main components, then piecing together all main
components. The first step is to program the PIC kit using C programming language. And then to
design and simulate the circuit using PSPICE and Proteus before proceeding to circuit
construction part. The simulation circuit is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 4.1.1: RF Transmitter circuit diagram

Figure 4.1.2: RF receiver circuit diagram


4.2 Hardware Development and Block Diagram

The next step is to assemble the transmitter and receiver parts for Radio Frequency
function as shown in the figures below. Both the transmitter and receiver parts contain of 2
battery supplies both valued 9V. Since the PIC is using a 5V voltage supply, a voltage regulator
is used so that an input of 5V can be supplied to the PIC. There are 4 switches connected to the
PIC which are S1, S2, S3, and S4. S1 is to on/off the system, S2 for quick trigerring in case the
user can not find the luggage in nearby range, S3 is the alarm that alerts the user if the luggage is
being force opened and S4 for alarm triggering if the luggage is taken away in 1 to 2 meters
range. For receiver part, it receives signals through the decoder that is connected to PIC. If any of
S2, S3 or S4 is activated, the buzzer will be triggered.

Figure 4.1.3: The assembled transmitter model.

(a)

(b)
Figure 4.1.4: (a) circuit connection for receiver 4(b) the assembled receiver model
Next step is to assemble the component for force opened situation to the luggage as shown in
Figure 4.1.5 below.

Figure 4.1.5: Force opened model

Figure 4.1.6: The complete model of Luggage Anti Loss Alarm

And finallly the finishing model of Luggage Anti Loss Alarm shown in Figure 6 above.
The transmitter model will be set up inside of the luggage meanwhile the user will hold the
transmitter for controlling purpose.

CHAPTER 5
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

5.1 Simulation Results and Discussion

This project mainly consists of two sections, one is a transmitter module and the other is
receiver module. This two section used PIC16F877A which is for program storage. The
programming software that used is MPLAB. The program coding are constructed for transmitter
module and receiver module to switch on and off the security alarm system.

Figure 5.1.1: Transmitter circuit with decoder.

Figure 5.1.2: Receiver circuit with encoder.

5.2 Project Experiment and Result


In LALA system, transmitter device is set to have several conditions. Threre are 4 bottons
in transmitter device to control the receiver which is placed in the luggage.

Switch One is a Set On-Off button. This means that setting can only be done when the
switch one is on. Off switch one after finish setting then the receiver will run according to the
setting set,
Switch Two is the Out of Range On-Off button. When this switch is set ON, receiver
will ring the alarm if the receiver and transmitter is out of range (disconnected).
Switch Three is the Bag Alarm On-Off button. When the switch is set ON, the bag
alarm system will be activated. This means that the alarm will ring if someone open the luggage
by force which will trigger the alarm in the luggage.
The last switch is the immediate trigger alarm switch. When the switch is on, the alarm
will trigger immediately without considering any condition. This is used to find the luggage
when it is in range.
Here is an example, if we are to set only out of range button to on. Firstly, we need to
turn on switch one. After that, turn on switch 2 and make sure that switch 3 and 4 are off. After
that, turn off switch one. Then the setting is done.
In our way of experimenting the range of the RF signals, we discovered that the signals
tends to be unstable when it is brought far, Therefore when setting it, make sure the devices are
close enough.
Howeveer, we had changed our box for device from plastic to paper box. This is due to
discovering that RF signals will be absorb by plastic. Therefore we change the material in order
to get strong RF signals to increase the range to our desired range.

5.3 Future Potential Development


Increasing the role of the security system of the luggage which is adding more security
features. Moreover, development of luggage anti loss alarm is not limited to luggage, but the
developed technology can be applied to any valuable material because this transmitter and
receiver modules are portable. We can just install the receiver modules at the object, then the
receiver modules will hold by the user.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

6.1 Summary
As we know, many people facing a problem losing their luggage or bag due to the crowd,
the thief and unaware of the safety of their belonging. Thus, people need a system that can help
them to protect their belonging from loss, stolen or damage. With this project, it will help people
to protect their things, so that they can do whatever they wanted to do with ease like sleeping
while waiting to depart, shopping, etc. The main function of this project is to create a system that
can prevent the luggage from being stolen. This system will also help to protect the bag from
being open with strangers by notifying the owner if their bag is opened by strangers. This project
also helps us to understand more about the radio frequency system and give an idea how to
modify it to meet the need of our system since we are using it in our system.

6.2 Work Distribution List


Committee
Project Leader

Name
Nurul
Ahmad

Role
Anis

Coordinate the project team


Providing the direction required for meeting the
project objectives
Coordinate management and technical decisions
Assure that all team members understand their
roles and accept their responsibilities
Establish and publish clear priorities among
project activities
Track and report on progress to plan
Communicate effectively with team members
In order to manage project schedule, task detail
and utilize project management tools, such as,
report.
In order to manage change and take active
leadership in timely decision making

Technical
Chief

Celson Leesoon

Secretary
Finance

& Jeseka Manahan

Hardware
Coordinator
Software
Coordinator

Ho Whai Chun
Wong Koi Shang

Arbitrate and resolve conflict and interface


problems within the project
Provide input on the performance of project
team members to their supervisors
Prepare weekly report
Prepare Project Report
Coordinate technical elements
Soldering the circuit
Directing and editing video for exhibition and
presentation
Coordinate admin & finance matters
Manage all board and committee meeting
logistics
Record minutes of all members
Advise the members on its role and
responsibilities
Manage all the expenses
Prepare Project Report
Prepare weekly report
Coordinate hardware design
Circuit construction and simulate the circuit
Coordinate software design
Write and simulate the coding

6.3 Lesson Learned / Individual Course Impression


Throughout the process of designing and completing the project, we had learned and
achieved so much as a group and individually. The knowledge we had acquired from previous
lectures and mini project has helped a lot to accomplish the task given to us. For example, for the
technical part that we had learned were applied such as soldering and designing the hardware. As
for software design, we used Pspice and Proteus to simulate the circuit before we proceed to
technical. These were all the knowledge and experience that we accumulated from the lectures
we had and finally able to applied it to create something useful for the community. Apart from
that, we had acquired new information such as the radio frequency application. We managed to
learn new things through this program.

Despite the tight schedule and busy with assignments and tests, we had managed to
complete the project on time. This is all possible because the teamwork within the group were
amazing. We had learned that the collaboration and communication between the peers as well as
with the supervisor is important to know the development of the project. Another aspect that we
had learned is that never give up when the project met with dead ends. For example, during the
final completion of our project the range to trigger the alarm do not work. After conducting few
research on the internet, the plastic box that we used to somehow interfere the RF signals, so we
had decided to change the box to paper box instead and the model finally works fine. This has
taught us to never give up whenever facing a problem. All in all, this course has taught and gave
us a lot of value, be it in technical works or management work, and as a group or individually.

REFERENCES

[1] JON B. HAGEN Radio Frequency Electronic circuit and applications 2nd. ed. University of
Cambridge, 2009.
[2] CHRISTOPER COLEMAN An Introduction To Radio Frequency Engineering. Cambridge,
United Kingdom: University of Cambridge 2004.
[3] STEVEN A. TRETTER Communication System Design Using DSP Algorithms, University of
Maryland 2008.