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Design and Analysis of Plastic Gear and its

Comparison with Metallic Gear in the


Gear Box of Moped
Ashish N.Taywade1, Dr.V.G.Arajpure2
1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engg. Wardha, India


Principal, Dr. Bhausaheb Nandurkar College of Engineering, Yevatmal, Maharashtra, India

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume 3, Issue 2, March-April, 2015, pp. 01-06
ISSN Online: 2347-5188 Print: 2347-8772, DOA : 09032015
IASTER 2014, www.iaster.com

ABSTRACT
Performance of any gear is dependent on gear material and its properties .Nowadays advanced
thermoplastics such as Nylon 66 provides good mechanical properties required for power
transmission and are also contenders for replacement of gears of light load gear box. Nylon 66 has
been selected for replacement of metallic gear which reduces weight, noise, vibration and to gives
better strength. In this work attempt has been made to design helical gear and analyze it by keeping
same parameter of existing metal helical gear. In this regard there is necessity of dynamic analysis of
gears used in gear box before manufacturing and performance testing.
The paper presents comparative design analysis of plastic helical gear for the replacement of metallic
gear in the gear box of moped. In this three dimensional experimental model of gear pair used in the
actual gear box of moped has been created using Pro Engineer and ANSYS is used to find stresses.
This paper shows that design of plastic helical gear is convenient and the stresses induced in non
metallic gear are lesser than metallic gear.
Keywords: Nylon66, Helical Gear, Ansys, Pro Engineering, Analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION
Gearing is considered to be a backbone in power transmission system. Plastic gears find increasing
application due to advantages of noiseless running, light weight, resistance to corrosion, lower
coefficient of friction, the ability to run without external lubrication, superior properties. Due to these
added advantages plastic gearing puts benchmark in power transmission area [1]. In competitive
technological world people are demanding economical vehicle having good performance along with
smooth and noiseless operation.
Plastic gears are easy to manufacture in various shapes and size and also they have greater
consistency. Performance of helical plastic gear is quicker and smoother with a small helix angle as
compare to spur gear. Face contact line is more and meshing more numbers of teeth simultaneous in
helical plastic gear and also it has less wear than metal gear [2].Since there are many parameters
responsible for gear failure out of which maximum shear stress, normal stress, bending stress, contact
stress and von misses strain, maximum principal stress, are considered to be one of the main
contributors for the failure of gear. The Nylon material has good mechanical strength [3], abrasion
resistance property, and excellent wear resistance [4] and also has more load bearing capacity [5],

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

resistant to the most of the chemicals and self- lubricant. Nylon66 is the most suitable to replace the
metallic gear among different types of Nylons available. Plastic gear continues to replace metal gears
in automobiles [6], robotics, appliances and machinery due to its good properties, economical
considerations and simple manufacturing.
Study of accurate analysis of the characteristics of gear systems is important in order to fulfill the
requirement of effective power transmission [7]. Nowadays people are demanding highly reliable and
light weight gear in automobile. Keeping in view, an attempt has been made to analyze and compare
non metallic gear with metallic gear and to find the feasibility of replacement of metallic gear in moped.

2. AIM OF INVESTIGATION
The aim of investigation is to analyze mating helical gear pair in order to find out stresses induced in
both metals and non- metallic helical gear and to compare results obtained from them. Polymer gear
has several merits compared to metal gear which comprises of less weight, good strength, less wear,
low noise, low vibrations, corrosion resistance, self lubrication, wide choices of appearance, colors
and better transparencies, design optimization, low electrical and thermal conductivity[8], it can be
easily formed into complex shapes, wide choices of appearance, colors and transparencies better
material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes and also economical cheaper.
Development of polymer gear is convenient compared to metal gear [9]; considering above merits non
metallic gear is always better than metallic gear. Due to this reasons topic is under taken for study.

3. TEST GEARS
The Nylon 66 material selected for gear has superior mechanical strength [10] and comparative better
properties. The helical gear having following specification and tolerances are designed and developed
on Hobbing machine which gives good close tolerance ,good surface finishing and also economical
cheaper, in addition to that it is convenient for manufacturing as compare to others. The original
metal helical gear (SCM420H) also has same specification and tolerance. Design parameters of gear
are Power = 2.69 KW, Speed = 6500rpm
TABLE I- Data for the Test Gear

S. No

Specification

Pinion Gear Driver Gear

Tooth profile

Involute

Involute

2
3

Material
Normal Module

Nylon66
1.5

Nylon66
1.5

3
4

Normal Pressure angle


Helix angle

200
200

200
200

Direction of helix

LH

RH

5
6

Number of teeth
Pitch circle Diameter

66
105.35

15
23.94

Operating centre Distance (mm)

65.5

65.5

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Fig.1.Specimen Helical Gear in Meshing

4. METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS
Pro-engineering modeling software helps to developed accurate three dimensional helical gear model
according to gear data. Properties and design data of Nylon 66 material applied on gear model which
will behave as real as one gear.
ANSYS is finite element-modeling package for numerically solving a plenty variety of mechanical
engineering problems [4]. In this work the stresses of a helical gear material is checked by FEM
software package ANSYS. In ANSYS software desired accuracy of result is obtained by using
automatic mesh generation tool which divide the geometry in number of elements [11] .The stepwise
procedure comprising the following steps which are carried out in computer software:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Three dimensional model of helical gear is prepared in Pro Engineering software.


3D model is imported in Analysis software IGES file.
For meshing and desired accuracy selected type of element.
Both metal and non metal material properties specified.
Meshing the geometry by using desired geometrical parameter of gear.

5. COMPARISON OF ANALYSIS

Fig.2 Three Dimensional Model

Fig.3 Meshing

Fig.4 Force

5. I. Analysis of Nylon 66 Helical Gear

Fig.5 Total Deformation

Fig.6 Maximum Shear Stress

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Fig.7 Von-Mises Strain

Fig.8 Maximum Principle Stress

Fig.9 Normal Stress

Fig.10 Bending Stress

Fig.11 Contact Stress

Fig. 12 Materials Properties Of Nylon 66

5.II - Analysis of Metal Helical Gear

Fig.13 Total Deformation

Fig.14maximum Shear Stress

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

Fig.15von-Mises Strain

Fig.16max Principal Stress

Fig.17 Normal Stress

Fig.18 Bending Stress

Fig.19Contact Stress

Fig.20 Material Properties of SCM420H

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 21 Analysis of Nylon 66

Fig.22 Analysis of SCM420H

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering


Volume-3, Issue-2, March-April, 2015, www.iaster.com

ISSN

(O) 2347-5188
(P) 2347-8772

The above figure 21 provide the data of total deformation, maximum shear stress, von-mises strain,
maximum principal stress, normal stress, bending stress and contact stress induced in the Nylon66
gear and figure 22 provide the data of total deformation, maximum shear stress, von-mises strain,
maximum principal stress, normal stress, bending stress and contact stress induced in the SCM420H
gear .This data suggest that stresses induced in the Nylon66 gear are comparative lesser than Metallic
gear. This study of comparative analysis indicates that Nylon66 material hold good for helical gear
manufacturing and application in moped.

VII. CONCLUSION
The design analysis of both the metal and non metallic helical gears provide the data which shows that
stresses induced in Nylon 66 helical gear are less comparative to metallic helical gear. The strength to
weight ratio of Nylon 66 gear is higher than metallic gear. Nonmetallic material gear provides extra
benefits like economical, less weight, self lubricating, low noise and vibrations and convenient for
manufacturing. This noticeable difference in the stresses value is the evidence of application of non
metallic gears in the small automobile has always been better than metallic helical gear and also it is
one step toward replacement of metallic gear with non metallic gear. This study helps to promote the
application of non metal in power transmission in coming years.

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